National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transit systems efficient

  1. Controlled transitions between cupolets of chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morena, Matthew A. Short, Kevin M.; Cooke, Erica E.

    2014-03-15

    We present an efficient control scheme that stabilizes the unstable periodic orbits of a chaotic system. The resulting orbits are known as cupolets and collectively provide an important skeleton for the dynamical system. Cupolets exhibit the interesting property that a given sequence of controls will uniquely identify a cupolet, regardless of the system's initial state. This makes it possible to transition between cupolets, and thus unstable periodic orbits, simply by switching control sequences. We demonstrate that although these transitions require minimal controls, they may also involve significant chaotic transients unless carefully controlled. As a result, we present an effective technique that relies on Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm from algebraic graph theory to minimize the transients and also to induce certainty into the control of nonlinear systems, effectively providing an efficient algorithm for the steering and targeting of chaotic systems.

  2. DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating Overview The City of Seattle was recognized as a Climate Action Champion (CAC) by The White House and the Department of Energy (DOE) in December 2014. In 2015, DOE released a Notice of Technical Assistance (NOTA) to provide CACs with additional opportunities for financial and technical assistance to support and advance their greenhouse gas emissions reduction and climate resilience objectives. DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  3. Pupillary efficient lighting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Samuel M.; Jewett, Don L.

    1991-01-01

    A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination.

  4. Pump Systems Optimization: Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pump Systems Optimization: Energy Efficiency and Bottom-Line Savings Host this one-day course to help participants learn how to identify and reduce hidden operation and energy costs. Participants will: * Identify energy savings * Increase profitability * Increase reliability * Earn seven PDH credits Attendees of the "Pump Systems Optimization" one-day course will gain valuable new skills to help them improve centrifugal pump system efficiency to reduce energy and operating costs while

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Transportation System Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share

  6. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. ...andfuelcells.energy.gov HIGHLY EFFICIENT, SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL REACTION SYSTEMS Robert S ...

  7. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  8. Efficient Thermally Variable Cooling System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  9. DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and climate resilience objectives. DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) released this NOTA with the goal of strengthening Champions' resilience to extreme ...

  10. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  11. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems," originally presented on January 13, 2015. In addition to this text version of the audio, you can access the presentation slides. Amit Talapatra: Hello, everyone, and thanks for joining today's webinar. Today's webinar is being recorded, so

  12. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov HIGHLY EFFICIENT, SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL REACTION SYSTEMS Robert S Wegeng, PI FCTO Webinar 2014 R&D 100 Award Winning Technology January 13, 2015 HIGHLY EFFICIENT, SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL REACTION SYSTEMS Robert S Wegeng, PI FCTO Webinar January 13,

  13. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" held on January 13, 2015.

  14. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-05-26

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface feature for interfacing with an adjacent transition duct. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface feature to provide a seal between the interface feature and the adjacent transition duct.

  15. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  16. High Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Fricke, frickeba@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 1 October 2011 Planned end date: 30 September 2016 Key Milestones 1. Evaluate System Design Strategies; March 2013 2. Develop Prototype System; March 2013 3. Fabricate Prototype System; March 2014 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $700k Total future DOE $: $1,000k Target Market/Audience: The primary market

  17. Transits of planets with small intervals in circumbinary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui-Gen; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Transit times around single stars can be described well by a linear ephemeris. However, transit times in circumbinary systems are influenced both by the gravitational perturbations and the orbital phase variations of the central binary star. Adopting a coplanar analog of Kepler-16 as an example, we find that circumbinary planets can transit the same star more than once during a single planetary orbit, a phenomenon we call 'tight transits.' In certain geometric architecture, the projected orbital velocity of the planet and the secondary star can approach zero and change sign, resulting in very long transits and/or 2-3 transits during a single binary orbit. Whether tight transits are possible for a particular system depends primarily on the binary mass ratio and the orbital architecture of both the binary and the planet. We derive a time-dependent criterion to judge when tight transits are possible for any circumbinary system. These results are verified with full dynamical integrations that also reveal other tight transit characteristics, i.e., the transit durations and the intervals between tight transits. For the seven currently known circumbinary systems, we estimate these critical parameters both analytically and numerically. Due to the mutual inclination between the planet and the binary, tight transits can only occur across the less massive star B in Kepler-16, -34, -35, and -47 (for both planets). The long-term average frequency of tight transits (compared to typical transits) for Kepler-16, -34, and -35 are estimated to be several percent. Using full numerical integrations, the next tight transit for each system is predicted and the soonest example appears to be Kepler-47b and -47c, which are likely to have tight transits before 2025. These unique and valuable events often deserve special observational scrutiny.

  18. Test for Pumping System Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test for Pumping System Efficiency Test for Pumping System Efficiency This tip sheet discusses important considerations when conducting pumping system efficiency tests. PUMPING SYSTEMS TIP SHEET #4 Test for Pumping System Efficiency (September 2005) (245.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing Select an Energy-Efficient Centrifugal Pump Maintain Pumping Systems Effectively

  19. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiang, Joseph

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  20. Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chaos and cluster states Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators: Extensive chaos and ...

  1. Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geographic Information System Activity...

  2. Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrellis, D.; Leviatan, A.; Iachello, F.

    2011-04-15

    Research Highlights: > We study quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons and a single-j fermion. > Classical order parameters and correlation diagrams of quantum levels are determined. > The odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition. > Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented. - Abstract: Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L = 0, 2 (s, d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.

  3. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  4. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  5. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-03-10

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  6. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  7. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation ...

  8. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies ...

  9. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in ...

  10. ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE Research Triangle ...

  11. Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  12. Optimized pulse sequences for suppressing unwanted transitions in quantum systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. A.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2011-01-15

    We investigate the nature of the pulse sequence so that unwanted transitions in quantum systems can be inhibited optimally. For this purpose we show that the sequence of pulses proposed by Uhrig [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 100504 (2007)] in the context of inhibition of environmental dephasing effects is optimal. We derive exact results for inhibiting the transitions and confirm the results numerically. We posit a very significant improvement by usage of the Uhrig sequence over an equidistant sequence in decoupling a quantum system from unwanted transitions. The physics of inhibition is the destructive interference between transition amplitudes before and after each pulse.

  13. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  14. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  15. Ohio Transit System Saves With Solar | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    July 23, 2010 - 3:42pm Addthis METRO Regional Transit Authority of Akron, OH is installing a solar energy system such as this on the central bus barn's roof. | Energy Department ...

  16. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  17. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on ...

  18. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for ...

  19. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment ...

  20. Energy efficiency of a dynamic glazing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lollini, R.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.

    2010-04-15

    The reduction of air-conditioning energy consumptions is one of the main indicators to act on when improving the energy efficiency in buildings. In the case of advanced technological buildings, a meaningful contribution to the thermal loads and the energy consumptions reduction could depend on the correct configuration and management of the envelope systems. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies (). A prototype dynamic glazing system was developed and tested at ITC-CNR; it is aimed at actively responding to the external environmental loads. Both an experimental campaign and analyses by theoretical models were carried out, aimed at evaluating the possible configurations depending on different weather conditions in several possible places. Therefore, the analytical models of the building-plant system were defined by using a dynamic energy simulation software (EnergyPlus). The variables that determine the system performance, also influenced by the boundary conditions, were analysed, such as U- and g-value; they concern both the morphology of the envelope system, such as dimensions, shading and glazing type, gap airflow thickness, in-gap airflow rate, and management, in terms of control algorithm parameters tuning fan and shading systems, as a function of the weather conditions. The configuration able to provide the best performances was finally identified by also assessing such performances, integrating the dynamic system in several building types and under different weather conditions. The dynamic envelope system prototype has become a commercial product with some applications in facade systems, curtain walls and windows. The paper describes the methodological approach to prototype development and the main results obtained, including simulations of possible applications on

  1. Transitioning to Biofuels: A System-of-Systems Perspective; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    Using the existing fuel supply chain infrastructure as a framework, this paper discusses a vision for transitioning to a larger biofuels industry and the challenges associated with a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  2. Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and ...

  3. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of ...

  4. Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced, Energy- Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse New Hybrid Membrane System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water Purification Process As...

  5. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Systems Development and Evaluation High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace017_briggs_2011_o.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Achieving and Demonstrating Vehicle Technologies Engine Fuel Efficiency Milestones Identification and Evaluation of Near-term Opportunities for Efficiency Improvement High Efficiency Engine Systems Development

  6. On the Design of High Efficiency Thermoelectric Type I Clathrates through Transition Metal Doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xun; Yang, Jiong; Yang, Jihui; Salvador, James R.; Bai, Shengqiang; Zhang, Weiqing; Chen, Lidong; Wong-Ng, W.; Wang, Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The lack of high efficiency thermoelectric materials hinders their deployment into wide ranging applications such as power generation from waste heat and solid state heating and cooling, which could lead to significant energy savings. Type I clathrates have recently been identified as prospective thermoelectric materials for power generation purposes due to their very low lattice thermal conductivity values. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of almost all type I clathrates is, however, less than 1; and occurs at, or above, 1000 K making them unfavorable especially for intermediate temperature applications. In this report, we demonstrate that transition metal doping introduces charge distortion and lattice defects into these materials which increases the ionized impurity scattering of carriers and point defect scattering of lattice phonons, respectively; leading to an enhanced power factor, reduced lattice thermal conductivity, and therefore improved thermoelectric figure of merit. Most importantly, the band gap of these materials can be tuned between 0.1 eV and 0.5 eV by adjusting the transition metal content, making it possible to design type I clathrates with excellent thermoelectric properties between 500 K and 1000 K.

  7. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use This 2-page fact sheet describes The Paper and Allied Products Industry spending to operate electric motor systems and opportunities to reduce these costs. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use (January 1999) (70.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing United States

  8. Test for Pumping System Efficiency; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 * September 2005 Test for Pumping System Efficiency A pump's efficiency can degrade as much as 10% to 25% before it is replaced, according to a study of industrial facilities ...

  9. Scalable and Energy Efficient Computer Systems - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Scalable and Energy Efficient Computer Systems Los ... LANL is pursuing a design to allow flexible and efficient movement of data in scalable ...

  10. Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. deer10_sisken.pdf (978.17 KB) More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Engine Technologies Session Introduction Demonstrating and Validating a Next Generation Model-Based Controller for

  11. Energy-efficient lighting system for television

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawthorne, Duane C.

    1987-07-21

    A light control system for a television camera comprises an artificial light control system which is cooperative with an iris control system. This artificial light control system adjusts the power to lamps illuminating the camera viewing area to provide only sufficient artificial illumination necessary to provide a sufficient video signal when the camera iris is substantially open.

  12. Chapter 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies Chapter 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies Chapter 5 - Increasing Efficiency of Buildings Systems and Technologies The buildings sector accounts for about 76%* of electricity use and 40% of all U.S. primary energy use and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, making it essential to reduce energy consumption in buildings in order to meet national energy and environmental

  13. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of ...

  14. High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_singh.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q3 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage

  15. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Electricity | Department of Energy Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_wegeng.pdf (2.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Highly Efficient Solar

  16. Towards Fuel-Efficient DPF Systems: Understanding the Soot Oxidation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process | Department of Energy Towards Fuel-Efficient DPF Systems: Understanding the Soot Oxidation Process Towards Fuel-Efficient DPF Systems: Understanding the Soot Oxidation Process 2005_deer_yezerets.pdf (1.75 MB) More Documents & Publications Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends

  17. ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REUSE | Department of Energy ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE Research Triangle Institute - Research Triangle Park, NC A single hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment and reuse that combines two known processes-forward osmosis and membrane distillation-will be developed and demonstrated. This system will use waste heat to treat a wide variety of waste streams at

  18. Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a Textile Plant | Department of Energy Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant This case study examines how Nisshinbo California, Inc. (NCI) worked with ADI Control Techniques Drives (ADI-CT) of Hayward, California, to improve ventilation system performance in its Fresno, California, textile plant. The company retrofitted 15 of the system's fan motors with variable frequency

  19. Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.

    2010-05-01

    This document provides the methods to secure routable control system communication in the electric sector. The approach of this document yields a long-term vision for a future of secure communication, while also providing near term steps and a roadmap. The requirements for the future secure control system environment were spelled out to provide a final target. Additionally a survey and evaluation of current protocols was used to determine if any existing technology could achieve this goal. In the end a four-step path was described that brought about increasing requirement completion and culminates in the realization of the long term vision.

  20. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in collaboration with Abbott Furnace Company, is developing a combined heat, hydrogen, and power (CHHP) system that utilizes reducing gas produced by a high-temperature fuel cell to directly replace hydrogen in metal treatment and other industrial processes. Excess reducing gas can be

  1. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt081_vss_newhouse_2011_o.pdf (3.64 MB) More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly

  2. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  3. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  4. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  5. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FuelCell Energy, June 2011 | Department of Energy Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Presentation on Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System, given by Pinakin Patel of FuelCell Energy, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  6. Energy efficiency in wireless communication systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caffrey, Michael Paul; Palmer, Joseph McRae

    2012-12-11

    Wireless communication systems and methods utilize one or more remote terminals, one or more base terminals, and a communication channel between the remote terminal(s) and base terminal(s). The remote terminal applies a direct sequence spreading code to a data signal at a spreading factor to provide a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal. The DSSS signal is transmitted over the communication channel to the base terminal which can be configured to despread the received DSSS signal by a spreading factor matching the spreading factor utilized to spread the data signal. The remote terminal and base terminal can dynamically vary the matching spreading factors to adjust the data rate based on an estimation of operating quality over time between the remote terminal and base terminal such that the amount of data being transmitted is substantially maximized while providing a specified quality of service.

  7. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  8. Webinar January 13: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar entitled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  9. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation on Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System, given by Pinakin Patel of FuelCell Energy, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review ...

  10. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J.R. Simplot Don plant in Pocatello, Idaho, repaired boiler feed water pumps such as the ... Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy ...

  11. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy 3 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt081_vss_damon_2013_o.pdf (5.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8

  12. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt081_vss_newhouse_2012_o.pdf (5.28 MB) More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8

  13. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  14. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  15. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  16. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and SCR | Department of Energy Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_atkinson.pdf (327.1 KB) More Documents & Publications Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Lean NOx Trap

  17. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  18. Multi Optical Transition Radiation System for ATF2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alabau-Gonzalvo, Javier; /Valencia U., IFIC; Blanch Gutierrez, Cesar; /Valencia U., IFIC; Civera, Jose Vicente; /Valencia U., IFIC; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; /Valencia U., IFIC; Garcia-Garrigos, Juan; /Valencia U., IFIC; Cruz, Juan; /SLAC; McCormick, Douglas; /SLAC; White, Glen; /SLAC

    2012-07-13

    In this paper we describe the design, installation and first calibration tests of a Multi Optical Transition Radiation System in the beam diagnostic section of the Extraction (EXT) line of ATF2, close to the multi wire scanner system. This system will be a valuable tool for measuring beam sizes and emittances coming from the ATF Damping Ring. With an optical resolution of about 2 {micro}m an original OTR design (OTR1X) located after the septum at the entrance of the EXT line demonstrated the ability to measure a 5.5 {micro}m beam size in one beam pulse and to take many fast measurements. This gives the OTR the ability to measure the beam emittance with high statistics, giving a low error and a good understanding of emittance jitter. Furthermore the nearby wire scanners will be a definitive test of the OTR as a beam emittance diagnostic device. The multi-OTR system design proposed here is based on the existing OTR1X.

  19. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  20. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  1. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep; Zha, Shitong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  2. Fact #554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 4: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems Fact #554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems According to the 2007 National Transit Databases, the energy intensity of light transit rail systems in the U.S. ranges from about 2,000 Btu per passenger-mile to about 31,000 Btu per passenger-mile. There are only four light rail systems with energy intensity over 10,000 Btu per passenger-mile. These systems may have improved

  3. Study of the deconfinement phase transition in a finite volume with massive particles: Hydrodynamics of the system near the transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghenam, L.; Djoudi, A. Ait El

    2012-06-27

    We study the finite size and finite mass effects for the thermal deconfinement phase transition in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), using a simple model of coexistence of hadronic (H) gas and quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phases in a finite volume. We consider the equations of state of the two phases with the QGP containing two massless u and d quarks and massive s quarks, and a hadronic gas of massive pions, and we probe the system near the transition. For this, we examine the behavior of the most important hydrodynamical quantities describing the system, at a vanishing chemical potential ({mu}= 0), with temperature and energy density.

  4. Select an Energy-Efficient Centrifugal Pump - Pumping System Tip Sheet #3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-10-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency by selecting an energy-efficient centrifugal pump.

  5. USDA Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvement Grants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    USDA's Rural Business Cooperative-Service Agency, under the Rural Energy for America Program, is accepting applications for Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvement grants of $20,000 or less to establish programs to assist agricultural producers and rural small businesses with evaluating the potential to incorporate renewable energy technologies into their operations.

  6. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  7. Fuel Cell/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein, Ghezel-Ayagh

    2001-11-06

    FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton cycle utilizing indirect heat recovery from the power plant. Features of the DFC/T{trademark} system include: high efficiency, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, no pressurization of the fuel cell, independent operating pressure of the fuel cell and turbine, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants at much smaller sizes. Objectives of the Vision 21 Program include developing power plants that will generate electricity with net efficiencies approaching 75 percent (with natural gas), while producing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 0.01 lb/million BTU. These goals are significant improvements over conventional power plants, which are 35-60 percent efficient and produce emissions of 0.07 to 0.3 lb/million BTU of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxide and sulfur emissions from the DFC/T system are anticipated to be better than the Vision 21 goals due to the non-combustion features of the DFC/T power plant. The expected high efficiency of the DFC/T will also result in a 40-50 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional power plants. To date, the R&D efforts have resulted in significant progress including proof-of-concept tests of a sub-scale power plant built around a state-of-the-art DFC stack integrated with a modified Capstone Model 330 Microturbine. The objectives of this effort are to investigate the integration aspects of the fuel cell and turbine and to obtain design information and operational data that will

  8. Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Ryan W; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C; Rolim de Mattos, Erico

    2014-02-25

    The present disclosure relates to biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use.

  9. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: VII. Potentially interesting candidate systems from Fourier-based statistical tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Holman, Matthew J.; Welsh, William F.; Borucki, William J.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Bryson, Steve; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through Quarter six (Q6) of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies.

  10. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency nonintrusively

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.

    2011-08-30

    A system and method for nonintrusively determining electric motor efficiency includes a processor programed to, while the motor is in operation, determine a plurality of stator input currents, electrical input data, a rotor speed, a value of stator resistance, and an efficiency of the motor based on the determined rotor speed, the value of stator resistance, the plurality of stator input currents, and the electrical input data. The determination of the rotor speed is based on one of the input power and the plurality of stator input currents. The determination of the value of the stator resistance is based on at least one of a horsepower rating and a combination of the plurality of stator input currents and the electrical input data. The electrical input data includes at least one of an input power and a plurality of stator input voltages.

  11. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  12. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  13. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  14. Efficient Interlayer Relaxation and Transition of Excitons in Epitaxial and Non-epitaxial MoS2/WS2 Heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Yifei; Hu, Shi; Su, Liqin; Huang, Lujun; Liu, Yi; Jin, Zhenghe; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Kim, Ki Wook; Zhang, Yong; et al

    2014-12-03

    Semiconductor heterostructurs provide a powerful platform for the engineering of excitons. Here we report on the excitonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures that consist of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 stacked epitaxially or non-epitaxially in the vertical direction. We find similarly efficient interlayer relaxation and transition of excitons in both the epitaxial and non-epitaxial heterostructures. This is manifested by a two orders of magnitude decrease in the photoluminescence and an extra absorption peak at low energy region of both heterostructures. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructures show weak interlayer coupling and essentially act as an atomic-scale heterojunction with the intrinsic band structures of themore » two monolayers largely preserved. They are particularly promising for the applications that request efficient dissociation of excitons and strong light absorption, including photovoltaics, solar fuels, photodetectors, and optical modulators. Our results also indicate that 2D heterostructures promise to provide capabilities to engineer excitons from the atomic level without concerns of interfacial imperfection.« less

  15. Efficient Interlayer Relaxation and Transition of Excitons in Epitaxial and Non-epitaxial MoS2/WS2 Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yifei; Hu, Shi; Su, Liqin; Huang, Lujun; Liu, Yi; Jin, Zhenghe; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Kim, Ki Wook; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Linyou

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor heterostructurs provide a powerful platform for the engineering of excitons. Here we report on the excitonic properties of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures that consist of monolayer MoS2 and WS2 stacked epitaxially or non-epitaxially in the vertical direction. We find similarly efficient interlayer relaxation and transition of excitons in both the epitaxial and non-epitaxial heterostructures. This is manifested by a two orders of magnitude decrease in the photoluminescence and an extra absorption peak at low energy region of both heterostructures. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructures show weak interlayer coupling and essentially act as an atomic-scale heterojunction with the intrinsic band structures of the two monolayers largely preserved. They are particularly promising for the applications that request efficient dissociation of excitons and strong light absorption, including photovoltaics, solar fuels, photodetectors, and optical modulators. Our results also indicate that 2D heterostructures promise to provide capabilities to engineer excitons from the atomic level without concerns of interfacial imperfection.

  16. Method and system for efficiently searching an encoded vector index

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bui, Thuan Quang; Egan, Randy Lynn; Kathmann, Kevin James

    2001-09-04

    Method and system aspects for efficiently searching an encoded vector index are provided. The aspects include the translation of a search query into a candidate bitmap, and the mapping of data from the candidate bitmap into a search result bitmap according to entry values in the encoded vector index. Further, the translation includes the setting of a bit in the candidate bitmap for each entry in a symbol table that corresponds to candidate of the search query. Also included in the mapping is the identification of a bit value in the candidate bitmap pointed to by an entry in an encoded vector.

  17. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System DE-EE0003679 FuelCell Energy, Inc. 10/1/2010 - 9/30/2011 Pinakin Patel FuelCell Energy Inc. ppatel@fce.com 203-825-6072 U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting Washington, D.C. June 1-2, 2011 2 FCE Overview * Leading fuel cell developer for over 40 years - MCFC, SOFC, PAFC and PEM (up to 2.8 MW size products) - Over 700 million kWh of clean power produced world-wide (>50 installations) - Renewable fuels: over

  18. Energy Efficiency Labeling System & its Development in China...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of energy efficiency labeling in China. session1buildingstrackchengjianhong... Status Prospects of Green Data Center 4th U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum Documents ...

