National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transformations n-15 nitrate

  1. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparationmore » and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.« less

  2. Time-Resolved Infrared Reflectance Studies of the Dehydration-Induced Transformation of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to the Trihydrate Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. The phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with but one in the hexahydrate.

  3. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.

  4. Nitrate reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  5. ACCREDITED STANDARDS COMMITTEE N15 DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Caroline E.; May, Melanie; Preston, Lynne

    2009-10-06

    Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) N15, Methods of Nuclear Material Control, is sponsored by the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) to develop standards for protection, control and accounting of special nuclear materials in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, including analytical procedures where necessary and special to this purpose, except that physical protection of special nuclear material within a nuclear power plant is not included. Voluntary consensus standards complement federal regulations and technical standards and fulfill an important role for the nuclear regulatory agencies. This paper describes the N15 standards development process, with INMM as the Standards Developing Organization (SDO) and the N15 Committee responsible for implementation. Key components of the N15 standards development process include ANSI accreditation; compliance with the ANSI Essential Requirements (ER), coordination with other SDOs, communication with stakeholders, maintenance of balance between interest categories, and ANSI periodic audits. Recent and future ASC N15 activities are discussed, with a particular focus on new directions in anticipation of renewed growth in nuclear power.

  6. TRANSFORMER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  7. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  8. WIPP Nitrate Updates 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, December 30, 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, December 23, 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, December 18, 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate

  9. WIPP Nitrate Updates 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, July 23, 2015 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, July 16, 2015 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, July 9, 2015 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing

  10. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, John L. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  11. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  12. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  13. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  14. Plutonium nitrate bottle counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Adams, E.L.; Holbrooks, O.R.

    1984-03-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for plutonium nitrate assay in large storage bottles. This assay system can be used in the reprocessing plant or in the nitrate-to-oxide conversion facility. The system is based on the family of neutron detectors similar to the high-level neutron coincidence counter. This manual describes the system and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications. 4 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  15. Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, provided a presentation at the NNMCABs November 18, 2015 Board Meeting at New Mexico Highlands University. The topic of the presentation was the plan for remediation the nitrate salt waste from the 3706 campaign that is currently stored at Material Disposal Area G, presenter was David Funk, LANS.

  16. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  17. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    1993-01-01

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  18. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  19. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  20. In situ BTEX biotransformation under enhanced nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhard, M.; Shang, S.; Kitanidis, P.K.; Orwin, E.; Hopkins, G.D.; LeBron, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In situ anaerobic biotransformation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene) was investigated under enhanced nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. Controlled amounts of BTEX compounds added to slugs of treated groundwater were released into a gasoline-contaminated aquifer at Seal Beach, CA. In a series of studies, the slugs, 470-1700 L in volume, were released into the aquifer through a multi-port injection/extraction well and were subsequently withdrawn over a 2-3 month period. To evaluate unamended in situ conditions, the injectate was treated with granular activated carbon (GAC) and augmented with bromide as a tracer. To evaluate nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions, the injectate was also deionized and augmented with 200-300 {mu}g/L BTEX, nitrate or sulfate, and background electrolytes. Under unamended conditions, transformation appeared to be limited to the slow removal of toluene and m,p-xylene (i.e. sum of m+p-xylene). Under nitrate-reducing conditions, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were transformed without a lag phase in less than 10 days, and o-xylene was transformed in 72 days. Under sulfate-reducing conditions, toluene, m-xylene and o-xylene were completely transformed in less then 50 days, and ethylbenzene was removed in 60 days. Benzene appeared to be removed under sulfate-reducing conditions, but the trend was pronounced only at some levels. 47 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Safety Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the March 9, 2016 Combined Committee Meeting Mr. Nickless, Environmental Management Los Alamos, Provided a presentation on the status of the Nitrate Salt waste at Los Alamos.

  2. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  3. PREPARATION OF DIBASIC ALUMINUM NITRATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gresky, A.T.; Nurmi, E.O.; Foster, D.L.; Wischow, R.P.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-04-01

    A method is given for the preparation and recovery of basic aluminum nltrates having an OH: Al ratio of at least two, comprising two steps. First, metallic aluminum is dissolved in aqueous Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, in the presence of a small quantity of elemental or ionic mercury, to increase its Al: NO/sub 3/ ratio into the range 1 to 1.2. The resulting aqueous solution is then added to an excess of a special organic solvent, typically a mixture of five parts methanol and six parts diethyl ether, whereupon the basic aluminum nitrate, e.g. Al/sub 6/(OH)/sub 13/-(NO/sub 3/)/sub 5/, recoverably precipitates.

  4. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory As a part of its national security ...

  5. Sandia Energy - Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous Success Home Renewable Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous...

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan The purpose of this document is to provide the ...

  7. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-15

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  8. Market Transformation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  9. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  10. Energetic Material - Electro Nitration - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro Nitration Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryINL has developed an improved method of nitrating a nitro compound by oxidizing a chemical mediator in the presence of a voltage in order to produce an oxidizing agent. Then, the agent reacts with a nitro compound and ion source in a solution in order to form a geminaldinitro compound. The electrochemical synthesis of geminaldinitro results in the formation of a nitro compound that may be

  11. Process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavez, David E; Naud, Darren L; Hiskey, Michael A

    2013-12-17

    A process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester compound and related intermediates is provided.

  12. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  13. Denitration of High Nitrate Salts Using Reductants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HD Smith; EO Jones; AJ Schmidt; AH Zacher; MD Brown; MR Elmore; SR Gano

    1999-05-03

    This report describes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in conjunction with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to remove nitrates in simulated low-activity waste (LAW). The major objective of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization (grout).

  14. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  15. RF transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  16. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

  17. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  18. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  19. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  20. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory As a part of its national security mission, the Laboratory conducts research that generates waste contaminated with radioactive isotopes. During operations, waste is processed, packaged, and shipped to licensed disposal facilities. PDF icon Remediated-Nitrate-Salt-Drums-Storage-at-Los-Alamos-National-Laboratory.pdf More Documents

  1. Operating Experience Level 2, Evaluation of Nitrate Bearing Transurani...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    015 OE-2 2015-01: Evaluation of Nitrate Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams This Operating Experience Level 2 (OE-2) document provides actions to perform an evaluation of...

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared in Response to New Mexico ... (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. ...

  3. WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update May 12, 2015 Panel 6 and Panel 7, Room 7 a. Rollback * Contamination Assessment-This prerequisite is ...

  4. Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Transforming a Transformative School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a Transformative School Transforming a Transformative School October 11, 2012 - 10:14am Addthis During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded lighting fixtures, installed a new heating and cooling system, and replaced the entry doors. The new doors allow daylight into the school and restore the historical building envelope. | Photo courtesy of John Winkel, Energy Department. During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded

  6. Use of tensiometer for in situ measurement of nitrate leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Reddy, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    In order to monitor nitrate leaching from non-point source pollution, this study used tensiometers to measure in situ nitrate concentration and soil-moisture potential. Instead of filling the tensiometers with pure water, the study filled the tensiometers with nitrate ionic strength adjuster (ISA, 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}). After the installation of the tensiometers at various depths along soil profiles, a portable pressure transducer was used to measure the soil moisture potential, and a nitrate electrode attached to an ion analyzer was used to measure the nitrate concentration in situ. The measurement was continuous and non-destructive. To test this method in the laboratory, eight bottles filled with pure sand were treated with known nitrate solutions, and a tensiometer was placed in each bottle. Measurements were taken every day for 30 days. Laboratory test showed a linear relationship between the known nitrate concentration and the tensiometer readings (R{sup 2} = 0.9990). Then a field test was conducted in a watermelon field with green manure mulch. Field data indicated a potential of nitrate leaching below the soil depth of 100 cm when crop uptake of nutrients was low.

  7. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1981-01-21

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates is described, wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300 to 800/sup 0/C is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  8. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.; Stines, William B.

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  9. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenters logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  10. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  11. Evaluation of Nitrate-Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OE-2: 2015-1 June 2015 Evaluation of Nitrate-Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams PURPOSE This Operating Experience Level 2 (OE-2) document provides actions to perform an evaluation...

  12. Project Profile: Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Abengoa, under the Baseload CSP FOA, will demonstrate a 100-megawatt electrical (MWe) central receiver plant using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator.

  13. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  14. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, James E. (Ames, IA); Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA)

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C.sub.3 or larger.

  15. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  16. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1983-12-20

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  17. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    storage salts. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts. Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength,

  18. Mechanisms of transformation toughening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, G.B.

    1992-02-01

    Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

  19. Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, CH

    2003-12-30

    For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material and the results of previous tests--classified the ThN as low-level radioactive waste for disposal purposes. This characterization was necessary to continue the efforts associated with disposition of the material at the Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada. With the current work presented in this report, the analytical characterization phase is completed for this source material stockpile.

  20. HPC Transforms Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Debbie Bard » HPC Transforms Cosmology HPC Transforms Cosmology December 3, 2015 by Debbie Bard (originally posted in http://www.scientificcomputing.com/blogs/2015/10/hpc-transforms-cosmology) Visualization of dark matter in the Dark Sky Simulation, the first trillion-particle simulation to be made publicly available. It spans a region nearly 40 billion light-years across, and was produced using 80 million CPU hours on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Titan supercomputer. Courtesy of the Dark

  1. Market Transformation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Market Transformation strategies and activities, which are aimed at accelerating early market adoption and advancing pre-competitive technologies.

  2. National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alliance for FLEX Emergency Response (SAFER) team, to implement off-site capabilities in ... warehouses would have predefined restoration transformers for rapid recovery. ...

  3. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  4. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  5. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  6. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  7. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Dennis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka,

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  8. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  9. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  10. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared in Response to New Mexico Environment Department Administrative Order 05-20001 Issued May 20, 2014 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to provide the Plan required by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Administrative Order 05-20001 (Order) issued on May 20, 2014 to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. The Order, at paragraph 22,

  12. WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update May 12, 2015 Panel 6 and Panel 7, Room 7 a. Rollback * Contamination Assessment-This prerequisite is complete and therefore status updates are no longer required. * Fixing/Decontamination Activities-Decontaminated equipment has been removed from Room 7 of Panel 7 to prepare for Room 7 closure activities. Remaining items in Panel 7, Room 7 include thirteen empty magnesium oxide racks, about 200 roof bolts, nine messenger

  13. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory Background Technical Area (TA) 54 is Los Alamos National Laboratory's transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste storage, characterization, and remediation area. The 63-acre site is located one mile from the community of White Rock and approximately one-eighth mile from the boundary be- tween Pueblo de San Ildefonso and the Laboratory. As a part of its national security mission, the Laboratory conducts research that generates

  14. Sandia Energy - Past Market Transformation Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Past Market Transformation Activities Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Past Market Transformation...

