National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transformations n-15 nitrate

  1. Time-Resolved Infrared Reflectance Studies of the Dehydration-Induced Transformation of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to the Trihydrate Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. The phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with but one in the hexahydrate.

  2. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparationmore » and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.« less

  3. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.

  4. ACCREDITED STANDARDS COMMITTEE N15 DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Caroline E.; May, Melanie; Preston, Lynne

    2009-10-06

    Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

  5. Nitrate reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  6. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  7. WIPP Nitrate Updates 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, July 23, 2015 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate Salt...

  8. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, John L. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  9. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  10. WIPP Nitrate Updates 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Update, December 4, 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF Jose R. FrancoCBFO and Robert L. McQuinnNWP dated December 5, 2014 WIPP Nitrate Salt...

  11. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Gregory, Kevin M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  12. Plutonium nitrate bottle counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Adams, E.L.; Holbrooks, O.R.

    1984-03-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for plutonium nitrate assay in large storage bottles. This assay system can be used in the reprocessing plant or in the nitrate-to-oxide conversion facility. The system is based on the family of neutron detectors similar to the high-level neutron coincidence counter. This manual describes the system and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications. 4 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  13. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  14. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  15. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  16. Market Transformation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  17. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-15

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan The purpose of this document is to provide the ...

  19. Sandia Energy - Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous Success Home Renewable Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous...

  20. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  1. Energetic Material - Electro Nitration - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro Nitration Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryINL has developed an improved method of nitrating a nitro compound by oxidizing a chemical mediator in the presence of a voltage in order to produce an oxidizing agent. Then, the agent reacts with a nitro compound and ion source in a solution in order to form a geminaldinitro compound. The electrochemical synthesis of geminaldinitro results in the formation of a nitro compound that may be

  2. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Safety Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Safety Update Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Safety Update Topic: Mr. Nickless, Environmental Management Los Alamos, Provided a presentation on the status of the Nitrate Salt waste at Los Alamos. More Documents & Publications Los Alamos National Laboratory TRU Waste Update Los Alamos National Laboratory Accident Investigation Board Corrective Action Plan Update Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts

  3. Process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavez, David E; Naud, Darren L; Hiskey, Michael A

    2013-12-17

    A process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester compound and related intermediates is provided.

  4. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  5. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  6. Denitration of High Nitrate Salts Using Reductants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HD Smith; EO Jones; AJ Schmidt; AH Zacher; MD Brown; MR Elmore; SR Gano

    1999-05-03

    This report describes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in conjunction with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to remove nitrates in simulated low-activity waste (LAW). The major objective of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization (grout).

  7. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

  8. Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts Topic: Plan for remediation the nitrate salt waste from the 3706 campaign that is currently stored at Material Disposal Area G, presenter was David Funk, LANS. PDF icon Nitrate Salts - November 18, 2015 More Documents & Publications Accident Investigation Report Phase II Accident Investigation Report - Radiological Release Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the Energetic Materials

  9. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  10. Project Profile: Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Project Profile: Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Abengoa logo Abengoa, under the Baseload CSP FOA, will demonstrate a 100-megawatt electrical (MWe) central receiver plant using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator. Approach Photo of two lit towers surrounded by much smaller blue flat plates that are mounted on the ground. The plan is to

  11. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared in Response to New Mexico ... (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. ...

  13. Molten Nitrate Salt Development for Thermal Energy Storage in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOLTEN NITRATE SALT DEVELOPMENT FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR POWER SYSTEMS Robert W. Bradshaw and Nathan P. Siegel Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 969 ...

  14. Operating Experience Level 2, Evaluation of Nitrate Bearing Transurani...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    015 OE-2 2015-01: Evaluation of Nitrate Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams This Operating Experience Level 2 (OE-2) document provides actions to perform an evaluation of...

  15. Transforming a Transformative School | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transforming a Transformative School Transforming a Transformative School October 11, 2012 - 10:14am Addthis During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded lighting fixtures, installed a new heating and cooling system, and replaced the entry doors. The new doors allow daylight into the school and restore the historical building envelope. | Photo courtesy of John Winkel, Energy Department. During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded

  16. Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative School | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a Transformative School SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative ... Florida. | Photo by Amy Kidd SEP Success Story: Florida's SunSmart Program Helps ...

  18. Use of tensiometer for in situ measurement of nitrate leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Reddy, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    In order to monitor nitrate leaching from non-point source pollution, this study used tensiometers to measure in situ nitrate concentration and soil-moisture potential. Instead of filling the tensiometers with pure water, the study filled the tensiometers with nitrate ionic strength adjuster (ISA, 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}). After the installation of the tensiometers at various depths along soil profiles, a portable pressure transducer was used to measure the soil moisture potential, and a nitrate electrode attached to an ion analyzer was used to measure the nitrate concentration in situ. The measurement was continuous and non-destructive. To test this method in the laboratory, eight bottles filled with pure sand were treated with known nitrate solutions, and a tensiometer was placed in each bottle. Measurements were taken every day for 30 days. Laboratory test showed a linear relationship between the known nitrate concentration and the tensiometer readings (R{sup 2} = 0.9990). Then a field test was conducted in a watermelon field with green manure mulch. Field data indicated a potential of nitrate leaching below the soil depth of 100 cm when crop uptake of nutrients was low.

  19. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1981-01-21

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates is described, wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300 to 800/sup 0/C is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  20. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN); Stines, William B. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  1. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  2. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenters logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  3. V01N15_19470812.pdf

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  4. V01N15_19700827.pdf

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  5. V02N15_19480413.pdf

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  6. V02N15_19710812.pdf

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  7. V03N15_19490419.pdf

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  8. V03N15_19721026.pdf

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  9. V04N15_19500419.pdf

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  10. V04N15_19730802.pdf

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  11. V05N15_19510411.pdf

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  12. V05N15_19740801.pdf

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  13. V21N15_19670426.pdf

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  14. V22N15_19680410.pdf

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  15. V23N15_19690416.pdf

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  16. V06N15_19520416.pdf

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  17. V06N15_19750807.pdf

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  18. V07N15_19530415.pdf

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  19. V07N15_19760722.pdf

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  20. V08N15_19540414.pdf

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  1. V08N15_19770804.pdf

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  2. V09N15_19550413.pdf

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  3. V09N15_19780720.pdf

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  4. V10N15_19560411.pdf

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  5. V10N15_19790809.pdf

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  6. V11N15_19570410.pdf

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  7. V11N15_19800724.pdf

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  8. V12N15_19580409.pdf

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  9. V12N15_19810730.pdf

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  10. V13N15_19590415.pdf

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  11. V13N15_19820722.pdf

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  12. V14N15_19600413.pdf

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  13. V14N15_19830728.pdf

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  14. V15N15_19610412.pdf

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  15. V16N15_19620411.pdf

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  16. V17N15_19630410.pdf

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  17. V18N15_19640415.pdf

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  18. V19N15_19650414.pdf

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  19. V20N15_19660413.pdf

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  20. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  1. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, James E. (Ames, IA); Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA)

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C.sub.3 or larger.

  2. Evaluation of Nitrate-Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OE-2: 2015-1 June 2015 Evaluation of Nitrate-Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams PURPOSE This Operating Experience Level 2 (OE-2) document provides actions to perform an evaluation...

  3. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  4. Nitrate Salt Bearing Transuranic Waste Container Monitoring | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Nitrate Salt Bearing Transuranic Waste Container Monitoring Nitrate Salt Bearing Transuranic Waste Container Monitoring This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's investigation into the radiological release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Additional documents referenced and listed in the Phase 2 Radiological Release Event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on February 14, 2014, report in Attachment

  5. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1983-12-20

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plan | Department of Energy The purpose of this document is to provide the Plan required by the New Mexico Environment Department Administrative Order 05-20001 issued on May 20, 2014 to the U. S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground disposal facility. PDF

  7. Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, CH

    2003-12-30

    For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material and the results of previous tests--classified the ThN as low-level radioactive waste for disposal purposes. This characterization was necessary to continue the efforts associated with disposition of the material at the Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada. With the current work presented in this report, the analytical characterization phase is completed for this source material stockpile.

  8. HPC Transforms Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Debbie Bard » HPC Transforms Cosmology HPC Transforms Cosmology December 3, 2015 by Debbie Bard (originally posted in http://www.scientificcomputing.com/blogs/2015/10/hpc-transforms-cosmology) Visualization of dark matter in the Dark Sky Simulation, the first trillion-particle simulation to be made publicly available. It spans a region nearly 40 billion light-years across, and was produced using 80 million CPU hours on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Titan supercomputer. Courtesy of the Dark

  9. National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for Information National Power Transformer Reserve Department of Energy Offce of Electricity Delivery and Energy ... Infrastructure, April 2015 Reference 2: United States ...

  10. Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical

  11. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  12. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  13. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  14. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  15. Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions This document was...

  16. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  17. Transforming Commercial Building Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming Commercial Building Operations Transforming Commercial Building Operations Ron Underhill Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ronald.underhill@pnnl.gov (509)375-9765 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Most buildings are not commissioned (Cx) before occupancy, including HVAC and lighting systems * Buildings often are poorly operated and maintained leading to significant energy waste of 5 to 20%, even when they have building automation systems (BASs) *

  18. Sandia Energy - Past Market Transformation Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Past Market Transformation Activities Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Past Market Transformation...

  19. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  20. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared in Response to New Mexico Environment Department Administrative Order 05-20001 Issued May 20, 2014 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to provide the Plan required by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Administrative Order 05-20001 (Order) issued on May 20, 2014 to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. The Order, at paragraph 22,

  2. WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update May 12, 2015 Panel 6 and Panel 7, Room 7 a. Rollback * Contamination Assessment-This prerequisite is complete and therefore status updates are no longer required. * Fixing/Decontamination Activities-Decontaminated equipment has been removed from Room 7 of Panel 7 to prepare for Room 7 closure activities. Remaining items in Panel 7, Room 7 include thirteen empty magnesium oxide racks, about 200 roof bolts, nine messenger

  3. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore » MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  4. Demonstration & Market Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review Break-Out Presentation Jim Spaeth Program Manager Demonstration & Market Transformation March 23, 2015 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office DMT Portfolio Peer Review * Introduction of the DMT Peer Review Team * Peer Review Process - Ground rules for review process * DMT Approach to Project Management - Budget Periods * Changes Made in Response to the 2013 Peer Review - Lessons Learned / Best Practices * Portfolio Overview - FOA Status and History - Project Portfolio Changes since

  5. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2010-06-11

    A new field instrument is described that quantifies total particle phase organic nitrates. The instrument is based on the thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) method that thermally converts nitrates to NO2 which is then detected by LIF. This instrument is unique in its ability to provide fast sensitive measurements of particle phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in SOA generated from high-NOx photooxidation of limonene, a-pinene, D-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15percent of the total SOA mass, depending on the organic precursor.

  6. Effect of composition on the density of multi-component molten nitrate salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2009-12-01

    The density of molten nitrate salts was measured to determine the effects of the constituents on the density of multi-component mixtures. The molten salts consisted of various proportions of the nitrates of potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium. Density measurements ere performed using an Archimedean method and the results were compared to data reported in the literature for the individual constituent salts or simple combinations, such as the binary Solar Salt mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. The addition of calcium nitrate generally ncreased density, relative to potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, while lithium nitrate decreased density. The temperature dependence of density is described by a linear equation regardless of composition. The molar volume, and thereby, density of multi-component mixtures an be calculated as a function of temperature using a linear additivity rule based on the properties of the individual constituents.

  7. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic study of ammonium nitrate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2013-12-15

    We present the optical emission studies of the ammonium nitrate plasma produced by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of the laser beam in an open atmospheric air. The spectrum reveals numerous transitions of neutral nitrogen. We have studied the spatial behavior of the plasma temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (N{sub e}) determined using the Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profiles, respectively. Besides, we have studied the variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the laser irradiance.

  9. Investigating In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Sustained Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, Tommy; Balkwill, David

    2006-06-01

    The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal at DOE sites, such as the ERSP Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC), provides strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that will allow for uranium bioreduction and long-term stabilization in the presence of nitrate. The cost and effort required for complete nitrate removal from the FRC and similar DOE-contaminated sites may prove to be unworkable. For example, field tests of uranium bioreduction at the FRC have shown that nitrate levels rebound quickly and completely after cessation of active biostimulation.

  10. Substantial Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Substantial Transformation Substantial Transformation PDF icon Substantial Transformation More Documents & Publications Questions and Answers for the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program: Frequently Asked Questions Questions and Answers for the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program: Buy American Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Grant Recipient Management Handbook

  11. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the NO2 radical.

  12. Stainless steel corrosion by molten nitrates : analysis and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2011-09-01

    A secondary containment vessel, made of stainless 316, failed due to severe nitrate salt corrosion. Corrosion was in the form of pitting was observed during high temperature, chemical stability experiments. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were all used to diagnose the cause of the failure. Failure was caused by potassium oxide that crept into the gap between the primary vessel (alumina) and the stainless steel vessel. Molten nitrate solar salt (89% KNO{sub 3}, 11% NaNO{sub 3} by weight) was used during chemical stability experiments, with an oxygen cover gas, at a salt temperature of 350-700 C. Nitrate salt was primarily contained in an alumina vessel; however salt crept into the gap between the alumina and 316 stainless steel. Corrosion occurred over a period of approximately 2000 hours, with the end result of full wall penetration through the stainless steel vessel; see Figures 1 and 2 for images of the corrosion damage to the vessel. Wall thickness was 0.0625 inches, which, based on previous data, should have been adequate to avoid corrosion-induced failure while in direct contact with salt temperature at 677 C (0.081-inch/year). Salt temperatures exceeding 650 C lasted for approximately 14 days. However, previous corrosion data was performed with air as the cover gas. High temperature combined with an oxygen cover gas obviously drove corrosion rates to a much higher value. Corrosion resulted in the form of uniform pitting. Based on SEM and EDS data, pits contained primarily potassium oxide and potassium chromate, reinforcing the link between oxides and severe corrosion. In addition to the pitting corrosion, a large blister formed on the side wall, which was mainly composed of potassium, chromium and oxygen. All data indicated that corrosion initiated internally and moved outward. There was no evidence of intergranular corrosion nor were there any indication of fast pathways along grain boundaries. Much of the pitting occurred near welds; however this was the hottest region in the chamber. Pitting was observed up to two inches above the weld, indicating independence from weld effects.