  19. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Volvo SuperTruck - Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement...

  20. Advanced Methods Approach to Hybrid Powertrain Systems Optimization of a Transit Bus Application

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Design refinements of the GTB-40 mass-transit bus include new optimization processes, subsystem, and powertrain system requirements along with traction motor, battery, and APU development and integration

  1. Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures Maxwell Hutchinson 1 , Alexander Heinecke 2 , Hans Pabst 3 , Greg Henry 4 , Matteo Parsani 5 , and David Keyes 5 1 Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago IL, USA 2 Intel Corporation, Santa Clara CA, USA 3 Intel Semiconductor AG, Zurich, Switzerland 4 Intel Corporation, Hillsboro OR, USA 5 Extreme Computing Research Center, KAUST, Thuwal, 23955, KSA Abstract. High order methods for the solution of PDEs

  2. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  3. NNSA Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang to

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Thailand | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang to Thailand March 06, 2014 LAEM CHABANG, Thailand - The U.S. Embassy in Thailand, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), the Customs Department of the Kingdom of Thailand, the Port Authority of Thailand, and the Thai Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) held a transition ceremony yesterday to celebrate the official transfer of the radiation detection system

  4. Process for preparing high-transition-temperature superconductors in the Nb-Al-Ge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giorgi, A.L.; Szklarz, E.G.

    1973-01-30

    The patent describes a process for preparing superconducting materials in the Nb-Al-Ge system having transition temperatures in excess of 19K. The process comprises premixing powdered constituents, pressing them into a plug, heating the plug to 1,450-1,800C for 30 minutes to an hour under vacuum or an inert atmosphere, and annealing at moderate temperatures for reasonably long times (approximately 50 hours). High transition-temperature superconductors, including those in the Nb3(Al,Ge) system, prepared in accordance with this process exhibit little degradation in the superconducting transition temperature on being ground to -200 mesh powder. (GRA)

  5. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J.; DePoy, David Moore; Baldasaro, Paul Francis

    2007-01-23

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  6. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; DePoy, David M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  7. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-30

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  8. Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    generic Basin and Range systems based on Dixie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal...

  9. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  10. FERC must adopt an efficient transmission pricing system - now

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.J. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    In spite of assumptions to the contrary, this nation will not enjoy competitive power markets until the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) uses its bully pulpit to require establishment of--and prescribe minimum authorities for--properly sized ISOs that administer efficient transmission pricing. In 1989, the FERC recognized that getting transmission pricing right is the crucial first step in the process of creating a competitive electricity market. A lot has happened in the ensuing eight years. There is now a competitive wholesale market, and retail competition is beginning in many states. Yet, FERC has not made any progress in taking that crucial first step. Unless FERC abandons the present archaic system of transmission pricing promptly, competition will produce a long list of unintended adverse effects. The short-term effects will include markets too small to support effective competition and misleading price signals that induce buyers and sellers to make decisions that waste resources. The long-term effects will include large investments in capital assets at the wrong locations, and ill-informed antitrust and regulatory decisions. These effects will also create scores of entities with a powerful vested interest in retaining the status quo forever. As the British have discovered, once that happens, it is almost impossible to abandon an inefficient pricing system.

  11. Phase transitions in quantum Hall multiple layer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusep, Yu A.; Fernandes dos Santos, L.; Smirnov, D.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.

    2013-12-04

    Polarized photoluminescence from multiple well electron systems was studied in the regime of the integer quantum Hall effect. Two quantum Hall ferromagnetic ground states assigned to the uncorrelated miniband quantum Hall state and to the spontaneous interwell phase coherent dimer quantum Hall state were observed. The photoluminescence associated with these states exhibits features caused by finite-size skyrmions. The depolarization of the ferromagnetic ground state was observed in bilayer system.

  12. Excitonic transitions in highly efficient (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) type-II quantum-well structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gies, S.; Kruska, C.; Berger, C.; Hens, P.; Fuchs, C.; Rosemann, N. W.; Veletas, J.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Heimbrodt, W.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.

    2015-11-02

    The excitonic transitions of the type-II (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) gain medium of a “W”-laser structure are characterized experimentally by modulation spectroscopy and analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the very good agreement between the measured and calculated photoreflectivity, the type-I or type-II character of the observable excitonic transitions is identified. Whereas the energetically lowest three transitions exhibit type-II character, the subsequent energetically higher transitions possess type-I character with much stronger dipole moments. Despite the type-II character, the quantum-well structure exhibits a bright luminescence.

  13. Transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous and autonomous compartmental systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Hastings, Alan; Smith, Matthew J.; Agusto, Folashade B.; Chen-Charpentier, Benito M.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Jiang, Jiang; Todd-Brown, Katherine E. O.; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying -Ping; et al

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a theory for transit times and mean ages for nonautonomous compartmental systems. Using the McKendrick–von Förster equation, we show that the mean ages of mass in a compartmental system satisfy a linear nonautonomous ordinary differential equation that is exponentially stable. We then define a nonautonomous version of transit time as the mean age of mass leaving the compartmental system at a particular time and show that our nonautonomous theory generalises the autonomous case. We apply these results to study a nine-dimensional nonautonomous compartmental system modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle, which is a modification of themore » Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model, and we demonstrate that the nonautonomous versions of transit time and mean age differ significantly from the autonomous quantities when calculated for that model.« less

  14. Continuous flow system for controlling phases separation near ? transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorowski, M.; Poli?ski, J.; Kempi?ski, W.; Trybu?a, Z.; ?o?, Sz.; Cho?ast, K.; Kociemba, A.

    2014-01-29

    As demands on 3He are increasing and conventional 3He production through tritium decay is decreasing, alternative 3He production methods are becoming economically viable. One such possibility is to use entropy filters for extraction of the 3He isotope from natural gas. According to the phase diagram of the 3He, its solidification is impossible by only lowering of the temperature. Hence during the cooling process at stable pressure we can reach ?-point and pass to the special phase - He II. The total density of HeII is a sum of the two phases: normal the superfluid ones. It is possible to separate these two phases with an entropy filter - the barrier for the classically-behaving normal phase. This barrier can also be used to separate the two main isotopes of He: 4He and 3He, because at temperatures close to the 4He-?-point the 3He isotope is part of the normal phase. The paper presents continuous flow schemes of different separation methods of 3He from helium commodity coming from natural gas cryogenic processing. An overall thermodynamic efficiency of the 3He/4He separation process is presented. A simplified model of continuous flow HeI -HeII recuperative heat exchanger is given. Ceramic and carbon porous plugs have been tested in entropy filter applications.

  15. Using System Dynamics to Model the Transition to Biofuels in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, B.; Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.; Peterson, S.

    2008-06-01

    Transitioning to a biofuels industry that is expected to displace about 30% of current U.S. gasoline consumption requires a robust biomass-to-biofuels system-of-systems that operates in concert with the existing markets. This paper discusses employing a system dynamics approach to investigate potential market penetration scenarios for cellulosic ethanol and to help government decision makers focus on areas with greatest potential.

  16. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Watch the latest Energy 101 video above to find out how to improve energy efficiency of commercial buildings. Arah Schuur Building Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy RELATED RESOURCES Take action to save energy Join the Better Buildings Alliance with the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office Learn about partnership opportunities with the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office Currently, commercial buildings consume

  17. ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency On April 25, 2013, several representatives of energy efficiency advocacy organizations met with staff and members of the Compressed Air and Gas Institute (CAGI) along with some compressed air experts at the offices of the Alliance to Save Energy to explore and discuss a consensus approach to advancing energy efficiency of

  18. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2015-10-27

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  19. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2011-06-07

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  20. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G

    2015-11-06

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  1. Small Hydropower Systems: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nachman-Hunt, N.

    2001-07-05

    This fact sheet introduces consumers to small hydropower systems, and includes information on how the systems work and how to assess a stream site for hydropower suitability.

  2. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  3. High Efficiency Engine Systems Development and Evaluation | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Bo Shen, shenb@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump -(CCHP) CRADA Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 01-Oct-2010 Planned end date: 30-Sep-2015 Key Milestones (single-stage) 1. Equipment modeling and EnergyPlus simulation report - March/2013 2. Lab prototype fabricated and installed - Dec/2013 3. Meet 77% capacity at-13°F vs. 47°F; COP=4.1 at 47°F - March/2014

  4. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP -- This project is inactive -- ANL logo Argonne National Laboratory and project partner Ohio Aerospace Institute, under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, will design, develop, and test a prototype high-temperature and high-efficiency thermal energy storage (TES) system with rapid charging and discharging times. By

  5. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receives Energy Assessment | Department of Energy Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment This case study describes how a DOE energy assessment helped the J.R. Simplot Company identify ways to reduce energy use in its Pocatello, Idaho, plant's steam system. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment

  6. High Quality Down Lighting Luminaire with 73% Overall System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Harrison; Steven C. Allen; Joseph Bernier; Robert Harrison

    2010-08-31

    This report summarizes work to develop a high flux, high efficiency LED-based downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-08NT01582. A new high power LED and electronic driver were developed for these downlights. The LED achieved 100 lumens per watt efficacy and 1700 lumen flux output at a correlated color temperature of 3500K. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.99, and total harmonic distortion <10%. Two styles of downlights using the LED and driver were shown to exceed the project targets for steady-state luminous efficacy and flux of 70 lumens per watt and 1300 lumens, respectively. Compared to similar existing downlights using compact fluorescent or LED sources, these downlights had much higher efficacy at nearly the same luminous flux.

  7. Advanced Klystrons for High Efficiency Accelerator Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Read, Michael; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2014-03-26

    This program explored tailoring of RF pulses used to drive accelerator cavities. Simulations indicated that properly shaping the pulse risetime to match accelerator cavity characteristics reduced reflected power and increased total efficiency. Tailoring the pulse requires a high power, gridded, klystron to shape the risetime while also controlling the beam current. The Phase I program generated a preliminary design of a gridded electron gun for a klystron producing 5-10 MW of RF power. This required design of a segmented cathode using Controlled Porosity Reservoir cathodes to limit power deposition on the grid. The program was successful in computationally designing a gun producing a high quality electron beam with grid control. Additional analysis of pulse tailoring indicated that technique would only be useful for cavity drive pulses that were less than approximately 2-3 times the risetime. Otherwise, the efficiency gained during the risetime of the pulse became insignificant when considering the efficiency over the entire pulse. Consequently, it was determined that a Phase II program would not provide sufficient return to justify the cost. Never the less, other applications for a high power gridded gun are currently being pursued. This klystron, for example, would facilitate development inverse Comptom x-ray sources by providing a high repetition rate (10 -100 kHz) RF source.

  8. Efficient Conversion of CO2 to CO Using Tin and Other Inexpensive and Easily Prepared Post-Transition Metal Catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Medina-Ramos, Jonnathan; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Keane, Thomas P.; DiMeglio, John L.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2015-02-19

    The development of affordable electrocatalysts that can drive the reduction of CO2 to CO with high selectivity, efficiency, and large current densities is a critical step on the path to production of liquid carbon-based fuels. In this work, we show that inexpensive triflate salts of Sn2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, and Sb3+ can be used as precursors for the electrodeposition of CO2 reduction cathode materials from MeCN solutions, providing a general and facile electrodeposition strategy, which streamlines catalyst synthesis. The ability of these four platforms to drive the formation of CO from CO2 in the presence of [BMIM]OTf was probed. The electrochemicallymore » prepared Sn and Bi catalysts proved to be highly active, selective, and robust platforms for CO evolution, with partial current densities of jCO = 5-8 mA/cm2 at applied overpotentials of η < 250 mV. By contrast, the electrodeposited Pb and Sb catalysts do not promote rapid CO generation with the same level of selectivity. The Pb material is only ~10% as active as the Sn and Bi systems at an applied potential of E = -1.95 V and is rapidly passivated during catalysis. The Sb-comprised cathode material shows no activity for conversion of CO2 to CO under analogous conditions. When taken together, this work demonstrates that 1,3-dialkylimidazoliums can promote CO production, but only when used in combination with an appropriately chosen electrocatalyst material. More broadly, these results suggest that the interactions between CO2, the imidazolium promoter, and the cathode surface are all critical to the observed catalysis.« less

  9. Transition pathways in a many-body system: Application to hydrogen-bond breaking in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Csajka, F.S.; Chandler, D.

    1998-07-01

    We apply a stochastic method introduced by Dellago {ital et al.} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 1964 (1998)] to sample transition paths in high-dimensional systems. The method connects two endpoint regions (for example a reactant and a product region) by a set of space-time paths. This approach is an importance sampling for rare events that does not require prior knowledge of the location of dynamical bottlenecks. Transition paths are generated with a weight corresponding to a chain of Metropolis Monte Carlo steps. We derive Monte Carlo algorithms and apply the technique to the dynamics of hydrogen-bond breaking in liquid water. We obtain averages in a transition path ensemble for the structure and energy along the trajectory. While characterized by a rate constant, hydrogen-bond breaking in water occurs frequently enough to be studied by standard methods. The process therefore provides a useful test of path sampling methods. The comparison between path sampling and standard Monte Carlo demonstrate the feasibility of transition path sampling for a many-body system with a rough potential energy surface. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Advanced Systems of Efficient Use of Electrical Energy SURE ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Categories: Smart Grid Projects Smart Grid Projects in Europe Smart Grid Projects - Integrated System Smart Grid Projects - Home application Smart Grid Projects - Customer Behavior...

  11. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-28

    Description of CHHP system which utilizes a high-temperature fuel cell to provide on-site process reducing gas, clean power, and heat.

  12. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace063smith2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel ...

  13. High efficiency source coupler for optical waveguide illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic or optical waveguide illumination system includes a source coupling system. The source coupling system includes an optical channel with an internal cavity. A light source is disposed inside the driving circuit. Coupling losses are minimized by placing the light source within the optical channel. The source cavity and the source optical channel can be shaped to enhance the amount of light captured in the channel by total internal reflection. Multiple light distribution waveguides can be connected to the source coupling channel to produce an illumination system.

  14. Energy-Efficient Cooling Control Systems for Data Centers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The system analyzes and optimizes cooling by enabling dynamic adaptive cooling ... Provides predictive maintenance, energy usage optimization, and future facility expansion ...

  15. Refrigeration System Installation and Startup Procedures, and AC Equipment Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a series of measurements to evaluate a cooling system: air flow, pressures, temperatures, humidity levels, and power draw.

  16. Scalable, Efficient Solid Waste Burner System - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A system that effectively burns solid human waste where traditional waste management ... is a semi-gasifier, burner device to process solid waste, particularly solid human waste. ...

  17. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based onSystem Audit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2007-06-01

    Industrial electric motor systems consume more than 600billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China selectricity use. The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimizing motor systems results in an improvement of 20-25 percent,which is well-supported by experience in both the U.S. and China.Compressed air systems in China use 9.4 percent of all electricity.Compressed air use in China is growing rapidly, as new industrial plantsare built and the production processes of existing plants expand andchange. Most of these systems, whether existing or new, are not optimizedfor energy efficiency. This paper will present a practitioner'sperspective on theemergence of compressed air auditing services inChina, specifically as it pertains to Shanghai and surrounding areas.Both the methodology used and the market development of these compressedair system services will be addressed. Finally, the potential for energysaving opportunities will be described based on highlights from over 50compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghai EnergyConservation Service Center, both during the United Nations IndustrialDevelopment Organization (UNIDO) China Motor System Energy ConservationProgram, and after this training program was completed.

  18. High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Refrigeration System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, Low-Emission Refrigeration System High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Refrigeration System Image of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration system.<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Image of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration system. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration system.<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of the compressor rack and

  19. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  20. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  1. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution

  2. A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappellini, G.; Lombardi, P.; Mancini, M.; Pagano, G.; Pizzocaro, M.; Fallani, L.; Catani, J.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we present the realization of a compact, high-power laser system able to excite the ytterbium clock transition at 578 nm. Starting from an external-cavity laser based on a quantum dot chip at 1156 nm with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, we were able to obtain up to 60 mW of visible light at 578 nm via frequency doubling. The laser is locked with a 500 kHz bandwidth to an ultra-low-expansion glass cavity stabilized at its zero coefficient of thermal expansion temperature through an original thermal insulation and correction system. This laser allowed the observation of the clock transition in fermionic {sup 173}Y b with a <50 Hz linewidth over 5 min, limited only by a residual frequency drift of some 0.1 Hz/s.

  3. Solar System Tops Off Efficient NREL Building - News Feature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... government does not incur the upfront costs of purchasing the PV system," Dins said. "We can accurately budget for a fixed price for solar electricity for a fixed period of time." ...

  4. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf (1.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for ...

  5. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace063smith2012o.pdf (1.91 MB) More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for ...

  6. ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    REUSE | Department of Energy Research Triangle Institute - Research Triangle Park, NC A single hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment and reuse that combines two known processes-forward osmosis and membrane distillation-will be developed and demonstrated. This system will use waste heat to treat a wide variety of waste streams at manufacturing facilities. Based on current industrial wastewater practices and preliminary analysis, this technology has the potential to reduce

  7. Nanocoating for High-efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Bruce

    2011-06-22

    Characterization of the AlMgB14-based coatings revealed their semi-crystalline nature; as a single phase, AlMgB14 appears amorphous. Combining this material with TiB2 through comminution of very fine-scale powders (~100 nm), produces a bulk solid that exceeds the hardness of its respective constituent phases. Through physical vapor deposition processing, the resulting nanocomposite coating combines the wear resistance characteristic of hard materials (e.g. the AlMgB14) with a regenerating lubricant. Within the top layers (10-20 nm) of the nanocomposite coating, the same TiB2 phase used to enhance the strength and provide ductility to the otherwise brittle AlMgB14 material reacts with available oxygen to form boron oxide. As the atoms of TiB2 continue to react, layers of boric acid begin to form at the surface. This affords an exceptionally low coefficient of friction (as low as 0.02) to the coating. Physical vapor deposition processing parameters were evaluated and optimized during the project to minimize the difficulties common to transitioning a laboratory-scale process or technology to a salable product. Coating process times and temperatures, process gas flows and ramp rates, and a number of other adjustable parameters were optimized based on the results of testing and coating characterization. The overriding goal of all of these efforts was a repeatable coating process that yields the benefits observed in the laboratory, independent of the intended product or market.

  8. Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Ryan W.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.; de Mattos, Erico Rolim

    2012-11-06

    Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use. Specifically, methods for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency including applying pulsed light to a photosynthetic organism, using a chlorophyll fluorescence feedback control system to determine one or more photosynthetic efficiency parameters, and adjusting one or more of the photosynthetic efficiency parameters to drive the photosynthesis by the delivery of an amount of light to optimize light absorption of the photosynthetic organism while providing enough dark time between light pulses to prevent oversaturation of the chlorophyll reaction centers are disclosed.

  9. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop degradation-resistant nano-coatings of AlMgB14 and AlMgB14 (titanium diboride) TiB2 that result in improved surface hardness and reduced friction for industrial hydraulic and tooling systems.

  10. Commercial high efficiency dehumidification systems using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    An improved heat pipe design using separately connected two-section one-way flow heat pipes with internal microgrooves instead of wicks is described. This design is now commercially available for use to increase the dehumidification capacity of air conditioning systems. The design also includes a method of introducing fresh air into buildings while recovering heat and controlling the humidity of the incoming air. Included are applications and case studies, load calculations and technical data, and installation, operation, and maintenance information.

  11. Quantum Phase Transition in a Two-Dimensional System of Dipoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2007-02-09

    The ground-state phase diagram of a two-dimensional Bose system with dipole-dipole interactions is studied by means of a quantum Monte Carlo technique. Our calculation predicts a quantum phase transition from a gas to a solid phase when the density increases. In the gas phase, the condensate fraction is calculated as a function of the density. Using the Feynman approximation, the collective excitation branch is studied and the appearance of a roton minimum is observed. The results of the static structure factor at both sides of the gas-solid phase are also presented. The Lindemann ratio at the transition point becomes {gamma}=0.230(6). The condensate fraction in the gas phase is estimated as a function of the density.

  12. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, Alok; Samatova, Nagiza; Wu, Kesheng; Liao, Wei-keng

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  13. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  14. Control Scheme Modifications Increase Efficiency of Steam Generation System at Exxon Mobil Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights control scheme modifications made to the steam system at ExxonMobil's Mary Ann Gas Plant in Mobile, Alabama, which improved steam flow efficiency and reduced energy costs.

  15. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  16. (Energy efficiency of the computerized utilities energy monitor and control system)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broders, M.A.; McConnell, B.W.

    1990-12-17

    The travelers, representing the ORNL Energy Division, Efficiency and Renewables Research Section, conducted an in-depth evaluation of the CUMACS/EMCS installed at the 26th Support Group, USAREUR. This endeavor included an evaluation of the overall performance of this system including operations maintenance and end-user impact. System energy efficiency in terms of projected and actual energy and cost savings were analyzed. Conclusions and preliminary recommendations based on this evaluation were also formulated.

  17. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P; Qu, J.; Higdon, C.

    2011-02-01

    process variants and developed tests to better simulate the applications of interest. ORNL also employed existing lubrication models to better understand hydraulic pump frictional behavior and test results. Phase III, Functional Testing focused on finalizing the strategy for commercialization of AlMgB14 coatings for both hydraulic and tooling systems. ORNL continued to provide tribology testing and analysis support for hydraulic pump applications. It included both laboratory-scale coupon testing and the analysis of friction and wear data from full component-level tests performed at Eaton Corp. Laboratory-scale tribology test methods are used to characterize the behavior of nanocomposite coatings prior to running them in full-sized hydraulic pumps. This task also includes developing tribosystems analyses, both to provide a better understanding of the performance of coated surfaces in alternate hydraulic fluids, and to help design useful laboratory protocols. Analysis also includes modeling the lubrication conditions and identifying the physical processes by which wear and friction of the contact interface changes over time. This final report summarizes ORNLs portion of the nanocomposite coatings development effort and presents both generated data and the analyses that were used in the course of this effort.