  15. Effect of composition on the density of multi-component molten nitrate salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2009-12-01

    The density of molten nitrate salts was measured to determine the effects of the constituents on the density of multi-component mixtures. The molten salts consisted of various proportions of the nitrates of potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium. Density measurements ere performed using an Archimedean method and the results were compared to data reported in the literature for the individual constituent salts or simple combinations, such as the binary Solar Salt mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. The addition of calcium nitrate generally ncreased density, relative to potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, while lithium nitrate decreased density. The temperature dependence of density is described by a linear equation regardless of composition. The molar volume, and thereby, density of multi-component mixtures an be calculated as a function of temperature using a linear additivity rule based on the properties of the individual constituents.

  16. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2010-06-11

    A new field instrument is described that quantifies total particle phase organic nitrates. The instrument is based on the thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) method that thermally converts nitrates to NO2 which is then detected by LIF. This instrument is unique in its ability to provide fast sensitive measurements of particle phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in SOA generated from high-NOx photooxidation of limonene, a-pinene, D-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15percent of the total SOA mass, depending on the organic precursor.

  17. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic study of ammonium nitrate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2013-12-15

    We present the optical emission studies of the ammonium nitrate plasma produced by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of the laser beam in an open atmospheric air. The spectrum reveals numerous transitions of neutral nitrogen. We have studied the spatial behavior of the plasma temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (N{sub e}) determined using the Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profiles, respectively. Besides, we have studied the variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the laser irradiance.

  19. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore » MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  20. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, David S; Lamb, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ Nondestructive Assay of Radioactive Materials. Some of the information that will be presented includes observations made during site visits, how information useful to all facilities using nondestructive assay to determine holdup material quantities will be disseminated, and preliminary results of a gap analysis performed on current in situ nondestructive assay holdup measurements.

  1. SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative School | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Transforming a Transformative School SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative School October 11, 2012 - 9:35am Addthis During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded lighting fixtures, installed a new heating and cooling system, and replaced the entry doors. The new doors allow daylight into the school and restore the historical building envelope. | Photo courtesy of John Winkel, Energy Department. During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter

  2. Memo - Legacy Technical Area (TA)-55 Nitrate Salt Wastes at TA...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on February 14, 2014, report in Attachment F. Bibliography and References, are available on various public websites. PDF icon Memo - Legacy Technical Area (TA)-55 Nitrate Salt ...

  3. Investigating In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Sustained Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, Tommy; Balkwill, David

    2006-06-01

    The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal at DOE sites, such as the ERSP Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC), provides strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that will allow for uranium bioreduction and long-term stabilization in the presence of nitrate. The cost and effort required for complete nitrate removal from the FRC and similar DOE-contaminated sites may prove to be unworkable. For example, field tests of uranium bioreduction at the FRC have shown that nitrate levels rebound quickly and completely after cessation of active biostimulation.

  4. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  5. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the NO2 radical.

  6. Stainless steel corrosion by molten nitrates : analysis and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2011-09-01

    A secondary containment vessel, made of stainless 316, failed due to severe nitrate salt corrosion. Corrosion was in the form of pitting was observed during high temperature, chemical stability experiments. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were all used to diagnose the cause of the failure. Failure was caused by potassium oxide that crept into the gap between the primary vessel (alumina) and the stainless steel vessel. Molten nitrate solar salt (89% KNO{sub 3}, 11% NaNO{sub 3} by weight) was used during chemical stability experiments, with an oxygen cover gas, at a salt temperature of 350-700 C. Nitrate salt was primarily contained in an alumina vessel; however salt crept into the gap between the alumina and 316 stainless steel. Corrosion occurred over a period of approximately 2000 hours, with the end result of full wall penetration through the stainless steel vessel; see Figures 1 and 2 for images of the corrosion damage to the vessel. Wall thickness was 0.0625 inches, which, based on previous data, should have been adequate to avoid corrosion-induced failure while in direct contact with salt temperature at 677 C (0.081-inch/year). Salt temperatures exceeding 650 C lasted for approximately 14 days. However, previous corrosion data was performed with air as the cover gas. High temperature combined with an oxygen cover gas obviously drove corrosion rates to a much higher value. Corrosion resulted in the form of uniform pitting. Based on SEM and EDS data, pits contained primarily potassium oxide and potassium chromate, reinforcing the link between oxides and severe corrosion. In addition to the pitting corrosion, a large blister formed on the side wall, which was mainly composed of potassium, chromium and oxygen. All data indicated that corrosion initiated internally and moved outward. There was no evidence of intergranular corrosion nor were there any indication of fast pathways along grain boundaries. Much of the pitting occurred near welds; however this was the hottest region in the chamber. Pitting was observed up to two inches above the weld, indicating independence from weld effects.

  7. Analysis of Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Nested Annular Tank Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; James D. Cleaver

    2009-06-01

    Two series of experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory during the 1980s using highly enriched (93%) uranyl nitrate solution in annular tanks. [1, 2] Tanks were of typical sizes found in nuclear production plants. Experiments looked at tanks of varying radii in a co-located set of nested tanks, a 1 by 2 array, and a 1 by 3 array. The co-located set of tanks had been analyzed previously [3] as a benchmark for inclusion within the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. [4] The current study represents the benchmark analysis of the 1 by 3 array of a series of nested annular tanks. Of the seventeen configurations performed in this set of experiments, twelve were evaluated and nine were judged as acceptable benchmarks.

  8. Hydroxylamine Nitrate Decomposition under Non-radiological Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; DePaoli, David W.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Phelps, Clarice E.; Roach, Benjamin D.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is used to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in the separation of plutonium from uranium. HAN becomes unstable under certain conditions and has been known to explode, causing injury to humans including death. Hence, it is necessary to deactivate HAN once the reduction of plutonium is finished. This report reviews what is known about the chemistry of HAN and various methods to achieve a safe decomposition. However, there are areas where more information is needed to make a decision about the handling of HAN in reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Experiments have demonstrated a number of non-radiolytic ways to safely decompose HAN, including heating in HNO3, photolytic oxidation in the presence of H2O2, and the addition of a metal such as Fe(III) that will oxidize the HAN.

  9. Combined Extraction of Cesium and Strontium from Akaline Nitrate Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Haverlock, Tamara; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    The combined extraction of cesium and strontium from caustic wastes can be achieved by adding a crown ether and a carboxylic acid to the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent. The ligand 4,4'(5')-di(tert-butyl)cyclohexano-18-crown-6 and one of four different carboxylic acids were combined with the components of the CSSX solvent optimized for the extraction of cesium, allowing for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from alkaline nitrate media simulating alkaline high level wastes present at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Extraction and stripping experiments were conducted independently and exhibited adequate results for mimicking waste simulant processing through batch contacts. The promising results of these batch tests showed that the system could reasonably be tested on actual waste.

  10. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  11. EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Effective Date: 5282014 The Responsible Manager has determined that the following...

  12. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-05-13

    The nitrate (NO3–) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO3– derived from atmospheric deposition versus that derived from microbial nitrification.

  13. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and recommendation. Conclusions: 1. Nitrate salts not yet remediated having no free liquid should be mixed with at least 1.2 volumes of Kitty LitterZeolite clay per...

  14. Ab initio calculations of singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grana, A.M.; Head-Gordon, M. |; Lee, T.J.

    1995-03-16

    Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to single and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported, using the CIS, CIS(D), and CCSD methods. The effects of basis set composition and calculational methods are investigated. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the CIO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied. 70 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  16. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  17. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this document is to provide the Plan required by the New Mexico Environment Department Administrative Order 05-20001 issued on May 20, 2014 to the U. S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground disposal facility.

  19. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  20. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds,more » while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. In conclusion, together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.« less

  1. Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-05-22

    the hexahydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] (UNH) and the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3] (UNT) forms. Their stabilities depend on both relative humidity and temperature. Both phases have previously been studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but the data were limited by both instrumental resolution and the ability to prepare the samples as pellets without desiccating it. We report time-resolved infrared (IR) measurements using an integrating sphere that allow us to observe the transformation from the hexahydrate to the trihydrate simply by flowing dry nitrogen gas over the sample. Hexahydrate samples were prepared and confirmed via known XRD patterns, then measured in reflectance mode. The hexahydrate has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample dehydrates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a blue edge shoulder but ultimately resulting in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT since UNT has two non-equivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a morphological and structural change that has the lustrous lime green crystals changing to the dull greenish yellow of the trihydrate. Crystal structures and phase transformation were confirmed theoretically using DFT calculations and experimentally via microscopy methods. Both methods showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, as opposed to a single crystallographic site in the hexahydrate.

  2. Transform Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Transform Solar Place: Boise, Idaho Product: Idaho-based PV module maker and joint venture between Micron and Origin Energy. Coordinates: 43.60698, -116.193409...

  3. National Symposium on Market Transformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), this three-day conference features speakers covering topics within the scope of market transformation.

  4. Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Market Transformation Significant research and development progress has paved the way for fuel cells to enter today's commercial marketplace for a variety of applications, including specialty vehicles and stationary and portable power. The growing number of commercial products, in combination with the federal and state financial incentives available now, are instrumental in supporting the role that fuel cells play in our nation's energy portfolio. Through its market

  5. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print Wednesday, 29 January 2014 00:00 A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other.

  6. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel, E-mail: jsavarino@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200nm band was found to be ?1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  7. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orona, N.S.; Tasat, D.R.

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

  8. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to ...

  9. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held ...

  10. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras,...

  11. Department of Energy/ National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    prior experience selling large power transformers in excess of 400 MVA to a US ... Large power transformers are one of the most critical components within the power system ...