  13. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  14. Combined Extraction of Cesium and Strontium from Akaline Nitrate Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Haverlock, Tamara; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    The combined extraction of cesium and strontium from caustic wastes can be achieved by adding a crown ether and a carboxylic acid to the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent. The ligand 4,4'(5')-di(tert-butyl)cyclohexano-18-crown-6 and one of four different carboxylic acids were combined with the components of the CSSX solvent optimized for the extraction of cesium, allowing for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from alkaline nitrate media simulating alkaline high level wastes present at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Extraction and stripping experiments were conducted independently and exhibited adequate results for mimicking waste simulant processing through batch contacts. The promising results of these batch tests showed that the system could reasonably be tested on actual waste.

  15. Analysis of Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Nested Annular Tank Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; James D. Cleaver

    2009-06-01

    Two series of experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory during the 1980s using highly enriched (93%) uranyl nitrate solution in annular tanks. [1, 2] Tanks were of typical sizes found in nuclear production plants. Experiments looked at tanks of varying radii in a co-located set of nested tanks, a 1 by 2 array, and a 1 by 3 array. The co-located set of tanks had been analyzed previously [3] as a benchmark for inclusion within the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. [4] The current study represents the benchmark analysis of the 1 by 3 array of a series of nested annular tanks. Of the seventeen configurations performed in this set of experiments, twelve were evaluated and nine were judged as acceptable benchmarks.

  16. Hydroxylamine Nitrate Decomposition under Non-radiological Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; DePaoli, David W.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Phelps, Clarice E.; Roach, Benjamin D.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is used to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in the separation of plutonium from uranium. HAN becomes unstable under certain conditions and has been known to explode, causing injury to humans including death. Hence, it is necessary to deactivate HAN once the reduction of plutonium is finished. This report reviews what is known about the chemistry of HAN and various methods to achieve a safe decomposition. However, there are areas where more information is needed to make a decision about the handling of HAN in reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Experiments have demonstrated a number of non-radiolytic ways to safely decompose HAN, including heating in HNO3, photolytic oxidation in the presence of H2O2, and the addition of a metal such as Fe(III) that will oxidize the HAN.

  17. Transformational Manufacturing | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformational Manufacturing Argonne's new Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program focuses on scalable process R&D to produce advanced battery...

  18. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  19. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  20. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  1. Ab initio calculations of singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grana, A.M.; Head-Gordon, M. |; Lee, T.J.

    1995-03-16

    Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to single and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported, using the CIS, CIS(D), and CCSD methods. The effects of basis set composition and calculational methods are investigated. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the CIO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied. 70 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Effective Date: 5282014 The Responsible Manager has determined that the following...

  3. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and recommendation. Conclusions: 1. Nitrate salts not yet remediated having no free liquid should be mixed with at least 1.2 volumes of Kitty LitterZeolite clay per...

  4. Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Instructions | Department of Energy Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's investigation into the radiological release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Additional documents referenced and listed in the Phase 2 Radiological Release Event at the

  5. In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sulfate-reducing conditions (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following sulfate-reducing conditions « Prev Next » Title: In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following sulfate-reducing conditions Authors: Paradis, Charles J. ; Jagadamma, Sindhu ; Watson, David B. ; McKay, Larry D. ; Hazen, Terry C. ; Park, Melora ; Istok, Jonathan D. Publication Date: 2016-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1237977 Grant/Contract

  6. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  7. National Symposium on Market Transformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), this three-day conference features speakers covering topics within the scope of market transformation.

  8. Transform Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Transform Solar Place: Boise, Idaho Product: Idaho-based PV module maker and joint venture between Micron and Origin Energy. Coordinates: 43.60698, -116.193409...

  9. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print Wednesday, 29 January 2014 00:00 A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other.

  10. Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Market Transformation Significant research and development progress has paved the way for fuel cells to enter today's commercial marketplace for a variety of applications, including specialty vehicles and stationary and portable power. The growing number of commercial products, in combination with the federal and state financial incentives available now, are instrumental in supporting the role that fuel cells play in our nation's energy portfolio. Through its market

  11. Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-05-22

    the hexahydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] (UNH) and the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3] (UNT) forms. Their stabilities depend on both relative humidity and temperature. Both phases have previously been studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but the data were limited by both instrumental resolution and the ability to prepare the samples as pellets without desiccating it. We report time-resolved infrared (IR) measurements using an integrating sphere that allow us to observe the transformation from the hexahydrate to the trihydrate simply by flowing dry nitrogen gas over the sample. Hexahydrate samples were prepared and confirmed via known XRD patterns, then measured in reflectance mode. The hexahydrate has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample dehydrates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a blue edge shoulder but ultimately resulting in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT since UNT has two non-equivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a morphological and structural change that has the lustrous lime green crystals changing to the dull greenish yellow of the trihydrate. Crystal structures and phase transformation were confirmed theoretically using DFT calculations and experimentally via microscopy methods. Both methods showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, as opposed to a single crystallographic site in the hexahydrate.

  12. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel, E-mail: jsavarino@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200nm band was found to be ?1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  13. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to ...

  14. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held ...

  15. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras,...

  16. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report...

  17. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orona, N.S.; Tasat, D.R.

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

  18. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  19. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  20. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Jol [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Gophysique de lEnvironnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rmy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (?{sup 15}N, ?{sup 18}O, and ?{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?15 1.2) was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?47.9 6.8), in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from ?40 to ?74.3. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the shift in width and center well reproduced the values obtained in the laboratory study. These cross sections can be used in isotopic models to reproduce the stable isotopic composition of nitrate found in Antarctic snow profiles.

  1. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Francisco

    2014-05-31

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of singlephase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014.The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 kVA transformer passed the impulse test in KEMA high-voltage laboratories. Additional products include: nine papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, one patent has been filed, three PhD students were supported from beginning to graduation, five postdoctoral fellows, and three MSc students were partially supported. The electrical characteristics of our dry-type toroidal transformers are similar to those of the oil-immersed pole mounted transformers currently in use by many utilities, but toroids have higher efficiency. The no-load losses of the 50 kVA prototype are only 45 W. A standard transformer has no-load losses between 90 and 240 W. Thus, even the finest transformer built today with standard technology has double the amount of no-load losses than the prototype toroidal transformer. When the manufacturing process is prepared for mass production, the cost of a dry-type toroidal transformer would be similar to the price of an oil-filed standard design. However, because of the greatly reduced losses, the total ownership cost of a toroidal transformer could be about half of a traditional design. We got a grant from Power Bridge NY in the amount of $149,985 from June 2014 to May 2015 to continue developing the transformer with commercialization objectives. We are considering the possibility to incorporate a company to manufacture the transformers and have contacted investors. The current status of the real life testing is as follows: after several months of silence, Con Edison has re-started conversations and has shown willingness to test the transformer. Other companies, PSE&G and National Grid have recently also shown interest and we will present our product to them soon.

  2. SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite brings advanced algorithms, high performance computing and data management to the masses August 18, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov als.jpg Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt) Some mysteries of science can only be explained on a nanometer scale -even smaller than a single strand of human DNA, which is about 2.5 nanometers wide. At this scale, scientists

  3. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as well as how programs can overcome appraisal challenges. PDF icon Marketing and Market Transformation Presentation More Documents & Publications Marketing and Market Transformation Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  4. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  5. Biological Redox Cycling Of Iron In Nontronite And Its Potential Application In Nitrate Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Linduo; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zeng, Qiang; Edelmann, Richard E.; Pentrak, Martin; Agrawal, Abinash

    2015-05-05

    Redox cycling of structural Fe in phyllosilicates provides a potential method to remediate nitrate contamination in natural environment. Past research has only studied chemical redox cycles or a single biologically mediated redox cycle of Fe in phyllosilicates. The objective of this research was to study three microbially driven redox cycles of Fe in one phyllosilicate, nontronite (NAu-2). During the reduction phase structural Fe(III) in NAu-2 served as electron acceptor, lactate as electron donor, AQDS as electron shuttle, and dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 as mediator in bicarbonate-buffered and PIPES-buffered media. During the oxidation phase, biogenic Fe(II) served an electron donor, nitrate as electron acceptor, and nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002 as mediator in the same media. For all three cycles, structural Fe in NAu-2 was able to reversibly undergo 3 redox cycles without significant reductive or oxidative dissolution. X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that NAu-2 was the dominant residual mineral throughout the 3 redox cycles with some dissolution textures but no significant secondary mineralization. Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that Fe(II) in bio-reduced samples likely occurred in two distinct environments, at edges and the interior of the NAu-2 structure. Nitrate was completely reduced to nitrogen gas under both buffer conditions and this extent and rate did not change with Fe redox cycles. Mssbauer spectroscopy further revealed that nitrate reduction was coupled to predominant/preferred oxidation of edge Fe(II). These results suggest that structural Fe in phyllosilicates may represent a renewable source to continuously remove nitrate in natural environments.

  6. Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA In the genome of

  7. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 5/8/2012 LANL-Carlsbad Office Difficult Waste Team P2010-3306 Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10- 13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 2 Purpose: The following document was developed in support of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Program (LTP) by the LANL-Carlsbad Office, Difficult

  8. biomass-to-biofuels transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass-to-biofuels transformation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  9. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  10. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  11. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise for use in

  12. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  13. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  14. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  15. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  16. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  17. 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Symposium on Market Transformation 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation March 20, 2016 9:00AM EDT to March 22, 2016 5:00PM EDT Hyatt Regency Baltimore ...

  18. Sandia Energy - Energy Supply Transformation Needed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Distribution Grid Integration News & Events Systems Analysis Energy Assurance Microgrid Transmission Grid Integration Systems Engineering Energy Supply Transformation...

  19. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram

  20. Market Transformation Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Fact Sheet Market Transformation Fact Sheet This fact sheet describes the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Market Transformation strategies and activities, which are aimed at accelerating early market adoption and advancing pre-competitive technologies. PDF icon Market Transformation More Documents & Publications Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets Early Markets:

  1. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  2. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  3. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  4. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  5. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  6. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  7. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  8. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herting, Daniel L.

    2014-01-29

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  9. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  10. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry,...

  11. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 This...

  12. One-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two.

  13. Articles about Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Articles about Market Transformation RSS Below are stories about market transformation featured by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program. September 29, 2015 New Report Shows Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects Planned in U.S. Waters The Energy Department today released a new report showing strong progress for the U.S. offshore wind market-including the start of construction of the nation's first commercial-scale offshore wind farm, one of 21

  14. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Perez, J.S. . Facultad de Informatica)

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal's frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal's frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  15. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. |; Perez, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal`s frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal`s frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  16. Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program - 2014 BTO Peer Review More Documents & Publications Assessment of Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Methods - 2014 ...

  17. Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation via Liquid Cell TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation...

  18. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as well as how programs can overcome appraisal challenges. PDF icon Marketing and Market ...

  19. Titanium ? - ? phase transformation pathway and a predicted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Titanium - phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 14,...

  20. 500 kV Spare Transformer Procurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procurement capital project is for the acquisition of five, 500 kV spare transformers, which are to be strategically located throughout the system, and for the...

  1. CSV to ISO XML metadata transformation tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    Django app for converting CSV records to XML metadata documents. This transformation from the metadata content model to parsed ISO XML documents allows for metadata integration into NGDS.

  2. Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This white paper summarizes the information discussed during the Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop, Feb. 17, 2012, in Berkeley, California.

  3. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  4. Enterprise transformation :lessons learned, pathways to success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavin, Adam M.; Woodard, Joan Brune

    2006-05-01

    In this report, we characterize the key themes of transformation and tie them together in a ''how to'' guide. The perspectives were synthesized from strategic management literature, case studies, and from interviews with key management personnel from private industry on their transformation experiences.

  5. Demonstration & Market Transformation Plenary Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plenary Presentation Jim Spaeth Program Manager Demonstration & Market Transformation March 23, 2015 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office DMT Plenary - Outline * Goals and Objectives * Key Barriers * Approach to Overcoming Barriers * Key Accomplishments * Portfolio * Budget History * Funding Opportunity Announcements * Coordination Efforts * Future Directions * BETO Staff * Reviewers 3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Introduction to Demonstration & Market Transformation The Demonstration

  6. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 2006

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap{sub Sgel}) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap{sub Sput}) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap{sub Sgel} and Nap{sub Sput} occurred at 54.5 and 65 Degree-Sign C, respectively. When Nap{sub Sgel} was preincubated at 21-70 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 Degree-Sign C, which suggested that Nap{sub Sgel} was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap{sub Sput}, did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 Degree-Sign C, Nap{sub Sgel} reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap{sub Sput} did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap{sub Sgel} that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap{sub Sgel} cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap{sub Sgel} using a mesophilic template with 66% amino acid identity showed the majority of substitutions occurred at the protein surface distal to the Mo-MGD cofactor. Two mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions (Asn {r_reversible} His, Val {r_reversible} Trp) occurred in a region close to the surface of the NapA substrate funnel resulting in potential interdomain {pi}-{pi} and/or cation-{pi} interactions. Three mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions occurred within 4.5 A of the Mo-MGD cofactor (Phe {r_reversible} Met, Ala {r_reversible} Ser, Ser {r_reversible} Thr) resulting in local regions that varied in hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding networks. These results contribute to the understanding of thermal protein adaptation in a redox-active mononuclear molybdenum enzyme and have implications in optimizing the design of low-temperature environmental biosensors.

  7. Feasibility of SF6 Gas-Insulated Transformers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feasibility of SF 6 Gas-Insulated Transformers Brandon Bouwman, P.E. Electrical Engineer, Generation Equipment Section Hydroelectric Design Center 14 June 2012 BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT 2 Outline  Transformer Background & Basics  Oil-filled transformers  Oil-filled transformer concerns  Gas-insulated transformers (GIT)  Gas-insulated transformer benefits  Gas-insulated transformer concerns  Risks and Unknowns  Questions? BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT

  8. Comparison of FTIR and Particle Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of Paticulate Organic Nitrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruns, Emily; Perraud, Veronique; Zelenyuk, Alla; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Imre, D.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.; Alexander, M. L.