  18. Using System Dynamics to Model the Transition to Biofuels in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, B.; Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.; Peterson, S.

    2008-01-01

    Today, the U.S. consumes almost 21 million barrels of crude oil per day; approximately 60% of the U.S. demand is supplied by imports. The transportation sector alone accounts for two-thirds of U.S. petroleum use. Biofuels, liquid fuels produced from domestically-grown biomass, have the potential to displace about 30% of current U.S. gasoline consumption. Transitioning to a biofuels industry on this scale will require the creation of a robust biomass-to-biofuels system-of-systems that operates in concert with the existing agriculture, forestry, energy, and transportation markets. The U.S. Department of Energy is employing a system dynamics approach to investigate potential market penetration scenarios for cellulosic ethanol, and to aid decision makers in focusing government actions on the areas with greatest potential to accelerate the deployment of biofuels and ultimately reduce the nationpsilas dependence on imported oil.

  19. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants SENER logo SENER, under the Baseload CSP FOA, aimed to develop a highly efficient, low-maintenance and economical thermal energy storage (TES) system using solid graphite modular blocks for CSP plants. Approach Graphic of a rectangle shape to the left of a row or smaller rectangles stacked in two rows. The main objective was to evaluate a TES system able to

  20. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: II. Confirmation of Two Multiplanet Systems via a Non-parametric Correlation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Eric B.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Steffen, Jason H.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fressin, Francois; Holman, Matthew J.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Moorhead, Althea V.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /San Diego State U., Astron. Dept.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method for confirming transiting planets based on the combination of transit timing variations (TTVs) and dynamical stability. Correlated TTVs provide evidence that the pair of bodies are in the same physical system. Orbital stability provides upper limits for the masses of the transiting companions that are in the planetary regime. This paper describes a non-parametric technique for quantifying the statistical significance of TTVs based on the correlation of two TTV data sets. We apply this method to an analysis of the transit timing variations of two stars with multiple transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. We confirm four transiting planets in two multiple planet systems based on their TTVs and the constraints imposed by dynamical stability. An additional three candidates in these same systems are not confirmed as planets, but are likely to be validated as real planets once further observations and analyses are possible. If all were confirmed, these systems would be near 4:6:9 and 2:4:6:9 period commensurabilities. Our results demonstrate that TTVs provide a powerful tool for confirming transiting planets, including low-mass planets and planets around faint stars for which Doppler follow-up is not practical with existing facilities. Continued Kepler observations will dramatically improve the constraints on the planet masses and orbits and provide sensitivity for detecting additional non-transiting planets. If Kepler observations were extended to eight years, then a similar analysis could likely confirm systems with multiple closely spaced, small transiting planets in or near the habitable zone of solar-type stars.

  1. Large scale simulations of the mechanical properties of layered transition metal ternary compounds for fossil energy power system applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2014-12-31

    Advanced materials with applications in extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive environments play a critical role in the development of new technologies to significantly improve the performance of different types of power plants. Materials that are currently employed in fossil energy conversion systems are typically the Ni-based alloys and stainless steels that have already reached their ultimate performance limits. Incremental improvements are unlikely to meet the more stringent requirements aimed at increased efficiency and reduce risks while addressing environmental concerns and keeping costs low. Computational studies can lead the way in the search for novel materials or for significant improvements in existing materials that can meet such requirements. Detailed computational studies with sufficient predictive power can provide an atomistic level understanding of the key characteristics that lead to desirable properties. This project focuses on the comprehensive study of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn+1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al or other group III, IV, and V elements, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with a rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and special types of bonding, these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most outstanding properties. We used a genomic approach in screening a large number of potential MAX phases and established a database for 665 viable MAX compounds on the structure, mechanical and electronic properties and investigated the correlations between them. This database if then used as a tool for materials informatics for further exploration of this class of intermetallic compounds.

  2. Transition Metal Catalyzed Hydroarylation of Multiple Bonds: Exploration of Second Generation Ruthenium Catalysts and Extension to Copper Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Brent Gunnoe

    2011-02-17

    Catalysts provide foundational technology for the development of new materials and can enhance the efficiency of routes to known materials. New catalyst technologies offer the possibility of reducing energy and raw material consumption as well as enabling chemical processes with a lower environmental impact. The rising demand and expense of fossil resources has strained national and global economies and has increased the importance of accessing more efficient catalytic processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons to useful products. The goals of the research are to develop and understand single-site homogeneous catalysts for the conversion of readily available hydrocarbons into useful materials. A detailed understanding of these catalytic reactions could lead to the development of catalysts with improved activity, longevity and selectivity. Such transformations could reduce the environmental impact of hydrocarbon functionalization, conserve energy and valuable fossil resources and provide new technologies for the production of liquid fuels. This project is a collaborative effort that incorporates both experimental and computational studies to understand the details of transition metal catalyzed C-H activation and C-C bond forming reactions with olefins. Accomplishments of the current funding period include: (1) We have completed and published studies of C-H activation and catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu{l_brace}P(pyr){sub 3}{r_brace}(NCMe)R (pyr = N-pyrrolyl) complexes. While these systems efficiently initiate stoichiometric benzene C-H activation, catalytic olefin hydroarylation is hindered by inhibition of olefin coordination, which is a result of the steric bulk of the P(pyr){sub 3} ligand. (2) We have extended our studies of catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph systems to L = P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt. Thus, we have now completed detailed mechanistic studies of four systems with L = CO, PMe{sub 3}, P(pyr){sub 3} and P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt

  3. Energy dissipation in heavy systems: the transition from quasi-elastic to deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehm, K.E.; van den Berg, A.; Kolata, J.J.; Kovar, D.G.; Kutschera, W.; Rosner, G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Yntema, J.L.; Lee, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of medium mass projectiles (A = 28 - 64) with /sup 208/Pb has been studied using a split-pole spectrograph which allows single mass and charge identification. The reaction process in all systems studied so far is dominated by quasi-elastic neutron transfer reactions, especially at incident energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. In addition to the quasi-elastic component deep inelastic contributions are present in all reaction channels. The good mass and charge separation allows to generate Wilczynski plots for individual channels; for the system /sup 48/Ti + /sup 208/Pb we observe that the transition between the quasi-elastic and deep-inelastic reactions occurs around Q = -(30 to 35) MeV.

  4. Improving the efficiency of residential air-distribution systems in California, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modera, M.; Dickerhoff, D.; Jansky, R.; Smith, B.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the results of the first phase of a multiyear research project. The project`s goal is to investigate ways to improve the efficiency of air-distribution systems in detached, single-family residences in California. First-year efforts included: A survey of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) contractors in California. A 31-house field study of distribution-system performance based on diagnostic measurements. Development of an integrated air-flow and thermal-simulation tool for investigating residential air-distribution system performance. Highlights of the field results include the following: Building envelopes for houses built after 1979 appear to be approximately 30% tighter. Duct-system tightness showed no apparent improvement in post-1979 houses. Distribution-fan operation added an average of 0.45 air changes per hour (ACH) to the average measured rate of 0.24 ACH. The simulation tool developed is based on DOE-2 for the thermal simulations and on MOVECOMP, an air-flow network simulation model, for the duct/house leakage and flow interactions. The first complete set of simulations performed (for a ranch house in Sacramento) indicated that the overall heating-season efficiency of the duct systems was approximately 65% to 70% and that the overall cooling-season efficiency was between 60% and 75%. The wide range in cooling-season efficiency reflects the difference between systems with attic return ducts and those with crawl-space return ducts, the former being less efficient. The simulations also indicated that the building envelope`s UA-value, a measurement of thermoconductivity, did not have a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the air-distribution system.

  5. Transitions to alternative energy systems - entrepreneurs, new technologies, and social change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgartner, T.; Burns, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    This book offers a comparative analysis of seven case studies that provide insight into the factors that have facilitated or blocked the emergence of alternative energy production and use systems. The authors suggest that the actors (public or private, individual or collective) who provide information and know-how are extremely important in determining the speed with which a new energy technology is adopted. They stress the importance of incorporating legal, organizational, institutional, and social factors with economic and technical considerations in planning and managing the energy transition process. The case studies analysed are: solar branch development in Israel; solar water heating in California; wind energy in Denmark; heat pump use in the Federal Republic of Germany; geothermal electricity in California; wood for industrial energy in northern New England; peat for energy in Finland.

  6. Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? What are realistic energy savings associated with the latest advanced and forthcoming water heating technologies and are they cost effective? issue4_gasfired_waterheater.pdf (1.27 MB) issue4_tankless_wh.pdf (510.42 KB) issue4_waterhtg_solutions.pdf (528.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

  7. Direct probe of Mott-Hubbard to charge-transfer insulator transition and electronic structure evolution in transition-metal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olalde-Velasco, P; Jimenez-Mier, J; Denlinger, JD; Hussain, Z; Yang, WL

    2011-07-11

    We report the most direct experimental verification of Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer insulators through x-ray emission spectroscopy in transition-metal (TM) fluorides. The p-d hybridization features in the spectra allow a straightforward energy alignment of the anion-2p and metal-3d valence states, which visually shows the difference between the two types of insulators. Furthermore, in parallel with the theoretical Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen diagram, a complete experimental systematics of the 3d Coulomb interaction and the 2p-3d charge-transfer energy is reported and could serve as a universal experimental trend for other TM systems including oxides.

  8. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with a cooling system for the transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiebe, David J.; Rodriguez, Jose L.

    2015-12-08

    A cooling system is provided for a transition (420) of a gas turbine engine (410). The cooling system includes a cowling (460) configured to receive an air flow (111) from an outlet of a compressor section of the gas turbine engine (410). The cowling (460) is positioned adjacent to a region of the transition (420) to cool the transition region upon circulation of the air flow within the cowling (460). The cooling system further includes a manifold (121) to directly couple the air flow (111) from the compressor section outlet to an inlet (462) of the cowling (460). The cowling (460) is configured to circulate the air flow (111) within an interior space (426) of the cowling (460) that extends radially outward from an inner diameter (423) of the cowling to an outer diameter (424) of the cowling at an outer surface.

  9. Improve Chilled Water System Peformance: Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) Improves Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) can help optimize the performance of of industrial chilled water systems.

  10. Human Capacity Building in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy System Maintenance for the Yurok Tribe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.

    2007-07-31

    From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.

  11. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  12. Compressed Air System Enhancement Increase Efficiency and Provides Energy Savings at a Circuit Board Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the circuit board manufacturer (Sanmina Plant) project.

  13. Development of High-Efficiency Low-Lift Vapor Compression System - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-03-31

    PNNL, with cofunding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Building Technologies Program, conducted a research and development activity targeted at addressing the energy efficiency goals targeted in the BPA roadmap. PNNL investigated an integrated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option referred to as the low-lift cooling system that potentially offers an increase in HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  14. Power-efficient hydraulic systems. Volume 1. Study phase. Final report, October 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupp, R.V.; Haning, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    Energy-saving concepts for aircraft hydraulic systems were studied in a two-phase program. Task I was an investigation of methods and techniques to reduce overall hydraulic-system power requirements by lowering system demands and increasing component efficiencies. Task II involved hardware demonstration test on selected concepts. Task I: Study Phase. A baseline hydraulic system for an advanced aircraft design was established. Twenty energy-saving techniques were studied as candidates for application to the baseline vehicle. A global systems-analysis approach was employed. The candidates were compared on the basis of total fuel consumption and six qualitative factors. Nine of the most-promising techniques were applied to a Target System . The target system had a 28% reduction in energy consumption and an 868 lb weight reduction over the baseline aircraft.

  15. NREL/PG&E Condensation System Increases Geothermal Power Plant Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL/PG&E Condensation System Increases Geothermal Power Plant Efficiency For more information contact: Howard Brown 303-275-3682 or Kerry Masson 303-275-4083 Golden, Colo., June 17, 1997 -- The world's largest producer of geothermal power has improved its power production efficiency thanks to a new technology developed under a research partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). PG&E

  16. Dynamic neutron scattering on incoherent systems using efficient resonance spin flip techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussler, Wolfgang [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Technische Universitt Mnchen, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Physik-Department E21, Technische Universitt Mnchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kredler, Lukas [Physik-Department E21, Technische Universitt Mnchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We have performed numerical ray-tracing Monte-Carlo-simulations of incoherent dynamic neutron scattering experiments. We intend to optimize the efficiency of incoherent measurements depending on the fraction of neutrons scattered without and with spin flip at the sample. In addition to conventional spin echo, we have numerically and experimentally studied oscillating intensity techniques. The results point out the advantages of these different spin echo variants and are an important prerequisite for neutron resonance spin echo instruments like RESEDA (FRM II, Munich), to choose the most efficient technique depending on the scattering vector range and the properties of the sample system under study.

  17. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  18. Linking home energy rating systems with energy efficiency financing: Progress on national and state programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhar, B.C.; Collins, N.E.; Walsh, R.W.

    1996-10-01

    In 1991 and early 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), established a National Collaborative on Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) and Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEMs). The Collaborative's purpose was to involve stakeholders at a national policy level to develop a plan leading the nation toward a voluntary system linking HERS with EEMs. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) coordinated the National Collaborative's meetings for DOE. Composed of representatives from 25 stakeholder organizations, the Collaborative, after some 14 meetings, reached consensus on two documents, both published by NREL in mg 1992: A National Program for Energy-Efficient Mortgages and Home Energy Rating Systems: A Blueprint for Action and Going National with HERS and EEMs: Issues and Impacts, The Collected Papers of the National Collaborative.

  19. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the

  20. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa's HVAC SAVE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, S.; Baker, J.; Brand, L.; Wells, J.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  1. Localization-Delocalization Transition in a System of Quantum Kicked Rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creffield, C.E.; Hur, G.; Monteiro, T.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-20

    The quantum dynamics of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced {delta} kicks from optical potentials are shown to be quite different from the well-known paradigm of quantum chaos, the single {delta}-kick system. We find the unitary matrix has a new oscillating band structure corresponding to a cellular structure of phase space and observe a spectral signature of a localization-delocalization transition from one cell to several. We find that the eigenstates have localization lengths which scale with a fractional power L{approx}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup -0.75} and obtain a regime of near-linear spectral variances which approximate the 'critical statistics' relation {sigma}{sub 2}(L){approx_equal}{chi}L{approx_equal}(1/2)(1-{nu})L, where {nu}{approx_equal}0.75 is related to the fractal classical phase-space structure. The origin of the {nu}{approx_equal}0.75 exponent is analyzed.

  2. Modeling transiting circumstellar disks: characterizing the newly discovered eclipsing disk system OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Erin L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Quillen, Alice C.; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ?1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ?0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ?150 Myr and mass ?4 M {sub ?}. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ?0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ?1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  3. Overview of existing residential energy-efficiency rating systems and measuring tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    Three categories of rating systems/tools were identified: prescriptive, calculational, and performance. Prescriptive systems include rating systems that assign points to various conservation features. Most systems that have been implemented to date have been prescriptive systems. The vast majority of these are investor-owned utility programs affiliated with the National Energy Watch program of the Edison Electric Institute. The calculational category includes computational tools that can be used to estimate energy consumption. This estimate could then be transformed, probably by indexing, into a rating. The available computational tools range from very simple to complex tools requiring use of a main-frame computer. Performance systems refer to residential energy-efficiency ratings that are based on past fuel consumption of a home. There are few of these systems. For each identified system/tool, the name, address, and telephone number of the developer is included. In addition, relevant publications discussing the system/tool are cited. The extent of field validation/verification of individual systems and tools is discussed. In general, there has been little validation/verification done. A bibliography of literature relevant to the use and implementation of a home energy rating system is also included.

  4. Very low temperature radiant heating/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jianbo; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Congrong; Xiong, Weicheng; Zhu, Li

    2010-06-15

    Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply temperature compared to the conventional radiant floor heating systems. A three dimensional model was established to investigate its energy supply capacities. Simulation results show that 50 W per meter length tube can be achieved with the medium temperature of 30 C for heating and 15 C for cooling. The predicted results agree well with the actual data from a demonstration building. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a supply temperature of 22 C in winter and of 17 C in summer already met the indoor requirements. The new end system has good prospects for effective use of local renewable resources. (author)

  5. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  6. Strategic Plan for Coordinating Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Transit Development in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truett, L.F.

    2002-12-19

    The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, located along the border between North Carolina and Tennessee, is the most visited national park in the United States. This rugged, mountainous area presents many transportation challenges. The immense popularity of the Smokies and the fact that the primary mode of transportation within the park is the personal vehicle have resulted in congestion, damage to the environment, impacts on safety, and a degraded visitor experience. Access to some of the Smokies historical, cultural, and recreational attractions via a mass transit system could alleviate many of the transportation issues. Although quite a few organizations are proponents of a mass transit system for the Smokies, there is a lack of coordination among all parties. In addition, many local residents are not completely comfortable with the idea of transit in the Smokies. This document provides a brief overview of the current transportation needs and limitations in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, identifies agencies and groups with particular interests in the Smokies, and offers insights into the benefits of using Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies in the Smokies. Recommendations for the use of rural ITS transit to solve two major transportation issues are presented.

  7. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scott Newhouse Peterbilt Motors Company Project ID: ARRAVT081 17 May 2012 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Relevance - Program Objectives (DoE Vehicle Technologies Goals) Objective 1: Engine system demonstration of 50% or greater BTE in a test cell at an operating condition indicative of a vehicle traveling on a level road at 65 mph. Objective 2 a: Tractor-trailer vehicle demonstration of 50% or greater freight efficiency

  8. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ken Damon Peterbilt Motors Company Project ID: ARRAVT081 16 May 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Relevance - Program Objectives (DoE Vehicle Technologies Goals) Objective 1: Engine system demonstration of 50% or greater BTE in a test cell at an operating condition indicative of a vehicle traveling on a level road at 65 mph. Objective 2 a: Tractor-trailer vehicle demonstration of 50% or greater freight efficiency

  9. Measured heating system efficiency retrofits in eight manufactured (HUD-code) homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.; Davis, B.; Francisco, P.; Palmiter, L.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on eight all-electric manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest with forced-air distribution systems. These homes, like more than four million existing manufactured homes in the US, were constructed to thermal specifications that were mandated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1976. The test protocol compares real-time measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during periods when zonal heaters heat the homes to the same internal temperature. By alternating between the furnace and zonal heaters on 2 hour cycles, a short-term coheat test is performed. Additional measurements, including blower door and duct tightness tests, are conducted to measure and characterize the home's tightness and duct leakage so that coheat test results might be linked to other measures of building performance. The testing was done at each home before and after an extensive duct sealing retrofit was performed. The average pre-retrofit system efficiency for these homes was 69%. After the retrofit, the average system efficiency increased to 83%. The average simple payback period for the retrofits ranges from 1 to 5 years in Western Oregon and 1 to 3 years in colder Eastern Oregon.

  10. System efficiency analysis for high power solid state radio frequency transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Akhilesh, E-mail: ajain@rrcat.gov.in; Sharma, D. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Lad, M. R.; Hannurkar, P. R. [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Pathak, S. K. [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)] [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-02-15

    This paper examines some important relationships, related with the system efficiency, for very high power, radio frequency solid-state transmitter; incorporating multiple solid-state power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers, couplers, and control/interlock hardware. In particular, the characterization of such transmitters, at the component as well as the system level, is discussed. The analysis for studying the influence of the amplitude and phase imbalance, on useful performance parameters like system efficiency and power distribution is performed. This analysis is based on a scattering parameter model. This model serves as a template for fine-tuning the results, with the help of a system level simulator. For experimental study, this approach is applied to a recently designed modular and scalable solid-state transmitter, operating at the centre frequency of 505.8?MHz and capable of delivering a continuous power of 75 kW. Such first time presented, system level study and experimental characterization for the real time operation will be useful for the high power solid-state amplifier designs, deployed in particle accelerators.

  11. Power-efficient hydraulic systems. Volume 2. Hardware demonstration phase. Final report, October 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupp, R.V.; Haning, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    Energy-saving concepts for aircraft hydraulic systems were studied in a two-phase program. Task I was an investigation of methods and techniques to reduce overall hydraulic-system power requirements by lowering system demands and increasing component efficiencies. Task II involved hardware demonstration tests on selected concepts. Task I: Study phase. A baseline hydraulic system for an advanced aircraft design was established. Twenty energy-saving techniques were studied as candidates for application to the baseline vehicle. A global systems analysis approach was employed. The candidates were compared on the basis of total fuel consumption and six qualitative factors. Task II: Hardware demonstration phase. Two techniques demonstrated for energy savings were control valves with overlap and dual pressure-level systems. Tests were conducted on control valves, a servo actuator, dual pressure pumps, and a lightweight hydraulic system simulator. Valves with 0.002-in. overlap reduced system energy consumption 18% compared to using valves with zero lap. Operation at 4000 psi reduced system energy consumption 53% compared to operation at 8000 psi. Pressure-level switching was accomplished with excellent results.

  12. Insight From Efficiency Maine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an in-depth look at Efficiency Maine's transition to weatherization financing, its PowerSaver program, and much more.

  13. Cost Effective, High Efficiency Integrated Systems Approach to Auxilliary Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Kessinger Jr.; Keith Seymour; Kanchan Angal; Jason Wolf; Steve Brewer; Leonard Schrank

    2003-09-26

    The CARAT program, carried out by Kinetic Art & Technology Corporation (KAT), has been one of the most commercially successful KAT R&D programs to date. Based on previous development of its technology, KAT designed, constructed and tested a highly efficient motor and controller system under this CARAT program with supplemental commercial funding. Throughout this CARAT effort, the technical objectives have been refined and refocused. Some objectives have been greatly expanded, while others have been minimized. The determining factor in all decisions to refocus the objectives was the commercial need, primarily the needs of KAT manufacturing partners. Several companies are employing the resulting CARAT motor and controller designs in prototypes for commercial products. Two of these companies have committed to providing cost share in order to facilitate the development. One of these companies is a major manufacturing company developing a revolutionary new family of products requiring the ultra-high system efficiency achievable by the KAT motor and controller technologies (known as Segmented ElectroMagnetic Array, or SEMA technology). Another company requires the high efficiency, quiet operation, and control characteristics afforded by the same basic motor and controller for an advanced air filtration product. The combined annual production requirement projected by these two companies exceeds one million units by 2005.