  12. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Jol [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Gophysique de lEnvironnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rmy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (?{sup 15}N, ?{sup 18}O, and ?{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?15 1.2) was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?47.9 6.8), in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from ?40 to ?74.3. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the shift in width and center well reproduced the values obtained in the laboratory study. These cross sections can be used in isotopic models to reproduce the stable isotopic composition of nitrate found in Antarctic snow profiles.

  13. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  14. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  15. SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite brings advanced algorithms, high performance computing and data management to the masses August 18, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov als.jpg Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt) Some mysteries of science can only be explained on a nanometer scale -even smaller than a single strand of human DNA, which is about 2.5 nanometers wide. At this scale, scientists

  16. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Francisco

    2014-05-31

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of singlephase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014.The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 kVA transformer passed the impulse test in KEMA high-voltage laboratories. Additional products include: nine papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, one patent has been filed, three PhD students were supported from beginning to graduation, five postdoctoral fellows, and three MSc students were partially supported. The electrical characteristics of our dry-type toroidal transformers are similar to those of the oil-immersed pole mounted transformers currently in use by many utilities, but toroids have higher efficiency. The no-load losses of the 50 kVA prototype are only 45 W. A standard transformer has no-load losses between 90 and 240 W. Thus, even the finest transformer built today with standard technology has double the amount of no-load losses than the prototype toroidal transformer. When the manufacturing process is prepared for mass production, the cost of a dry-type toroidal transformer would be similar to the price of an oil-filed standard design. However, because of the greatly reduced losses, the total ownership cost of a toroidal transformer could be about half of a traditional design. We got a grant from Power Bridge NY in the amount of $149,985 from June 2014 to May 2015 to continue developing the transformer with commercialization objectives. We are considering the possibility to incorporate a company to manufacture the transformers and have contacted investors. The current status of the real life testing is as follows: after several months of silence, Con Edison has re-started conversations and has shown willingness to test the transformer. Other companies, PSE&G and National Grid have recently also shown interest and we will present our product to them soon.

  17. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as well as how programs can overcome appraisal challenges. PDF icon Marketing and Market Transformation Presentation More Documents & Publications Marketing and Market Transformation Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  18. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  19. Biological Redox Cycling Of Iron In Nontronite And Its Potential Application In Nitrate Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Linduo; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zeng, Qiang; Edelmann, Richard E.; Pentrak, Martin; Agrawal, Abinash

    2015-05-05

    Redox cycling of structural Fe in phyllosilicates provides a potential method to remediate nitrate contamination in natural environment. Past research has only studied chemical redox cycles or a single biologically mediated redox cycle of Fe in phyllosilicates. The objective of this research was to study three microbially driven redox cycles of Fe in one phyllosilicate, nontronite (NAu-2). During the reduction phase structural Fe(III) in NAu-2 served as electron acceptor, lactate as electron donor, AQDS as electron shuttle, and dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 as mediator in bicarbonate-buffered and PIPES-buffered media. During the oxidation phase, biogenic Fe(II) served an electron donor, nitrate as electron acceptor, and nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002 as mediator in the same media. For all three cycles, structural Fe in NAu-2 was able to reversibly undergo 3 redox cycles without significant reductive or oxidative dissolution. X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that NAu-2 was the dominant residual mineral throughout the 3 redox cycles with some dissolution textures but no significant secondary mineralization. Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that Fe(II) in bio-reduced samples likely occurred in two distinct environments, at edges and the interior of the NAu-2 structure. Nitrate was completely reduced to nitrogen gas under both buffer conditions and this extent and rate did not change with Fe redox cycles. Mssbauer spectroscopy further revealed that nitrate reduction was coupled to predominant/preferred oxidation of edge Fe(II). These results suggest that structural Fe in phyllosilicates may represent a renewable source to continuously remove nitrate in natural environments.

  20. Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA In the genome of

  1. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 5/8/2012 LANL-Carlsbad Office Difficult Waste Team P2010-3306 Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10- 13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 2 Purpose: The following document was developed in support of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Program (LTP) by the LANL-Carlsbad Office, Difficult

  2. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  3. Transformational Manufacturing | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformational Manufacturing Argonne's new Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program focuses on scalable process R&D to produce advanced battery materials in sufficient quantity for industrial testing. The U.S. manufacturing industry consumes more than 30 quadrillion Btu of energy per year, directly employs about 12 million people and generates another 7 million jobs in related businesses. Argonne is working with industry to develop innovative and

  4. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  5. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  6. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise for use in

  7. biomass-to-biofuels transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass-to-biofuels transformation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  8. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  9. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  10. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  11. 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Symposium on Market Transformation 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation March 20, 2016 9:00AM EDT to March 22, 2016 5:00PM EDT Hyatt Regency Baltimore ...

  12. Sandia Energy - Energy Supply Transformation Needed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Distribution Grid Integration News & Events Systems Analysis Energy Assurance Microgrid Transmission Grid Integration Systems Engineering Energy Supply Transformation...

  13. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram

  14. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  15. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  16. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  17. Nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, James F.; Walstrom, Peter L.

    1977-06-14

    A nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer for accurately measuring mechanical displacements in the presence of high magnetic fields is provided. The device utilizes a movable primary coil inside a fixed secondary coil that consists of two series-opposed windings. Operation is such that the secondary output voltage is maintained in phase (depending on polarity) with the primary voltage. The transducer is well-suited to long cable runs and is useful for measuring small displacements in the presence of high or alternating magnetic fields.

  18. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  19. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  20. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  1. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  2. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herting, Daniel L.

    2014-01-29

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  3. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  4. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Chemical Transformation January 13, 2015, Research Highlights ... Read More Chemical Transformation December 16, 2014, Research Highlights Electrode ...

  5. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, ...

  6. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 This ...

  7. One-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two.

  8. Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This white paper summarizes the information discussed during the Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop, Feb. 17, 2012, in Berkeley, California.

  9. Secretary Chu Discovers Transformers in Wisconsin | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employees of the Waukesha Electric Systems give Secretary Chu a tour of the transformer manufacturing plant. | Courtesy of Waukesha Electric Systems Employees of the Waukesha ...

  10. Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation via Liquid Cell TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation...

  11. 500 kV Spare Transformer Procurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procurement capital project is for the acquisition of five, 500 kV spare transformers, which are to be strategically located throughout the system, and for the...

  12. Titanium ? - ? phase transformation pathway and a predicted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Titanium - phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 14,...

  13. CSV to ISO XML metadata transformation tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    Django app for converting CSV records to XML metadata documents. This transformation from the metadata content model to parsed ISO XML documents allows for metadata integration into NGDS.

  14. Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program (SMART) Lead Performer: Ecology Action - Santa Cruz, CA Partners: - New Buildings Institute - Portland, OR - ...

  15. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Perez, J.S. . Facultad de Informatica)

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal's frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal's frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  16. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. |; Perez, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal`s frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal`s frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  17. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as ... Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  18. Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This video is a great resource for teachers, demonstrating how transformers work. It includes experiments and demos that can be shared with students.

  19. Crystal structure of a new amine nitrate: 4-dimethylaminopyridinium nitrate (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2})NO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benhassan, D. Rekik, W.; Naïli, H.; Ślepokura, Katarzyna

    2015-12-15

    The title compound (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2})NO{sub 3} (I) was obtained by the slow evaporation method at room temperature. Its crystal structure consists of organic cations (C{sub 7}H{sub 11}N{sub 2}){sup +} and nitrate anions (NO{sub 3}){sup –} linked by two types of hydrogen bonds. Each monoprotonated nitrogen atom, called bifurcated, is engaged in two N–H···O hydrogen bonds with two symmetric oxygen atoms. In addition, the crystal structure stability is established by C–H···O hydrogen bonds that ensure the formation of infinite layers, parallel to (001) plane. These layers are related together through π···π interactions established between aromatic amines.

  20. Enterprise transformation :lessons learned, pathways to success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavin, Adam M.; Woodard, Joan Brune

    2006-05-01

    In this report, we characterize the key themes of transformation and tie them together in a ''how to'' guide. The perspectives were synthesized from strategic management literature, case studies, and from interviews with key management personnel from private industry on their transformation experiences.

  1. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  2. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 2006

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap{sub Sgel}) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap{sub Sput}) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap{sub Sgel} and Nap{sub Sput} occurred at 54.5 and 65 Degree-Sign C, respectively. When Nap{sub Sgel} was preincubated at 21-70 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 Degree-Sign C, which suggested that Nap{sub Sgel} was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap{sub Sput}, did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 Degree-Sign C, Nap{sub Sgel} reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap{sub Sput} did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap{sub Sgel} that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap{sub Sgel} cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap{sub Sgel} using a mesophilic template with 66% amino acid identity showed the majority of substitutions occurred at the protein surface distal to the Mo-MGD cofactor. Two mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions (Asn {r_reversible} His, Val {r_reversible} Trp) occurred in a region close to the surface of the NapA substrate funnel resulting in potential interdomain {pi}-{pi} and/or cation-{pi} interactions. Three mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions occurred within 4.5 A of the Mo-MGD cofactor (Phe {r_reversible} Met, Ala {r_reversible} Ser, Ser {r_reversible} Thr) resulting in local regions that varied in hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding networks. These results contribute to the understanding of thermal protein adaptation in a redox-active mononuclear molybdenum enzyme and have implications in optimizing the design of low-temperature environmental biosensors.

  3. Comparison of FTIR and Particle Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of Paticulate Organic Nitrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruns, Emily; Perraud, Veronique; Zelenyuk, Alla; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Imre, D.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.; Alexander, M. L.

    2010-02-01

    While multifunctional organic nitrates are formed during the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds, relatively little is known about their signatures in particle mass spectrometers. High resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was applied to NH4NO3, NaNO3 and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IMN) particles, and to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from NO3 radical reactions at 22 C and 1 atm in air with and pinene, 3-carene, limonene and isoprene. For comparison, single particle laser ablation mass spectra (SPLAT II) were also obtained for IMN and SOA from the pinene reaction. The mass spectra of all particles exhibit significant intensity at m/z 30, and for the SOA, weak peaks corresponding to various organic fragments containing nitrogen [CxHyNzOa]+ were identified using HR-ToF-AMS. The NO+/NO2+ ratios from HR-ToF-AMS were 10-15 for IMN and the SOA from the and pinene, 3-carene and limonene reactions, ~5 for the isoprene reaction, 2.4 for NH4NO3 and 80 for NaNO3. The N/H ratios from HR-ToF-AMS for the SOA were smaller by a factor of 2 to 4 than the -ONO2/C-H ratios measured using FTIR on particles impacted on ZnSe windows. While the NO+/NO2+ ratio may provide a generic indication of organic nitrates under some conditions, specific identification of particulate organic nitrates awaits further development of particle mass spectrometry techniques.