    2010-02-01

    While multifunctional organic nitrates are formed during the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds, relatively little is known about their signatures in particle mass spectrometers. High resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was applied to NH4NO3, NaNO3 and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IMN) particles, and to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from NO3 radical reactions at 22 C and 1 atm in air with and pinene, 3-carene, limonene and isoprene. For comparison, single particle laser ablation mass spectra (SPLAT II) were also obtained for IMN and SOA from the pinene reaction. The mass spectra of all particles exhibit significant intensity at m/z 30, and for the SOA, weak peaks corresponding to various organic fragments containing nitrogen [CxHyNzOa]+ were identified using HR-ToF-AMS. The NO+/NO2+ ratios from HR-ToF-AMS were 10-15 for IMN and the SOA from the and pinene, 3-carene and limonene reactions, ~5 for the isoprene reaction, 2.4 for NH4NO3 and 80 for NaNO3. The N/H ratios from HR-ToF-AMS for the SOA were smaller by a factor of 2 to 4 than the -ONO2/C-H ratios measured using FTIR on particles impacted on ZnSe windows. While the NO+/NO2+ ratio may provide a generic indication of organic nitrates under some conditions, specific identification of particulate organic nitrates awaits further development of particle mass spectrometry techniques.

  9. Conversion of actinide and RE oxides into nitrates and their recovery into fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondin, V.V.; Bychkov, S.I.; Efremov, I.G.; Revenko, Y.A.; Babain, V.A.; Murzin, A.A.; Romanovsky, V.N; Fedorov, Y.S.; Shadrin, A.Y.; Ryabkova, N.V.; Li, E.N.

    2007-07-01

    The conditions for uranium oxides completely convert into uranyl nitrate hexahydrate in nitrogen tetra-oxide media (75 deg. C, 0,5-3,0 MPa, [UO{sub x}]:[H{sub 2}O]:[NO{sub 2}]=1:8:6) were found out. The conversion of Pu contained simulator of oxide spent nuclear fuel of thermal reactors was successfully demonstrated. The possibility of uranium recovery up to 95% from TR SNF without plutonium separation from FP is practically showed, what corresponds with Non-proliferation Treaty. (authors)

  10. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  11. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  12. Speciation model selection by Monte Carlo analysis of optical absorption spectra: Plutonium(IV) nitrate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John M.; Veirs, D. Kirk; Vaughn, Randolph B.; Cisneros, Michael R.; Smith, Coleman A.

    2000-06-01

    Standard modeling approaches can produce the most likely values of the formation constants of metal-ligand complexes if a particular set of species containing the metal ion is known or assumed to exist in solution equilibrium with complexing ligands. Identifying the most likely set of species when more than one set is plausible is a more difficult problem to address quantitatively. A Monte Carlo method of data analysis is described that measures the relative abilities of different speciation models to fit optical spectra of open-shell actinide ions. The best model(s) can be identified from among a larger group of models initially judged to be plausible. The method is demonstrated by analyzing the absorption spectra of aqueous Pu(IV) titrated with nitrate ion at constant 2 molal ionic strength in aqueous perchloric acid. The best speciation model supported by the data is shown to include three Pu(IV) species with nitrate coordination numbers 0, 1, and 2. Formation constants are {beta}{sub 1}=3.2{+-}0.5 and {beta}{sub 2}=11.2{+-}1.2, where the uncertainties are 95% confidence limits estimated by propagating raw data uncertainties using Monte Carlo methods. Principal component analysis independently indicates three Pu(IV) complexes in equilibrium. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  13. Darboux transformation for the NLS equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Mee, Cornelis van der

    2010-03-08

    We analyze a certain class of integral equations associated with Marchenko equations and Gel'fand-Levitan equations. Such integral equations arise through a Fourier transformation on various ordinary differential equations involving a spectral parameter. When the integral operator is perturbed by a finite-rank perturbation, we explicitly evaluate the change in the solution in terms of the unperturbed quantities and the finite-rank perturbation. We show that this result provides a fundamental approach to derive Darboux transformations for various systems of ordinary differential operators. We illustrate our theory by providing the explicit Darboux transformation for the Zakharov-Shabat system and show how the potential and wave function change when a simple discrete eigenvalue is added to the spectrum, and thus we also provide a one-parameter family of Darboux transformations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  14. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the DOE-funded solar market transformation analysis and tools under development in Fiscal Year 2010 so that stakeholders can access available resources and get engaged where interested.

  15. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection

  16. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Authors: Tulk, C.A. ; dos Santos, A.M. ; Neuefeind, J.C. ; Molaison, J.J. ; Sales, B.C. ; Honkimäki, V. [1] ; ESRF) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (ORNL) ( Publication Date: 2015-09-22 OSTI Identifier: 1221429 Resource Type: Journal Article

  17. Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions | Department of Energy Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Advanced Energy logo.png Advanced Energy (AE) will address three important needs in the further deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems: 1) demonstrating and commercializing a new anti-islanding method utilizing Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), 2) demonstrating a set of advanced grid support

  18. How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy November 10, 2014 Contact: Dawn Levy, levyd@ornl.gov, 865.576.6448 Budaivibe Vanadium atoms (blue) have unusually large thermal vibrations that stabilize the metallic state of a vanadium dioxide crystal. Red depicts oxygen atoms. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory For more than 50 years, scientists have

  19. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras, energy harvesting, and radar systems June 5, 2013 A burst of laser energy 50 times greater than the worldwide output of electrical power slams into an extremely thin foil target to produce neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TRIDENT laser facility during a recent experiment, which proved that laser-driven

  20. Department of Energy/ National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy/ National Power Transformer Reserve "National Power Transformer Reserve" This refers to the Request for Information No. 5 (Procurement and Management): From a non-discriminatory standpoint, the procurement process needs to be transparent and consistent with established purchasing practices considering all qualified manufacturers and not limited to only US manufacturers. It is recommended that to be considered a qualified manufacturer; the manufacturer must have prior experience

  1. A study of the organic emission from a turbocharged diesel engine running on 12 percent hexyl nitrate dissolved in ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walde, N.; Westerholm, R.; Persson, K.-A.

    1984-01-01

    A highly rated turbocharged diesel engine adapted for an alternative fuel based on ethanol and hexyl nitrate has been investigated with respect to the emission of organic compounds in the exhausts. The adaption involves: ignition nozzles with larger holes, a change of injection timing and more fuel injected per stroke. Emissions were measured at four different driving modes ie, 1, 8, 10 and 12 respectively, in the California Cycle. The exhaust composition are different compared to conventional diesel emissions. The main part of the organic pollutants consists of unburned ethanol and hexyl nitrate, acetaldehyde being the most abundant aldehyde.

  2. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet)...

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformation Inc., Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformation Inc., Production House, Devens, MA DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformation Inc., Production House, Devens, MA Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready ...

  4. Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ... Title: Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ...

  5. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity Download the presentation slides...

  6. Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water ...

  7. Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies and Actions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient...

  8. Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Print Monday, 05...

  9. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review...

  10. Y-12 and the 2000 decade ? Modernization to Transformation,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation, part 2 As we continue with Tom Smith's account of the transition from "Modernization" to "Transformation" he notes, "The original plan was to put three new special...

  11. Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE of the NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY...

  12. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a...

  13. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific roadblocks to U.S. energy security. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)...

  14. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  15. Structural Aspects of Hydrogen Bonding with Nitrate and Sulfate: Design Criteria for Polyalcohol Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Dixon, David A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Organic hosts for oxyanion complexation can be constructed by combining two or more hydrogen bonding sites. The deliberate design of architectures for such hosts requires knowledge of the optimal geometry for the hydrogen bonds formed between the host and the guest. Important structural parameters include the O--H distance, the O--H-D angle, the X-O--H angle, and the X-O--H-D dihedral angle (H-D=hydrogen bond donor, X=any atom). This information can be obtained through the analysis of hydrogen bonding observed in crystal structures and electronic structure calculations on simple gas-phase complexes. In this chapter, we present an analysis of hydrogen bonding structural parameters for alcohol hydrogen donors and the oxygen atom acceptors in nitrate and sulfate.

  16. Thermal behavior of glassy phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, J. D.; Chellappa, R.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a high interest material because of its wide usage in propellants and explosives but can be difficult to handle from a formulation standpoint. It is soluble in many common solvents and has complex phase behavior. Here, we formulate phase stabilized AN (PSAN) films in a polymer matrix and characterize thermal and phase behavior using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. Our PSAN films are generally stable up to 160 C, though we observe small material loss between 60 and 100 C, which we attribute to solvent interactions with the PSAN. Crystallization of AN from supersaturated polymer is most common at thicker regions of the film, suggesting a critical nucleation thickness for the AN which can be avoided by making very thin films.

  17. Thermal behavior of glassy phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yeager, J. D.; Chellappa, R.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a high interest material because of its wide usage in propellants and explosives but can be difficult to handle from a formulation standpoint. It is soluble in many common solvents and has complex phase behavior. Here, we formulate phase stabilized AN (PSAN) films in a polymer matrix and characterize thermal and phase behavior using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. Our PSAN films are generally stable up to 160 °C, though we observe small material loss between 60 and 100 °C, which we attribute to solvent interactions with the PSAN. Crystallization of AN from supersaturated polymer is mostmore » common at thicker regions of the film, suggesting a critical nucleation thickness for the AN which can be avoided by making very thin films.« less

  18. THE SENSITIVITY OF CARBON STEELS' SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LOCALIZED CORROSION TO THE PH OF NITRATE BASED NUCLEAR WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOOMER KD

    2010-01-14

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  19. Enhanced liquid-liquid anion exchange using macrocyclic anion receptors: effect of receptor structure on sulphate-nitrate exchange selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Fowler, Christopher J; Haverlock, Tamara; Kang, Hyun Ah; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bau, Diadra; Hossain, Alamgir; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Gross, Mr. Dustin E.; Bill, Nathan; Marquez, Manuel; Lynch, Vincent M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    When certain macrocyclic anion receptors are added to a chloroform solution of the nitrate form of a lipophilic quaternary ammonium salt (methyltri-C8,10-ammonium nitrate, Aliquat 336N), the extraction of sulphate from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution via exchange with the organic-phase nitrate is significantly enhanced. Eight macrocycles were surveyed, including two derivatives of a tetraamide macrocycle, five derivatives of calix[4]pyrrole and -decafluorocalix[5]pyrrole. Under the hypothesis that the enhancement originates from sulphate binding by the anion receptors in the chloroform phase, it was possible to obtain reasonable fits to the sulphate distribution survey data based on the formation of 1:1 and 2:1 receptor:sulphate complexes in the chloroform phase. Apparent 1:1 sulphate-binding constants obtained from the model in this system fell in the range . Comparison of the results for the various anion receptors included in this study reveals that sulphate binding is sensitive to the nature of the substituents on the parent macrocycle scaffolds in a way that does not follow straightforwardly from simple chemical expectations, such as electron-withdrawing effects on hydrogen-bond donor strength.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence for Microbacterium laevaniformans Strain OR221, a Bacterium Tolerant to Metals, Nitrate, and Low pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Panikov, Nikolai; Ariyawansa, Thilini; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Johnson, Courtney M; Land, Miriam L; Utturkar, Sagar M; Epstein, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Microbacterium laevaniformans strain OR221 was isolated from subsurface sediments obtained from the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. It was characterized as a bacterium tolerant to heavy metals such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, as well as nitrate and low pH. We present its draft genome sequence.

  1. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  2. eXtension: Transformation of Cooperative Extension

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eXtension eXtension Transformation of Transformation of Cooperative Extension Cooperative Extension Kevin Gamble State Energy Advisory Board October 17, 2007 eXtension eXtension, the nation's first 24/7/365 collaboratively built non-formal education and information system available on any Internet-ready device How it works How it works ... ... P P P r r r o o o d d d u u u c c c t t t s s s Basic Information Ask the Experts FAQs Distance Diagnostics Discussion & Chat Decision Tools

  3. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.J. Fisch

    2009-12-21

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

  4. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is an overview describing the solar analysis and tool development projects funded by the DOE Market Transformation team for fiscal year 2010. These quick snapshots are intended to give you a basic look at the scope, timeline, and expected deliverables for each project.

  5. Information retrieval system utilizing wavelet transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewster, Mary E. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Nancy E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for automatically partitioning an unstructured electronically formatted natural language document into its sub-topic structure. Specifically, the document is converted to an electronic signal and a wavelet transform is then performed on the signal. The resultant signal may then be used to graphically display and interact with the sub-topic structure of the document.

  6. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Christine M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Joseph C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  7. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  8. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  9. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-06-08

    The nitrate (NO??) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO?? derived from at NO?? signal with ??N averaging 4.8 1.0 (standard error of the mean) and ??O averaging 70.2 1.7. In active layer pore waters, NO?? primarily occurred at concentrations suitable for isotopic analysis in the relatively dry and oxic centers of high-centered polygons. The average ??N and ??O of NO?? from high-centered polygons were 0.5 1.1 and 4.1 0.6, respectively. When compared to the ??N of reduced nitrogen (N) sources, and the ??O of soil pore waters, it was evident that NO?? in high-centered polygons was primarily from microbial nitrification. Permafrost NO?? had ??N ranging from approximately 6 to 10, similar to atmospheric and microbial NO??, and highly variable ??O ranging from approximately 2 to 38. Permafrost ice wedges contained a significant atmospheric component of NO??, while permafrost textural ice contained a greater proportion of microbially derived NO??. Large-scale permafrost thaw in this environment would release NO?? with a ??O signature intermediate to that of atmospheric and microbial NO?. Consequently, while atmospheric and microbial sources can be readily distinguished by the NO?? dual isotope technique in tundra environments, attribution of NO?? from thawing permafrost will not be straightforward. The NO?? isotopic signature, however, appears useful in identifying NO?? sources in extant permafrost ice.