  14. Application configuration selection for energy-efficient execution on multicore systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Shinan; Luo, Bing; Shi, Weisong; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-09-21

    Balanced performance and energy consumption are incorporated in the design of modern computer systems. Several runtime factors, such as concurrency levels, thread mapping strategies, and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) should be considered in order to achieve optimal energy efficiency fora workload. Selecting appropriate run-time factors, however, is one of the most challenging tasks because the run-time factors are architecture-specific and workload-specific. And while most existing works concentrate on either static analysis of the workload or run-time prediction results, we present a hybrid two-step method that utilizes concurrency levels and DVFS settings to achieve the energy efficiency configuration formore » a worldoad. The experimental results based on a Xeon E5620 server with NPB and PARSEC benchmark suites show that the model is able to predict the energy efficient configuration accurately. On average, an additional 10% EDP (Energy Delay Product) saving is obtained by using run-time DVFS for the entire system. An off-line optimal solution is used to compare with the proposed scheme. Finally, the experimental results show that the average extra EDP saved by the optimal solution is within 5% on selective parallel benchmarks.« less

  15. Application configuration selection for energy-efficient execution on multicore systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shinan; Luo, Bing; Shi, Weisong; Tiwari, Devesh

    2015-09-21

    Balanced performance and energy consumption are incorporated in the design of modern computer systems. Several runtime factors, such as concurrency levels, thread mapping strategies, and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) should be considered in order to achieve optimal energy efficiency fora workload. Selecting appropriate run-time factors, however, is one of the most challenging tasks because the run-time factors are architecture-specific and workload-specific. And while most existing works concentrate on either static analysis of the workload or run-time prediction results, we present a hybrid two-step method that utilizes concurrency levels and DVFS settings to achieve the energy efficiency configuration for a worldoad. The experimental results based on a Xeon E5620 server with NPB and PARSEC benchmark suites show that the model is able to predict the energy efficient configuration accurately. On average, an additional 10% EDP (Energy Delay Product) saving is obtained by using run-time DVFS for the entire system. An off-line optimal solution is used to compare with the proposed scheme. Finally, the experimental results show that the average extra EDP saved by the optimal solution is within 5% on selective parallel benchmarks.

  16. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From 2000-2012, about 6% of U.S. electricity generation did not reach any customer, instead being lost in the transmission and distribution system. This report describes sources of energy loss in the transmission and distribution of electricity, and reviews research on both the magnitude and potential for reducing these losses. Strategies to improve energy efficiency on the grid include upgrades in physical infrastructure as well as information technologies and operational strategies that can help grid operators make the system run more efficiently. The report also describes engineering, economic, and policy barriers to implementing these loss reduction strategies. For transmission, emerging technologies such as superconductors and power flow control technologies can reduce transmission loss 50% or more, but these technologies may not be cost-effective in all areas. On the distribution system, theoretical studies of reducing overloading lines through reconfiguration have identified loss reductions of up to 40%; however, studies of real systems have observed loss reductions of only 5-20%.

  17. An Efficient LED System-in-Module for General Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-09-14

    The objective of the project was to realize an LED-based lighting technology platform for general illumination, starting with LED chips, and integrating the necessary technologies to make compact, user-friendly, high-efficiency, energy-saving sources of controlled white (or variable-colored) light. The project is to build the system around the LEDs, and not to work on the LEDs themselves, in order that working products can be introduced soon after the LEDs reach suitable efficiency for mass-production of high-power light sources for general illumination. Because the light sources are intended for general illumination, color must be accurately maintained, requiring feedback control in the electronics. The project objective has been realized and screw base demonstrators, based on the technology developed in the project, have been built.

  18. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30

    exhibited durability issues, stripping away under conditions less demanding than 750,000 miles in service on the road. Failed coatings compound the problem by contaminating the lubricant with hard particles. Under the most severe conditions, super finished surfaces may polish further, reaching a surface roughness unable to support the critical oil film thickness. Low viscosity and low friction lubricants may not protect the gears and bearings adequately leading to excessive pitting, wear and noise. Additives in low friction oils may not stay in solution or suspended thus settling to the bottom and unavailable when they are needed most. Technical barriers and risks can be overcome through engineering, but two barriers remain formidable: (1) cost of the technology and (2) convincing fleet owners that the technology provides a tangible benefit. Dry sumps lower lubricant operating temperatures so the removal of heat exchangers and hoses and reduced demand on engine cooling systems justify their use. The benefits of surface texturing are varied and remain unproven. Lubricant costs seem manageable, but the cost of super finishing and gear coating are high. These are issues of scale and processing technology. Going across the board with gear super finishing and coating will reduce costs. Pushing the envelope to applications with higher torque and higher power density should drive the adoption of these technologies. Fleet owners are an educated and seasoned lot. Only technology measureable in dollars returned is used on truck fleets. To convince fleet owners of the benefit of these technologies, new precision in measuring fuel efficiency must be introduced. Legislation for a minimum standard in truck miles per gallon would also enable the use of these technologies. Improving the efficiency of truck transmissions and axle will make a noticeable impact on the fuel consumption by heavy vehicles in the United States. However, the greatest benefit will come when all the individual

  19. Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Slone; Jeffery Birkel

    2007-12-31

    With a variety of hybrid vehicles available in the passenger car market, electric technologies and components of that scale are becoming readily available. Commercial vehicle segments have lagged behind passenger car markets, leaving opportunities for component and system development. Escalating fuel prices impact all markets and provide motivation for OEMs, suppliers, customers, and end-users to seek new techniques and technologies to deliver reduced fuel consumption. The research presented here specifically targets the medium-duty (MD), Class 4-7, truck market with technologies aimed at reducing fuel consumption. These technologies could facilitate not only idle, but also parasitic load reductions. The development efforts here build upon the success of the More Electric Truck (MET) demonstration program at Caterpillar Inc. Employing a variety of electric accessories, the MET demonstrated the improvement seen with such technologies on a Class 8 truck. The Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks (TEPS) team scaled the concepts and successes of MET to a MD chassis. The team designed an integrated starter/generator (ISG) package and energy storage system (ESS), explored ways to replace belt and gear-driven accessory systems, and developed supervisory control algorithms to direct the usage of the generated electricity and system behavior on the vehicle. All of these systems needed to fit within the footprint of a MD vehicle and be compatible with the existing conventional systems to the largest extent possible. The overall goal of this effort was to demonstrate a reduction in fuel consumption across the drive cycle, including during idle periods, through truck electrification. Furthermore, the team sought to evaluate the benefits of charging the energy storage system during vehicle braking. The vehicle features an array of electric accessories facilitating on-demand, variable actuation. Removal of these accessories from the belt or

  20. A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Ronald

    2015-05-20

    FCA US LLC (formally known as Chrysler Group LLC, and hereinafter “Chrysler”) was awarded an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded project by the Department of Energy (DOE) titled “A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency” (hereinafter “project”). This award was issued after Chrysler submitted a proposal for Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA- 0000079, “Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD).” Chrysler started work on this project on June 01, 2010 and completed testing activities on August 30, 2014. Overall objectives of this project were; Demonstrate a 25% improvement in combined Federal Test Procedure (FTP) City and Highway fuel economy over a 2009 Chrysler minivan; Accelerate the development of highly efficient engine and powertrain systems for light-duty vehicles, while meeting future emissions standards; and Create and retain jobs in accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

  1. Michrohole Arrays Drilled with Advanced Abrasive Slurry Jet Technology to Efficiently Exploit Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Kenneth; Finsterle, Stefan; Zhang, Yingqi; Pan, Lehua; Dobson, Parick; Mohan, Ram; Shoham, Ovadia; Felber, Betty; Rychel, Dwight

    2014-03-12

    This project had two major areas of research for Engineered/ Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) development - 1) study the potential benefits from using microholes (i.e., bores with diameters less than 10.16 centimeters/ 4 inches) and 2) study FLASH ASJ to drill/ install those microbores between a well and a fracture system. This included the methods and benefits of drilling vertical microholes for exploring the EGS reservoir and for installing multiple (forming an array of) laterals/ directional microholes for creating the in-reservoir heat exchange flow paths. Significant benefit was found in utilizing small microbore sized connecting bores for EGS efficiency and project life. FLASH ASJ was deemed too complicated to optimally work in such deep reservoirs at this time.

  2. Adapting wave-front algorithms to efficiently utilize systems with deep communication hierarchies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerbyson, Darren J; Lang, Michael; Pakin, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance. Processor-cores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contain wave-front processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model and an implementation on the Petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

  3. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  4. Prototype House Provides Test Case for Energy-Efficient Systems: Mitchell Homes - Pensacola, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the energy-efficient Mitchell Homes in Pensacola, Florida, which are energy efficient test houses utilizing a whole building approach.

  5. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstration 370 kW High Efficiency Microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-10-14

    The C370 Program was awarded in October 2010 with the ambitious goal of designing and testing the most electrically efficient recuperated microturbine engine at a rated power of less than 500 kW. The aggressive targets for electrical efficiency, emission regulatory compliance, and the estimated price point make the system state-of-the-art for microturbine engine systems. These goals will be met by designing a two stage microturbine engine identified as the low pressure spool and high pressure spool that are based on derivative hardware of Capstone’s current commercially available engines. The development and testing of the engine occurred in two phases. Phase I focused on developing a higher power and more efficient engine, that would become the low pressure spool which is based on Capstone’s C200 (200kW) engine architecture. Phase II integrated the low pressure spool created in Phase I with the high pressure spool, which is based on Capstone’s C65 (65 kW) commercially available engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical efficiency approaching 42%. If both of these targets were met coupled with the overall CHP target of 85% total combined heating and electrical efficiency California Air Resources Board (CARB) level emissions, and a price target of $600 per kW, the system would represent a step change in the currently available commercial generation technology. Phase I of the C370 program required the development of the C370 low pressure spool. The goal was to increase the C200 engine power by a minimum of 25% — 250 kW — and efficiency from 32% to 37%. These increases in the C200 engine output were imperative to meet the power requirements of the engine when both spools were integrated. An additional benefit of designing and testing the C370 low pressure spool was the possibility of developing a stand-alone product for possible

  6. High-transition-temperature superconductors in the Nb-Al-Ge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giorgi, A.L.; Szklarz, E.G.

    1972-09-26

    The patent describes superconducting materials of the nominal composition Nb(x)Al(y)Ge(l-y), where x is in the range of 1.9 to 2.8 and y is in the range of 0.5 to 0.9, having transition temperatures in the 19 -20K. range which are readily produced by annealing arc-melted compositions, or cold-pressed, heat-treated compositions at moderate temperatures for reasonably long times (about 50 hours).

  7. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  8. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbary, Lawrence D.; Perkins, Laura L.; Serino, Roland; Preston, Bill; Kosny, Jan

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  9. Improve Motor System Efficiency with MotorMaster+, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program MotorMaster+ software tool aids industrial plants with finding energy-efficient motor replacement options and managing motor systems.

  10. Energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A report on the nation`s progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhar, B.C.; Eckert, J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes progress throughout the nation in establishing voluntary programs linking home energy rating systems (HERS) and energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). These programs use methods for rating the energy efficiency of new and existing homes and predicting energy cost savings so lenders can factor in energy cost savings when underwriting mortgages. The programs also encourage lenders to finance cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes with low-interest mortgages or other instruments. The money saved on utility bills over the long term can more than offset the cost of such energy-efficiency improvements. The National Collaborative on HERS and EEMs recommended that this report be prepared.

  11. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center is Helping to Facilitate the Transition to a New Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center (HTSC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses a systems engineering and integration approach to hydrogen research and development to help the United States make the transition to a new energy future - a future built on diverse and abundant domestic renewable resources and integrated hydrogen systems. Research focuses on renewable hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; fuel cells and fuel cell manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; analysis; education; and market transformation. Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to power vehicles and to provide electricity and heat for homes and offices. This flexibility, combined with our increasing demand for energy, opens the door for hydrogen power systems. HTSC collaborates with DOE, other government agencies, industry, communities, universities, national laboratories, and other stakeholders to promote a clean and secure energy future.

  12. High-efficiency SO{sub 2} removal in utility FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy`s Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO{sub 2} removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO{sub 2} removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994.

  13. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  14. Spatial Resolution Versus Data Acquisition Efficiency in Mapping an Inhomogeneous System with Species Diffusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Fengxiang; Zhang, Yong; Gfroerer, T. H.; Finger, A. N.; Mark W. Wanlass

    2015-06-02

    Traditionally, spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) has been performed using a point-by-point scan mode with both excitation and detection occurring at the same spatial location. But with the availability of high quality detector arrays like CCDs, an imaging mode has become popular for performing spatially-resolved PL. By illuminating the entire area of interest and collecting the data simultaneously from all spatial locations, the measurement efficiency can be greatly improved. However, this new approach has proceeded under the implicit assumption of comparable spatial resolution. We show here that when carrier diffusion is present, the spatial resolution can actually differ substantially between the twomore » modes, with the less efficient scan mode being far superior. We apply both techniques in investigation of defects in a GaAs epilayer – where isolated singlet and doublet dislocations can be identified. A superposition principle is developed for solving the diffusion equation to extract the intrinsic carrier diffusion length, which can be applied to a system with arbitrarily distributed defects. The understanding derived from this work is significant for a broad range of problems in physics and beyond (for instance biology) – whenever the dynamics of generation, diffusion, and annihilation of species can be probed with either measurement mode.« less

  15. Zero-multipole summation method for efficiently estimating electrostatic interactions in molecular system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuda, Ikuo

    2013-11-07

    The zero-multipole summation method has been developed to efficiently evaluate the electrostatic Coulombic interactions of a point charge system. This summation prevents the electrically non-neutral multipole states that may artificially be generated by a simple cutoff truncation, which often causes large amounts of energetic noise and significant artifacts. The resulting energy function is represented by a constant term plus a simple pairwise summation, using a damped or undamped Coulombic pair potential function along with a polynomial of the distance between each particle pair. Thus, the implementation is straightforward and enables facile applications to high-performance computations. Any higher-order multipole moment can be taken into account in the neutrality principle, and it only affects the degree and coefficients of the polynomial and the constant term. The lowest and second moments correspond respectively to the Wolf zero-charge scheme and the zero-dipole summation scheme, which was previously proposed. Relationships with other non-Ewald methods are discussed, to validate the current method in their contexts. Good numerical efficiencies were easily obtained in the evaluation of Madelung constants of sodium chloride and cesium chloride crystals.

  16. Efficient Conversion of CO2 to CO Using Tin and Other Inexpensive and Easily Prepared Post-Transition Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina-Ramos, Jonnathan; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Keane, Thomas P.; DiMeglio, John L.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2015-02-19

    The development of affordable electrocatalysts that can drive the reduction of CO2 to CO with high selectivity, efficiency, and large current densities is a critical step on the path to production of liquid carbon-based fuels. In this work, we show that inexpensive triflate salts of Sn2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, and Sb3+ can be used as precursors for the electrodeposition of CO2 reduction cathode materials from MeCN solutions, providing a general and facile electrodeposition strategy, which streamlines catalyst synthesis. The ability of these four platforms to drive the formation of CO from CO2 in the presence of [BMIM]OTf was probed. The electrochemically prepared Sn and Bi catalysts proved to be highly active, selective, and robust platforms for CO evolution, with partial current densities of jCO = 5-8 mA/cm2 at applied overpotentials of η < 250 mV. By contrast, the electrodeposited Pb and Sb catalysts do not promote rapid CO generation with the same level of selectivity. The Pb material is only ~10% as active as the Sn and Bi systems at an applied potential of E = -1.95 V and is rapidly passivated during catalysis. The Sb-comprised cathode material shows no activity for conversion of CO2 to CO under analogous conditions. When taken together, this work demonstrates that 1,3-dialkylimidazoliums can promote CO production, but only when used in combination with an appropriately chosen electrocatalyst material. More broadly, these results suggest that the interactions between CO2, the imidazolium promoter, and the cathode surface are all critical to the observed catalysis.

  17. Catalytic reactive separation system for energy-efficient production of cumene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelna, Genoveva; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to an atmospheric pressure, reactive separation column packed with a solid acid zeolite catalyst for producing cumene from the reaction of benzene with propylene. Use of this un-pressurized column, where simultaneous reaction and partial separation occur during cumene production, allow separation of un-reacted, excess benzene from other products as they form. This high-yielding, energy-efficient system allows for one-step processing of cumene, with reduced need for product purification. Reacting propylene and benzene in the presence of beta zeolite catalysts generated a selectivity greater than 85% for catalytic separation reactions at a reaction temperature of 115 degrees C and at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, up to 76% of un-reacted benzene was separated from the product; which could be recycled back to the reactor for re-use.

  18. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  19. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Process heating plays a key role in producing steel, aluminum, and glass and in manufacturing products made from these materials. Faced with regulatory and competitive pressures to control emissions and reduce operating costs, metal and glass manufacturers are considering a variety of options for reducing overall energy consumption. As 38% of the energy used in U.S. industrial plants is consumed for process heating applications, metal and glass manufacturers are discovering that process heating technologies provide significant opportunities for improving industrial productivity, energy efficiency, and global competitiveness. This fact sheet is the first in a series to describe such opportunities that can be realized in industrial systems by conducting plant-wide assessments (PWA).

  20. Simulations of flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions in methane-air systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, D.A.; Gamezo, V.N.; Oran, E.S. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT) in large obstructed channels filled with a stoichiometric methane-air mixture are simulated using a single-step reaction mechanism. The reaction parameters are calibrated using known velocities and length scales of laminar flames and detonations. Calculations of the flame dynamics and DDT in channels with obstacles are compared to previously reported experimental data. The results obtained using the simple reaction model qualitatively, and in many cases, quantitatively match the experiments and are found to be largely insensitive to small variations in model parameters. (author)

  1. Possibility of phase transitions inducing cold fusion in palladium/deuterium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.X. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a tentative theory is presented in which {beta}-phase PdD{sub x} containing supersaturated deuterium transits into {beta}-phase PdD{sub x} containing less deuterium and {alpha}-phase PdD{sub x}. High-pressure ({approx}10 GPa) deuterium bubbles form at the same time. As the bubbles release energy, cracks are created in the PdD{sub x} crystal, and charge separation of deuterium occurs. Thus would cold fusion be induced. This proposal supports the fracture mechanism for cold fusion.

  2. Transition Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transition Plan Transition Plan This template is used to define the objectives, resources, and plans for systems transition, e.g., scheduling the transition from acceptance testing to full operational status, identifying staffing and training needs for system operation and maintenance, planning for data migration, etc Transition Plan (35.86 KB) More Documents & Publications System Design Feasibility Study Report Template Configuration Management Plan

  3. Lattice crossover and phase transitions in NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasylechko, L.; Shmanko, H.; Ohon, N.; Prots, Yu.; Hoffmann, S.; Ubizskii, S.

    2013-02-15

    Phase and structural behaviour in the (1-x)NdAlO{sub 3}-xGdAlO{sub 3} system in a whole concentration range has been studied by means of in situ high-resolution X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction technique and differential thermal analysis. Two kinds of solid solutions Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} have been found at room temperature: one with rhombohedral (x<0.15) and one with orthorhombic (x{>=}0.20) symmetry. A morphotropic phase transition occurs at x Almost-Equal-To 0.15, where the co-existence of both phases was observed. Peculiarity of the orthorhombic solid solution is the lattice parameter crossover at the compositions with x=0.33, 0.49 and 0.62. First-order structural transition Pbnm{r_reversible}R3{sup Macron }c has been detected both from in situ powder diffraction and thermal analysis data. Continuous phase transformation R3{sup Macron }c{r_reversible}Pm3{sup Macron }m above 2140 K has been predicted for Nd-rich sample Nd{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}AlO{sub 3} from the extrapolation of high-temperature behaviour of the lattice parameter ratio of the rhombohedral phase. Based on the experimental data, the phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3} has been constructed. - Graphical abstract: Concentration dependencies of normalized lattice parameters of Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} perovskite solid solutions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two kinds of solid solutions Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} were found in the NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphotropic transition between both perovskite phases occurs at x Almost-Equal-To 0.15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice parameter crossover was found in orthorhombic solid solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature driven first-order phase transition Pbnm{r_reversible}R3{sup Macron }c was found in Nd{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x}AlO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system NdAlO{sub 3}-GdAlO{sub 3} has been

  4. Generalized ensemble method applied to study systems with strong first order transitions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malolepsza, E.; Kim, J.; Keyes, T.

    2015-09-28

    At strong first-order phase transitions, the entropy versus energy or, at constant pressure, enthalpy, exhibits convex behavior, and the statistical temperature curve correspondingly exhibits an S-loop or back-bending. In the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles, with temperature as the control variable, the probability density functions become bimodal with peaks localized outside of the S-loop region. Inside, states are unstable, and as a result simulation of equilibrium phase coexistence becomes impossible. To overcome this problem, a method was proposed by Kim, Keyes and Straub, where optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling was combined with replica exchange, and denoted generalized replica exchange method (gREM).more » This new technique uses parametrized effective sampling weights that lead to a unimodal energy distribution, transforming unstable states into stable ones. In the present study, the gREM, originally developed as a Monte Carlo algorithm, was implemented to work with molecular dynamics in an isobaric ensemble and coded into LAMMPS, a highly optimized open source molecular simulation package. Lastly, the method is illustrated in a study of the very strong solid/liquid transition in water.« less

  5. ZTEK`s ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine system for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D.; Bradshaw, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Ztek`s Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system has exceptional potential for utility electric power generation because of: simplicity of components construction, capability for low cost manufacturing, efficient recovery of very high quality by-product heat (up to 1000{degrees}C), and system integration simplicity. Utility applications of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are varied and include distributed generation units (sub-MW to 30MW capacity), repowering existing power plants (i.e. 30MW to 100MW), and multi-megawatt central power plants. A TVA/EPRI collaboration program involved functional testing of the advanced solid oxide fuel cell stacks and design scale-up for distributed power generation applications. The emphasis is on the engineering design of the utility modules which will be the building blocks for up to megawatt scale power plants. The program has two distinctive subprograms: Verification test on a 1 kW stack and 25kW module for utility demonstration. A 1 kW Planar SOFC stack was successfully operated for 15,000 hours as of December, 1995. Ztek began work on a 25kW SOFC Power System for TVA, which plans to install the 25kW SOFC at a host site for demonstration in 1997. The 25kW module is Ztek`s intended building block for the commercial use of the Planar SOFC. Systems of up to megawatt capacity can be obtained by packaging the modules in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional arrays.