  4. Molten Nitrate Salt Development for Thermal Energy Storage in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ES2008-54174 This manuscript has been authored by Sandia Corporation under Contact No. DE-AC04-94AL85000 with the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting this article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. MOLTEN NITRATE SALT

  5. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  6. Conversion of actinide and RE oxides into nitrates and their recovery into fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondin, V.V.; Bychkov, S.I.; Efremov, I.G.; Revenko, Y.A.; Babain, V.A.; Murzin, A.A.; Romanovsky, V.N; Fedorov, Y.S.; Shadrin, A.Y.; Ryabkova, N.V.; Li, E.N.

    2007-07-01

    The conditions for uranium oxides completely convert into uranyl nitrate hexahydrate in nitrogen tetra-oxide media (75 deg. C, 0,5-3,0 MPa, [UO{sub x}]:[H{sub 2}O]:[NO{sub 2}]=1:8:6) were found out. The conversion of Pu contained simulator of oxide spent nuclear fuel of thermal reactors was successfully demonstrated. The possibility of uranium recovery up to 95% from TR SNF without plutonium separation from FP is practically showed, what corresponds with Non-proliferation Treaty. (authors)

  7. Investigations on spectral and dielectric properties of semi-organic single crystal – morpholinium nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arul, H.; Babu, D. Rajan Vizhi, R. Ezhil

    2015-06-24

    Semi organic nonlinear optical crystal Morpholinium nitrate (MN) was synthesized and subsequently grown from the solution by slow evaporation method. The sample has been subjected to powder X-ray diffraction to identify the crystalline nature and the prominent peaks were indexed. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with a space group P2{sub 1}/C. Carbon NMR analysis confirms the presence of carbon in the structure of the title compound. Dielectric studies have been carried out on the grown crystal as a function of frequencies at different temperatures. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity were also calculated.

  8. Feasibility of SF6 Gas-Insulated Transformers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feasibility of SF 6 Gas-Insulated Transformers Brandon Bouwman, P.E. Electrical Engineer, Generation Equipment Section Hydroelectric Design Center 14 June 2012 BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT 2 Outline  Transformer Background & Basics  Oil-filled transformers  Oil-filled transformer concerns  Gas-insulated transformers (GIT)  Gas-insulated transformer benefits  Gas-insulated transformer concerns  Risks and Unknowns  Questions? BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT

  9. Speciation model selection by Monte Carlo analysis of optical absorption spectra: Plutonium(IV) nitrate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John M.; Veirs, D. Kirk; Vaughn, Randolph B.; Cisneros, Michael R.; Smith, Coleman A.

    2000-06-01

    Standard modeling approaches can produce the most likely values of the formation constants of metal-ligand complexes if a particular set of species containing the metal ion is known or assumed to exist in solution equilibrium with complexing ligands. Identifying the most likely set of species when more than one set is plausible is a more difficult problem to address quantitatively. A Monte Carlo method of data analysis is described that measures the relative abilities of different speciation models to fit optical spectra of open-shell actinide ions. The best model(s) can be identified from among a larger group of models initially judged to be plausible. The method is demonstrated by analyzing the absorption spectra of aqueous Pu(IV) titrated with nitrate ion at constant 2 molal ionic strength in aqueous perchloric acid. The best speciation model supported by the data is shown to include three Pu(IV) species with nitrate coordination numbers 0, 1, and 2. Formation constants are {beta}{sub 1}=3.2{+-}0.5 and {beta}{sub 2}=11.2{+-}1.2, where the uncertainties are 95% confidence limits estimated by propagating raw data uncertainties using Monte Carlo methods. Principal component analysis independently indicates three Pu(IV) complexes in equilibrium. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  10. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  11. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the DOE-funded solar market transformation analysis and tools under development in Fiscal Year 2010 so that stakeholders can access available resources and get engaged where interested.

  12. Darboux transformation for the NLS equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Mee, Cornelis van der

    2010-03-08

    We analyze a certain class of integral equations associated with Marchenko equations and Gel'fand-Levitan equations. Such integral equations arise through a Fourier transformation on various ordinary differential equations involving a spectral parameter. When the integral operator is perturbed by a finite-rank perturbation, we explicitly evaluate the change in the solution in terms of the unperturbed quantities and the finite-rank perturbation. We show that this result provides a fundamental approach to derive Darboux transformations for various systems of ordinary differential operators. We illustrate our theory by providing the explicit Darboux transformation for the Zakharov-Shabat system and show how the potential and wave function change when a simple discrete eigenvalue is added to the spectrum, and thus we also provide a one-parameter family of Darboux transformations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  13. Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions | Department of Energy Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Advanced Energy logo.png -- This project is inactive -- Advanced Energy (AE) will address three important needs in the further deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems: 1) demonstrating and commercializing a new anti-islanding method utilizing Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), 2) demonstrating a set of

  14. Darboux transformation and nonclassical orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, B.F.; Ovcharov, I.N.

    1995-10-01

    A Darboux transformation of order N is introduced for the Schroedinger equation. The relation between this transformation and the factorization method is treated in detail for N = 2. It is noted that the potential of the new Schroedinger depends on 2N parameters. A new exactly solvable potential is obtained from the harmonic oscillator potential. The polynomials appearing in the new Schroedinger equation are investigated in detail.

  15. Tag: transformation | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transformation Tag: transformation Displaying 1 - 10 of 21... Category: About Extended Life Program asks 'How do you make your buildings last?' Y-12 is developing an Extended Life Program, or ELP, for Buildings 9215 and 9204-2E, two key processing facilities at the site. More... Category: About Revitalizing the Infrastructure: Building 9995 NPO Program Manager David Wall points out infrastructure upgrades during a recent tour of Y-12's Building 9995. More... Category: About Getting on the same

  16. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Authors: Tulk, C.A. ; dos Santos, A.M. ; Neuefeind, J.C. ; Molaison, J.J. ; Sales, B.C. ; Honkimäki, V. [1] ; ESRF) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (ORNL) ( Publication Date: 2015-09-22 OSTI Identifier: 1221429 Resource Type: Journal Article

  17. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection

  18. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras, energy harvesting, and radar systems June 5, 2013 A burst of laser energy 50 times greater than the worldwide output of electrical power slams into an extremely thin foil target to produce neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TRIDENT laser facility during a recent experiment, which proved that laser-driven

  19. A study of the organic emission from a turbocharged diesel engine running on 12 percent hexyl nitrate dissolved in ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walde, N.; Westerholm, R.; Persson, K.-A.

    1984-01-01

    A highly rated turbocharged diesel engine adapted for an alternative fuel based on ethanol and hexyl nitrate has been investigated with respect to the emission of organic compounds in the exhausts. The adaption involves: ignition nozzles with larger holes, a change of injection timing and more fuel injected per stroke. Emissions were measured at four different driving modes ie, 1, 8, 10 and 12 respectively, in the California Cycle. The exhaust composition are different compared to conventional diesel emissions. The main part of the organic pollutants consists of unburned ethanol and hexyl nitrate, acetaldehyde being the most abundant aldehyde.

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWPA Transformer Oil Spill Risk Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the issue of secondary containment of oil for transformers in service at Corps ... Scope Scope 397,000 Gallons of Oil 397,000 Gallons of Oil 69 Transformers 69 Transformers ...

  1. Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ... Title: Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ...

  2. Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE of the NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY...

  3. Y-12 and the 2000 decade ? Modernization to Transformation,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation, part 2 As we continue with Tom Smith's account of the transition from "Modernization" to "Transformation" he notes, "The original plan was to put three new special...

  4. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review ...

  5. Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter You are accessing ...

  6. Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Authors: Godinez ...

  7. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption ...

  8. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Chemical Transformation June 19, 2014, Research Highlights Trace Water Catalyzes ... Read More Chemical Transformation Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory June 18, 2014, ...

  9. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Chemical Transformation June 5, 2015, Research Highlights Biphasic Electrode ... Read More Chemical Transformation Redox Flow April 27, 2015, Research Highlights ...

  10. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Transformation A second energy storage concept being pursued by JCESR is chemical transformation. This concept involves replacement of intercalation of the working ion at ...

  11. Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Print Monday, 05...

  12. EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to ...

  13. Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water ...

  14. Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project ... These grant funds will be used to close up their buildings-making them more energy ...

  15. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy ...

  16. Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies and Actions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient...

  17. Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice ...

  18. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a...

  19. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific roadblocks to U.S. energy security. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)...

  20. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: ... Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring ...

  1. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet)...

  2. Structural Aspects of Hydrogen Bonding with Nitrate and Sulfate: Design Criteria for Polyalcohol Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Dixon, David A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Organic hosts for oxyanion complexation can be constructed by combining two or more hydrogen bonding sites. The deliberate design of architectures for such hosts requires knowledge of the optimal geometry for the hydrogen bonds formed between the host and the guest. Important structural parameters include the O--H distance, the O--H-D angle, the X-O--H angle, and the X-O--H-D dihedral angle (H-D=hydrogen bond donor, X=any atom). This information can be obtained through the analysis of hydrogen bonding observed in crystal structures and electronic structure calculations on simple gas-phase complexes. In this chapter, we present an analysis of hydrogen bonding structural parameters for alcohol hydrogen donors and the oxygen atom acceptors in nitrate and sulfate.

  3. Thermal behavior of glassy phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yeager, J. D.; Chellappa, R.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a high interest material because of its wide usage in propellants and explosives but can be difficult to handle from a formulation standpoint. It is soluble in many common solvents and has complex phase behavior. Here, we formulate phase stabilized AN (PSAN) films in a polymer matrix and characterize thermal and phase behavior using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. Our PSAN films are generally stable up to 160 °C, though we observe small material loss between 60 and 100 °C, which we attribute to solvent interactions with the PSAN. Crystallization of AN from supersaturated polymer is mostmore » common at thicker regions of the film, suggesting a critical nucleation thickness for the AN which can be avoided by making very thin films.« less

  4. Thermal behavior of glassy phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, J. D.; Chellappa, R.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a high interest material because of its wide usage in propellants and explosives but can be difficult to handle from a formulation standpoint. It is soluble in many common solvents and has complex phase behavior. Here, we formulate phase stabilized AN (PSAN) films in a polymer matrix and characterize thermal and phase behavior using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. Our PSAN films are generally stable up to 160 °C, though we observe small material loss between 60 and 100 °C, which we attribute to solvent interactions with the PSAN. Crystallization of AN from supersaturated polymer is most common at thicker regions of the film, suggesting a critical nucleation thickness for the AN which can be avoided by making very thin films.