  10. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600%C2%B0C with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  11. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600C.

  12. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Combined uranous nitrate production consisting of undivided electrolytic cell and divided electrolytic cell (Electrolysis ? Electrolytic cell)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Hui; Xian, Liang

    2013-07-01

    The electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate is a green, mild way to make uranous ions. Undivided electrolyzers whose maintenance is less but their conversion ratio and current efficiency are low, have been chosen. However, at the beginning of undivided electrolysis, high current efficiency can also be maintained. Divided electrolyzers' conversion ratio and current efficiency is much higher because the re-oxidation of uranous on anode is avoided, but their maintenance costs are more, because in radioactive environment the membrane has to be changed after several operations. In this paper, a combined method of uranous production is proposed which consists of 2 stages: undivided electrolysis (early stage) and divided electrolysis (late stage) to benefit from the advantages of both electrolysis modes. The performance of the combined method was tested. The results show that in combined mode, after 200 min long electrolysis (80 min undivided electrolysis and 120 min divided electrolysis), U(IV) yield can achieve 92.3% (500 ml feed, U 199 g/l, 72 cm{sup 2} cathode, 120 mA/cm{sup 2}). Compared with divided mode, about 1/3 working time in divided electrolyzer is reduced to achieve the same U(IV) yield. If 120 min long undivided electrolysis was taken, more than 1/2 working time can be reduced in divided electrolyzer, which means that about half of the maintenance cost can also be reduced. (authors)

  14. Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

    2005-02-04

    A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity and its ability to characterize a PD event. Other sensing techniques have been also identified, such as the wavelength shifting fiber optics and custom fabricated fibers with special coatings.

  15. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  16. Changing Mindsets, Transforming Classrooms: Broadening Participation In

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STEM | Argonne National Laboratory Contact education@anl.gov Changing Mindsets, Transforming Classrooms: Broadening Participation In STEM Diversity: the art of thinking independently together. - Malcolm Forbes Thank you to everyone for a successful event! The Changing Mindsets workshop not only broadened perspectives, but ignited hope. The conversations do not end here. Future opportunities will be provided if you are interested in joining in the conversation. Argonne Education and

  17. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  18. EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Effective Date: 5/28/2014 The Responsible Manager has determined that the following organizations' review/concurrence is required for the initial document and for major revisions a same type and level review is required. Review documentation is contained in the Document History File: EWMO Engineering LANL TRU Programs - Shipping and Safe Storage Disposition LANL TRU Programs - Drum Disposition Project LANL

  19. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... based on standard IEC 60076- 7:2005 "Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers" 4. ... M. Lehtonen, H. Nordman, Effect of Harmonics on Transformers Loss of life, IEEE, ...

  20. 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Symposium on Market Transformation 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation March 20, 2016 9:00AM EDT to March 22, 2016 5:00PM EDT Hyatt Regency Baltimore Baltimore, Maryland

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc.,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in ...

  2. Houston Transforming with Solar Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transforming with Solar Energy Houston Transforming with Solar Energy January 12, 2010 - 8:54am Addthis Houston is a Solar America Cities participant. | File photo Houston is a ...

  3. Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document details the agenda for the DOE Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop on Feb. 17, 2012.

  4. Market Transformation: Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  5. PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on the transformation of the grid delivered by Patricia Hoffman, U.S. Department of Energy. PDF icon Transformation of the Grid More Documents & Publications Grid Modernization Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) NARUC Vision of the Future Grid Webinar (January 2012) FY13 OE Budget Request Presentation by Patricia Hoffman

  6. Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Lead Performer: Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) - Washington, DC Partners: -- Vermont Energy Investment Corporation/District of Columbia Sustainable Energy Utility (VEIC/DCSEU) -- District of Columbia Department of Energy and Environment (DOEE) -- New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

  7. Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity Addthis Description This video is a great resource for teachers, demonstrating how transformers work. It includes experiments and demos that can be shared with students. Duration 8:36 Credit James Lincoln, AAPT Films

  8. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  9. Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets Cliff M ajersik, Execu2ve D irector cliff@imt.org;@IMTCliff. June 16, 2015 US spends $400 billion per year to power b uildings The b uilding s ector i s t he d ominant u ser o f e nergy a nd generator o f C O 2 e missions i n t he U .S. T his i s m ore t rue i n c ities due t o d ensity. 38 70 51 65 75 62 75 74 US Chicago Dallas Minneapolis New York City Philadelphia Salt Lake City Washington, DC Percentage of Total Carbon Emissions from

  10. Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding Yuan

    2010-12-29

    A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.

  11. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  12. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  13. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  14. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-06-08

    The nitrate (NO₃⁻) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO₃⁻ derived from at NO₃⁻ signal with δ¹⁵N averaging –4.8 ± 1.0‰ (standard error of the mean) and δ¹⁸O averaging 70.2 ±1.7‰. In active layer pore waters, NO₃⁻ primarily occurred at concentrations suitable for isotopic analysis in the relatively dry and oxic centers of high-centered polygons. The average δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O of NO₃⁻ from high-centered polygons were 0.5 ± 1.1‰ and –4.1 ± 0.6‰, respectively. When compared to the δ¹⁵N of reduced nitrogen (N) sources,more » and the δ¹⁸O of soil pore waters, it was evident that NO₃⁻ in high-centered polygons was primarily from microbial nitrification. Permafrost NO₃⁻ had δ¹⁵N ranging from approximately –6‰ to 10‰, similar to atmospheric and microbial NO₃⁻, and highly variable δ¹⁸O ranging from approximately –2‰ to 38‰. Permafrost ice wedges contained a significant atmospheric component of NO₃⁻, while permafrost textural ice contained a greater proportion of microbially derived NO₃⁻. Large-scale permafrost thaw in this environment would release NO₃⁻ with a δ¹⁸O signature intermediate to that of atmospheric and microbial NO₃. Consequently, while atmospheric and microbial sources can be readily distinguished by the NO₃⁻ dual isotope technique in tundra environments, attribution of NO₃⁻ from thawing permafrost will not be straightforward. The NO₃⁻ isotopic signature, however, appears useful in identifying NO₃⁻ sources in extant permafrost ice.« less

  15. Criticality experiments with planar arrays of three-liter bottles containing plutonium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, B.M.; Clayton, E.D.; Smith, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in critically safety assessments of plant configurations. Arrays containing up to as many as sixteen three-liter bottles filled with plutonium nitrate were used in the experiments. A split-table device was used in the final assembly of the arrays. Ths planar arrays were reflected with close fitting plexiglas on each side and on the bottom but not the top surface. The experiments addressed a number of factors effecting criticality: the critical air gap between bottles in an array of fixed number of bottles, the number of bottles required for criticality if the bottles were touching, and the effect on critical array spacing and critical bottle number due to the insertion of an hydrogeneous substance into the air gap between bottles. Each bottle contained about 2.4l of Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution at a Pu concentration of 105g Pu/l, with the {sup 240}Pu content being 2.9 wt% at a free acid molarity H{sup +} of 5.1. After the initial series of experiments were performed with bottles separated by air gaps, plexiglas shells of varying thicknesses were placed around each bottle to investigate how moderation between bottles affects both the number of bottles required for criticality and the critical spacing between each bottle. The minimum of bottles required for criticality was found to be 10.9 bottles, occurring for a square array with bottles in contact. As the bottles were spaced apart, the critical number increased. For sixteen bottles in a square array, the critical separation between surfaces in both x and y direction was 0.96 cm. The addition of plexiglas around each bottle decreased the critical bottle number, compared to those separated in air, but the critical bottle number, even with interstitial plastic in place was always greater than 10.9 bottles. The most reactive configuration was a tightly packed array of bottles with no intervening material.

  16. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  17. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  18. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  19. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  20. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-04-15

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  1. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  2. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  3. Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy September 5, 2012 - 12:57pm Addthis The Obama Administration's Digital Government Strategy provides a vision for a 21st century government that lays a strong foundation for modernizing technology services across the Federal Government. At Energy, we're implementing a three-pillar approach -- Transform, Protect and Advance - as part of this

  4. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Fourier-Transform Infrared and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Spectroscopy Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Image of FTIR map FTIR mapping capabilities are extremely useful for the quick, nondestructive characterization of heterogeneous free carrier properties of transparent conduction oxides. Infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive, highly sensitive technique that provides information about impurities, chemical environment, and free-carrier properties. Performing both Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and Fourier transform infrared

  5. Improved technique for one-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.A.

    1987-05-11

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.

  6. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    05/24/2011 | Department of Energy Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 This document is the U.S. Department of Energys presentation titled NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and UpdateŽ, date - May 24, 2011 PDF icon nema_distributiontransformers_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products

  7. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the demonstration and market transformation sessions are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2015 Project Peer Review Program

  8. ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies March 2, 2012 - 2:31pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) issued a $150 million funding opportunity open to all transformational energy technologies to support the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above approach to solving our nation's most pressing energy challenges. This Open Funding

  9. DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Funding | Department of Energy 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for Funding DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for Funding August 13, 2015 - 9:59am Addthis The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected 16 projects to receive funding through NETL's Carbon Capture Program. The program funds development and testing of transformational carbon dioxide (CO2) capture systems for new and existing

  10. Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.N. |

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

  11. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D. ); Cady, H.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  12. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Cady, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  13. Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Taming the Grid: Dynamic Load Composition Quantification at the Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holby, Edward F. Los Alamos...

  14. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three...

  15. Expanding Transformer Production for U.S. Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Metglas, which makes Amorphous Metal Transformers from an amorphous metal alloy with unique mechanical and magnetic properties, is creating jobs from advance manufacturing tax credits.

  16. Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United New Energy Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co.,Ltd. Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100005 Product: The clean...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast ...

  18. Dominican Republic-Fast-Track Development of TransformativeClimate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fast-Track Development of Transformative Climate-Compatible Development Plans and Building of Regional and Local Capacities Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Dominican...

  19. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase...

  20. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elasticall...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling...

  1. Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - 2014 BTO Peer Review Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Project Objective The overall goal of this project is to train building operations...

  2. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  3. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will...

  4. Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 Request for Information on a National Power Transformer ... The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy ...

  5. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated ...

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWPA Transformer Oil Spill Risk Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to develop a system wide response to the issue of secondary containment of oil for transformers in service at Corps powerhouses and dam switchyards within Southwestern's marketing...

  7. MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischer, Marc E.; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

    2013-09-12

    Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is differentially regulated in genetically distinct NO3- assimilating bacteria, and that the best predictors of nasA gene expression are either NO3- concentration or NO3- uptake rates. These studies provide convincing evidence of the importance of bacterial utilization of NO3-, insight into controlling processes, and provide a rich dataset that are being used to develop linked C and N modeling components necessary to evaluate the significance of bacterial DIN utilization to global C cycling. Furthermore, as a result of BI-OMP funding we made exciting strides towards institutionalizing a research and education based collaboration between the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SkIO) and Savannah State University (SSU), an historically black university within the University System of Georgia with undergraduate and now graduate programs in marine science. The BI-OMP program, in addition to supporting undergraduate (24) graduate (10) and postdoctoral (2) students, contributed to the development of a new graduate program in Marine Sciences at SSU that remains an important legacy of this project. The long-term goals of these collaborations are to increase the capacity for marine biotechnology research and to increase representation of minorities in marine, environmental and biotechnological sciences.

  8. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects.

  9. Smart Grid - Transforming Power System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-04-28

    AbstractElectric power systems are entering a new realm of operations. Large amounts of variable generation tax our ability to reliably operate the system. Couple this with a greater reliance on the electricity network to serve consumer demand that is likely to rise significantly even as we drive for greater efficiency. Trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated, while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in a world where threats of disruption have risen. Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help address the challenges confronting system operations. This paper reviews the impact of smart grid functionality on transforming power system operations. It explores models for distributed energy resources (DER generation, storage, and load) that are appearing on the system. It reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be addressed as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  10. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  11. Wedge assembly for electrical transformer component spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baggett, Franklin E. (Paducah, KY); Cage, W. Franklin (LaCenter, KY)

    1991-01-01

    A wedge assembly that is easily inserted between two surfaces to be supported thereby, and thereafter expanded to produce a selected spacing between those surfaces. This wedge assembly has two outer members that are substantially identical except that they are mirror images of each other. Oppositely directed faces of these of these outer members are substantially parallel for the purpose of contacting the surfaces to be separated. The outer faces of these outer members that are directed toward each other are tapered so as to contact a center member having complementary tapers on both faces. A washer member is provided to contact a common end of the outer members, and a bolt member penetrates this washer and is threadably received in a receptor of the center member. As the bolt member is threaded into the center member, the center member is drawn further into the gap between the outer members and thereby separates these outer members to contact the surfaces to be separated. In the preferred embodiment, the contacting surfaces of the outer member and the center member are provided with guide elements. The wedge assembly is described for use in separating the secondary windings from the laminations of an electrical power transformer.

  12. Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis with cloned thymidylate synthetases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis carries two genes, thyA and thyB, each encoding different protein products, with thymidylate synthetase (TSase) activity. Either of these genes alone is sufficient for thymidine independence in B. subtilis. In addition there exist two B. subtilis temperate bacteriophages which upon infection of thymine requiring auxotrophs results in conversion of the organism to thymine independence. Chimeric plasmids selected for Thy/sup +/ transforming activity in E. coli were constructed and then used as a source of defined highly enriched DNA with which to transform competent B. subtilis. These plasmids were studied for their: (1) abiility to transform B. subtilis to thymine independence; (2) site of integration within the B. subtilis chromosome upon transformation; (3) phenotype of Thy/sup +/ plasmid generated transformants; and (4) nucleotide sequence homology among the cloned DNA fragments conferring thymine independence. Plasmids containing the two bacteriophage thy genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyA, whereas the plasmids containing the cloned B. subtilis chromosomal genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyB. Utilizing similar technology, the ability of an entirely foreign hybred bacterial plasmiid to transform B. subtilis was examined. In this case the gene from E. coli encoding thymidylate synthetase was cloned in the plasmid pBR322. The resulting chimeric plasmid was effective in transforming both E. coli and B. subtilis to thymine prototrophy. Uncloned linear E. coli chromosomal DNA was unable to transform thymine requiring strains of B. subtilis to thymine independence. Although the Thy/sup +/ transformants of E. coli contained plasmid DNA, the Thy/sup +/ transformants derived from the transformation of B. subtilis did not contain detectable extrachromosomal DNA. Instead the DNA from the chimeric plasmid was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. (ERB)

  13. Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon commlbldgs13_underhill_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014

  14. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, M.K.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1997-05-20

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets. 14 figs.