  6. Gender Transition Guidelines, Workplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gender Transition Guidelines, Workplace

  7. Improving energy efficiency of Embedded DRAM Caches for High-end Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S; Li, Dong

    2014-01-01

    With increasing system core-count, the size of last level cache (LLC) has increased and since SRAM consumes high leakage power, power consumption of LLCs is becoming a significant fraction of processor power consumption. To address this, researchers have used embedded DRAM (eDRAM) LLCs which consume low-leakage power. However, eDRAM caches consume a significant amount of energy in the form of refresh energy. In this paper, we propose ESTEEM, an energy saving technique for embedded DRAM caches. ESTEEM uses dynamic cache reconfiguration to turn-off a portion of the cache to save both leakage and refresh energy. It logically divides the cache sets into multiple modules and turns-off possibly different number of ways in each module. Microarchitectural simulations confirm that ESTEEM is effective in improving performance and energy efficiency and provides better results compared to a recently-proposed eDRAM cache energy saving technique, namely Refrint. For single and dual-core simulations, the average saving in memory subsystem (LLC+main memory) on using ESTEEM is 25.8% and 32.6%, respectively and average weighted speedup are 1.09X and 1.22X, respectively. Additional experiments confirm that ESTEEM works well for a wide-range of system parameters.

  8. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Caleb; Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Arthur, Rob; Heath, Richard; Rono, James; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  9. High efficiency thermal storage system for solar plants (HELSOLAR). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarroel, Eduardo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Lenartz, Jeff; Parysek, Karen

    2013-02-27

    The project objective was to develop a high temperature Thermal Storage System (TES) based on graphite and able to provide both economical and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions contributing to increase the share of Concentrated Solar Plants (CSP). One of the main disadvantages of most of the renewable energy systems is their dependence to instantaneous irradiation and, thus, lack of predictability. CSP plants with thermal storage have proved to offer a good solution to this problem although still at an elevated price. The identification of alternative concepts able to work more efficiently would help to speed up the convergence of CSP towards grid parity. One way to reduce costs is to work in a range of temperatures higher than those allowed by the actual molten salt systems, currently the benchmark for TES in CSP. This requires the use of alternative energy storage materials such as graphite, as well as the utilization of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) other than molten salts or organic oils. The main technical challenges identified are derived from the high temperatures and significant high pressures, which pose risks such as potential graphite and insulation oxidation, creep, fatigue, corrosion and stress-corrosion in the pipes, leakages in the joints, high blower drivers’ electrical power consumption, thermal compatibility or relative deformations of the different materials. At the end, the main challenge of the project, is to identify a technical solution able to overcome all these problems but still at a competitive cost when compared to already existing thermal storage solutions. Special attention is given to all these issues during this project.

  10. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses development of advanced variable valve actuation system to enable high efficiency combustion highlighting advances to improving system packaging while reducing cost

  11. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  12. A GAS GIANT CIRCUMBINARY PLANET TRANSITING THE F STAR PRIMARY OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR KIC 4862625 AND THE INDEPENDENT DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TWO TRANSITING PLANETS IN THE KEPLER-47 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostov, V. B.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; McCullough, P. R.; Valenti, J. A.; Hinse, T. C.; Hebrard, G.; Diaz, R. F.; Deleuil, M.

    2013-06-10

    We report the discovery of a transiting, gas giant circumbinary planet orbiting the eclipsing binary KIC 4862625 and describe our independent discovery of the two transiting planets orbiting Kepler-47. We describe a simple and semi-automated procedure for identifying individual transits in light curves and present our follow-up measurements of the two circumbinary systems. For the KIC 4862625 system, the 0.52 {+-} 0.018 R{sub Jupiter} radius planet revolves every {approx}138 days and occults the 1.47 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun }, 1.7 {+-} 0.06 R{sub Sun} F8 IV primary star producing aperiodic transits of variable durations commensurate with the configuration of the eclipsing binary star. Our best-fit model indicates the orbit has a semi-major axis of 0.64 AU and is slightly eccentric, e = 0.1. For the Kepler-47 system, we confirm the results of Orosz et al. Modulations in the radial velocity of KIC 4862625A are measured both spectroscopically and photometrically, i.e., via Doppler boosting, and produce similar results.

  13. EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omelchenko, Yuri A; Karimabadi, Homa

    2014-10-14

    Using Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) as a novel paradigm for time integration of large-scale physics-driven systems, we have achieved significant breakthroughs in simulations of multi-dimensional magnetized plasmas where ion kinetic and finite Larmor radius (FLR) and Hall effects play a crucial role. For these purposes we apply a unique asynchronous simulation tool: a parallel, electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, HYPERS (Hybrid Particle Event-Resolved Simulator), which treats plasma electrons as a charge neutralizing fluid and solves a self-consistent set of non-radiative Maxwell, electron fluid equations and ion particle equations on a structured computational grid. HYPERS enables adaptive local time steps for particles, fluid elements and electromagnetic fields. This ensures robustness (stability) and efficiency (speed) of highly dynamic and nonlinear simulations of compact plasma systems such spheromaks, FRCs, ion beams and edge plasmas. HYPERS is a unique asynchronous code that has been designed to serve as a test bed for developing multi-physics applications not only for laboratory plasma devices but generally across a number of plasma physics fields, including astrophysics, space physics and electronic devices. We have made significant improvements to the HYPERS core: (1) implemented a new asynchronous magnetic field integration scheme that preserves local divB=0 to within round-off errors; (2) Improved staggered-grid discretizations of electric and magnetic fields. These modifications have significantly enhanced the accuracy and robustness of 3D simulations. We have conducted first-ever end-to-end 3D simulations of merging spheromak plasmas. The preliminary results show: (1) tilt-driven relaxation of a freely expanding spheromak to an m=1 Taylor helix configuration and (2) possibility of formation of a tilt-stable field-reversed configuration via merging and magnetic reconnection of two double-sided spheromaks with opposite helicities.

  14. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Identify a technical and business approach to accelerate the deployment of light-duty automotive TE HVAC technology, maintain occupant comfort, and improve energy efficiency.

  15. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel coolingheating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in ...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high efficiency...

  18. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presents recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel cooling/heating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in automobiles

  19. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  20. Exact transition probabilities in a 6-state Landau-Zener system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a 6-state Landau-Zener system with path interference Citation Details In-Document ... Country of Publication: Country unknownCode not available Language: English Word Cloud ...

  1. Sensivitity improvement in low-profile distributed detector systems for tracking sources in transit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilim, R. B.; Klann, R.; Campos, C.; Medley, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-01-01

    The RadTrac real-time detection and tracking software runs on a laptop computer networked to gamma-radiation detectors. A probabilistic estimate for source position is generated by combining measured count rate data with a first-principles stochastic model for the space and time dependence of count rates and knowledge of detector intrinsic efficiency. Recent development work has focused on improving RadTrac sensitivity in low-count rate situations. A method has been developed for processing count rates by energy according to that part of the energy spectrum with the greatest signal-to-noise ratio. In addition a method has been developed that places constraints on the solution that are physically appropriate when count rates approach background. In both instances experiments with a weak source confirmed the uncertainty in estimated position is reduced.

  2. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and

  3. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strnsk, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-06-15

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the systems size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phasespace properties. ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies.

  4. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; H. Liao; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-11-01

    Table 1 shows that the systems efficiency, coal (HHV) to power, is 35%. Table 2 summarizes the auxiliary power consumption within the plant. Thermoflex was used to simulate the power block and Aspen Plus the balance of plant. The overall block flow diagram is presented in Figure A1.3-1 and the key unit process flow diagrams are shown in subsequent figures. Stream data are given in Table A1.3-1. Equipment function specifications are provided in Tables A1.3-2 through 17. The overall plant scheme consists of a cryogenic air separation unit supplying 95% purity O{sub 2} to GE type high pressure (HP) total quench gasifiers. The raw gas after scrubbing is treated in a sour shift unit to react the CO with H{sub 2}O to form H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The gas is further treated to remove Hg in a sulfided activated carbon bed. The syngas is desulfurized and decarbonized in a Selexol acid gas removal unit and the decarbonized syngas after humidification and preheat is fired in GE 7H type steam cooled gas turbines. Intermediate pressure (IP) N{sub 2} from the ASU is also supplied to the combustors of the gas turbines as additional diluent for NOx control. A portion of the air required by the ASU is extracted from the gas turbines. The plant consists of the following major process units: (1) Air Separation Unit (ASU); (2) Gasification Unit; (3) CO Shift/Low Temperature Gas Cooling (LTGC) Unit; (4) Acid Gas Removal Unit (AGR) Unit; (5) Fuel Gas Humidification Unit; (6) Carbon Dioxide Compression/Dehydration Unit; (7) Claus Sulfur Recovery/Tail Gas Treating Unit (SRU/TGTU); and (8) Power Block.

  5. Making the transition to automation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, D.J. )

    1992-10-01

    By 1995, the Bureau of Reclamation's hydropower plant near Hungry Horse, Montana, will be remotely operated from Grand Coulee dam (about 300 miles away) in Washington State. Automation at Hungry Horse will eliminate the need for four full-time power plant operators. Between now and then, a transition plan that offers employees choices for retraining, transferring, or taking early retirement will smooth the transition in reducing from five operators to one. The transition plan also includes the use of temporary employees to offset risks of reducing staff too soon. When completed in 1953, the Hungry Horse structure was the world's fourth largest and fourth highest concrete dam. The arch-gravity structure has a crest length of 2,115 feet; it is 3,565 feet above sea level. The four turbine-generator units in the powerhouse total 284 MW, and supply approximately 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually to the federal power grid managed by the Bonneville Power Administration. In 1988, Reclamation began to automate operations at many of its hydro plants, and to establish centralized control points. The control center concept will increase efficiency. It also will coordinate water movements and power supply throughout the West. In the Pacific Northwest, the Grand Coulee and Black Canyon plants are automated control centers. Several Reclamation-owned facilities in the Columbia River Basin, including Hungry Horse, will be connected to these centers via microwave and telephone lines. When automation is complete, constant monitoring by computer will replace hourly manual readings and equipment checks. Computers also are expected to increase water use efficiency by 1 to 2 percent by ensuring operation for maximum turbine efficiency. Unit efficiency curves for various heads will be programmed into the system.

  6. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  7. Efficiency, Cost and Weight Trade-off in TE Power Generation System for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It contains a detailed co-optimization of the thermoelectric module with the heat sink and a study of the tradeoff between the material cost and efficiency for the TE module and the heat sink. An optimum design is found.

  8. Theoretical study of intraband optical transitions in conduction band of dot-in-a-well system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaganti, Venkata R.; Apalkov, Vadym

    2014-02-15

    We study numerically absorption optical spectra of n-doped InAs/In{sub 015}Ga{sub 085}As/GaAs quantum dot-in-a-well systems. The absorption spectra are mainly determined by the size of a quantum dot and have weak dependence on the thickness of quantum well and position of the dot in a well. The dot-in-a-well system is sensitive to both in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations of the incident light with much stronger absorption intensities for the in-plane-polarized light. The absorption spectrum of in-plane-polarized light has also a multi-peak structure with two or three peaks of comparable intensities, while the absorption spectrum of out-of-plane polarized light has a single well-pronounced peak.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy and International Association of Lighting Designers Partner to Improve Energy Efficiency in Lighting Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in November 2008 to work cooperatively toward improving the efficient use of energy by lighting equipment and systems. The MOU emphasizes the importance of minimizing the impact of energy use on the environment in support of DOE SSL programs on lighting quality.

  10. Theory and experiments on the effects of perturbations on nonlinear chemical systems: Generation of multiple attractors and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelmfelt, A.; Harding, R.H.; Tsujimoto, K.K.; Ross, J. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (US))

    1990-03-15

    Periodic perturbations are applied to the input fluxes of reactants in a system which exhibits autonomous oscillations, the combustion of acetaldehyde (ACH) and oxygen, and a system which exhibits damped oscillations, the combustion of methane and oxygen. The ACH system is studied by experiments and numerical analysis and the methane system is studied by numerical analysis. The periodic perturbations are in the form of a two-term Fourier series. Such perturbations may generate multiple attractors, which are either periodic or chaotic. We discuss two types of bistable responses: a new phase bistability, in which a subharmonic frequency is added to a sinusoidal perturbation at different phases relative to the periodic response; and jump phenomena, in which the resonant frequency of a nonlinear oscillator depends on the amplitude of the periodic perturbation. Both the ACH and the methane systems confirm the phase bistability. The additional complex behavior of bistability due to jump phenomena is seen only in calculations in the methane system. In both types of bistability a hysteresis loop is formed as we vary the form of the periodic perturbation. In the methane system, we find period doubling to chaos occuring on one branch of the hysteresis loop while the other branch remains periodic. The methane system has been studied in the context of the efficiency of power production. We calculate the efficiency corresponding to each bistable attractor and find one branch of each pair to be the more efficient mode of operation. In the case of the coexisting periodic and chaotic attractors the chaotic attractor is the more efficient mode of operation.

  11. Phase II Final Project Report SBIR Project: "A High Efficiency PV to Hydrogen Energy System"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slade, A; Turner, J; Stone, K; McConnell, R

    2008-09-02

    The innovative research conducted for this project contributed greatly to the understanding of generating low-cost hydrogen from solar energy. The projects research identified two highly leveraging and complementary pathways. The first pathway is to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. Improving solar electric conversion efficiency directly increases hydrogen production. This project produced a world record efficiency for silicon solar cells and contributed to another world record efficiency for a solar concentrator module using multijunction solar cells. The projects literature review identified a second pathway in which wasted heat from the solar concentration process augments the electrolysis process generating hydrogen. One way to do this is to use a heat mirror that reflects the heat-producing infrared and transmits the visible spectrum to the solar cells; this also increases solar cell conversion efficiency. An economic analysis of this concept confirms that, if long-term concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and solid-oxide electrolyzer cost goals can be achieved, hydrogen will be produced from solar energy cheaper than the cost of gasoline. The potential public benefits from this project are significant. The project has identified a potential energy source for the nations future electricity and transportation needs that is entirely home grown and carbon free. As CPV enter the nations utility markets, the opportunity for this approach to be successful is greatly increased. Amonix strongly recommends further exploration of this projects findings.

  12. Systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2007-10-16

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  13. Methods and systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2006-07-18

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  14. Sustainable and efficient pathways for bioenergy recovery from low-value process streams via bioelectrochemical systems in biorefineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-08-25

    Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in production of biofuels, bioproducts and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives such as bioelectrochemical systems can minimize these impacts and improve conservation of resources such as hydrogen, water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  15. Sustainable and efficient pathways for bioenergy recovery from low-value process streams via bioelectrochemical systems in biorefineries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in production of biofuels, bioproducts and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives such as bioelectrochemical systems can minimize these impacts and improve conservation of resources such as hydrogen, water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  16. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  17. Efficient Mobility Summit: Transportation and the Future of Dynamic Mobility Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    On October 27, 2015, The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) brought together local and national thought leaders to discuss the convergence of connectivity, vehicle automation, and transportation infrastructure investments at the Future Energy Efficient Mobility Workshop. The half-day workshop was held in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications. Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications.

  18. AC Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AC Transit (or the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is based in Oakland, California, and provides transportation services to the East Bay of San Francisco. The 360-square-mile service area includes 13 cities and adjacent unincorporated areas in Alameda and Contra Costa counties. AC Transit's approximately 638 vehicles serve more than 65 million annual passengers.

  19. Opportunities for Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick K.; Onar, Omer C.; Kirkham, Harold; Fisher, Emily; Burkes, Klaehn; Starke, Michael R.; Mohammed, Olama; Weeks, George

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, more than 172 quads of electricity have been transmitted on the US transmission and distribution (T&D) grid. Given this significant amount of energy flow, establishing and maintaining an efficient T&D grid is paramount. As shown in the figure below, the total percentage of overall losses in the US electric grid is approximately 6% (5.12% in 2012) (30% lower than the world average since 2000). While these efficiency losses appear to be relatively small from a percentage perspective, the total estimated electricity loss during this time is 10.8 quads.

  20. CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    The Energy Efficiency Handbook was prepared to help owner/operators get the best and most energy-efficient performance out of their boiler systems.

  1. How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center Infrastructure Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Ganguly, Srirupa; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William

    2009-04-01

    Data centers are among the most energy intensive types of facilities, and they are growing dramatically in terms of size and intensity [EPA 2007]. As a result, in the last few years there has been increasing interest from stakeholders - ranging from data center managers to policy makers - to improve the energy efficiency of data centers, and there are several industry and government organizations that have developed tools, guidelines, and training programs. There are many opportunities to reduce energy use in data centers and benchmarking studies reveal a wide range of efficiency practices. Data center operators may not be aware of how efficient their facility may be relative to their peers, even for the same levels of service. Benchmarking is an effective way to compare one facility to another, and also to track the performance of a given facility over time. Toward that end, this article presents the key metrics that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage the efficiency of the infrastructure systems in data centers, and thereby identify potential efficiency actions. Most of the benchmarking data presented in this article are drawn from the data center benchmarking database at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The database was developed from studies commissioned by the California Energy Commission, Pacific Gas and Electric Co., the U.S. Department of Energy and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  2. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery

  3. Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Discusses progress on thermal comfort modeling and detailed design, fabrication, and component/system-level testing of TE architecture

  4. Theoretical Framework for Anomalous Heat Without High-Energy Particles from Deuteron Fusion in Deuterium-Transition Metal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott R. Chubb; Talbot A. Chubb

    2000-11-12

    In cold fusion, two conflicting intuitive pictures have caused confusion. A local picture, involving particle-particle interaction, has been dominant for most physicists. However, we suggest that a second, nonlocal, 'counter-intuitive' picture is more appropriate because it places greater emphasis on the behavior of matter distributions and their interaction with the associated environment. This picture is relevant in solids because when charged particles possess large DeBroglie wavelengths, they frequently interact coherently, in a wavelike fashion, in which momentum is conserved globally but not locally. These wavelike effects can become important in periodically ordered solids since they may lead to large momentum transfer from an isolated location to many locations at once. The local picture fails to incorporate these kinds of effects. How hydrogen (H) nuclei can become delocalized is illustrated by anomalies in the diffusivity and vibrational behavior of H in transition metals. Also, it is well-known that in many-body systems, discontinuities in the local momentum (wave function cusps) can explain how near-perfect overlap between charged particles can occur at close separation (which may explain how the Coulomb barrier can be circumvented). We explore implications of these effects on cold fusion.

  5. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transition Initiative Energy Transition Initiative Energy Transition Initiative Through the Energy Transition Initiative (ETI), the U.S. Department of Energy and its partners work with government entities and other stakeholders to establish a long-term energy vision and successfully implement energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions. ETI provides a proven framework and technical resources and tools to help islands, states, and cities transition to a clean energy economy and

  7. USE OF A DIESEL FUEL PROCESSOR FOR RAPID AND EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF SINGLE LEG NOX ADSORBER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betta, R; Cizeron, J; Sheridan, D; Davis, T

    2003-08-24

    Lean NOx adsorber systems are one of the primary candidate technologies for the control of NOx from diesel engines to meet the 2007-2010 US emissions regulations, which require a 90% reduction of NOx from the 2004 regulations. Several of the technical challenges facing this technology are regeneration at low exhaust temperatures and the efficient use of diesel fuel to minimize fuel penalty. A diesel processor system has been developed and tested in a single leg NOx adsorber configuration on a diesel engine test stand. During NOx adsorber regeneration, this fuel processor system performs reduces the exhaust O2 level to zero and efficiently processes the diesel fuel to H2 and CO. Combined with a Nox adsorber catalyst, this system has demonstrated NOx reduction above 90%, regeneration of the NOx adsorber H2/CO pulses as short as 1 second and fuel penalties in the 3 to 4% range at 50% load. This fuel processor system can also be used to provide the desulfation cycle required with sulfur containing fuels as well as providing thermal management for PM filter regeneration.

  8. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T. Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  9. Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program steam software tools can help industrial plants identify steam system improvements to save energy and money.

  10. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-10-30

    The ultimate goal of this program is to identify the power block cycle conditions and/or configurations which could increase the overall thermal efficiency of the Baseline IGCC by about 8% on a relative basis (i.e., 8% on a heat rate basis). This document presents the cycle conditions and/or the configurations for evaluation in an initial screening analysis. These cycle conditions and/or configurations for investigation in the screening analysis are identified by literature searches and brain storming sessions. The screening analysis in turn narrows down the number of promising cases for detailed analysis.

  11. Efficient Evaluation of Partition Functions of Inhomogeneous Many-Body Spin Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murg, V.; Cirac, J.I.; Verstraete, F.

    2005-07-29

    We present a numerical method to evaluate partition functions and associated correlation functions of inhomogeneous 2D classical spin systems and 1D quantum spin systems. The method is scalable and has a controlled error. We illustrate the algorithm by calculating the finite-temperature properties of bosonic particles in 1D optical lattices, as realized in current experiments.

  12. Toward green systems for cleanrooms: Energy efficient fan-filter units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, Ming-Shan; Xu, Tengfang; Lan, Chao-Ho

    2004-07-12

    The paper presents results of laboratory-measured performance of fan-filter units (FFUs) used for cleanrooms. A total of twenty FFUs collected from the market were tested, including thirteen 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) units and seven 1220 mm x 1220 mm (or 4 ft x 4 ft) units. The paper concludes that there are wide variations in FFUs energy performance, and that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency and lowering operating costs of FFUs. Furthermore, the paper suggests the benefits of having a uniform method for testing and reporting FFU performance. Such a testing method and recommended practice guideline is under development, with heavy input from FFU suppliers, users, and independent institutions that include Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), and Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST). An integrated approach with the participation from designers, suppliers, users, and utility companies can help to identify energy-efficient FFUs that are required for many cleanroom applications.