  5. THE SENSITIVITY OF CARBON STEELS' SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LOCALIZED CORROSION TO THE PH OF NITRATE BASED NUCLEAR WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOOMER KD

    2010-01-14

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  6. Enhanced liquid-liquid anion exchange using macrocyclic anion receptors: effect of receptor structure on sulphate-nitrate exchange selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Fowler, Christopher J; Haverlock, Tamara; Kang, Hyun Ah; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bau, Diadra; Hossain, Alamgir; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Gross, Mr. Dustin E.; Bill, Nathan; Marquez, Manuel; Lynch, Vincent M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    When certain macrocyclic anion receptors are added to a chloroform solution of the nitrate form of a lipophilic quaternary ammonium salt (methyltri-C8,10-ammonium nitrate, Aliquat 336N), the extraction of sulphate from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution via exchange with the organic-phase nitrate is significantly enhanced. Eight macrocycles were surveyed, including two derivatives of a tetraamide macrocycle, five derivatives of calix[4]pyrrole and -decafluorocalix[5]pyrrole. Under the hypothesis that the enhancement originates from sulphate binding by the anion receptors in the chloroform phase, it was possible to obtain reasonable fits to the sulphate distribution survey data based on the formation of 1:1 and 2:1 receptor:sulphate complexes in the chloroform phase. Apparent 1:1 sulphate-binding constants obtained from the model in this system fell in the range . Comparison of the results for the various anion receptors included in this study reveals that sulphate binding is sensitive to the nature of the substituents on the parent macrocycle scaffolds in a way that does not follow straightforwardly from simple chemical expectations, such as electron-withdrawing effects on hydrogen-bond donor strength.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence for Microbacterium laevaniformans Strain OR221, a Bacterium Tolerant to Metals, Nitrate, and Low pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Panikov, Nikolai; Ariyawansa, Thilini; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Johnson, Courtney M; Land, Miriam L; Utturkar, Sagar M; Epstein, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Microbacterium laevaniformans strain OR221 was isolated from subsurface sediments obtained from the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. It was characterized as a bacterium tolerant to heavy metals such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, as well as nitrate and low pH. We present its draft genome sequence.

  8. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  9. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  10. eXtension: Transformation of Cooperative Extension

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eXtension eXtension Transformation of Transformation of Cooperative Extension Cooperative Extension Kevin Gamble State Energy Advisory Board October 17, 2007 eXtension eXtension, the nation's first 24/7/365 collaboratively built non-formal education and information system available on any Internet-ready device How it works How it works ... ... P P P r r r o o o d d d u u u c c c t t t s s s Basic Information Ask the Experts FAQs Distance Diagnostics Discussion & Chat Decision Tools

  11. Information retrieval system utilizing wavelet transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewster, Mary E.; Miller, Nancy E.

    2000-01-01

    A method for automatically partitioning an unstructured electronically formatted natural language document into its sub-topic structure. Specifically, the document is converted to an electronic signal and a wavelet transform is then performed on the signal. The resultant signal may then be used to graphically display and interact with the sub-topic structure of the document.

  12. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  13. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.J. Fisch

    2009-12-21

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

  14. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is an overview describing the solar analysis and tool development projects funded by the DOE Market Transformation team for fiscal year 2010. These quick snapshots are intended to give you a basic look at the scope, timeline, and expected deliverables for each project.

  15. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600C.

  16. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Combined uranous nitrate production consisting of undivided electrolytic cell and divided electrolytic cell (Electrolysis ? Electrolytic cell)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Hui; Xian, Liang

    2013-07-01

    The electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate is a green, mild way to make uranous ions. Undivided electrolyzers whose maintenance is less but their conversion ratio and current efficiency are low, have been chosen. However, at the beginning of undivided electrolysis, high current efficiency can also be maintained. Divided electrolyzers' conversion ratio and current efficiency is much higher because the re-oxidation of uranous on anode is avoided, but their maintenance costs are more, because in radioactive environment the membrane has to be changed after several operations. In this paper, a combined method of uranous production is proposed which consists of 2 stages: undivided electrolysis (early stage) and divided electrolysis (late stage) to benefit from the advantages of both electrolysis modes. The performance of the combined method was tested. The results show that in combined mode, after 200 min long electrolysis (80 min undivided electrolysis and 120 min divided electrolysis), U(IV) yield can achieve 92.3% (500 ml feed, U 199 g/l, 72 cm{sup 2} cathode, 120 mA/cm{sup 2}). Compared with divided mode, about 1/3 working time in divided electrolyzer is reduced to achieve the same U(IV) yield. If 120 min long undivided electrolysis was taken, more than 1/2 working time can be reduced in divided electrolyzer, which means that about half of the maintenance cost can also be reduced. (authors)

  18. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600%C2%B0C with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  19. EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Effective Date: 5/28/2014 The Responsible Manager has determined that the following organizations' review/concurrence is required for the initial document and for major revisions a same type and level review is required. Review documentation is contained in the Document History File: EWMO Engineering LANL TRU Programs - Shipping and Safe Storage Disposition LANL TRU Programs - Drum Disposition Project LANL

  20. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  1. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  2. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  3. Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

    2005-02-04

    A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity and its ability to characterize a PD event. Other sensing techniques have been also identified, such as the wavelength shifting fiber optics and custom fabricated fibers with special coatings.

  4. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  5. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 You are accessing a ...

  6. Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging A tokamak current can be sustained using rf waves for transformer recharging at low density and high-Z with...

  7. Description of Rhodanobacter denitrificans sp. nov., isolated from nitrate-rich zones of a contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, Om; Green, Stefan; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will; Canion, Andy; Watson, David B; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka,

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 were isolated from the subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site where sediments are co-contaminated with large amounts of acidity, nitrate, metal radionuclides and other heavy metals. A combination of physiological and genetic assays indicated that these strains represent the first members of the Rhodanobacter genus shown to be capable of complete denitrification. Cells of strain 2APBS1T and 116-2 were Gram negative, non-spore-forming, rods, 3-5 micro;m long and 0.25-0.5 m in diameter. The isolates were facultative anaerobes, and had temperature and pH optima for growth at 30 C and pH 6.5, respectively, and could tolerate up to 2.0 % NaCl, though growth improved in its absence. Strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 contained fatty acid profiles and 100 % Q-8 ubiquinone, that are characteristic features of the genus Rhodanobacter. Although strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 share high SSU rRNA gene sequence similarity to R. thiooxydans (>99%), DNA-DNA hybridization values were substantially below the 70% threshold used to designate novel species. Thus, based on genotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological differences, strains 2APBS1T and 116-2 are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhodanobacter, for which the name Rhodanobacter denitrificans sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is 2APBS1T (=DSM 23569T =JCM 17641T). Strain 116-2 (=DSM 24678 = JCM 17642) is a reference strain.

  8. Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document details the agenda for the DOE Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop on Feb. 17, 2012.

  9. Market Transformation: Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  10. Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ni-Co-Fe-Ga shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in Ni-Co-Fe-Ga shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in Ni-Co-Fe-Ga shape memory alloys Here we describe insights into the phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics associated with the newly discovered confined martensitic transformation, which are

  11. Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Lead Performer: Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) - Washington, DC Partners: -- Vermont Energy Investment Corporation/District of Columbia Sustainable Energy Utility (VEIC/DCSEU) -- District of Columbia Department of Energy and Environment (DOEE) -- New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

  12. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzweissig, M.J.; Canadinc, D.; Maier, H.J.

    2012-03-15

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  13. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  14. Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding Yuan

    2010-12-29

    A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.

  15. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  16. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  17. Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets Cliff M ajersik, Execu2ve D irector cliff@imt.org;@IMTCliff. June 16, 2015 US spends $400 billion per year to power b uildings The b uilding s ector i s t he d ominant u ser o f e nergy a nd generator o f C O 2 e missions i n t he U .S. T his i s m ore t rue i n c ities due t o d ensity. 38 70 51 65 75 62 75 74 US Chicago Dallas Minneapolis New York City Philadelphia Salt Lake City Washington, DC Percentage of Total Carbon Emissions from

  18. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  19. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-06-08

    The nitrate (NO₃⁻) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO₃⁻ derived from at NO₃⁻ signal with δ¹⁵N averaging –4.8 ± 1.0‰ (standard error of the mean) and δ¹⁸O averaging 70.2 ±1.7‰. In active layer pore waters, NO₃⁻ primarily occurred at concentrations suitable for isotopic analysis in the relatively dry and oxic centers of high-centered polygons. The average δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O of NO₃⁻ from high-centered polygons were 0.5 ± 1.1‰ and –4.1 ± 0.6‰, respectively. When compared to the δ¹⁵N of reduced nitrogen (N) sources, and the δ¹⁸O of soil pore waters, it was evident that NO₃⁻ in high-centered polygons was primarily from microbial nitrification. Permafrost NO₃⁻ had δ¹⁵N ranging from approximately –6‰ to 10‰, similar to atmospheric and microbial NO₃⁻, and highly variable δ¹⁸O ranging from approximately –2‰ to 38‰. Permafrost ice wedges contained a significant atmospheric component of NO₃⁻, while permafrost textural ice contained a greater proportion of microbially derived NO₃⁻. Large-scale permafrost thaw in this environment would release NO₃⁻ with a δ¹⁸O signature intermediate to that of atmospheric and microbial NO₃. Consequently, while atmospheric and microbial sources can be readily distinguished by the NO₃⁻ dual isotope technique in tundra environments, attribution of NO₃⁻ from thawing permafrost will not be straightforward. The NO₃⁻ isotopic signature, however, appears useful in identifying NO₃⁻ sources in extant permafrost ice.