  15. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectivesreducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  16. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  17. Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy during its transformation from

  18. Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary Structural phase transformations in (100)-oriented Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub

  19. Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys The phase transformation and magnetostriction of bulk Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} and Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub

  20. New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation June 21, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Brad Bugger 208-526-0833 Tim Jackson 208-526-8484 The U.S. Department of Energy is releasing an update to the history of the Idaho National Laboratory, documenting a decade of transformation at the laboratory, and a "decade of doing" for the Idaho Cleanup Project.

  1. Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades, Evolving to Whole Home Success, Session 2: Sustainable Business Models presentation. Provides an overview of Connecticut's various home energy programs, the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, and contractor involvement.

  2. Combinatorial discovery of enzymes with utility in biomass transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Brian G; Elsen, Nathaniel L

    2015-02-03

    Methods for the cell-free identification of polypeptide and polypeptide combinations with utility in biomass transformation, as well as specific novel polypeptides and cell-free systems containing polypeptide combinations discovered by such methods are disclosed.

  3. EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green ... These grant funds will be used to close up their buildings-making them more energy ...

  4. Y-12 and the 2000 decade … Modernization to Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation Tom Smith, who for a number of years has led the forward thinking and long-range planning functions at Y-12, observed the following about the Infrastructure ...

  5. Live Broadcast on Transforming Digital Technologies Across Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Thursday, March 24 at 1:00pm ET, join the Office of the Chief Information Office for a discussion on transforming digital technologies across the federal government.

  6. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  7. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in beta-LiAlSiOsubscript 4 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  8. The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The kinetics of the omega to alpha phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  9. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Transformation NREL's market transformation activities address technical and non-technical barriers to the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to ensure that laboratory advances can be realized in the marketplace. Projects focus on deploying hydrogen and fuel cells in key early markets-specialty vehicles, backup and remote power, portable power, and primary power for critical applications such as hospitals or data centers-and renewable hydrogen production

  10. Martensite transformation of epitaxial Ni-Ti films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschbeck, J.; Kozhanov, A.; Kawasaki, J. K.; James, R. D.; Palmstroem, C. J.

    2011-05-09

    The structure and phase transformations of thin Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated for compositions from 43 to 56 at. % Ti. Despite the substrate constraint, temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements reveal reversible, martensitic phase transformations. The results suggest that these occur by an in-plane shear which does not disturb the lattice coherence at interfaces.

  11. 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry December 12, 2013 - 3:07pm Addthis A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Center A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save

  12. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Authors: Dafflon, B. ; Wu, Y. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. ; Daley, T. M. ; Pugh,

  13. Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Authors: Godinez Vazquez, Humberto C. [1] ; Lawrence, Earl Christopher [1] ; Higdon, David Mitchell [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-03-18 OSTI Identifier: 1209285 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-21977 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  14. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-03-06 OSTI Identifier: 1169262 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-651372 DOE Contract Number:

  15. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held January 23-24, 2008 in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon fuelcell_pre-solicitation_wkshop_jan08_devlin.pdf More Documents & Publications Idaho Operations AMWTP Fact Sheet Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System

  16. Environmental Report Project Transforms Students into Informed Stakeholders

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Environmental Report Project Transforms Students into Informed Stakeholders Environmental Report Project Transforms Students into Informed Stakeholders June 20, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Lead Joel Bradburne, left, is pictured with faculty, staff and students of Eastern High School during an ASER Summary Project recognition ceremony conducted recently at the high school. Bradburne applauded the students' work and said the project puts

  17. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Authors: Zhang, Jianzhong ; Zhao, Yusheng ; Xu, Hongwu ; Zelinskas, Matthew V. ; Wang, Liping ; Wang, Yanbin ; Uchida, Takeyuki [1] ; UC) [2] ; LANL) [2] ; Buffalo) [2] + Show Author Affiliations Delaware State (

  18. Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Australia (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Authors: Campbell, S. Gordon ; Reith, Frank ; Etschmann, Barbara ; Brugger, Joël ; Martinez-Criado, Gema ; Gordon, Robert A. ; Southam, Gordon [1] ; CLS) [2] ; Monash) [2] ; SA Museum) [2] ;

  19. An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Authors: Finkel, H. J. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (LCF) Publication

  20. November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Out | Department of Energy 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out October 13, 2014 - 5:57pm Addthis The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting the challenges and opportunities associated with dynamic distribution system architecture. This new dynamic distribution system connects central and local

  1. Researchers Discover a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Discover a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation Researchers Discover a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation NERSC, ESnet and computational scientists help researchers discover how neutrinos flavor-shift as they travel at near light-speed March 8, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Daya Bay Neutrino Facility in China. Photo by: Roy Kaltschmidt, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Neutrinos, the wispy particles that flooded the universe in the earliest moments after the Big

  2. Chemical Transformations | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Chemical Transformations Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs Reports and Activities Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Chemical Transformations Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Research themes include the characterization, control, and optimization of chemistry in many forms. Catalysis science underpins the design of

  3. SAR image formation with azimuth interpolation after azimuth transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry; Armin W. , Martin; Grant D. , Holzrichter; Michael W.

    2008-07-08

    Two-dimensional SAR data can be processed into a rectangular grid format by subjecting the SAR data to a Fourier transform operation, and thereafter to a corresponding interpolation operation. Because the interpolation operation follows the Fourier transform operation, the interpolation operation can be simplified, and the effect of interpolation errors can be diminished. This provides for the possibility of both reducing the re-grid processing time, and improving the image quality.

  4. Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement October 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary Summary DOE/EIS-0236-S4 National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy October 2008 C C CO O OM MP PL LE EXtransfo o or r rm m mat on COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration TITLE: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Complex Transformation SPEIS, DOE/EIS-0236-S4) CONTACTS: For further information on this SPEIS, For general information on the DOE write or

  5. VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a House into a Home VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home October 28, 2013 - 10:30am Addthis In the video above, Lakiya Culley talks about how her solar-powered, passive home, located in D.C.'s Deanwood neighborhood, has changed her family's future. | Video by Matty Greene, Energy Department. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer At universities all across the country,

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys | Department of Energy Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Presentation given by University of Michigan at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and

  7. Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Print Monday, 05 March 2012 15:26 Metal-ion mediated reactions of 2-pyridinealdoxime and hexafluorophosphate lead to ZnII complexes containing picolinic acid, picolinamide and monofluorophosphate (-2) as ligands. Article Link (PDF) Read more about this publication in the ALS Science Brief Metal-Ion-Mediated

  8. Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging A tokamak current can be sustained using rf waves for transformer recharging at low density and high-Z with high efficiency if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. The two separate inventions can be made to work synergistically.

  9. The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation This poster highlights the major milestones in the history of the linear engine in terms of technological advances, novel designs, and economic/social impact. PDF icon p-06_covington.pdf More Documents & Publications Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Modeling the

  10. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (August 2006) | Department of Energy Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (August 2006) Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United

  11. Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million in Funding

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million in Funding Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million in Funding October 26, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis San Francisco, Calif. - The Department of Energy today announced major funding for 37 ambitious research projects - including some that could allow intermittent energy sources like wind and solar to provide a steady flow of power, or use bacteria to produce automotive fuel from

  12. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Media--An Idea Exchange | Department of Energy Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report describes results of a Building America expert meeting on September 13, 2011, in Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted by the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA). This meeting provided a forum for presentations and discussions on the use of new media to work with

  13. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry, November 2010 | Department of Energy Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 PDF icon itp_successes.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Technology Solutions ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing

  14. Innovative Facility Kicks Off First Experiment to Transform Building Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance | Department of Energy Facility Kicks Off First Experiment to Transform Building Energy Performance Innovative Facility Kicks Off First Experiment to Transform Building Energy Performance April 14, 2014 - 5:51pm Addthis Dr. David Danielson, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (second from left), tours FLEXLAB with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory officials in California today. FLEXLAB is the only facility in the nation that allows researchers and

  15. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Revolutionize Electric Power in North America | Department of Energy Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America This Roadmap provides a framework for all of the stakeholders that comprise the electric industry to work together to achieve common aims. PDF icon National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap:

  16. Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Water Currents | Department of Energy Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE is funding Vortex Hydro Energy to commercialize the Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) converter, which is a University of Michigan-patented marine and hydrokinetic energy device designed to harness the

  17. Transformative Battery Technology at the National Labs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transformative Battery Technology at the National Labs Transformative Battery Technology at the National Labs January 17, 2012 - 10:45am Addthis Vince Battaglia leads a behind-the-scenes tour of Berkeley Lab's Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies Program where researchers aim to improve batteries upon which the range, efficiency, and power of tomorrow's electric cars will depend. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs

  18. EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents | Department of Energy Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE is funding Vortex Hydro Energy to commercialize the Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) converter, which is a University of Michigan-patented marine and

  19. Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature-driven phase transformation ...

  20. Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of NOx source contributions to atmospheric nitrate deposition across the Midwestern and Northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Elliott; C. Kendall; S.D. Wanke; D.A. Burns; E.W. Boyer; K. Harlin; D.J. Bain; T.J. Butler

    2007-11-15

    Global inputs of NOx are dominated by fossil fuel combustion from both stationary and vehicular sources and far exceed natural NOx sources. However, elucidating NOx sources to any given location remains a difficult challenge, despite the need for this information to develop sound regulatory and mitigation strategies. We present results from a regional-scale study of nitrogen isotopes (15N) in wet nitrate deposition across 33 sites in the midwestern and northeastern U.S. We demonstrate that spatial variations in 15N are strongly correlated with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, or NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U.S., our results suggest that wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition at sites in this study is strongly associated with NOx emissions from power plants. This suggests that large areas of the landscape potentially receive atmospheric NOy deposition inputs in excess of what one would infer from existing monitoring data alone. Moreover, we determined that spatial patterns in 15N values are a robust indicator of stationary NOx contributions to wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition and hence a valuable complement to existing tools for assessing relationships between NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition, regional emission inventories, and for evaluating progress toward NOx reduction goals. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Mathematical investigation of one-way transform matrix options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, James Arlin

    2006-01-01

    One-way transforms have been used in weapon systems processors since the mid- to late-1970s in order to help recognize insertion of correct pre-arm information while maintaining abnormal-environment safety. Level-One, Level-Two, and Level-Three transforms have been designed. The Level-One and Level-Two transforms have been implemented in weapon systems, and both of these transforms are equivalent to matrix multiplication applied to the inserted information. The Level-Two transform, utilizing a 6 x 6 matrix, provided the basis for the ''System 2'' interface definition for Unique-Signal digital communication between aircraft and attached weapons. The investigation described in this report was carried out to find out if there were other size matrices that would be equivalent to the 6 x 6 Level-Two matrix. One reason for the investigation was to find out whether or not other dimensions were possible, and if so, to derive implementation options. Another important reason was to more fully explore the potential for inadvertent inversion. The results were that additional implementation methods were discovered, but no inversion weaknesses were revealed.

  2. A model for heterogeneous materials including phase transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addessio, F.L.; Clements, B.E.; Williams, T.O.

    2005-04-15

    A model is developed for particulate composites, which includes phase transformations in one or all of the constituents. The model is an extension of the method of cells formalism. Representative simulations for a single-phase, brittle particulate (SiC) embedded in a ductile material (Ti), which undergoes a solid-solid phase transformation, are provided. Also, simulations for a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) are included. In the WHA analyses a particulate composite, composed of tungsten particles embedded in a tungsten-iron-nickel alloy matrix, is modeled. A solid-liquid phase transformation of the matrix material is included in the WHA numerical calculations. The example problems also demonstrate two approaches for generating free energies for the material constituents. Simulations for volumetric compression, uniaxial strain, biaxial strain, and pure shear are used to demonstrate the versatility of the model.

  3. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ralph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Guilford, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stichman, John H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  4. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  5. Predicting the onset of transformation under noncontinuous cooling conditions. Part 2: Application to the austenite pearlite transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, T.T.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Brimacombe, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    A detailed review of the additivity principle with respect to the incubation of the austenite decomposition was summarized in Part 1 of this two-part series and led to the concept of an ideal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. This curve is characteristic of the chemistry and austenite grain size in the steel and allows nonisothermal behavior to be described assuming additivity holds. The derivation of mathematical relationships between the ideal and experimental cooling data was presented in the first article. In this second article, an ideal curve for the austenite-to-pearlite transformation was derived from cooling data. The applicability of the ideal TTT curve for predicting the start of transformation under continuous cooling conditions was assessed for a range of cooling rates. Experiments were conducted under both isothermal and varying temperature conditions, including an industrial cooling schedule, using a Gleeble Thermal Simulator. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the observed transformation start temperatures; predictions were consistent and compared favorably against other methods which have been frequently used to estimate the transformation start temperature for nonisothermal conditions.

  6. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to silica diagenesis: The opal-A to opal-CT transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, S.B.; Freund, H.; Huang, W.L.; Clouse, J.A.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    An important goal in silica diagenesis research is to understand the kinetics of opal transformation from noncrystalline opal-A to the disordered silica polymorph opal-CT. Because the conventional technique for monitoring the transformation, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), is applicable only to phases with long-range order, the authors used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to monitor the transformation. They applied this technique, combined with XRD and TEM, to experimental run products and natural opals from the Monterey Formation and from siliceous deposits in the western Pacific Ocean. Using a ratio of two infrared absorption intensities ({omega} = I{sub 472 cm{sup {minus}1}}/I{sub 500 cm{sup {minus}1}}), the relative proportions of opal-A and opal-CT can be determined. The progress of the transformation is marked by changes in slope of {omega} vs. depth or time when a sufficient stratigraphic profile is available. There are three stages in the opal-A to opal-CT reaction: (1) opal-A dissolution; (2) opal-CT precipitation, whose end point is marked by completion of opal-A dissolution; and (3) opal-CT ordering, during which tridymite stacking is eliminated in favor of crystobalite stacking.