  13. High efficiency solar cells combining a perovskite and a silicon heterojunction solar cells via an optical splitting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzu, Hisashi E-mail: npark@skku.edu; Ichikawa, Mitsuru; Hino, Masashi; Nakano, Kunihiro; Meguro, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Hernández, José Luis; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu E-mail: npark@skku.edu

    2015-01-05

    We have applied an optical splitting system in order to achieve very high conversion efficiency for a full spectrum multi-junction solar cell. This system consists of multiple solar cells with different band gap optically coupled via an “optical splitter.” An optical splitter is a multi-layered beam splitter with very high reflection in the shorter-wave-length range and very high transmission in the longer-wave-length range. By splitting the incident solar spectrum and distributing it to each solar cell, the solar energy can be managed more efficiently. We have fabricated optical splitters and used them with a wide-gap amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cell or a CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cell as top cells, combined with mono-crystalline silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cells as bottom cells. We have achieved with a 550 nm cutoff splitter an active area conversion efficiency of over 25% using a-Si and HJ solar cells and 28% using perovskite and HJ solar cells.

  14. Cogeneration and beyond: The need and opportunity for high efficiency, renewable community energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1992-06-01

    The justification, strategies, and technology options for implementing advanced district heating and cooling systems in the United States are presented. The need for such systems is discussed in terms of global warming, ozone depletion, and the need for a sustainable energy policy. Strategies for implementation are presented in the context of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act and proposed new institutional arrangements. Technology opportunities are highlighted in the areas of advanced block-scale cogeneration, CFC-free chiller technologies, and renewable sources of heating and cooling that are particularly applicable to district systems.

  15. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

  16. Advanced Combustion Concepts- Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses development highly capable and flexible advanced control concepts and enabling system to manage multi-mode/multi-fuel combustion events and achieve an up to 30 percent fuel economy improvement

  17. Development of an ORC system to improve HD truck fuel efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes a waste heat recovery system developed for a class 8 truck engine using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), which promises fuel economy benefits of up to 6% at cruise conditions

  18. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  19. Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, David; Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Lee, Seung Min

    2002-03-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air at the mannequin's face) ranged from 1.4 to 2.7, which is higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems.

  20. Efficient calculation of many-body induced electrostatics in molecular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, Keith Cioce, Christian R.; Pham, Tony; Space, Brian; Belof, Jonathan L.

    2013-11-14

    Potential energy functions including many-body polarization are in widespread use in simulations of aqueous and biological systems, metal-organics, molecular clusters, and other systems where electronically induced redistribution of charge among local atomic sites is of importance. The polarization interactions, treated here via the methods of Thole and Applequist, while long-ranged, can be computed for moderate-sized periodic systems with extremely high accuracy by extending Ewald summation to the induced fields as demonstrated by Nymand, Sala, and others. These full Ewald polarization calculations, however, are expensive and often limited to very small systems, particularly in Monte Carlo simulations, which may require energy evaluation over several hundred-thousand configurations. For such situations, it shall be shown that sufficiently accurate computation of the polarization energy can be produced in a fraction of the central processing unit (CPU) time by neglecting the long-range extension to the induced fields while applying the long-range treatments of Ewald or Wolf to the static fields; these methods, denoted Ewald E-Static and Wolf E-Static (WES), respectively, provide an effective means to obtain polarization energies for intermediate and large systems including those with several thousand polarizable sites in a fraction of the CPU time. Furthermore, we shall demonstrate a means to optimize the damping for WES calculations via extrapolation from smaller trial systems.

  1. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  2. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the

  3. New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the evaluation of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel hybrid electric bus propulsion systems in New York City Transit's transit buses.

  4. Method and system for compact and efficient high energy pulsed laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin Charles

    2014-03-11

    An optical amplifier system includes an input aperture operable to receive light propagating along an optical path in a first direction and a first polarizer disposed along the optical path. The first polarizer is operable to pass light having a polarization state aligned with a first polarization axis. The system also includes a first Pockels cell operable to receive light passing through the first polarizer, an optical gain element disposed along the optical path, a second Pockels cell disposed along the optical path, and a second polarizer disposed along the optical path. The second polarizer is operable to pass light having a polarization state aligned with the first polarization axis. The system further includes a first mirror operable to receive light reflected from the second polarizer, a second mirror operable to receive light reflected from the first polarizer, and an output aperture operable to transmit light passing through the second polarizer.

  5. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  6. Efficiency of static core turn-off in a system-on-a-chip with variation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Coteus, Paul W; Gara, Alan; Kursun, Eren; Paulsen, David P; Schuelke, Brian A; Sheets, II, John E; Tian, Shurong

    2013-10-29

    A processor-implemented method for improving efficiency of a static core turn-off in a multi-core processor with variation, the method comprising: conducting via a simulation a turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's design stage, wherein the turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's design stage includes a first output corresponding to a first multi-core processor core to turn off; conducting a turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's testing stage, wherein the turn-off analysis of the multi-core processor at the multi-core processor's testing stage includes a second output corresponding to a second multi-core processor core to turn off; comparing the first output and the second output to determine if the first output is referring to the same core to turn off as the second output; outputting a third output corresponding to the first multi-core processor core if the first output and the second output are both referring to the same core to turn off.

  7. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-09-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.

  8. Cummins SuperTruck Program Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation You Can Depend On David Koeberlein- Principal Investigator Cummins Inc. Cummins SuperTruck Program Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks June 20, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID: ACE057 Innovation You Can Depend On Overview Budget: * Total: $77,662,230 * DoE share* $36,335,608 * CMI share* $36,335,608 * actuals as of 12/31/2013 Today

  9. Energy Efficiency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Energy Efficiency refers to products or systems using less energy to do the same or better job than conventional products or systems....

  10. Supersonic Technology for CO2 Capture: A High Efficiency Inertial CO2 Extraction System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Researchers at ATK and ACENT Laboratories are developing a device that relies on aerospace wind-tunnel technologies to turn CO2 into a condensed solid for collection and capture. ATK’s design incorporates a special nozzle that converges and diverges to expand flue gas, thereby cooling it off and turning the CO2 into solid particles which are removed from the system by a cyclonic separator. This technology is mechanically simple, contains no moving parts and generates no chemical waste, making it inexpensive to construct and operate, readily scalable, and easily integrated into existing facilities. The increase in the cost to coal-fired power plants associated with introduction of this system would be 50% less than current technologies.

  11. Development of an efficient algal H{sub 2}-production system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, M.L.; Flynn, T.; Forestier, M.; Seibert, M.

    1998-08-01

    Two major problems facing the development of a commercial photobiological algal H{sub 2}-producing system are the low rates of H{sub 2} evolution and the sensitivity of the H{sub 2}-evolving enzyme system to O{sub 2}, a by-product of the photosynthetic water-splitting process. The objective of this project is to generate O{sub 2}-tolerant mutants from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that are high producers of H{sub 2} for use in a photobiological water-splitting, H{sub 2}-producing system that is cost effective, renewable, scalable, and non-polluting. The authors are currently employing a dual approach to address the O{sub 2}-sensitivity problem. The first approach, based on classical mutagenesis and selection procedures, depends on the ability of a mutagenized population of algal cells to survive under conditions that require them to either produce (H{sub 2}-production selection) or consume (photoreductive selection) H{sub 2} in the presence of controlled amounts of O{sub 2}. The second approach, based on molecular genetic strategies, involves the cloning of the hydrogenase gene from C. reinhardtii and identification of expression factors required for optimal H{sub 2}-evolution activity. The latter approach will complement the first in the future goal of generating a commercial organism suitable for use in the private sector.

  12. HybridStore: A Cost-Efficient, High-Performance Storage System Combining SSDs and HDDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngjae; Gupta, Aayush; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan; Piotr, Berman; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into existing systems non-trivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given these trade-offs between HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. We design and evaluate such a hybrid system called HybridStore to provide: (a) HybridPlan: improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets and (b) HybridDyn: improved performance/lifetime guarantees during episodes of deviations from expected workloads through two novel mechanisms: write-regulation and fragmentation busting. As an illustrative example of HybridStore s ef cacy, HybridPlan is able to nd the most cost-effective storage con guration for a large scale workload of Microsoft Research and suggest one MLC SSD with ten 7.2K RPM HDDs instead of fourteen 7.2K RPM HDDs only. HybridDyn is able to reduce the average response time for an enterprise scale random-write dominant workload by about 71% as compared to a HDD-based system.

  13. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH-HIGH EFFICIENCY ENGINES AND TURBINES (UTSR-HEET)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz; William H. Day

    2003-03-01

    In 2002, the U S Department of Energy established a cooperative agreement for a program now designated as the University Turbine Systems (UTSR) Program. As stated in the cooperative agreement, the objective of the program is to support and facilitate development of advanced energy systems incorporating turbines through a university research environment. This document is the first annual, technical progress report for the UTSR Program. The Executive Summary describes activities for the year of the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), which administers the UTSR Program. Included are descriptions of: Outline of program administrative activities; Award of the first 10 university research projects resulting from a year 2001 RFP; Year 2002 solicitation and proposal selection for awards in 2003; Three UTSR Workshops in Combustion, Aero/Heat Transfer, and Materials; SCIES participation in workshops and meetings to provide input on technical direction for the DOE HEET Program; Eight Industrial Internships awarded to higher level university students; Increased membership of Performing Member Universities to 105 institutions in 40 states; Summary of outreach activities; and a Summary table describing the ten newly awarded UTSR research projects. Attachment A gives more detail on SCIES activities by providing the monthly exceptions reports sent to the DOE during the year. Attachment B provides additional information on outreach activities for 2002. The remainder of this report describes in detail the technical approach, results, and conclusions to date for the UTSR university projects.

  14. Development of Residential Prototype Building Models and Analysis System for Large-Scale Energy Efficiency Studies Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-09-10

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in residential building energy efficiency and codes have resulted in increased interest in detailed residential building energy models using the latest energy simulation software. One of the challenges of developing residential building models to characterize new residential building stock is to allow for flexibility to address variability in house features like geometry, configuration, HVAC systems etc. Researchers solved this problem in a novel way by creating a simulation structure capable of creating fully-functional EnergyPlus batch runs using a completely scalable residential EnergyPlus template system. This system was used to create a set of thirty-two residential prototype building models covering single- and multifamily buildings, four common foundation types and four common heating system types found in the United States (US). A weighting scheme with detailed state-wise and national weighting factors was designed to supplement the residential prototype models. The complete set is designed to represent a majority of new residential construction stock. The entire structure consists of a system of utility programs developed around the core EnergyPlus simulation engine to automate the creation and management of large-scale simulation studies with minimal human effort. The simulation structure and the residential prototype building models have been used for numerous large-scale studies, one of which is briefly discussed in this paper.

  15. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  16. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  17. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Edward J.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Dziendziel, Randolph J.

    1997-01-01

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength .lambda..sub.IF approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength .lambda..sub.g of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5.lambda..sub.IF to .lambda..sub.IF and reflect from .lambda..sub.IF to about 2.lambda..sub.IF ; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5.lambda..sub.IF.

  18. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

    1997-12-23

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}. 10 figs.

  19. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}.

  20. Novel Processing of mo-si-b Intermetallics for improved efficiency of power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. Kramer; O. Degirmen; A.J. Thom; M. Akinc

    2004-09-30

    Multiphase composite alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system are candidate materials for ultra-high temperature applications. In non load-bearing applications such as thermal barrier coatings or heat exchangers in fossil fuel burners, these materials may be ideally suited. Alloys based on the Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub x} phase (Tl phase) possess excellent oxidation resistance to at least 1600 C in synthetic air atmospheres. However, the ability of Tl-based alloys to resist aggressive combustion environments has not yet been determined. The present work seeks to investigate the resistance of these Mo-Si-B alloys to simulated combustion atmospheres. Material was pre-alloyed by combustion synthesis, and samples for testing were prepared by classic powder metallurgical processing techniques. Precursor material synthesized by self-heating-synthesis was sintered to densities exceeding 98% in an argon atmosphere at 1800 C. The approximate phase assemblage of the material was 57% Tl, 29% MoB, 14% MoSi{sub 2} (wt%). The alloy was oxidized from 1000-1100 C in flowing air containing water vapor at 18 Torr. At 1000 C the material achieved a steady state mass loss, and at 1100 C the material undergoes a steady state mass gain. The oxidation rate of these alloys in this temperature regime was accelerated by the presence of water vapor compared to oxidation in dry air. The results of microstructural analysis of the tested alloys will be discussed. Techniques and preliminary results for fabricating near-net-shaped parts will also be presented.

  1. Novel High Efficiency Photovoltaic Devices Based on the III-N Material System: Final Technical Report, 7 December 2005 - 29 August 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornsberg, C.; Doolittle, W. A.; Ferguson, I.

    2008-10-01

    The research shows that InGaN material system can be used to realize high-efficiency solar cells, making contributions to growth, modeling, understanding of loss mechanisms, and process optimization.

  2. Temperature measurement of cold atoms using single-atom transits and Monte Carlo simulation in a strongly coupled atom-cavity system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenfang; Du, Jinjin; Wen, Ruijuan; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai; Liang, Junjun

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the transmission of single-atom transits based on a strongly coupled cavity quantum electrodynamics system. By superposing the transit transmissions of a considerable number of atoms, we obtain the absorption spectra of the cavity induced by single atoms and obtain the temperature of the cold atom. The number of atoms passing through the microcavity for each release is also counted, and this number changes exponentially along with the atom temperature. Monte Carlo simulations agree closely with the experimental results, and the initial temperature of the cold atom is determined. Compared with the conventional time-of-flight (TOF) method, this approach avoids some uncertainties in the standard TOF and sheds new light on determining temperature of cold atoms by counting atoms individually in a confined space.

  3. Theoretical modeling of UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra in liquid state systems including vibrational and conformational effects: Explicit treatment of the vibronic transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D’Abramo, Marco; Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome ; Aschi, Massimiliano; Amadei, Andrea

    2014-04-28

    Here, we extend a recently introduced theoretical-computational procedure [M. D’Alessandro, M. Aschi, C. Mazzuca, A. Palleschi, and A. Amadei, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114102 (2013)] to include quantum vibrational transitions in modelling electronic spectra of atomic molecular systems in condensed phase. The method is based on the combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations within the Perturbed Matrix Method approach. The main aim of the presented approach is to reproduce as much as possible the spectral line shape which results from a subtle combination of environmental and intrinsic (chromophore) mechanical-dynamical features. As a case study, we were able to model the low energy UV-vis transitions of pyrene in liquid acetonitrile in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Incentives for Methane Mitigation and Energy-Efficiency Improvements in Case of Ukraine’s Natural Gas Transmission System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine. The Ukrainian transmission company, Ukrtransgaz, reduced its own system’s natural gas consumption by 68 percent in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine’s transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine’s natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of steep increases in the price of imported natural gas, and comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, regional integration policy, and international environmental agreements has created conditions for successful methane emission and combustion reductions. Learning about such case studies can help us design better policies elsewhere.

  5. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for

  6. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol A.; Jacobson, Arne; Park, Won Young; Lee, Ga Rick; Alstone, Peter; Khare, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  7. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  8. Efficiency Improvement in an Over the Road Diesel Powered Engine System by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hybridization of heavy-duty truck propulsion with thermoelectric generator and potential efficiency enhancement

  9. The effect of component efficiency and operating conditions on the 50-kW dish Stirling system in Riyadh, Saudia Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noyes, G.W. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper deals with the development of a weather data base and the performance prediction of a 50-kW dish Stirling system. An analysis of direct solar insolation data for 1985 from the site in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was made to determine the available solar energy. A parameter study was done of the effects of component efficiencies and operating conditions on instantaneous and yearly average system efficiency using the prepared weather data. The system performance was found to be most affected by wind, mirror reflectivity, and exact placement of the receiver in the focal point of the mirror.

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Island Energy Playbook provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  11. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the full transcript of the Energy Efficiency video Learn More Cool School Challenge Money Saving Energy Efficiency Tips Alliance to Save Energy: Consumer Tips Bonneville...

  12. Performance and efficiency of old newspaper deinking by combining cellulase/hemicellulase with laccase-violuric acid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Qinghua Fu Yingjuan; Gao Yang; Qin Menghua

    2009-05-15

    Performance and efficiency of old newspaper (ONP) deinking by combining cellulase/hemicellulase with laccase-violuric acid system (LVS) were investigated in this study. Brightness, effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) and physical properties were evaluated for the deinked pulp. Fiber length, coarseness, specific surface area and specific volume were also tested. The changes of dissolved lignin during the deinking processes were measured with UV spectroscopy. The fiber morphology was observed with environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM). Experimental results showed that, compared to the pulp deinked with each individual enzyme, ERIC was lower for the cellulase/hemicellulase-LVS-deinked pulp. This indicated that a synergy existed in ONP deinking using a combination of enzymes. After being bleached by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, enzyme-combining deinked pulp gave higher brightness and better strength properties. Compared with individual enzyme deinked pulp, average fiber length and coarseness decreased a little for the enzyme-combining deinked pulps. A higher specific surface area and specific volume of the pulp fibers were achieved. UV analysis proved that more lignin was released during the enzyme-combining deinking process. ESEM images showed that more fibrillation was observed on the fiber surface due to synergistic treatment.

  13. Examining Effects of Lubricant Composition in Engine Component Systems in Pursuit of Enhanced Efficiency under Environmental Constraints

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Four lubricant technical themes are presented that aim to work synergistically with advanced engine technologies to meet a goal of improving mechanical efficiency by 10 percent.

  14. Boron-tuning transition temperature of vanadium dioxide from rutile to monoclinic phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J. J.; He, H. Y.; Xie, Y.; Pan, B. C.

    2014-11-21

    The effect of the doped boron on the phase transition temperature between the monoclinic phase and the rutile phase of VO{sub 2} has been studied by performing first-principles calculations. It is found that the phase transition temperature decreases linearly with increasing the doping level of B in each system, no matter where the B atom is in the crystal. More importantly, the descent of the transition temperature is predicted to be as large as 83 K/at. % B, indicating that the boron concentration of only 0.5% can cause the phase transition at room temperature. These findings provide a new routine of modulating the phase transition of VO{sub 2} and pave a way for the practicality of VO{sub 2} as an energy-efficient green material.

  15. Development of Site Transition Plan, Use of the Site Transition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site Transition Plan, Use of the Site Transition Framework, and Terms and Conditions for Site Transition Development of Site Transition Plan, Use of the Site Transition Framework, ...

  16. Efficient hydrogen production made easy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficient hydrogen production made easy Efficient hydrogen production made easy Understanding how to use a simple, room-temperature treatment to drastically change the properties of materials could lead to a revolution in renewable fuels production and electronic applications. June 13, 2016 New research from Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers, "Efficient Hydrogen Evolution in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via a Simple One-Step Hydrazine Reaction," not only presents one of

  17. HAT-P-44b, HAT-P-45b, AND HAT-P-46b: Three transiting hot Jupiters in possible multi-planet systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. .; Bhatti, W.; Csubry, Z.; Penev, K.; De Val-Borro, M.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Bieryla, A.; Bky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Kovcs, G.; Johnson, J. A.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Fischer, D. A.; Everett, M.; Szklenr, T.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We report the discovery by the HATNet survey of three new transiting extrasolar planets orbiting moderately bright (V = 13.2, 12.8, and 11.9) stars. The planets have orbital periods of 4.3012, 3.1290, and 4.4631 days, masses of 0.35, 0.89, and 0.49 M {sub J}, and radii of 1.24, 1.43, and 1.28 R {sub J}. The stellar hosts have masses of 0.94, 1.26, and 1.28 M {sub ?}. Each system shows significant systematic variations in its residual radial velocities, indicating the possible presence of additional components. Based on its Bayesian evidence, the preferred model for HAT-P-44 consists of two planets, including the transiting component, with the outer planet having a period of 872 days, eccentricity of 0.494 0.081, and a minimum mass of 4.0 M {sub J}. Due to aliasing we cannot rule out alternative solutions for the outer planet having a period of 220 days or 438 days. For HAT-P-45, at present there is not enough data to justify the additional free parameters included in a multi-planet model; in this case a single-planet solution is preferred, but the required jitter of 22.5 6.3 m s{sup 1} is relatively high for a star of this type. For HAT-P-46 the preferred solution includes a second planet having a period of 78 days and a minimum mass of 2.0 M {sub J}, however the preference for this model over a single-planet model is not very strong. While substantial uncertainties remain as to the presence and/or properties of the outer planetary companions in these systems, the inner transiting planets are well characterized with measured properties that are fairly robust against changes in the assumed models for the outer planets. Continued radial velocity monitoring is necessary to fully characterize these three planetary systems, the properties of which may have important implications for understanding the formation of hot Jupiters.

  18. Determination of Thermoelectric Module Efficiency A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; McCarty, Robin; Salvador, James R.; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Konig, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of thermoelectrics (TE) for energy conversion is in the transition phase from laboratory research to device development. There is an increasing demand to accurately determine the module efficiency, especially for the power generation mode. For many thermoelectrics, the figure of merit, ZT, of the material sometimes cannot be fully realized at the device level. Reliable efficiency testing of thermoelectric modules is important to assess the device ZT and provide the end-users with realistic values on how much power can be generated under specific conditions. We conducted a general survey of efficiency testing devices and their performance. The results indicated the lack of industry standards and test procedures. This study included a commercial test system and several laboratory systems. Most systems are based on the heat flow meter method and some are based on the Harman method. They are usually reproducible in evaluating thermoelectric modules. However, cross-checking among different systems often showed large errors that are likely caused by unaccounted heat loss and thermal resistance. Efficiency testing is an important area for the thermoelectric community to focus on. A follow-up international standardization effort is planned.