  20. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-06-08

    The nitrate (NO₃⁻) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO₃⁻ derived from at NO₃⁻ signal with δ¹⁵N averaging –4.8 ± 1.0‰ (standard error of the mean) and δ¹⁸O averaging 70.2 ±1.7‰. In active layer pore waters, NO₃⁻ primarily occurred at concentrations suitable for isotopic analysis in the relatively dry and oxic centers of high-centered polygons. The average δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O of NO₃⁻ from high-centered polygons were 0.5 ± 1.1‰ and –4.1 ± 0.6‰, respectively. When compared to the δ¹⁵N of reduced nitrogen (N) sources,more » and the δ¹⁸O of soil pore waters, it was evident that NO₃⁻ in high-centered polygons was primarily from microbial nitrification. Permafrost NO₃⁻ had δ¹⁵N ranging from approximately –6‰ to 10‰, similar to atmospheric and microbial NO₃⁻, and highly variable δ¹⁸O ranging from approximately –2‰ to 38‰. Permafrost ice wedges contained a significant atmospheric component of NO₃⁻, while permafrost textural ice contained a greater proportion of microbially derived NO₃⁻. Large-scale permafrost thaw in this environment would release NO₃⁻ with a δ¹⁸O signature intermediate to that of atmospheric and microbial NO₃. Consequently, while atmospheric and microbial sources can be readily distinguished by the NO₃⁻ dual isotope technique in tundra environments, attribution of NO₃⁻ from thawing permafrost will not be straightforward. The NO₃⁻ isotopic signature, however, appears useful in identifying NO₃⁻ sources in extant permafrost ice.« less

  1. Criticality experiments with planar arrays of three-liter bottles containing plutonium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, B.M.; Clayton, E.D.; Smith, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in critically safety assessments of plant configurations. Arrays containing up to as many as sixteen three-liter bottles filled with plutonium nitrate were used in the experiments. A split-table device was used in the final assembly of the arrays. Ths planar arrays were reflected with close fitting plexiglas on each side and on the bottom but not the top surface. The experiments addressed a number of factors effecting criticality: the critical air gap between bottles in an array of fixed number of bottles, the number of bottles required for criticality if the bottles were touching, and the effect on critical array spacing and critical bottle number due to the insertion of an hydrogeneous substance into the air gap between bottles. Each bottle contained about 2.4l of Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution at a Pu concentration of 105g Pu/l, with the {sup 240}Pu content being 2.9 wt% at a free acid molarity H{sup +} of 5.1. After the initial series of experiments were performed with bottles separated by air gaps, plexiglas shells of varying thicknesses were placed around each bottle to investigate how moderation between bottles affects both the number of bottles required for criticality and the critical spacing between each bottle. The minimum of bottles required for criticality was found to be 10.9 bottles, occurring for a square array with bottles in contact. As the bottles were spaced apart, the critical number increased. For sixteen bottles in a square array, the critical separation between surfaces in both x and y direction was 0.96 cm. The addition of plexiglas around each bottle decreased the critical bottle number, compared to those separated in air, but the critical bottle number, even with interstitial plastic in place was always greater than 10.9 bottles. The most reactive configuration was a tightly packed array of bottles with no intervening material.

  2. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  3. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  4. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  5. Solvent Modification in Ion-Pair Extraction: Effect on Sodium Nitrate Transport in Nitrobenzene Using a Crown Ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-10-31

    A comparative quantitative analysis of the effect of solvent modifiers on an ion-pair extraction of an inorganic salt by a crown ether was conducted. Two classes of the solvent modifiers that possess electron-pair donor (EPD) or hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) groups were investigated. The equilibrium constants corresponding to the extraction of sodium nitrate into nitrobenzene (NB) employing model neutral host cis-syn-cis-dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (1) with and without solvent modifier were determined using the SXLSQI computer model. For a series of EPD modifiers—including tri-n-butyl- and tri-phenylphosphate, tri-n-butyl- and tri-phenylphosphine oxide, N,N-di-n-butyl- and N,N-di-phenyl acetamide—the enhancement of the NaNO3 extraction by 1 was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-bond acceptance ability of the modifier quantified by the b solvatochromic parameter. Application of the solvent EPD modifier improved solvation of the sodium ion, lowering the large energy barrier of Na+ partitioning into the extraction phase. A HBD modifier 3,5-di-t-butylphenol 8 that forms strong hydrogen bonds with nitrate anion in NB, exhibited even greater enhancement of the NaNO3 extraction by 1. The determined extraction constants were correlated with the b or a solvatochromic parameters of the solvent modifiers and linear trends were observed. Hydrogen bond interaction between 3,5-di-t-butylphenol 8 and nitrate anion in the presence of the sodium-loaded crown ether in the extraction phases was studied by vibrational spectroscopy. Formation of the simple 1:1 adduct was demonstrated.

  6. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  7. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-04-15

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  8. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  9. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  10. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D. ); Cady, H.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  11. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Cady, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  12. Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.N. |

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

  13. MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischer, Marc E.; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

    2013-09-12

    Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is differentially regulated in genetically distinct NO3- assimilating bacteria, and that the best predictors of nasA gene expression are either NO3- concentration or NO3- uptake rates. These studies provide convincing evidence of the importance of bacterial utilization of NO3-, insight into controlling processes, and provide a rich dataset that are being used to develop linked C and N modeling components necessary to evaluate the significance of bacterial DIN utilization to global C cycling. Furthermore, as a result of BI-OMP funding we made exciting strides towards institutionalizing a research and education based collaboration between the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SkIO) and Savannah State University (SSU), an historically black university within the University System of Georgia with undergraduate and now graduate programs in marine science. The BI-OMP program, in addition to supporting undergraduate (24) graduate (10) and postdoctoral (2) students, contributed to the development of a new graduate program in Marine Sciences at SSU that remains an important legacy of this project. The long-term goals of these collaborations are to increase the capacity for marine biotechnology research and to increase representation of minorities in marine, environmental and biotechnological sciences.

  14. Improved technique for one-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.A.

    1987-05-11

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.

  15. Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy September 5, 2012 - 12:57pm Addthis The Obama Administration's Digital Government Strategy provides a vision for a 21st century government that lays a strong foundation for modernizing technology services across the Federal Government. At Energy, we're implementing a three-pillar approach -- Transform, Protect and Advance - as part of this

  16. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    05/24/2011 | Department of Energy Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 This document is the U.S. Department of Energys presentation titled NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and UpdateŽ, date - May 24, 2011 PDF icon nema_distributiontransformers_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products

  17. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the demonstration and market transformation sessions are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2015 Project Peer Review Program

  18. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Fourier-Transform Infrared and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Spectroscopy Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Image of FTIR map FTIR mapping capabilities are extremely useful for the quick, nondestructive characterization of heterogeneous free carrier properties of transparent conduction oxides. Infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive, highly sensitive technique that provides information about impurities, chemical environment, and free-carrier properties. Performing both Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and Fourier transform infrared

  19. ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies March 2, 2012 - 2:31pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) issued a $150 million funding opportunity open to all transformational energy technologies to support the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above approach to solving our nation's most pressing energy challenges. This Open Funding

  20. Recovery Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Recovery Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation Recovery Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation Following the fuel cell funding announcement, DOE funded the fuel cell market transformation projects listed below. These projects focus on fuel cell systems in emergency backup power, material handling, and combined heat and power applications, with the goal of improving the potential of fuel cells to provide power in stationary, portable,

  1. Chicago Region Solar Market Transformation Team SunShot Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2013 Chicago Region Solar Market Transformation Team SunShot Initiative - Rooftop Solar Challenge (RSC) I Final Report To: Josh Huneycutt, DOE Program Administrator This final ...

  2. On the massive transformation from ferrite to austenite in laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite in laser welded mo-bearing stainless steels. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the massive transformation from ferrite to austenite in laser welded ...

  3. Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United New Energy Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co.,Ltd. Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100005 Product: The clean...

  4. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Transforms with Three-Dimensional Printing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From medical devices to airplane components, three-dimensional (3-D) printing (also called additive manufacturing) is transforming the manufacturing industry. Now, research that supports the Energy...

  5. Dominican Republic-Fast-Track Development of TransformativeClimate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fast-Track Development of Transformative Climate-Compatible Development Plans and Building of Regional and Local Capacities Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Dominican...

  6. Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Taming the Grid: Dynamic Load Composition Quantification at the Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holby, Edward F. Los Alamos...

  7. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts that achieve a 45% ...

  8. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will...

  9. Chemical Transformations | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Chemical Transformations Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation ...

  10. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elasticall...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling...

  11. Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Comments of ...

  12. An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...Value Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value ...

  13. Final Report - Hawaii's Clean Energy Transformation and Grid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report - Hawaii's Clean Energy Transformation and Grid Connection Awardee: Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism Location: Honolulu, HI Subprogram: ...

  14. Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in multireference problems" J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015) Authors: Sokolov, Alexander Yu. 1 ; Chan, Garnet ...

  15. Saturable inductor and transformer structures for magnetic pulse compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    Saturable inductor and transformer for magnetic compression of an electronic pulse, using a continuous electrical conductor looped several times around a tightly packed core of saturable inductor material.

  16. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONTACTS DOE Technology Manager: Marina Sofos Lead Performer: Case Western Reserve University Related Publications PDF icon 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-Transforming Ordinary ...

  17. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in beta-LiAlSiOsubscript 4 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Amorphization ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast ...

  19. Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARPA-E's mission is to develop nimble, creative and inventive approaches to transform the ... This development has the potential to greatly increase domestic production of clean fuel ...

  20. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project -- A DOE Market Transformation Activity-- Lennie Klebanoff ... Systems Torsten Erbel Multiquip Inc. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Webinar November 13, ...

  1. Expanding Transformer Production for U.S. Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Metglas, which makes Amorphous Metal Transformers from an amorphous metal alloy with unique mechanical and magnetic properties, is creating jobs from advance manufacturing tax credits.

  2. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects.