  7. Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 31, 2016 Title: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x

  8. Direct evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy Authors: Huang, L. ; Cong, D. Y. ; Wang, Z. L. ; Nie, Z. H. ; Dong, Y. H. ; Zhang, Y. ; Ren, Yang ; Wang, Y. D.

  9. Phase transformations in steels: Processing, microstructure, and performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbs, Paul J.

    2014-04-03

    In this study, contemporary steel research is revealing new processing avenues to tailor microstructure and properties that, until recently, were only imaginable. Much of the technological versatility facilitating this development is provided by the understanding and utilization of the complex phase transformation sequences available in ferrous alloys. Today we have the opportunity to explore the diverse phenomena displayed by steels with specialized analytical and experimental tools. Advances in multi-scale characterization techniques provide a fresh perspective into microstructural relationships at the macro- and micro-scale, enabling a fundamental understanding of the role of phase transformations during processing and subsequent deformation.

  10. New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis 2013qtr4_fast_large.gif This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool under a

  11. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  12. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-09-01

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  13. Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement October 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I Volume I Chapters 1 - 4 Chapters 1 - 4 DOE/EIS-0236-S4 National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy October 2008 C C CO O OM MP PL LE EXtransfo o or r rm m mat on COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration TITLE: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Complex Transformation SPEIS, DOE/EIS-0236-S4) CONTACTS: For further information on this SPEIS, For general information

  14. Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement October 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II Volume II Chapters 5 - 15 and Chapters 5 - 15 and Appendices A - G Appendices A - G DOE/EIS-0236-S4 National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy October 2008 C C CO O OM MP PL LE EXtransfo o or r rm m mat on COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration TITLE: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Complex Transformation SPEIS, DOE/EIS-0236-S4) CONTACTS: For further

  15. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steels: a 3D phase-field study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Authors: Yeddu, Hemantha K. [1] ; Lookman, Turab [1] ; Saxena, Avadh B. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-08-19 OSTI Identifier:

  16. Monitoring & Diagnosis of Transformers | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Luiz Felipe Willcox 2015.04.30 It was a Friday evening in the spring of 1994 and I was going out for a pizza with my old man. I had just received my degree in electrical engineering. As my

  17. Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris | Department of Energy Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris November 23, 2015 - 3:36pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced $125 million across 41 cutting-edge energy technologies awarded by the

  18. Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    West Union Green Transformation Project Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project March 17, 2014 - 11:26am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area, including 80% of the 60 downtown buildings. Funds have also been allocated to provide

  19. Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project March 17, 2014 - 11:26am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area, including 80% of the 60 downtown buildings. Funds have also been allocated to provide

  20. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2001-06-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  1. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2000-06-01

    Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  2. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  3. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  4. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Janos, Alan C. (East Windsor, NJ); Uyama, Tadao (Osaka, JP); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  5. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.

    2010-02-15

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  6. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material

  7. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  8. Fundamental Mechanisms Driving the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, B W; Browning, N D; Santala, M K; LaGrange, T; Gilmer, G H; Masiel, D J; Campbell, G H; Raoux, S; Topuria, T; Meister, S; Cui, Y

    2011-01-04

    Phase transformations are ubiquitous, fundamental phenomena that lie at the heart of many structural, optical and electronic properties in condensed matter physics and materials science. Many transformations, especially those occurring under extreme conditions such as rapid changes in the thermodynamic state, are controlled by poorly understood processes involving the nucleation and quenching of metastable phases. Typically these processes occur on time and length scales invisible to most experimental techniques ({micro}s and faster, nm and smaller), so our understanding of the dynamics tends to be very limited and indirect, often relying on simulations combined with experimental study of the ''time infinity'' end state. Experimental techniques that can directly probe phase transformations on their proper time and length scales are therefore key to providing fundamental insights into the whole area of transformation physics and materials science. LLNL possesses a unique dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) capable of taking images and diffraction patterns of laser-driven material processes with resolution measured in nanometers and nanoseconds. The DTEM has previously used time-resolved diffraction patterns to quantitatively study phase transformations that are orders of magnitude too fast for conventional in situ TEM. More recently the microscope has demonstrated the ability to directly image a reaction front moving at {approx}13 nm/ns and the nucleation of a new phase behind that front. Certain compound semiconductor phase change materials, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST), Sb{sub 2}Te and GeSb, exhibit a technologically important series of transformations on scales that fall neatly into the performance specifications of the DTEM. If a small portion of such material is heated above its melting point and then rapidly cooled, it quenches into an amorphous state. Heating again with a less intense pulse leads to recrystallization into a vacancy-stabilized metastable rock salt structure. Each transformation takes {approx}10-100 ns, and the cycle can be driven repeatedly a very large number of times with a nanosecond laser such as the DTEM's sample drive laser. These materials are widely used in optical storage devices such as rewritable CDs and DVDs, and they are also applied in a novel solid state memory technology - phase change memory (PCM). PCM has the potential to produce nonvolatile memory systems with high speed, extreme density, and very low power requirements. For PCM applications several materials properties are of great importance: the resistivities of both phases, the crystallization temperature, the melting point, the crystallization speed, reversibility (number of phase-transformation cycles without degradation) and stability against crystallization at elevated temperature. For a viable technology, all these properties need to have good scaling behavior, as dimensions of the memory cells will shrink with every generation. In this LDRD project, we used the unique single-shot nanosecond in situ experimentation capabilities of the DTEM to watch these transformations in GST on the time and length scales most relevant for device applications. Interpretation of the results was performed in conjunction with atomistic and finite-element computations. Samples were provided by collaborators at IBM and Stanford University. We observed, and measured the kinetics of, the amorphous-crystalline and melting-solidification transitions in uniform thin-film samples. Above a certain threshold, the crystal nucleation rate was found to be enormously high (with many nuclei appearing per cubic {micro}m even after nanosecond-scale incubation times), in agreement with atomistic simulation and consistent with an extremely low nucleation barrier. We developed data reduction techniques based on principal component analysis (PCA), revealing the complex, multi-dimensional evolution of the material while suppressing noise and irrelevant information. Using a novel specimen geometry, we also achieved repeated switching betw

  9. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Feiye; Ma, Ning; Horibe, Yoshiteru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2012-04-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 2030 nm (CNT20) and 4070 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formation at 5 and 10 ?g/ml (p < 0.05), which persisted for 24 h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p < 0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p < 0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-?B (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-?-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis. Highlights: ?Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) caused DNA damage in A549 cells. ?MWCNT formed 8-nitroguanine, a DNA lesion associated with inflammatory response. ?MWCNT was internalized into cells via caveolin- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. ?8-Nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression involved these types of endocytosis. ?Internalized MWCNT plays a key role in inflammatory response and DNA damage.

  10. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Karl A.

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  11. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  12. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  13. Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab March 5, 2016, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium at PPPL Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy Dr. Edmund Synakowski Department of Energy, Office of Science Abstract: PDF icon Synakowski.pdf Science_on_Saturday05Mar2016_ESynakowski Contact Information Coordinator(s): Ms. Deedee Ortiz-Arias dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Dr. Andrew Zwicker

  14. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the active material and its concentration in the

  15. Small Variations Mean Big Changes in Oxide's Transformation from

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Insulator to Conductor | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Small Variations Mean Big Changes in Oxide's Transformation from Insulator to Conductor Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F:

  16. Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results Capitalizing on the concept that everything proceeds faster with a little cooperation, researchers showed how designing cooperation into solid catalysts leads to enormous benefits.Catalysts attached to a porous solid support are preferred industrially because they are easier to separate from liquid products and reuse. But, these bound catalysts typically do not perform as well and probing their interiors to figure out how to improve them has

  17. SMART Scale: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SMART Scale Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Colin Clark, CClark@ecoact.org ECOLOGY ACTION Project Summary Timeline:  Start date: October 1, 2013  Planned end date: September 30, 2016 Key Milestones :  June 2014: Research and develop list of measures needed to enhance Ecology !ction's DI 2.0 model to achieve an average of at least 20% energy savings  June 2015: Review of EM&V on completed projects showing an

  18. Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

  19. The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles > Research Highlights > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel

  20. Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Wireless Energy Efficiency Keys Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Wireless Energy Efficiency Keys Initiative *Ways of Using Wireless Technology to Help You Reduce Energy Usage at your Facility Together with our industry partners, we strive to: * Accelerate adoption of the many energy-efficient technologies and practices available today * Conduct vigorous technology innovation to radically improve future energy diversity, resource efficiency, and carbon mitigation * Promote a corporate culture of energy

  1. Transforming the Commercial Building Operations (subcontract of PNNL)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming the Commercial Building Operations (subcontract of PNNL) 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Photo credit: Marta Milan Marta Milan, martamilan@waypointbuilding.com Waypoint Building Group Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Oct 1, 2011 Planned end date: Sept 30, 2014 Key Milestones 1. Coordinate up to 5 trainings; September 15, 2014 2. Develop up to 6 detailed case studies and outreach marketing materials; July 30, 2014 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $929K Total future DOE

  2. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1{sup }20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1{sup }20) fiber and progressed to a (1{sup }30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1{sup }30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21{sup }0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1{sup }30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  3. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  4. Wavelength-encoded tomography based on optical temporal Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a technique called wavelength-encoded tomography (WET) for non-invasive optical cross-sectional imaging, particularly beneficial in biological system. The WET utilizes time-lens to perform the optical Fourier transform, and the time-to-wavelength conversion generates a wavelength-encoded image of optical scattering from internal microstructures, analogous to the interferometery-based imaging such as optical coherence tomography. Optical Fourier transform, in principle, comes with twice as good axial resolution over the electrical Fourier transform, and will greatly simplify the digital signal processing after the data acquisition. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 150?-?m (ideally 36??m) resolution is achieved based on a 7.5-nm bandwidth swept-pump, using a conventional optical spectrum analyzer. This approach can potentially achieve up to 100-MHz or even higher frame rate with some proven ultrafast spectrum analyzer. We believe that this technique is innovative towards the next-generation ultrafast optical tomographic imaging application.

  5. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  6. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: ...

  7. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on ...

  8. Getting from here to there energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krey, Volker; Luderer, Gunnar; Clarke, Leon E.; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This apper discusses Getting from here to there energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

  9. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Mackay; Martinot, Eric; Cox, Sadie; Speer, Bethany; Zinaman, Owen; Booth, Sam; Zissler, Romain; Cochran, Jaquelin; Soonee, S. K.; Audinet, Pierre; Munuera, Luis; Arent, Doug

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  10. Studies on lanthanoid complexes of open chain multidentate ligands. VIII. Preparation and structural characterization of the undecacoordinate complex of neodymium nitrate with N,N{prime}-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)tetraglycollic diamide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhijian Liang; Xinmin Gan; Ning Tang; Minyu Tan; Kaibei Yu; Ganzu Tan

    1993-12-31

    The title compound [Nd(L)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}]2CH{sub 3}CN was formed by reaction of neodymium nitrate with N,N{prime}-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)tetraglycollic diamide (L). The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group Cc with Z = 4, a = 21.305(6), b = 11.470(4), c = 14.436(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 97.41(2), V = 3498(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The pentadentate organic ligand wraps around the neodymium ion which is also bonded to three bidentate nitrate groups, achieving uncommon undecacoordination with the following mean bond lengths: Nd-O(etheric), 2.703; Nd-O(carbonyl), 2.518; Nd-O(nitrate), 2.546 {angstrom}. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  12. Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California Friday, February 17, 2012 8:30 - 9:00 REGISTRATION & BREAKFAST 9:00 - 9:10 Welcome Adam Cohen, Fellow 9:10 - 9:50 Solar: The Social Phenomenon Danny Kennedy, Sungevity 9:50 - 10:15 SunShot overview & Ad Lucem objectives Aimee Gotway Bailey & Adam Cohen, Fellows 10:15 - 10:30 BREAK 10:30 - 12:00 Morning breakout sessions 1. Modeling solar technology market

  13. Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of One Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price of One Improving the quality of a high magnification image on an optical microscope is simply a matter of cranking up the intensity of the illumination lamp. The same is true for x-ray microscopes, but complications arise when there just aren't enough x-rays or even worse when the sample is susceptible to damage caused by the intense x-ray beam. To address these challenges we have demonstrated a novel technique

  14. Coresident sensor fusion and compression using the wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yocky, D.A.

    1996-03-11

    Imagery from coresident sensor platforms, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, can be combined using, multiresolution decomposition of the sensor images by means of the two-dimensional wavelet transform. The wavelet approach uses the combination of spatial/spectral information at multiple scales to create a fused image. This can be done in both an ad hoc or model-based approach. We compare results from commercial ``fusion`` software and the ad hoc, wavelet approach. Results show the wavelet approach outperforms the commercial algorithms and also supports efficient compression of the fused image.

  15. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  16. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  17. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  18. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  19. Parallelization and checkpointing of GPU applications through program transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano-Quinde, Lizandro Dami#19;an

    2012-11-15

    GPUs have emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating general-purpose applications. The availability of programming languages that makes writing general-purpose applications for running on GPUs tractable have consolidated GPUs as an alternative for accelerating general purpose applications. Among the areas that have beneffited from GPU acceleration are: signal and image processing, computational fluid dynamics, quantum chemistry, and, in general, the High Performance Computing (HPC) Industry. In order to continue to exploit higher levels of parallelism with GPUs, multi-GPU systems are gaining popularity. In this context, single-GPU applications are parallelized for running in multi-GPU systems. Furthermore, multi-GPU systems help to solve the GPU memory limitation for applications with large application memory footprint. Parallelizing single-GPU applications has been approached by libraries that distribute the workload at runtime, however, they impose execution overhead and are not portable. On the other hand, on traditional CPU systems, parallelization has been approached through application transformation at pre-compile time, which enhances the application to distribute the workload at application level and does not have the issues of library-based approaches. Hence, a parallelization scheme for GPU systems based on application transformation is needed. Like any computing engine of today, reliability is also a concern in GPUs. GPUs are vulnerable to transient and permanent failures. Current checkpoint/restart techniques are not suitable for systems with GPUs. Checkpointing for GPU systems present new and interesting challenges, primarily due to the natural differences imposed by the hardware design, the memory subsystem architecture, the massive number of threads, and the limited amount of synchronization among threads. Therefore, a checkpoint/restart technique suitable for GPU systems is needed. The goal of this work is to exploit higher levels of parallelism and to develop support for application-level fault tolerance in applications using multiple GPUs. Our techniques reduce the burden of enhancing single-GPU applications to support these features. To achieve our goal, this work designs and implements a framework for enhancing a single-GPU OpenCL application through application transformation.