  19. Density of defects and the scaling law of the entanglement entropy in quantum phase transition of one-dimensional spin systems induced by a quench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Majumdar, Priyadarshi

    2011-03-15

    We have studied quantum phase transition induced by a quench in different one-dimensional spin systems. Our analysis is based on the dynamical mechanism which envisages nonadiabaticity in the vicinity of the critical point. This causes spin fluctuation which leads to the random fluctuation of the Berry phase factor acquired by a spin state when the ground state of the system evolves in a closed path. The two-point correlation of this phase factor is associated with the probability of the formation of defects. In this framework, we have estimated the density of defects produced in several one-dimensional spin chains. At the critical region, the entanglement entropy of a block of L spins with the rest of the system is also estimated which is found to increase logarithmically with L. The dependence on the quench time puts a constraint on the block size L. It is also pointed out that the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model in point-splitting regularized form appears as a combination of the XXX model and Ising model with magnetic field in the negative z axis. This unveils the underlying conformal symmetry at criticality which is lost in the sharp point limit. Our analysis shows that the density of defects as well as the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy follows a universal behavior in all these systems.

  20. A High Efficiency DC-DC Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Large Commercial and Utility Scale PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agamy, Mohammed S; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Steigerwald, Robert L; Sabate, Juan A; Chi, Song; McCann, Adam J; Zhang, Li; Mueller, Frank

    2012-09-01

    In this paper a DC-DC power converter for distributed photovoltaic plant architectures is presented. The proposed converter has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. High efficiency is achieved by having a portion of the input PV power directly fed forward to the output without being processed by the converter. The operation of this converter also allows for a simplified maximum power point tracker design using fewer measurements

  1. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  2. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system.

  3. Relative efficiency calculations of biological and physical systems exposed to charged particle beams through Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avila, Olga; Brandan, Maria-Ester

    1998-08-28

    A theoretical investigation of thermoluminescence response of Lithium Fluoride after heavy ion irradiation has been performed through Monte Carlo simulation of the energy deposition process. Efficiencies for the total TL signal of LiF irradiated with 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV protons and 3, 5.3 and 7.5 MeV helium ions have been calculated using the radial dose distribution profiles obtained from the MC procedure and applying Track Structure Theory and Modified Track Structure Theory. Results were compared with recent experimental data. The models correctly describe the observed decrease in efficiency as a function of the ion LET.

  4. Energy Department Issues Green Building Certification System Final Rule to Support Increased Energy Measurement and Efficient Building Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supporting the Obama Administration’s goal to reduce carbon emissions and protect the environment, the Energy Department is pursuing a suite of initiatives to strengthen federal energy management through increased focus on measurement of energy use in federal buildings and energy efficient building design.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A MultiAir / MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by Chrysler at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on its project to research a multi-air and multi-fuel approach to improving engine efficiency.

  6. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kılıç, Bayram E-mail: kbayramkilic@gmail.com; Telli, Hakan; Başaran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev; Tüzemen, Sebahattin

    2015-04-07

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO{sub 2} nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO{sub 2} owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8 wt. % TiO{sub 2} showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99 wt. % TiO{sub 2}, pure TiO{sub 2}, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  7. Tax Credits for Home Energy Improvements: If You Buy an Energy-Efficient Product or Renewable Energy System for Your Home, You May be Eligible for a Federal Tax Credit (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This two-page fact sheet provides an overview of 2010 federal tax credits for energy efficient products or renewable energy systems in the home.

  8. (Energy Efficiency)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DECLARATION INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY COOPERATION [IPEEC] Considering: Declarations of the Gleneagles, St. Petersburg and Heiligendamm Summits, which emphasize the need for global cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. Recognizing: 1. that improving energy saving and energy efficiency is one of the quickest, greenest, and most cost-effective way to address energy security, climate change, and ensuring economic growth; 2. that a comprehensive process has been

  9. Efficiency Vermont

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 1999, Vermont enacted legislation authorizing the Vermont Public Service Board (PSB) to establish a volumetric charge on all electric customers' bills to support energy efficiency programs....

  10. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership ...ate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com ...

  11. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Deployment of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Technologies in South Africa A Summary of the Trust for Conservation Global Cool Cities Alliance Project In 2010, the Deputy ...

  12. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and ...

  13. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and ...

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results This ...

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and ...

  16. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

  17. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and ... Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

  18. Defining engine efficiency limits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigates the potential to reduce engine efficiency losses and how this impacts the entire system in terms of a direct increase in work output or a change in the loss mechanism.

  19. Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Summarizes results from a study to identify and demonstrate technical and commercial approaches necessary to accelerate the deployment of zonal TE HVAC systems in light-duty vehicles

  20. Energy Department Announces New University-Led Projects to Create More Efficient, Lower Cost Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Energy Department’s SunShot Initiative, Secretary Steven Chu announced today new investments to advance innovative concentrating solar power (CSP) system technologies.

  1. 20% (AM1.5) efficiency GaAs solar cells on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge and its transition to low-cost substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; O`Quinn, B.C.; Siivola, E.; Keyes, B.; Ahrenkiel, R.

    1997-12-31

    Some of the key material and device issues related to the development of GaAs solar cells on poly-Ge substrates, including the dark-current reduction mechanism with an undoped spacer at the p{sup +}-n depletion layer, are discussed. Device-structure optimization studies that have led the authors to achieve an AM1.5 efficiency of {approximately}20% for a 4-cm{sup 2}-area GaAs cell on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge and an efficiency of {approximately}21% for a 0.25-cm{sup 2}-area cell are presented. This successful demonstration of high-efficiency GaAs cells on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge substrates have motivated us to consider the development of high-quality GaAs materials on significantly lower-cost substrates such as glass and moly foils. To date, the authors have achieved a best minority-carrier lifetime of 0.41 nsec in an n-GaAs thin-film on moly. The role of Group-VI dopant in the possible passivation of grain-boundaries in poly-GaAs is discussed. Development of PV-quality GaAs material, with minority-carrier lifetime of 1 to 2 nsec, on los-cost moly foils can significantly impact both the terrestrial and the space PV applications.

  2. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  3. ORNL researchers aim to make big vehicles more efficient

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    Researchers have partnered with Knoxville Area Transit and HT Hackney trucking to make buses and big rigs more fuel-efficient.

  4. Policies for Promoting Industrial Energy Efficiency in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Promoting Industrial Energy Efficiency in Developing Countries and Transition Economies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Policies for Promoting Industrial...

  5. El Salvador-Joint Programme on Resource Efficient and Cleaner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (RECP) in Developing and Transition Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name El Salvador-Joint Programme on Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) in Developing and...

  6. Measure Guideline. Transitioning From Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco With EPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.

    2012-04-01

    This measure guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  7. Energy Efficient Schools Initiative- Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) was created in May 2008 to provide grants and loans to Tennessee school systems for capital outlay projects that meet energy efficient design and te...

  8. Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Energy Management System for High Efficiency, Off Highway, 240 Ton Class, Diesel Electric Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Tim; Slezak, Lee; Johnson, Chris; Young, Henry; Funcannon, Dan

    2008-12-31

    The objective of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of off-highway vehicles, specifically large tonnage mine haul trucks. A hybrid energy storage and management system will be added to a conventional diesel-electric truck that will allow capture of braking energy normally dissipated in grid resistors as heat. The captured energy will be used during acceleration and motoring, reducing the diesel engine load, thus conserving fuel. The project will work towards a system validation of the hybrid system by first selecting an energy storage subsystem and energy management subsystem. Laboratory testing at a subscale level will evaluate these selections and then a full-scale laboratory test will be performed. After the subsystems have been proven at the full-scale lab, equipment will be mounted on a mine haul truck and integrated with the vehicle systems. The integrated hybrid components will be exercised to show functionality, capability, and fuel economy impacts in a mine setting.

  9. Efficiency Improvements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency improvements Efficiency Improvements New Target Alignment Sensor Installed on NIF For successful ignition experiments, NIF's 192 laser beams and targets must be aligned within a tolerance of about 20 microns-about one-fifth the diameter of an average human hair. Achieving this level of precision requires many fine-tuned calibrations and correlations between the laser beams and the target. Earlier this month a key instrument for achieving this level of precision, a new target alignment

  10. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: ...

  11. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  12. the-schedule-based-transit-model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Schedule-Based transit model of the Chicago Metropolitan Area Vadim Sokolov Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory List of Authors ================ Vadim Sokolov Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory 277 International Drive West Chicago, IL 60185 Abstract ========= Usually public transit systems are modeled using so called frequency based approach. In this case transit route times are defined in terms of

  13. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  14. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  15. energy efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Energy Efficiency. Links: Big Clean Data group on linkedin Big Data Concentrated Solar Power DataAnalysis energy efficiency energy storage expert systems machine learning...

  16. Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus NREL ensures the resiliency of our future energy and water systems through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, renewable energy, ...

  17. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report and Appendices | Department of Energy 2.pdf (1.02 MB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

  18. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury

  19. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Sensitivity calibration of an imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer-detector system for determining the efficiency of broadband extreme ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, S.; Roedel, C.; Bierbach, J.; Paz, A. E.; Foerster, E.; Paulus, G. G.; Krebs, M.; Haedrich, S.; Limpert, J.; Kuschel, S.; Wuensche, M.; Hilbert, V.; Zastrau, U.

    2013-02-15

    We report on the absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system that is frequently employed to study emission from short-pulse laser experiments. The XUV spectrometer, consisting of a toroidal mirror and a transmission grating, was characterized at a synchrotron source in respect of the ratio of the detected to the incident photon flux at photon energies ranging from 15.5 eV to 99 eV. The absolute calibration allows the determination of the XUV photon number emitted by laser-based XUV sources, e.g., high-harmonic generation from plasma surfaces or in gaseous media. We have demonstrated high-harmonic generation in gases and plasma surfaces providing 2.3 {mu}W and {mu}J per harmonic using the respective generation mechanisms.

  1. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-09-29

    A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

  2. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Baca, Albert G.; Esherick, Peter; Parmeter, John E.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Shul, Randy J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  4. Aspects of the non-zonal transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Hatch, D. R. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The non-zonal transition, a process which can bring about very large heat fluxes in gyrokinetic simulations, occurs once a certain threshold plasma ? is reached. This threshold is parameterized via a simulation database, yielding an expression estimating at what ? a given system may approach the transition. Furthermore, the diffusive outward transport of a heat blob in a temperature profile marginally stable with respect to the non-zonal transition is discussed: the resulting transport timescale combines the underlying turbulent transport timescale and the linear instability growth time, thus demonstrating that the non-zonal transition provides a mechanism for very fast heat dissipation.

  5. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Jofr, E.; Cneo, V.; Gmez, M.; Martnez, C.

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54s.

  6. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  7. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  8. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  9. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  10. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Technical progress report number 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the project is to retrofit the Balice Boilerhouse with a TCS Coal Micronization System and Amerex baghouses to achieve higher combustion efficiencies and lower air emissions, including S02, NOX, CO and particulate matter. The Balice Boilerhouse is located adjacent to the Krakow Airport and provides heating steam for the Polish Military Unit No. 1616, which is based in the vicinity of the Krakow airport. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction during combustion with micronized coal is possible by co-micronizing limestone with coal. Nitrogen oxide reductions utilizing a TCS system result primarily from: the reduced combustion temperature of a micronized coal flame, lower excess air than other conventional coal combustion systems, and staged combustion achieved with the proprietary TCS Low-NO{sub x} burner. Carbon monoxide reductions result because of the extremely high degree of carbon burnout achieved with micronized coal. The original project scope of work envisioned that TCS coal micronization systems would be retrofitted to four existing boilers at the Balice Boilerhouse. However, shortly after the project`s start-up in March 1994, the Polish Military announced that it desired and intended to decommission its existing four boilers (due to old age and poor general condition) and replace them with two new units. As such, the project`s scope of equipment supply and assessment expanded from use of the existing boilers, to requirements for implementing new units. This report describes the progress made to date on the various tasks.

  11. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  12. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  13. ORISE: Enhancing Energy Efficiency Through Peer Review

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhancing Energy Efficiency ORISE scientific peer review helps evaluate technologies that advance renewable energy ORISE Reviews and Evaluates Technologies that Advance Energy Efficiency In addition to renewable energy and changes in individual behavior, energy efficiency is generally achieved through the development of more efficient technologies. Buildings are being constructed with more energy efficient systems, fluorescent light bulbs are replacing incandescent lights, and new vehicle

  14. Transit Users Group Supports Transit Agencies with Natural Gas Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    Fact sheet describes the benefits of the Transit Users Group, which supports transit groups with compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.

  15. Energy transitions in the early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Meakin

    2013-01-01

    We are in the early stages of a long and complex transition from a global economy based on fossil energy to an economy based on low carbon renewable energy. However, fossil fuel resources are abundant and widely distributed, and they will remain the dominant source of primary energy for at least the next quarter century. In the United States, displacement of coal by natural gas for electric power generation has done more to reduce CO2 emissions than all new renewables combined, and this may occur globally for the next decade or two, even if the European Union does not take advantage of its large unconventional natural gas resources. Greater energy efficiency (not including the efficiencies associated with displacement of coal by gas) will also be more important than new renewables. Cost/benefit ratios are important for sustainability of the transition, and some energy efficiency technologies and displacement of coal by natural gas have lower cost/benefit ratios than wind power, solar power or biofuels. Money spent on the large scale deployment of wind, solar and especially biofuels would be better spent on research, development and demonstration of a broader suite of technologies that would support the energy transition, with a focus on improving the cost benefit ratios of already deployed technologies and developing alternatives. Advanced nuclear reactors, engineered geothermal systems, fossil fuel recovery coupled with CO2 sequestration and pre-combustion or post-combustion decarbonation of fossil fuels with geological CO2 sequestration are among the technologies that might be more cost effective than wind, solar or biofuels, and biofuels have serious adverse societal and environment consequences.

  16. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report and Appendices | Department of Energy 1.pdf (875.56 KB) More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

  17. CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook The Energy Efficiency Handbook was prepared by the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) to help owners and operators get the best and most energy-efficient performance out of their boilers and steam systems. CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook (November 1997) (1.49 MB) More Documents & Publications Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection Steam System Survey Guide Improving Steam System Performance: A

  18. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5670-1 Revised September 2009 Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report Kevin Chandler, Battelle Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Link to Appendices Photo source: CTTRANSIT Photo source: CTTRANSIT National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the

  19. Definition of Energy Efficiency

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Users Energy Efficiency Page Energy Efficiency Definition Energy Efficiency: Definition Stairs) "Take the Stairs--Be More Energy Efficient" Person A interprets the sign as...

  20. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  1. Efficient optical pulse stacker system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seppala, Lynn G.; Haas, Roger A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for spreading and angle-encoding each pulse of a multiplicity of small area, short pulses into several temporally staggered pulses by use of appropriate beam splitters, with the optical elements being arranged so that each staggered pulse is contiguous with one or two other such pulses, and the entire sequence of stacked pulses comprising a single, continuous long pulse. The single long pulse is expanded in area, and then doubly passed through a nonstorage laser amplifier such as KrF. After amplification, the physically separated, angle-encoded and temporally staggered pulses are recombined into a single pulse of short duration. This high intensity output beam is well collimated and may be propagated over long distance, or used for irradiating inertial confinement fusion targets.

  2. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-03-01

    The Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. LM will work with each site using an integrated team approach to ensure a successful transition. Part of this process will include transition of Government records and information. The Office of Legacy Management Information and Records Management Transition Guidance focuses on LM’s goal to preserve and protect legacy records and information. This guidance document establishes a framework for the transfer of records management responsibilities for sites transferring to LM. It describes the requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for the efficient and cost-effective transfer of custody, ownership, and management of records and other information products from the transfer site to LM. Records management practices are critical to the functions of Federal agencies because records provide information about, or evidence of, the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities. Therefore, the information generated by an agency is created, maintained, and dispositioned through records management processes that ensure the appropriate preservation and retrieval of essential information. Because of their intrinsic value, best practices to preserve information and records should be utilized when records are transferred from one organization to another. As the transfer program completes cleanup activities at closure sites, a transitional process will facilitate the transparent shift in the management of site records activities to LM. The roles and responsibilities of the transfer site and/or program and LM described in this document are a necessary foundation for cooperation and coordination and are essential to the successful transition of records and

  3. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  4. Hydrogen Transition Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transition Study Paul N. Leiby, David L. Greene, Zhenhong Lin, David Bowman, Sujit Das Oak Ridge National Laboratory July 26, 2010 Presented at "Overview of Light-duty Vehicle Studies" Washington, DC Workshop 2 Overview * Some lessons learned from analyzing fuel transitions - Find barriers to transitions significant, but progress being made - Review work by DOE-sponsored team, highlighting key factors * Note some similar findings by NRC * Find important role for policy - in advancing

  5. Site Transition Guidance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site Transition Guidance March 2010 Office of Environmental Management U.S. Department of Energy Washington D. C. 20585 Standard Review Plan (SRP) Technical Framework for EM...

  6. Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

  7. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report and Appendices | Department of Energy Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. 45670-1.pdf (836.62 KB) More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit

  8. Development of a Markerless Genetic Exchange System in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Its Use in Generating a Strain with Increased Transformation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Kimberly L.; Bender, Kelly S.; Wall, Judy D.

    2009-07-21

    In recent years, the genetic manipulation of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough has seen enormous progress. In spite of this progress, the current marker exchange deletion method does not allow for easy selection of multiple sequential gene deletions in a single strain because of the limited number of selectable markers available in D. vulgaris. To broaden the repertoire of genetic tools for manipulation, an in-frame, markerless deletion system has been developed. The counterselectable marker that makes this deletion system possible is the pyrimidine salvage enzyme, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by upp. In wild-type D. vulgaris, growth was shown to be inhibited by the toxic pyrimidine analog 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); whereas, a mutant bearing a deletion of the upp gene was resistant to 5-FU. When a plasmid containing the wild-type upp gene expressed constitutively from the aph(3')-II promoter (promoter for the kanamycin resistance gene in Tn5) was introduced into the upp deletion strain, sensitivity to 5-FU was restored. This observation allowed us to develop a two-step integration and excision strategy for the deletion of genes of interest. Since this inframe deletion strategy does not retain an antibiotic cassette, multiple deletions can be generated in a single strain without the accumulation of genes conferring antibiotic resistances. We used this strategy to generate a deletion strain lacking the endonuclease (hsdR, DVU1703) of a type I restriction-modification system, that we designated JW7035. The transformation efficiency of the JW7035 strain was found to be 100 to 1000 times greater than that of the wild-type strain when stable plasmids were introduced via electroporation.

  9. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20

  10. Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Increased Engine Efficiency via Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems Presentation given at the 16th Directions...

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating ...

  12. NETL: University Turbine Systems Research Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Turbine Systems Research The University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) Program addresses scientific research to develop and transition advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate cleanly and efficiently when fueled with coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) and hydrogen fuels. This research focuses on the areas of combustion, aerodynamics/heat transfer, and materials, in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy's Advanced Turbine Program

  13. Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis: Milestone Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis M. Melendez and A. Milbrandt Milestone Report NREL/TP-540-38351 January 2006 Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Analysis M. Melendez and A. Milbrandt Prepared under Task No. HY55.2200 Milestone Report NREL/TP-540-38351 January 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest

  14. Global Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentglobal-bus-rapid-transit-brt-database Language: English Related Tools GIZ Sourcebook Module 4e: Intelligent Transport Systems...

  15. Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, C.

    2006-02-01

    Report focuses on understanding how analytical system modeling and data from AFV experiences could improve our understanding of the dynamic forces governing the transition to a hydrogen future.

  16. Electronic transitions of palladium dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yue; Ng, Y. W.; Chen, Zhihua; Cheung, A. S.-C., E-mail: hrsccsc@hku.hk [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2013-11-21

    The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of palladium dimer (Pd{sub 2}) in the visible region between 480 and 700 nm has been observed and analyzed. The gas-phase Pd{sub 2} molecule was produced by laser ablation of palladium metal rod. Eleven vibrational bands were observed and assigned to the [17.1] {sup 3}II{sub g} - X{sup 3}?{sub u}{sup +} transition system. The bond length (r{sub o}) and vibrational frequency (?G{sub 1/2}) of the ground X{sup 3}?{sub u}{sup +} state were determined to be 2.47(4) and 211.4(5) cm{sup ?1}, respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram was used to understand the observed ground and excited electronic states. This is the first gas-phase experimental investigation of the electronic transitions of Pd{sub 2}.

  17. Federal Transit Administration-National Transit Database (NTD...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Dataset User Interface: Website Website: www.ntdprogram.govntdprogram Cost: Free Language: English Federal Transit Administration-National Transit Database (NTD)...

  18. Efficiency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Efficiency Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEfficiency&...

  19. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  20. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  1. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  2. Matter in transition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, wheremore » a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.« less

  3. Measure Guideline: Transitioning from Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco with EPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.

    2012-04-01

    This Measure Guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The three-coat system uses a base layer, a fill layer, and a finish layer. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  4. Seize the Day – Using Building Milestones as Energy Efficiency Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attend this webinar to learn more about transforming building milestones such as purchase, sale, tenant transitions, etc., into energy efficiency opportunities. Presenters from Better Buildings...

  5. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT for grant DE-FG02-93ER14353 ????"Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Functionalization Catalyzed by Transition Metal Systems"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan S. Goldman

    2012-05-21

    Alkanes are our most abundant organic resource but are highly resistant to selective chemical transformations. Alkenes (olefins) by contrast are the single most versatile class of molecules for selective transformations, and are intermediates in virtually every petrochemical process as well as a vast range of commodity and fine chemical processes. Over the course of this project we have developed the most efficient catalysts to date for the selective conversion of alkanes to give olefins, and have applied these catalysts to other dehydrogenation reactions. We have also developed some of the first efficient catalysts for carbonylation of alkanes and arenes to give aldehydes. The development of these catalysts has been accompanied by elucidation of the mechanism of their operation and the factors controlling the kinetics and thermodynamics of C-H bond activation and other individual steps of the catalytic cycles. This fundamental understanding will allow the further improvement of these catalysts, as well as the development of the next generation of catalysts for the functionalization of alkanes and other molecules containing C-H bonds.

  6. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency

  7. Running Jobs Efficiently

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Running Jobs Efficiently Running Jobs Efficiently Job Efficiency A job's efficiency is the ratio of its CPU time to the actual time it took to run, i.e., cputime ...

  8. Georgia Nonprofit Spreads the Word About Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHRIS Kids, which provides housing to disadvantaged young people, is upgrading its buildings with the latest in high-efficiency technologies, increasing both savings while helping youth transition to self-sufficiency.