  3. Smart Grid - Transforming Power System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-04-28

    AbstractElectric power systems are entering a new realm of operations. Large amounts of variable generation tax our ability to reliably operate the system. Couple this with a greater reliance on the electricity network to serve consumer demand that is likely to rise significantly even as we drive for greater efficiency. Trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated, while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in a world where threats of disruption have risen. Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help address the challenges confronting system operations. This paper reviews the impact of smart grid functionality on transforming power system operations. It explores models for distributed energy resources (DER generation, storage, and load) that are appearing on the system. It reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be addressed as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  4. Wedge assembly for electrical transformer component spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baggett, Franklin E.; Cage, W. Franklin

    1991-01-01

    A wedge assembly that is easily inserted between two surfaces to be supported thereby, and thereafter expanded to produce a selected spacing between those surfaces. This wedge assembly has two outer members that are substantially identical except that they are mirror images of each other. Oppositely directed faces of these of these outer members are substantially parallel for the purpose of contacting the surfaces to be separated. The outer faces of these outer members that are directed toward each other are tapered so as to contact a center member having complementary tapers on both faces. A washer member is provided to contact a common end of the outer members, and a bolt member penetrates this washer and is threadably received in a receptor of the center member. As the bolt member is threaded into the center member, the center member is drawn further into the gap between the outer members and thereby separates these outer members to contact the surfaces to be separated. In the preferred embodiment, the contacting surfaces of the outer member and the center member are provided with guide elements. The wedge assembly is described for use in separating the secondary windings from the laminations of an electrical power transformer.

  5. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  6. Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis with cloned thymidylate synthetases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis carries two genes, thyA and thyB, each encoding different protein products, with thymidylate synthetase (TSase) activity. Either of these genes alone is sufficient for thymidine independence in B. subtilis. In addition there exist two B. subtilis temperate bacteriophages which upon infection of thymine requiring auxotrophs results in conversion of the organism to thymine independence. Chimeric plasmids selected for Thy/sup +/ transforming activity in E. coli were constructed and then used as a source of defined highly enriched DNA with which to transform competent B. subtilis. These plasmids were studied for their: (1) abiility to transform B. subtilis to thymine independence; (2) site of integration within the B. subtilis chromosome upon transformation; (3) phenotype of Thy/sup +/ plasmid generated transformants; and (4) nucleotide sequence homology among the cloned DNA fragments conferring thymine independence. Plasmids containing the two bacteriophage thy genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyA, whereas the plasmids containing the cloned B. subtilis chromosomal genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyB. Utilizing similar technology, the ability of an entirely foreign hybred bacterial plasmiid to transform B. subtilis was examined. In this case the gene from E. coli encoding thymidylate synthetase was cloned in the plasmid pBR322. The resulting chimeric plasmid was effective in transforming both E. coli and B. subtilis to thymine prototrophy. Uncloned linear E. coli chromosomal DNA was unable to transform thymine requiring strains of B. subtilis to thymine independence. Although the Thy/sup +/ transformants of E. coli contained plasmid DNA, the Thy/sup +/ transformants derived from the transformation of B. subtilis did not contain detectable extrachromosomal DNA. Instead the DNA from the chimeric plasmid was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. (ERB)

  7. Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon commlbldgs13_underhill_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014

  8. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, M.K.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1997-05-20

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets. 14 figs.

  9. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets.

  10. Dcm methylation is detrimental to plasmid transformation in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Adam M; Olson, Daniel G.; Caiazza, Nicky; Lynd, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Industrial production of biofuels and other products by cellulolytic microorganisms is of interest but hindered by the nascent state of genetic tools. Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve relatively low efficiency and similar plasmids can transform C. thermocellum at dramatically different efficiencies. RESULTS: We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been methylated by Escherichia coli Dam but not Dcm methylases. When isolated from a dam+ dcm+ E. coli strain, pAMG206 transforms C. thermocellum 100-fold better than the similar plasmid pAMG205, which contains an additional Dcm methylation site in the pyrF gene. Upon removal of Dcm methylation, transformation with pAMG206 showed a four- to seven-fold increase in efficiency; however, transformation efficiency of pAMG205 increased 500-fold. Removal of the Dcm methylation site from the pAM205 pyrF gene via silent mutation resulted in increased transformation efficiencies equivalent to that of pAMG206. Upon proper methylation, transformation efficiency of plasmids bearing the pMK3 and pB6A origins of replication increased ca. three orders of magnitude. CONCLUSION: E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. The use of properly methylated plasmid DNA should facilitate genetic manipulation of this industrially relevant bacterium.

  11. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Tom; Foley, Samantha S; Hulette, Geoffrey C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Prantl, Adrian; Panyala, Ajay; Sottile, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  12. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectivesreducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  13. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  14. Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades, Evolving to Whole Home Success, Session 2: Sustainable Business Models presentation. Provides an overview of Connecticut's various home energy programs, the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, and contractor involvement.

  15. Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of ZnO Nanowires...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of ZnO Nanowires Probed by X-ray Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Structural ...

  16. Live Broadcast on Transforming Digital Technologies Across Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Thursday, March 24 at 1:00pm ET, join the Office of the Chief Information Office for a discussion on transforming digital technologies across the federal government.

  17. Y-12 and the 2000 decade … Modernization to Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation Tom Smith, who for a number of years has led the forward thinking and long-range planning functions at Y-12, observed the following about the Infrastructure ...

  18. Combinatorial discovery of enzymes with utility in biomass transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Brian G; Elsen, Nathaniel L

    2015-02-03

    Methods for the cell-free identification of polypeptide and polypeptide combinations with utility in biomass transformation, as well as specific novel polypeptides and cell-free systems containing polypeptide combinations discovered by such methods are disclosed.

  19. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  20. EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green ... These grant funds will be used to close up their buildings-making them more energy ...

  1. TRANSFORMER FOR JOINING UNBALANCED TO BALANCED TRANSMISSION MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bittner, B.J.; Opperman, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    An improved transformer is invented for joining an unbalanced transmission means to a balanced transmission means and is useful, for example, in transmitting an electromagnetic signal from a coaxial cable to a balanced dipole antenna.

  2. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEMA Distribution Transformers CCE Overview and Update May 24, 2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Agenda Certified Ratings Basic Model and kVA Grouping Explanation Certification 2 | Building ...

  3. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field ...

  4. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Transformation NREL's market transformation activities address technical and non-technical barriers to the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to ensure that laboratory advances can be realized in the marketplace. Projects focus on deploying hydrogen and fuel cells in key early markets-specialty vehicles, backup and remote power, portable power, and primary power for critical applications such as hospitals or data centers-and renewable hydrogen production

  5. Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multireference problems" [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in multireference problems" [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015)] Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 3, 2017 Title: Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in multireference problems" [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015)] Authors: Sokolov,

  6. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloy Nickel-Titanium (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium This content will become publicly available on May 20, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Authors: Kimiecik, Michael ; Wayne Jones, J. ; Daly, Samantha Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1251238 Grant/Contract Number: SC0003996 Type: Publisher's

  7. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloy Nickel-Titanium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 20, 2017 Title: Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Authors: Kimiecik, Michael ; Wayne Jones, J. ; Daly, Samantha Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1251238 Grant/Contract Number:

  8. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on

  9. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Authors: Dafflon, B. ; Wu, Y. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. ; Daley, T. M. ; Pugh,

  10. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This

  11. VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a House into a Home VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home October 28, 2013 - 10:30am Addthis In the video above, Lakiya Culley talks about how her solar-powered, passive home, located in D.C.'s Deanwood neighborhood, has changed her family's future. | Video by Matty Greene, Energy Department. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer At universities all across the country,

  12. Vice President Biden Announces Recovery Act Funding for 37 Transformational

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Research Projects | Department of Energy Recovery Act Funding for 37 Transformational Energy Research Projects Vice President Biden Announces Recovery Act Funding for 37 Transformational Energy Research Projects April 29, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - At a Recovery Act Cabinet Meeting today, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced that the U.S. Department of Energy is awarding $106 million in funding for 37 ambitious research projects that could

  13. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Media--An Idea Exchange | Department of Energy Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report describes results of a Building America expert meeting on September 13, 2011, in Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted by the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA). This meeting provided a forum for presentations and discussions on the use of new media to work with

  14. Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Australia (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Authors: Campbell, S. Gordon ; Reith, Frank ; Etschmann, Barbara ; Brugger, Joël ; Martinez-Criado, Gema ; Gordon, Robert A. ; Southam, Gordon [1] ; CLS) [2] ; Monash) [2] ; SA Museum) [2] ; ESRF) [2] ; UWO) [2] ; Queensland) [2] + Show

  15. An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Authors: Finkel, H. J. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (LCF) Publication

  16. November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Out | Department of Energy 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out October 13, 2014 - 5:57pm Addthis The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting the challenges and opportunities associated with dynamic distribution system architecture. This new dynamic distribution system connects central and local

  17. EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents | Department of Energy Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE is funding Vortex Hydro Energy to commercialize the Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) converter, which is a University of Michigan-patented marine and

  18. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry, November 2010 | Department of Energy Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 PDF icon itp_successes.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Technology Solutions ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing

  19. PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    THE SUNSHOT INITIATIVE PRESENTATION: OVERVIEW OF THE SUNSHOT INITIATIVE A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on the SunShot Initiative delivered by Minh Le, Director of the SunShot Initiative. PDF icon Overview of the SunShot Initiative More Documents & Publications 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book: Introduction SunShot Initiative 2014 Portfolio Overview Download the Final Agenda

    TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID A briefing to the

  20. Martensite transformation of epitaxial Ni-Ti films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschbeck, J.; Kozhanov, A.; Kawasaki, J. K.; James, R. D.; Palmstroem, C. J.

    2011-05-09

    The structure and phase transformations of thin Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated for compositions from 43 to 56 at. % Ti. Despite the substrate constraint, temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements reveal reversible, martensitic phase transformations. The results suggest that these occur by an in-plane shear which does not disturb the lattice coherence at interfaces.

  1. Final Project Report: A Polyhedral Transformation Framework for Compiler Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Rountev, Atanas

    2015-06-15

    The project developed the polyhedral compiler transformation module PolyOpt/Fortran in the ROSE compiler framework. PolyOpt/Fortran performs automated transformation of affine loop nests within FORTRAN programs for enhanced data locality and parallel execution. A FORTAN version of the Polybench library was also developed by the project. A third development was a dynamic analysis approach to gauge vectorization potential within loops of programs; software (DDVec) for automated instrumentation and dynamic analysis of programs was developed.