  20. Sparse matrix transform for fast projection to reduced dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Cao, Guangzhi; Bouman, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    We investigate three algorithms that use the sparse matrix transform (SMT) to produce variance-maximizing linear projections to a lower-dimensional space. The SMT expresses the projection as a sequence of Givens rotations and this enables computationally efficient implementation of the projection operator. The baseline algorithm uses the SMT to directly approximate the optimal solution that is given by principal components analysis (PCA). A variant of the baseline begins with a standard SMT solution, but prunes the sequence of Givens rotations to only include those that contribute to the variance maximization. Finally, a simpler and faster third algorithm is introduced; this also estimates the projection operator with a sequence of Givens rotations, but in this case, the rotations are chosen to optimize a criterion that more directly expresses the dimension reduction criterion.

  1. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  2. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  3. Buying market transformation -- A cautionary tale from the Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylon, D.; Davis, B.; Hewes, T.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in April 1992, Pacific Northwest utilities, the Bonneville Power Administration, and eighteen manufactured home (HUD-code) builders undertook a large-scale experiment. Manufacturers were paid acquisition payments (initially $2,500/home) to install better insulation and windows in new electrically-heated homes. This resulted in homes 60% more efficient than HUD regulations dictated. Initial production projections of 10,000 homes per year were easily exceeded, with 94% of the manufactured homes (55,000) built to these standards during the 3.5 year program. During the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), production and on-site installation standards improved significantly. Manufactured homes made inroads into new construction markets, accounting for about 30% of regional production of new housing and competing with low- to mid-priced site-built homes in some areas. The market was transformed. Or was it? Two years have passed since the incentives stopped and the participating manufacturers were left to fend for themselves. Since MAP ended, production of homes built to the higher BPA Super Good Cents (SGC) energy efficiency standards has dropped throughout the region. The state energy offices (SEOs) have maintained an SGC inspection and certification program for which manufacturers pay $30/home, which has helped energy-efficient manufactured homes retain market share in some localities. However, where local codes do not require strict levels of energy efficiency for new homes, saturation of energy-efficient manufactured homes has declined dramatically. This paper examines factors affecting market transformation since the cessation of direct incentives, including fuel choice issues and the effects of state codes on production, infrastructure and sitting levels.

  4. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  5. Secretary Chu Awards $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Awards $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects Secretary Chu Awards $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects September 10, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu today announced the selection of six transformational energy research and development projects that could revolutionize how the country uses, stores and produces energy. Funded with $9.6 million from the American Recovery and

  6. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2014) | Department of Energy Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information about global electrical steel supply conditions and discusses the increased domestic production of large power

  7. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts that achieve a 45% reduction in energy

  8. ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies | Department of Energy 43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies August 2, 2012 - 10:34am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy today announced that 19 transformative new projects will receive a total of $43 million

  9. An In Situ Study of the Martensitic Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Xiong, Gang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2007-04-15

    Thermally-induced martensitic phase transformations in polycrystalline CuZnAl and thin-film NiTiCu shape memory alloys were probed using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy shows a reversible change in the apparent work function during transformation, presumably due to the contrasting surface electronic structures of the martensite and austenite phases. In situ PEEM images provide information on the spatial distribution of these phases and the evolution of the surface microstructure during transformation. PEEM offers considerable potential for improving our understanding of martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys in real time.

  10. The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

  11. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the phase ... We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the ' transformation that ...

  12. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report.

  13. OE Requests Comments on Potential Creation of a Reserve of Large Power Transformers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE issued a Request for Information (RFI), asking for comments on the possible establishment of a reserve of large power transformers that would support the nation’s bulk power system. Large power transformers (LPTs), which are a critical component of the power grid, are a concern because transformer failures can interrupt electricity service to a large number of customers and replacing one quickly could be difficult. Today’s RFI responds to the recommendation in the Energy Department’s Quadrennial Energy Review to evaluate a national initiative to mitigate the risks associated with the loss of transformers.

  14. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information...

  15. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  16. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  17. Hexagonal phase transformation in the engineered scavenger compound lithium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.K.; Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Engineered scavenger compounds (ESC's) developed by the US Bureau of Mines are a novel class of compounds that selectively can recover a desired element from a solid or molten alloy. Lithium titanate (Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] or Li[sub 2]O [center dot] 3TiO[sub 2]) is used as an ESC to recover lithium (Li) from aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] undergoes a phase change during scavenging from an orthorhombic structure to a hexagonal structure. This change is due to the incorporation of lithium in the matrix of the material and the effect of temperature. Although both phases are metastable, the hexagonal phase that forms during the scavenging of lithium from Al-Li alloys appears to be the more stable phase. Recovering lithium from the ESC by electrodeposition does not cause the structure to revert to the orthorhombic phase. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal structures of Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] have similar scavenging capacities for lithium. This report proposes a new mechanism for the phase transformation.

  18. Diagnostic and Prognostic Models for Generator Step-Up Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Binh T. Pham

    2014-09-01

    In 2014, the online monitoring (OLM) of active components project under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) focused on diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for generator step-up transformers. INL worked with subject matter experts from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the GSU fault signatures previously implemented in the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. Two prognostic models were identified and implemented for GSUs in the FW-PHM Suite software. INL and EPRI demonstrated the use of prognostic capabilities for GSUs. The complete set of fault signatures developed for GSUs in the Asset Fault Signature Database of the FW-PHM Suite for GSUs is presented in this report. Two prognostic models are described for paper insulation: the Chendong model for degree of polymerization, and an IEEE model that uses a loading profile to calculates life consumption based on hot spot winding temperatures. Both models are life consumption models, which are examples of type II prognostic models. Use of the models in the FW-PHM Suite was successfully demonstrated at the 2014 August Utility Working Group Meeting, Idaho Falls, Idaho, to representatives from different utilities, EPRI, and the Halden Research Project.

  19. A transmission-loss monitor using current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.F.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Jason, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    A system for measuring the amount of beam-charge loss in a linear-accelerator structure has been developed that uses a pair of beam-current transformers, otherwise used to monitor the linac beam current. This system is necessary to enable the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) fast-protect system to shut off the accelerated beam in the event of a beam loss that would deposit sufficient energy to damage the accelerator structure. The present GTA accelerator consists of a 2.5-MeV, H{sup {minus}} RFQ, an intermediate matching section (IMS) and a single DTL cavity with an output energy of 3.2-MeV and transmitted current of 35 mA. Based on the RFQ output beam, melting of the copper structures will occur when about 40 nC of beam is deposited in a point loss. For a grazing angle of 30 mrad, up to 640 nC may be tolerated. The beam-current-transmission-loss monitor (BCTLM) system in conjunction with the fast-protect system measures the amount of beam loss between two toroidal beam-current monitors and automatically terminates the macropulse when the integrated loss reaches a predetermined set point. The design and operation of the BCTLM system used in the IMS and DTL section of the accelerator is described.

  20. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, A. Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V.; Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.; Dubey, S. K.; Javidi, B.

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  1. EIS-0236-S4: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SPEIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives to continue transformation of the nuclear weapons complex to be smaller, and more responsive, efficient, and secure in order to meet national security requirements.

  2. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Kanghua (Canton, MI); Ahmed, Sayeed (Canton, MI); Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  3. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jun-Jie; Lian, Fu-Liang; Liu, Hong-Ji; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Sheng-Wu; Du, Lin-Xiu; Liu, Yong-Ning

    2014-09-15

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 ?m, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4( 0.6) ?m, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET.

  4. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-20

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  5. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  6. Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Zhang, Fan ); Cokkinides, G.J. ); Coffeen, L.; Burnett, R.; McBride, J. ); Zelingher, S.; Stillman, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first 25 harmonics. Specifically, the following characteristics are of interest in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz: transfer function magnitude and phase, linearity, and sensitivity of the frequency response to burdens. The measurement technique is based on exciting the instrument transformer primary with an impulsive waveform. Both input and output waveforms are recorded using laboratory grade probes and digitizers. Subsequently, digital signal processing techniques are used to compute the instrument transformer frequency response. Several voltage transformers (both PTs and CCVTs) and current transformers in the 230kV-765kV voltage range were tested. The results of these tests are described in the paper. Conclusions are presented regarding the suitability of the instrument transformers and transient event recorders for harmonic measurement and the requirements for such a system. A quantitative analysis of the measurement accuracy and software based methods to enhance the measurement accuracy is also presented.

  7. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  8. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the finite element method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material.

  9. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 1, 2016 Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by

  10. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds

  11. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  12. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  13. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  14. TIME Magazine Profiles Transformative Work by DOE and the Recovery Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In case you missed it, TIME magazine published a feature story last week about the incredible, transformative work being done by the Department of Energy through the Recovery Act.

  15. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  16. Transformations in Lighting: The Eighth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 350 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in San Diego February 1–3, 2011, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  17. Transformations in Lighting: The Ninth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 300 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Atlanta January 31–February 2, 2012, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  18. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase...

  19. Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Dow Chemical Company, under the BOS-X funding opportunity, has launched a transformational product in the building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) industry: the Dow POWERHOUSE Solar Shingle.

  20. Layered ZIF-Polymer Membranes Through On-Polymer Chemical Transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Colloidal Nanocrystal Films | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Layered ZIF-Polymer Membranes Through On-Polymer Chemical Transformations of Colloidal Nanocrystal Films

  1. "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released the "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" report, an assessment of the procurement and supply environment of...

  2. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  3. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information about global electrical steel supply conditions and...

  4. X-ray diffraction study of the phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchil, J.; Fernandes, F.M. Braz . E-mail: kkmahesh@rediffmail.com

    2007-03-15

    The phase transformations occurring in heat-treated NiTi shape memory alloys have been studied through the analysis of variation in integrated peak area (integrated intensity) with temperature, under the XRD peak profiles in the transformation temperature range. For this purpose, integrated peak area under the prominent peak corresponding to (110) plane of the austenitic phase has been chosen. The results so obtained are compared with those got from the DSC method. The XRD method is found to be more sensitive.

  5. Extraction and transformation of proton beam at RHIC using bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurushev, S.B.; Krivosheev, O.E.; Pivovarov, Y.L.; Potylitsin, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    The effect of transformation of polarization of relativistic protons using extraction and deflection by bent crystal is investigated by means of computer simulation. The 250 {ital GeV}/{ital c} proton beam from RHIC can be deflected to an angle, {theta}{sub {ital p}}=3 mrad with simultaneous transformation of initial longitudinal polarization to transverse polarization. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Getting on the same page-transformation | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting on the same ... Getting on the same page-transformation Posted: August 17, 2015 - 9:53am Transformation is an effort to unify the Pantex Plant and the Y-12 National Security Complex as one team, working better together, to serve the National Nuclear Security Administration's mission and deliver critical products and services. In the dynamic international nuclear environment, we must prove that our strong traditions and reputation of excellence are still relevant, while adapting our

  7. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collection and Transmission | Department of Energy Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_kobayashi.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemically

  8. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states « Prev Next » Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding

  9. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a

  10. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)

  11. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," held on November 13, 2012. PDF icon Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications DOE/Boeing Sponsored Projects in Aviation Fuel Cell Technology at Sandia Fuel Cell Product

  12. Symmetry transformation in the problem of the conductivity of anisotropic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balagurov, B. Ya.

    2013-11-15

    A transformation of the coordinates, current density, and electric field strength has been proposed such that holds the direct-current equations. One of the components of a composite can be made isotropic by choosing the coefficients of the transformation. This allows the generalization of the standard theory of the effective medium to the case of an anisotropic composite with inclusions of an arbitrary shape.

  13. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated

  14. Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    first-principles studies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Authors: Podlesnyak, A. ; Ehlers, G. ; Cao, H. ; Matsuda, M. ; Frontzek, M. ; Zaharko, O. ; Kazantsev, V. A. ; Gubkin, A. F. ; Baranov, N. V. Publication Date: 2013-07-26 OSTI Identifier: 1104316

  15. The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Authors: Zong, Hongxiang ; Lookman, Turab ; Ding, Xiangdong

  16. Recovery Act Provides $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Projects | Department of Energy Recovery Act Provides $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects Recovery Act Provides $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects September 10, 2010 - 3:05pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Today, Secretary Chu announced $9.6 million dollars of Recovery Act funding for six projects that could revolutionize how the country uses, stores and produces energy. Selected by the

  17. SEP Success Story: Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Local Fuel Supplies | Department of Energy Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies SEP Success Story: Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies April 23, 2014 - 10:15am Addthis Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo

  18. July 16, 2008, Visiting Speakers Program - National Academy of Public Administration - Closing the Gap on Transformation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    08 National Academy of Public Administration. All rights reserved. September 16, 2008. How Collaborative Technologies Are Revolutionizing The Way We Drive Change Closing the Gap on Transformation 2 © 2008 National Academy of Public Administration. All rights reserved. September 16, 2008. www.collaborationproject.org Thinking About Change Proactive Reactive Incremental Redirecting Adapting Overhauling Tuning Transformational Within the Frame Frame Bending Frame Breaking A Change is not a Change

  19. Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies April 23, 2014 - 1:43pm Addthis Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Cedric

  20. Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  1. ARPA-E Awards $130 Million for 66 Transformational Energy Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Awards $130 Million for 66 Transformational Energy Technology Projects ARPA-E Awards $130 Million for 66 Transformational Energy Technology Projects November 28, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Today, Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced 66 cutting-edge research projects selected by the Energy Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) to receive a total of $130 million in funding through its

  2. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-induced phase transformation of BeO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, H. Y.; Duan, G.; Zu, X. T.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-05-05

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been used to study high pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO based on the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both methods show that the wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) BeO transforms to the rocksalt (RS) structure smoothly at high pressure. The transition pressures obtained from the LDA method are about 40 GPa larger than the GGA result for both WZ ? RS and ZB ? RS phase transformations, and the phase transformation mechanisms revealed by the LDA and GGA methods are different. For WZ ? RS phase transformations both mechanisms obtained from the LDA and GGA methods are not comparable to the previous ab initio MD simulations of WZ BeO at 700 GPa based on the GGA method. It is suggested that the phase transformation mechanisms of BeO revealed by the ab initio MD simulations are affected remarkably by the exchangecorrelation functional employed and the way of applying pressure.