  9. Site Transition Plan Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plan Guidance Site Transition Plan Guidance Site Transition Plan Guidance PDF icon Site Transition Plan Guidance More Documents & Publications Development of Site Transition Plan, ...

  10. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results Leslie Eudy, Robert Prohaska, Kenneth Kelly, and Matthew Post National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-65274 January 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.

  11. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners.

  12. Data Center Energy-Efficiency Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This seminar covers why energy-efficient data centers are critical, energy-efficiency opportunities, and energy management improvement processes. Topics include best practices for acquisition, benchmarking, performance metrics, and managing energy and environmental systems in Federal data centers.

  13. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  14. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report and Appendices | Department of Energy Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. 45670-2.pdf (1.25 MB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third

  15. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered

  16. Making Efficiency a More Efficient Business

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How energy efficiency professionals can make the most out of these new Better Buildings Neighborhood Program features.

  17. Office of Technology Transitions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Technology Commercialization activities in 2009-13 have involved three broad areas of focus. The primary focus of technology commercialization has continued to be through new technologies developed at the National Laboratories and Facilities. As a second focus, to support and streamline commercialization of these DOE technologies, DOE has carried out a number of new initiatives and pilot projects. Finally, DOE's Department-wide commitment to using commercialization as one mechanism to support U.S. economic growth has led to new cross-cutting programs. U.S. Department of Energy researchers won 31 of the 100 awards in 2014, 36 awards in each of 2013, 2012 and 2011, and 46 in 2010, for a total of 185 over the period of 2009-13. A subset of these awards and other DOE developed technologies are described in Appendix E. These represent a spectrum of commercial areas including DOE mission areas of energy, efficiency, environment and security, as well as spin-off applications in the agricultural, aeronautical, medical, semiconductor and information technology industries, and broad applications in cyber security and sensing/control systems.

  18. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses M. Lammert National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-540-42226 June 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research

  19. Transitioning SPIDERS JCT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    critical operations during prolonged power outages. Manage installation electrical power and consumption efficiency, to reduce petroleum demand, carbon "bootprint," and cost. ...

  20. Unbiased computation of transition times by pathway recombination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuipers, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht 3584 CE (Netherlands); Barkema, G. T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht 3584 CE (Netherlands); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands)

    2008-05-07

    In many systems, the time scales of the microscopic dynamics and macroscopic dynamics of interest are separated by many orders of magnitude. Examples abound, for instance, nucleation, protein folding, and chemical reactions. For these systems, direct simulation of phase space trajectories does not efficiently determine most physical quantities of interest. The past decade has seen the advent of methods circumventing brute force simulation. For most dynamical quantities, these methods all share the drawback of systematical errors. We present a novel method for generating ensembles of phase space trajectories. By sampling small pieces of these trajectories in different phase space domains and piecing them together in a smart way using equilibrium properties, we obtain physical quantities such as transition times. This method does not have any systematical error and is very efficient; the computational effort to calculate the first passage time across a free energy barrier does not increase with the height of the barrier. The strength of the method is shown in the Ising model. Accurate measurements of nucleation times span almost ten orders of magnitude and reveal corrections to classical nucleation theory.

  1. Efficiency Improvements - 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Efficiency Improvements - 2015 December ATLAS Laser Tracking System Will Speed NIF Alignment November Automating NIF Beam-Timing Delays New Power Supplies Will Keep NIF on Target September What Goes Into a NIF Shot? August NIF Fires 300th Shot in FY 2015 July Target Fabrication Steps Up to the Challenges Electronic Checklists Keep NIF Running Smoothly June NIF Recycles 5,000th Optic April NIF Lasers Continue to Fire at a Record Rate March Proactive Maintenance Saves NIF Shot Time and Money

  2. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Brener, Igal

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a new class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.

  3. Effect of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a confined HP lattice protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined in a slit formed by two parallel, attractive walls. We apply Wang-Landau sampling together with efficient Monte Carlo updates to estimate the density of states of the system. The conformational transitions, namely, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified by analyzing the specific heat together with several structural observables, such as the numbers of surface contacts, the number of hydrophobic pairs, and radii of gyration in different directions. As temperature decreases, we find that the occurrence of the debridging process is conditional depending on the surface attractive strength. This, in turn, affects the nature of the hydrophobic core formation that takes place at a lower temperature. We illustrate these observations with the aid of a HP protein chain with 48 monomers.

  4. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Brener, Igal

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a newmore » class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.« less

  5. Transportation energy management: fuel conservation in the transit revenue fleet. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This brief report is a practical guide for maintenance managers and planners responsible for reducing fuel consumption and addressing cost-efficiency issues. The manual discusses a wide array of steps which can be taken to produce modest to significant savings. The report discusses four areas of savings including the development of a fuel-conservation program, maintenance and equipment strategies, operations strategies, and procurement strategies. The manual offers enough suggestions that a transit system of any size should be able to implement some of the ideas and begin to benefit from its savings.

  6. Magnetic phase transitions in the UFe{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Co{sub {ital x}}Al system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, V.H.; Troc, R.; Zaleski, A.J.

    1996-12-01

    We present the results of x-ray-powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and M{umlt o}ssbauer effect measurements performed on the UFe{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Co{sub {ital x}}Al system. The lattice parameters determined for the system show a sharp maximum for {ital a}({ital x}) and minimum for {ital c}({ital x}) approximately for {ital x}{approx_equal}0.3. From the point of view of magnetic properties this system appears to have two main concentration regions: (a) 0{le}{ital x}{lt}0.5 and (b) 0.5{le}{ital x}{le}1.0. The phases falling into the first region do not show a long-range magnetic ordering, while in the second region they become ferromagnetic with the maximum values of the Curie temperature and spontaneous magnetic moment at {ital x}{approx_equal}0.8. The ferromagnetic properties of the alloys at {ital B}=0 T with 0.5{le}{ital x}{le}0.98 are also confirmed by the M{umlt o}ssbauer effect experiment. Furthermore, we compare the magnetic behavior of UFe{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Co{sub {ital x}}Al with that of the analogous UFe{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ni{sub {ital x}}Al. We find that the maximum ferromagnetic response appears in both systems by introduction to them of approximately 0.8 or 1 more electron, i.e., for the {ital x}=0.8 and 0.5 compositions, respectively. Moreover, we discuss the complex magnetic properties of pure U-Co-Al in more details and some view on its ground state is given. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Variational transition state theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  8. Transition Implementation Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-04-24

    This Guide was prepared to aid in the development, planning, and implementation of requirements and activities during the transition phase at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that have been declared or are forecast to become excess to any future mission requirements.

  9. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system. STEAM TIP SHEET 4 Improve...

  10. Leveraging Utility Resources to Boost Efficiency for the Next...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation of Space Travel: An Energy Efficiency Case Study of ATK Launch Systems Leveraging Utility Resources to Boost Efficiency for the Next Generation of Space Travel: An ...

  11. Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC ...

  12. INL Efficiency and Security Testing of EVSE, DC Fast Chargers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INL Efficiency and Security Testing of EVSE, DC Fast Chargers, and Wireless Charging Systems INL Efficiency and Security Testing of EVSE, DC Fast Chargers, and Wireless Charging ...

  13. Norwich Public Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Norwich Public Utilities (NPU) provides rebates to its commercial, industrial, institutional, and agricultural customers for high-efficiency HVAC systems, premium efficiency electric motors,...

  14. EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: EE Solar (Energy Efficiency Solar) Place: Ponoma, California Zip: 91768 Product: PV systems installer based in...

  15. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for ...

  16. Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deciding to install a green roof. Learn More Energy efficient home design Cool roofs Incentives and financing for energy efficient homes Whole-house systems approach ...

  17. Award enables research for more efficient accelerators | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award enables research for more efficient accelerators A furnace system designed by ... Award enables research for more efficient accelerators NEWPORT NEWS, VA, May 12, 2016 - ...

  18. NREL: Education Center - A Model of Energy-Efficient Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Model of Energy-Efficient Design Photo of the Education Center trombe wall. The ... Passive solar energy features, energy-efficient lighting, an energy management system and ...

  19. Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Poster presentaiton at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_clark.pdf (100.8 KB) More Documents & Publications Evaluating Exhaust

  20. Advances in Manufactured Home Energy Efficient Design

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EERE Building America Webinar April 27, 2016 Advances in Manufactured Home Energy Efficient Design 2 "Integrated Design" Concept * Goal: Reduce space conditioning energy use by at least 50% while holding the line on affordability * Components of the strategy as an optimized system:  Ultra-efficient thermal envelope  Low capacity, highly efficient mechanical system  Innovative distribution system  Affordable and effective ventilation 3 ID Performance in Hot, Humid Climates

  1. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in

  2. ACEEE Intelligent Efficiency Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) is hosting an Intelligent Efficiency Conference to share ideas and form partnerships that will advance the adoption of intelligent efficiency in the marketplace.

  3. "Nanoengineered Surfaces for Efficiency Enhancements in Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems including oil & gas (flow assurance and energy efficiency), aircraft, turbines, engines, power and desalination plants, and electronics cooling will be highlighted. ...

  4. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... energy systems. * Research Space: 11,000 sq. ft * Advanced HVAC Laboratory enables rapid, ... of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable ...

  5. OpenEI Community - energy efficiency

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    groupbig-clean-data" target"blank">read more

    Big Data Concentrated Solar Power DataAnalysis energy efficiency energy storage expert systems machine learning...

  6. Finding Transition Pathways Using the String Method with Swarms of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trajectories | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Finding Transition Pathways Using the String Method with Swarms of Trajectories Authors: Pan, A.C., Sezer, D., Roux, B. An approach to find transition pathways in complex systems is presented. The method, which is related to the string method in collective variables of Maragliano et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 024106), is conceptually simple and straightforward to implement. It consists of refining a putative transition path in the

  7. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  8. Energy Efficiency Links

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Organizations Energy Efficiency Organizations Release Date: October 1999 Last Updated: Septembert 2009 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages contain hypertext links...

  9. Energy Efficiency -- Home Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home >Energy Users EEnergy Efficiency Page Energy-Efficiency Measurement MEASUREMENT DISCUSSION: Measures and Policy Issues...

  10. Energy Efficiency Conference Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How do You Compare to Your Neighbors? Energy efficiency improvement loans Smart Grid E3T Technology Assessment Pilots Energy Smart Industrial Distribution Efficiency Heat Pump...

  11. Running Jobs Efficiently

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization » Running Jobs Efficiently Running Jobs Efficiently Job Efficiency A job's efficiency is the ratio of its CPU time to the actual time it took to run, i.e., cputime / walltime. A good efficiency at PDSF might be 70% or higher. Certainly an efficiency of less than 50% is indicative of some sort of problem with the job. The most common reason for low efficiency is slow IO reading data from disk but other factors, such as loading software, also can contribute. To see the efficiency for

  12. Efficiency Improvements - 2016

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Efficiency Improvements - 2016 June Dual-Purpose Positioner Installed on NIF March A NIF Record: 17 Shots in a Week January Improving Optics Processing Efficiencies

  13. power conversion efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power conversion efficiency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar ...

  14. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  15. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation Results | Department of Energy Preliminary Evaluation Results Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides preliminary results from the evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment, early results and agency experience are also provided. 43847.pdf (1.59 MB) More Documents & Publications

  16. Phase I characterization of the HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter media used in the airborne activity confinement system at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novick, V.J.; Higgins, P.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to characterize the HEPA filter media material. This work consisted of two major tasks. First, the pressure drop characteristics of the HEPA filter material were measured as a function of the aerosol mass loading. Particle size effects were studied by using three different particle size distributions to load the filter material. The second task was to determine the filtration efficiency spectrum for solid particles as a function of particle diameter. The filtration efficiency was measured at two different media velocities, one corresponding to the equivalent flow rate under normal operating conditions, the other corresponding to the minimum equivalent flow rate expected through the filter compartments. These tests were conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory between September 1988 and February 1989. 20 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. New GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs, Triple-Bandgap, Tandem Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Terrestrial Concentrator Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Geisz, J.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T.; Carapella, J.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Emery. K.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Kibbler, A.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.

    2005-11-01

    GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs three-junction cells are grown in an inverted configuration on GaAs, allowing high quality growth of the lattice matched GaInP and GaAs layers before a grade is used for the 1-eV GaInAs layer. Using this approach an efficiency of 37.9% was demonstrated.

  18. Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can thrive in a world where customers, technology and energy are intersecting in disruptive ways. Attendees will also get an insider's look at how energy efficient...

  19. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Technical progress report No. 1, [April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Objective of the project is to retrofit the Balice Boilerhouse with a TCS Coal Micronization System and Amerex baghouses to achieve higher combustion efficiencies and lower air emissions, including SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and particulate matter. The Balice Boilerhouse is located adjacent to the Krakow Airport and provides heating steam for the Polish Military Unit No. 1616, which is based in the vicinity of the Krakow airport. Progress is described.

  20. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case

  1. IBA for novice experimentalists. I. Introduction to IBA: mostly symmetries. II. Tests in even-even nuclei: mostly transitional systems. III. Supersymmetries: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cizewski, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The report contains the notes from a series of lectures on the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model. The lectures were presented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on July 28, 30 and August 1, 1982 by Jolie A. Cizewski from Yale University. The IBA was developed by F. Iachello and A. Arima starting about seven years ago to understand collective quadrupole excitations in medium and heavy mass nuclei away from closed shells. Since then the formalism has been extended to odd-mass nuclei and considerable work has gone into understanding the microscopic construction of the bosons in this model. The IBA has been applied to nuclei as light as Zn and Ge and as heavy as U and Pu; to nuclei near closed shells, such as Mo and Hg; to stable nuclei and nuclei far from stability. The present lectures were designed to give the experimentalist an introduction to the IBA and to give specific examples of how it could be applied to understand the structure of heavy even and odd mass nuclei. Much of the emphasis was on the symmetries (and supersymmetries) of the model and how the use of symmetries enabled the relatively straightforward understanding of empirical systems as deviations from these symmetries. The richness of possible applications of the IBA to understanding collective phenomena in nuclei was not fully explored, but rather a few illustrative examples were selected and described in detail. The references, accumulated at the end of this report, provide a more comprehensive, although not complete, list of tests of the IBA in even mass nuclei and the new symmetries in odd mass nuclei. The references also list the main theoretical papers which provide the details of the IBA formalism.

  2. Magellan @ NERSC Pushes Energy Efficiency Envelope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    @ NERSC Pushes Energy Efficiency Envelope Magellan @ NERSC Pushes Energy Efficiency Envelope February 23, 2011 At NERSC, the Magellan scientific cloud computing testbed is pushing the bounds of power and cooling efficiency. The system was not only installed to require less cooling energy, but it's also been configured to simulate a wide range of data center parameters and instrumented with sensors, allowing staff to study and tune Magellan's efficiency. Innovative Installation NERSC staff

  3. Maryland Efficiency Program Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Maryland Efficiency Program Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  4. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Efficient Buildings HUB Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  5. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Assessments Lynn Price Staff Scientist China Energy Group Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Definition and overview of key components - International experience - Chinese situation and recommendations - US-China collaboration Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Analysis of the use of energy and potential for energy efficiency in an industrial facility *

  6. Regional Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation covers regional industrial energy efficiency programs in the Midwest, Southeast, and Southwest.

  7. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Energy Efficient Buildings HUB Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  8. transitional | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption Project No.: FG26-05NT42488 Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Basic Illustration of the Phase Transitional Absorption Process. Hampton University researched a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption concept, phase transitional absorption, that utilizes a two-part proprietary absorbent consisting of an activated agent dissolved in a solvent. Phase separation of the activated agent from the chemical solvent occurs during

  9. Methanol-fueled transit bus demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.D.; Fong, D.W.; Powars, C.A.; Smith, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a California study to investigate the technical, environmental, and economic viability of using coal-derived fuels for transportation. Since nearly all of California's major urban areas have pollution problems, emphasis is placed on those options which are capable of achieving low exhaust emissions. A broad range of fuels are considered, including solids, gases, and liquids. Methanol, used in heavy-duty engines designed for this fuel, meets California's environmental, economic, and technical requirements for clean coal fuels. The combination has lower exhaust emissions than conventional Diesels -- smoke is eliminated and NO/SUB x/ and CO emissions are reduced. Further, thermal efficiencies comparable or exceeding conventional Diesels are possible. A demonstration of this new technology is now underway. Transit buses will be purchased with the objective of demonstrating alternative methanol engine designs. Economic viability in transit operations will be established.

  10. APOSTLE: 11 TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF TrES-3b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundurthy, P.; Becker, A. C.; Agol, E.; Barnes, R.; Williams, B.

    2013-02-10

    The Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) observed 11 transits of TrES-3b over two years in order to constrain system parameters and look for transit timing and depth variations. We describe an updated analysis protocol for APOSTLE data, including the reduction pipeline, transit model, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyzer. Our estimates of the system parameters for TrES-3b are consistent with previous estimates to within the 2{sigma} confidence level. We improved the errors (by 10%-30%) on system parameters such as the orbital inclination (i {sub orb}), impact parameter (b), and stellar density ({rho}{sub *}) compared to previous measurements. The near-grazing nature of the system, and incomplete sampling of some transits, limited our ability to place reliable uncertainties on individual transit depths and hence we do not report strong evidence for variability. Our analysis of the transit timing data shows no evidence for transit timing variations and our timing measurements are able to rule out super-Earth and gas giant companions in low-order mean motion resonance with TrES-3b.

  11. Obama Administration Launches New Energy Efficiency Efforts | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy New Energy Efficiency Efforts Obama Administration Launches New Energy Efficiency Efforts June 29, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - Building on the action by the U.S. House of Representatives in passing historic legislation that will pave the way for the transition to a clean energy economy, President Barack Obama and U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced aggressive actions to promote energy efficiency and save American consumers billions of dollars per year. Today's

  12. High-efficiency CARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  13. Cluster Monte Carlo simulations of the nematic-isotropic transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priezjev, N. V.; Pelcovits, Robert A.

    2001-06-01

    We report the results of simulations of the three-dimensional Lebwohl-Lasher model of the nematic-isotropic transition using a single cluster Monte Carlo algorithm. The algorithm, first introduced by Kunz and Zumbach to study two-dimensional nematics, is a modification of the Wolff algorithm for spin systems, and greatly reduces critical slowing down. We calculate the free energy in the neighborhood of the transition for systems up to linear size 70. We find a double well structure with a barrier that grows with increasing system size. We thus obtain an upper estimate of the value of the transition temperature in the thermodynamic limit.

  14. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions performance improvements compared to a production baseline vehicle. deer12_confer.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  16. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  17. Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion PDF icon Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup ...

  18. Transition of Sites from Environmental Management Memorandum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transition of Sites from Environmental Management Memorandum of Understanding Transition of Sites from Environmental Management Memorandum of Understanding Transition of Sites from ...

  19. Site Transition Framework | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site Transition Framework (April 2004) PDF icon Site Transition Framework More Documents & Publications Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title ...

  20. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion ...

  1. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    35th St. Craig Ave. Alt Blvd. Colucci Pkwy. Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. DOE national laboratory Transit Buses Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Final Results from the

  2. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  3. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  4. NNSA, Djibouti Transition Radiation Detection System | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... advance shared nuclear nonproliferation, safety, and security goals, in areas such as nuclear security, border and port security, radioactive waste, and environmental management. ...

  5. NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation Detection System | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... to advance shared nuclear nonproliferation, safety and security goals in areas such as nuclear security, border and port security, radioactive waste and environmental management. ...

  6. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a 100 million fuel cell ...

  7. An efficient palladium isotope chromatograph (EPIC) for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutherford, W.M.

    1989-06-20

    The efficient palladium isotope chromatography (EPIC) system is based on a palladium displacement chromatograph developed and tested for the preparative scale separation of the isotopes of hydrogen. Rapid cycling and high efficiency are obtained by use of high-performance packing operating at an elevated temperature (80/degree/C) and elevated pressure (1.5 atm). The process, which was tested with a 50/50 mixture of hydrogen and deuterium, depends on the exploitation of thermally driven pressure differences to recover and recycle the mixed transition zone between the bands of the pure components and also to recover and recycle the hydrogen gas used as the displacing agent. The purity of the product is significantly enhanced by partially backfilling the column with pure deuterium at the beginning of each displacement cycle. The computer-controlled system operates continuously, and it is capable of separating 2.2 std L/hr of feed at product assays of 99.86 at. % hydrogen and 99.992 at. % deuterium. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  9. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  10. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  11. Efficiency Maine Trust

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, the Act Regarding Maine's Energy Future (Public Law 372) established a new entity, the Efficiency Maine Trust, which became responsible for Maine's energy efficiency and renewable energy...

  12. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2008, New Mexico enacted H.B. 305, the Efficient Use of Energy Act, which created an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS) for New Mexico’s electric utilities, and a requirement that all ...

  13. Appliance Energy Efficiency Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2004 the Energy Efficiency Standards Act (EESA of 2004) became law in the State of Maryland. The General Assembly passed the EESA to establish minimum energy efficiency standards on nine...

  14. developing-compute-efficient

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing Compute-efficient, Quality Models with LS-PrePost 3 on the TRACC Cluster Oct. ... with an emphasis on applying these capabilities to build computationally efficient models. ...

  15. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Messaging

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Residential Energy Efficiency Messaging, call slides and discussion summary, April 9, 2015.

  17. Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency Report to Congress June 2015 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | June 2015 Message from the Assistant Secretary The industrial sector has shown steady progress in improving energy efficiency over the past few decades and energy efficiency improvements are expected to continue. Studies suggest, however, that there is potential to accelerate the rate of adopting energy efficient technologies and practices that

  18. Energy Efficiency Financing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and examples of state financing for energy efficiency programs, with descriptions on implementation methods and concerns.

  19. Energy Efficient Mortgages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy efficient mortgages (EEMs) encourage energy efficiency by giving buyers a better rate or more borrowing capacity to buy an energy efficient house or to cover the cost of new energy improvements. For an EEM program, state and local governments typically engage via credit enhancement, such as an interest rate buy-down or loan loss reserve.

  20. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graetzel, M.

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.