  3. Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-02-27

    Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

  4. Effects of finite sampling and additive noise on image reconstruction from Radon transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, E.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The Radon transform arises naturally in the problem of reconstructing an image or cross section from line integral measurements through a specified object. Each line integral or ray is a sample of the Radon transform of the object and the set of all samples at a particular angle is called a projection or view. Consequently, the set of all possible samples at all possible projections in a particular plane constitutes the two-dimensional Radon transform. Of course, it is impossible to acquire an infinite number of data points for the purpose of image reconstruction. However, with a sufficient set of Radon transform samples, an images can be determined through various Radon transform inversion techniques. From this statement, however, arises the question of just what constitutes a sufficient set of Radon transform samples. Acquiring an insufficient number of samples results in various artifacts in the reconstructed image. On the other hand, taking too many samples utilizes the data inefficiently. Thus, the problem of interest is to determine the optimum number of projections and the optimum number of samples per projection required to adequately represent the Radon transform such that the image can be accurately reconstructed. The problem of image reconstruction is further complicated if noise is introduced in the projection domain. Noise may be caused by round-off error in the sampled projection data or by various other factors inherent in data acquisition processes. However, several filtering techniques can be implemented to suppress the effects of noise. Therefore, a second problem of interest is to study the effectiveness of different filtering techniques in noise suppression.

  5. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO?, and compared to previous calculations.

  6. Non-parametric transformation for data correlation and integration: From theory to practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta-Gupta, A.; Xue, Guoping; Lee, Sang Heon

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce the use of non-parametric transformations for correlating petrophysical data during reservoir characterization. Such transformations are completely data driven and do not require a priori functional relationship between response and predictor variables which is the case with traditional multiple regression. The transformations are very general, computationally efficient and can easily handle mixed data types for example, continuous variables such as porosity, permeability and categorical variables such as rock type, lithofacies. The power of the non-parametric transformation techniques for data correlation has been illustrated through synthetic and field examples. Second, we utilize these transformations to propose a two-stage approach for data integration during heterogeneity characterization. The principal advantages of our approach over traditional cokriging or cosimulation methods are: (1) it does not require a linear relationship between primary and secondary data, (2) it exploits the secondary information to its fullest potential by maximizing the correlation between the primary and secondary data, (3) it can be easily applied to cases where several types of secondary or soft data are involved, and (4) it significantly reduces variance function calculations and thus, greatly facilitates non-Gaussian cosimulation. We demonstrate the data integration procedure using synthetic and field examples. The field example involves estimation of pore-footage distribution using well data and multiple seismic attributes.

  7. Transformation toughening of ceramics. Final report, 1 September 1985-31 August 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.B.

    1988-12-01

    The results of a three-year study, aimed at understanding factors that dictate microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of transformation toughened ceramics, are summarized. Large crack-growth resistance curves (rather than single-valued toughness) were discovered in toughened zirconia, and these were shown to be responsible for strength-toughness relations, damage tolerance, and other mechanical properties. New insight was gained into mechanisms of controlling grain growth during processing, and a method for forming high strength, fine-grained ZrO/sub 2/ fibers was discovered. In the final year's work, reported in detail here, a new tetragonal-to-orthorhomic phase transformation at low temperatures was discovered and shown to have a dramatic effect on mechanical properties. New methods were applied to measure the amount and location of phase transformation within crack tip zones and to quantify crack tip shielding, evaluate stability and reversibility of the martensitic transformation, and to determine the net transformation strain that gives to toughening. Finally, crack growth under cyclic loading was demonstrated to be important in zirconia materials.

  8. In-Situ Observations of Phase Transformations in the HAZ of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W; Wong, J

    2001-08-15

    Ferrite ({delta})/austenite ({gamma}) transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld in 2205 duplex stainless steel are observed in real-time using spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) with high intensity synchrotron radiation. A map showing the locations of the {delta} and {gamma} phases with respect to the calculated weld pool dimensions has been constructed from a series of SRXRD scans. Regions of liquid, completely transformed {gamma}, a combination of partially transformed {gamma} with untransformed {delta}, and untransformed {delta}+{gamma} are identified. Analysis of each SRXRD pattern provides a semi-quantitative definition of both the {delta}/{gamma} phase balance and the extent of annealing which are mapped for the first time with respect to the calculated weld pool size and shape. A combination of these analyses provides a unique real-time description of the progression of phase transformations in the HAZ. Using these real-time observations, important kinetic information about the transformations occurring in duplex stainless steels during heating and cooling cycles typical of welding can be determined.

  9. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the originalmore » Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.« less

  10. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radha, A. V.; Forbes, Tori Z.; Killian, Christopher E.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC ? less metastable hydrated ACC?anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC?vaterite ? aragonite ? calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO? sequestration.

  11. High-temperature phase transformation in Cr added TiAl base alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, E.; Niinobe, K.; Nobuki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1999-07-01

    The authors have investigated a microstructure evolution of a Ti-48Al-3.5Cr (in at.%) alloy at high-temperatures ({gt} 1,473K). In the alloy annealed at 1673K for 1.8ks, followed by air-cooling, a characteristic microstructure with a feathery fashion was uniformly formed. From a cooling-rate-controlling study, it was found that formation of the feathery structure is accomplished during continuous cooling from 1673K to 1573K, within the {alpha} + {gamma} two-phase region. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the feathery structure is composed of lamellar colonies (5--10{micro}m) which are crystallographically tilted slightly (a few degree) with their neighbors. A surprising fact is that lamellae in each colony are mostly the {gamma} phase with few {alpha}{sub 2} phase less than 5% in volume. This suggests that the feathery structure is a metastable product and has not resulted from the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation above 1,573 K. Instead, the feathery structure formation should be attributed to the non-equilibrium {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} transformation which occurs at high-temperatures with a small degree of supercooling. The authors discuss this interesting phase transformation in terms of the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} massive transformation, based on the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram constructed for the present alloy.

  12. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ?}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study has also shown that the arsenic-transformed cells acquired apoptosis resistance. The inhibition of catalase to increase ROS level restored apoptosis capability of arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells, further showing that ROS levels are low in these cells. The apoptosis resistance due to the low ROS levels may increase cells proliferation, providing a favorable environment for tumorigenesis of arsenic-transformed cells.

  13. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  14. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-01-06

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  15. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-03

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  16. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-11-20

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  18. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  19. Generalized Bogoliubov transformation for confined fields: Applications for the Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, J.C. da; Khanna, F.C.; Matos Neto, A.; Santana, A.E.

    2002-11-01

    The Bogoliubov transformation in thermofield dynamics, an operator formalism for the finite-temperature quantum field theory, is generalized to describe a field in arbitrary confined regions of space and time. Starting with the scalar field, the approach is extended to the electromagnetic field and the energy-momentum tensor is written via the Bogoliubov transformation. In this context, the Casimir effect is calculated for zero and nonzero temperature, and therefore it can be considered as a vacuum condensation effect of the electromagnetic field. This aspect opens an interesting perspective for using this procedure as an effective scheme for calculations in the studies of confined fields, including interacting fields.

  20. Bill Wilcox … The transformation and second birth of Oak Ridge, Part 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 As we continue to examine the transition of the city of Oak Ridge in the late 1950s toward incorporation, the speech Bill Wilcox, who was the Oak Ridge city historian until his passing on September 2, 2013, gave on Jun 4, 2010, The Transformation and Second Birth of Oak Ridge "Independence Day," June 4, 1960, in honor of the city of Oak Ridge's incorporation on June 2, 1960, sheds light on the events transforming the city. Bill's personal recollection and use of key primary resources

  1. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  2. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-02-19 OSTI Identifier: 1212137 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-650216 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: JOM, vol. 66, no. 8, June 25, 2014, pp. 1520

  3. EO 12866 meeting materials from 2/8 - DOE Distrubtion Transformers

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (1904-AC04) | Department of Energy meeting materials from 2/8 - DOE Distrubtion Transformers (1904-AC04) EO 12866 meeting materials from 2/8 - DOE Distrubtion Transformers (1904-AC04) PDF icon BGE's Comments - DOE Rulemaking 100 CFR Part 431_Final (2).pdf PDF icon BGE's Comments - DOE Rulemaking Final.pdf PDF icon ComEd Helicopter Pictures.pdf PDF icon DOE Dist Trans NOPR ComEd Comments Apr 2012.pdf PDF icon DOE Dist Trans NOPR SA Com Ed Comments Jun 2012.pdf PDF icon DOE Dist Trans Prelim

  4. Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel March 7, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Learn how an Indiana dairy fuels milk delivery trucks with compressed natural gas. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? An anaerobic digester is helping Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas turn agriculture waste into renewable natural gas. The natural gas will be used to fuel the fleet of

  5. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: I. shape transformation and dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C. (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    We report on the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation of embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs), which change from spheres to prolate spheroids to rods upon irradiation. Using a broad range of ion irradiation energies and NC mean sizes we demonstrate that the elongation and dissolution processes are energy and size dependent, attaining comparable levels of shape transformation and dissolution upon a given energy density deposited in the matrix. The NC shape transformation remains operative despite discontinuous ion tracks in the matrix and exhibits a constant threshold size for elongation. In contrast, for ion irradiations in which the ion tracks are continuous, the threshold size for elongation is clearly energy dependent.

  6. Titanium α-ω phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkevich, Nickolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-01-15

    A titanium is a highly utilized metal for structural lightweighting and its phases, transformation pathways (transition states), and structures have scientific and industrial importance. Using a proper solid-state nudged elastic band method employing two climbing images combined with density functional theory DFT + U methods for accurate energetics, we detail the pressure-induced α (ductile) to ω (brittle) transformation at the coexistence pressure. We also find two transition states along the minimal-enthalpy path and discover a metastable body-centered orthorhombic structure, with stable phonons, a lower density than the end-point phases, and decreasing stability with increasing pressure.

  7. Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Location U.S. Virgin Islands Partners National Renewable Energy Laboratory Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Virgin Islands Energy Office The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) from 2009 to 2013

  8. Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel March 7, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Learn how an Indiana dairy fuels milk delivery trucks with compressed natural gas. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? An anaerobic digester is helping Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas turn agriculture waste into renewable natural gas. The natural gas will be used to fuel the fleet of

  9. 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape April 8, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo County. | Photo courtesy of SunPower. The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo

  10. ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency's Establishment | Department of Energy FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment June 22, 2011 - 10:30am Addthis Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? ARPA-E has funded 121 projects -- in amounts ranging from roughly $400,000 to $9 million, with an average award value of $3

  11. ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel October 23, 2013 - 12:13pm Addthis ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. Mark D. Mitchell Communications Support

  12. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan - Section 3.9 Market Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MARKET TRANSFORMATION SECTION Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan Page 3.9 - 1 3.9 Market Transformation The Market Transformation sub-program is conducting activities to help implement and promote commercial and pre-commercial hydrogen and fuel cell systems in real world operating environments. These activities also provide feedback to research programs, U.S. industry manufacturers, and potential technology users. Currently, the capital and installation costs of early

  13. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  14. A transform of complementary aspects with applications to entropic uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandayam, Prabha; Wehner, Stephanie; Balachandran, Niranjan

    2010-08-15

    Even though mutually unbiased bases and entropic uncertainty relations play an important role in quantum cryptographic protocols, they remain ill understood. Here, we construct special sets of up to 2n+1 mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in dimension d=2{sup n}, which have particularly beautiful symmetry properties derived from the Clifford algebra. More precisely, we show that there exists a unitary transformation that cyclically permutes such bases. This unitary can be understood as a generalization of the Fourier transform, which exchanges two MUBs, to multiple complementary aspects. We proceed to prove a lower bound for min-entropic entropic uncertainty relations for any set of MUBs and show that symmetry plays a central role in obtaining tight bounds. For example, we obtain for the first time a tight bound for four MUBs in dimension d=4, which is attained by an eigenstate of our complementarity transform. Finally, we discuss the relation to other symmetries obtained by transformations in discrete phase space and note that the extrema of discrete Wigner functions are directly related to min-entropic uncertainty relations for MUBs.

  15. User's Guide to MBC3: Multi-Blade Coordinate Transformation Code for 3-Bladed Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G. S.

    2010-09-01

    This guide explains how to use MBC3, a MATLAB-based script NREL developed to perform multi-blade coordinate transformation of system matrices for three-bladed wind turbines. In its current form, MBC3 can be applied to system matrices generated by FAST.2.

  16. INSIGHT On Transforming Our Global Energy Economy, 2015 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    From its inception, JISEA has provided critical clarity and insights to inform decision making through leading-edge interdisciplinary research and objective, credible, cross-functional analysis. JISEA, drawing on the unique capabilities of its founding institutions and research affiliates around the world, continues to inform the landscape of transformation.

  17. Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains Development of an Open Architecture, Widely Applicable Smart Manufacturing Platform While many U.S. manufacturing operations utilize optimization for individual unit processes, smart manufacturing (SM) systems that integrate manufacturing intelligence in real time across an entire production operation are rare in large companies and virtually

  18. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  19. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Elvira, Gema; Silva, Augusto

    2009-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  20. Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish

    2006-10-10

    An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.