  2. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-03-06 OSTI Identifier: 1169262 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-651372 DOE Contract Number:

  3. Portsmouth Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students Portsmouth Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students January 29, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Students participating in the Science Alliance enjoyed hands-on exhibits and discussions with scientists, engineers and specialists in a range of fields. Students participating in the Science Alliance enjoyed hands-on exhibits and discussions with scientists, engineers and specialists in a range of

  4. Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 | Department of Energy a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), is seeking comments and information from interested parties to inform its policy development related to the

  5. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Authors: Zhang, Jianzhong ; Zhao, Yusheng ; Xu, Hongwu ; Zelinskas, Matthew V. ; Wang, Liping ; Wang, Yanbin ; Uchida, Takeyuki [1] ; UC) [2] ; LANL) [2] ; Buffalo) [2] + Show Author Affiliations

  6. Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential December 13, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Long-term operation of electronics at high temperatures remains a challenge for the geothermal sector; many downhole sensors are prone to failure when deployed in high-temperature wells, which limits the availability and complexity of logging tools available for use in geothermal energy extraction. Funded by a GTO Recovery Act award, GE Global Research has elevated

  7. SAR image formation with azimuth interpolation after azimuth transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry; Armin W. , Martin; Grant D. , Holzrichter; Michael W.

    2008-07-08

    Two-dimensional SAR data can be processed into a rectangular grid format by subjecting the SAR data to a Fourier transform operation, and thereafter to a corresponding interpolation operation. Because the interpolation operation follows the Fourier transform operation, the interpolation operation can be simplified, and the effect of interpolation errors can be diminished. This provides for the possibility of both reducing the re-grid processing time, and improving the image quality.

  8. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Revolutionize Electric Power in North America | Department of Energy Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America This Roadmap provides a framework for all of the stakeholders that comprise the electric industry to work together to achieve common aims. PDF icon National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap:

  9. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Transformation December 21, 2015, Research Highlights Redox Mediators that Promote Three-Dimensional Growth of Li2S on Carbon Current Collectors in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Developed, from computation and experiment, redox mediators that allow 3-D growth of Li2S on carbon current collectors for greater capacity utilization in Li-S batteries ... Read More Chemical Transformation Electrolyte Genome December 21, 2015, Research Highlights Compliant Glass-Polymer Hybrid Single

  10. 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry December 12, 2013 - 3:07pm Addthis A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Center A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save

  11. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations You ...

  12. Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of NOx source contributions to atmospheric nitrate deposition across the Midwestern and Northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Elliott; C. Kendall; S.D. Wanke; D.A. Burns; E.W. Boyer; K. Harlin; D.J. Bain; T.J. Butler

    2007-11-15

    Global inputs of NOx are dominated by fossil fuel combustion from both stationary and vehicular sources and far exceed natural NOx sources. However, elucidating NOx sources to any given location remains a difficult challenge, despite the need for this information to develop sound regulatory and mitigation strategies. We present results from a regional-scale study of nitrogen isotopes (15N) in wet nitrate deposition across 33 sites in the midwestern and northeastern U.S. We demonstrate that spatial variations in 15N are strongly correlated with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, or NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U.S., our results suggest that wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition at sites in this study is strongly associated with NOx emissions from power plants. This suggests that large areas of the landscape potentially receive atmospheric NOy deposition inputs in excess of what one would infer from existing monitoring data alone. Moreover, we determined that spatial patterns in 15N values are a robust indicator of stationary NOx contributions to wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition and hence a valuable complement to existing tools for assessing relationships between NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition, regional emission inventories, and for evaluating progress toward NOx reduction goals. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Mathematical investigation of one-way transform matrix options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, James Arlin

    2006-01-01

    One-way transforms have been used in weapon systems processors since the mid- to late-1970s in order to help recognize insertion of correct pre-arm information while maintaining abnormal-environment safety. Level-One, Level-Two, and Level-Three transforms have been designed. The Level-One and Level-Two transforms have been implemented in weapon systems, and both of these transforms are equivalent to matrix multiplication applied to the inserted information. The Level-Two transform, utilizing a 6 x 6 matrix, provided the basis for the ''System 2'' interface definition for Unique-Signal digital communication between aircraft and attached weapons. The investigation described in this report was carried out to find out if there were other size matrices that would be equivalent to the 6 x 6 Level-Two matrix. One reason for the investigation was to find out whether or not other dimensions were possible, and if so, to derive implementation options. Another important reason was to more fully explore the potential for inadvertent inversion. The results were that additional implementation methods were discovered, but no inversion weaknesses were revealed.

  14. A model for heterogeneous materials including phase transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addessio, F.L.; Clements, B.E.; Williams, T.O.

    2005-04-15

    A model is developed for particulate composites, which includes phase transformations in one or all of the constituents. The model is an extension of the method of cells formalism. Representative simulations for a single-phase, brittle particulate (SiC) embedded in a ductile material (Ti), which undergoes a solid-solid phase transformation, are provided. Also, simulations for a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) are included. In the WHA analyses a particulate composite, composed of tungsten particles embedded in a tungsten-iron-nickel alloy matrix, is modeled. A solid-liquid phase transformation of the matrix material is included in the WHA numerical calculations. The example problems also demonstrate two approaches for generating free energies for the material constituents. Simulations for volumetric compression, uniaxial strain, biaxial strain, and pure shear are used to demonstrate the versatility of the model.

  15. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  16. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ralph L.; Guilford, Richard P.; Stichman, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  17. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to silica diagenesis: The opal-A to opal-CT transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, S.B.; Freund, H.; Huang, W.L.; Clouse, J.A.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    An important goal in silica diagenesis research is to understand the kinetics of opal transformation from noncrystalline opal-A to the disordered silica polymorph opal-CT. Because the conventional technique for monitoring the transformation, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), is applicable only to phases with long-range order, the authors used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to monitor the transformation. They applied this technique, combined with XRD and TEM, to experimental run products and natural opals from the Monterey Formation and from siliceous deposits in the western Pacific Ocean. Using a ratio of two infrared absorption intensities ({omega} = I{sub 472 cm{sup {minus}1}}/I{sub 500 cm{sup {minus}1}}), the relative proportions of opal-A and opal-CT can be determined. The progress of the transformation is marked by changes in slope of {omega} vs. depth or time when a sufficient stratigraphic profile is available. There are three stages in the opal-A to opal-CT reaction: (1) opal-A dissolution; (2) opal-CT precipitation, whose end point is marked by completion of opal-A dissolution; and (3) opal-CT ordering, during which tridymite stacking is eliminated in favor of crystobalite stacking.

  18. Predicting the onset of transformation under noncontinuous cooling conditions. Part 2: Application to the austenite pearlite transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, T.T.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Brimacombe, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    A detailed review of the additivity principle with respect to the incubation of the austenite decomposition was summarized in Part 1 of this two-part series and led to the concept of an ideal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. This curve is characteristic of the chemistry and austenite grain size in the steel and allows nonisothermal behavior to be described assuming additivity holds. The derivation of mathematical relationships between the ideal and experimental cooling data was presented in the first article. In this second article, an ideal curve for the austenite-to-pearlite transformation was derived from cooling data. The applicability of the ideal TTT curve for predicting the start of transformation under continuous cooling conditions was assessed for a range of cooling rates. Experiments were conducted under both isothermal and varying temperature conditions, including an industrial cooling schedule, using a Gleeble Thermal Simulator. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the observed transformation start temperatures; predictions were consistent and compared favorably against other methods which have been frequently used to estimate the transformation start temperature for nonisothermal conditions.

  19. Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris | Department of Energy Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris November 23, 2015 - 3:36pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced $125 million across 41 cutting-edge energy technologies awarded by the

  20. EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy West Union Green Transformation Project EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project March 17, 2014 - 11:26am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area, including 80% of the 60 downtown

  1. Monitoring & Diagnosis of Transformers | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Luiz Felipe Willcox 2015.04.30 It was a Friday evening in the spring of 1994 and I was going out for a pizza with my old man. I had just received my degree in electrical engineering. As my

  2. Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 31, 2016 Title: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x

  3. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steels: a 3D phase-field study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Authors: Yeddu, Hemantha K. [1] ; Lookman, Turab [1] ; Saxena, Avadh B. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-08-19 OSTI Identifier:

  4. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-09-01

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  5. Phase transformations in steels: Processing, microstructure, and performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbs, Paul J.

    2014-04-03

    In this study, contemporary steel research is revealing new processing avenues to tailor microstructure and properties that, until recently, were only imaginable. Much of the technological versatility facilitating this development is provided by the understanding and utilization of the complex phase transformation sequences available in ferrous alloys. Today we have the opportunity to explore the diverse phenomena displayed by steels with specialized analytical and experimental tools. Advances in multi-scale characterization techniques provide a fresh perspective into microstructural relationships at the macro- and micro-scale, enabling a fundamental understanding of the role of phase transformations during processing and subsequent deformation.

  6. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  7. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2001-06-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  8. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2000-06-01

    Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  9. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  10. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material

  11. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  12. New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool under a new modularization framework. The new framework will transform FAST into a powerful, robust, and flexible modeling software for wind and water power technology developers.

  13. DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for Funding

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected 16 projects to receive funding through NETL’s Carbon Capture Program. The program funds development and testing of transformational carbon dioxide (CO2) capture systems for new and existing coal-based power plants.

  14. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  15. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.

    2010-02-15

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  16. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P.; Janos, Alan C.; Uyama, Tadao; Yamada, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  17. Saturating time-delay transformer for overcurrent protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1977-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to d-c supplies are protected from damage by overcurrent in the case of a load fault by connecting in series with the load a saturating transformer that detects a load fault and limits the fault current to a safe level for a period long enough to correct the fault or else disconnect the power supply.

  18. Saturating time-delay transformer for overcurrent protection. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1975-12-18

    Electrical loads connected to dc supplies are protected from damage by overcurrent in the case of a load fault by connecting in series with the load a saturating transformer that detects a load fault and limits the fault current to a safe level for a period long enough to correct the fault or else disconnect the power supply.

  19. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure crisis that U.S. industry is ill prepared to handle which could further challenge U.S. competitiveness.

  20. Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) NA-241, Office of Dismantlement and Transparency.

  1. Fundamental Mechanisms Driving the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, B W; Browning, N D; Santala, M K; LaGrange, T; Gilmer, G H; Masiel, D J; Campbell, G H; Raoux, S; Topuria, T; Meister, S; Cui, Y

    2011-01-04

    Phase transformations are ubiquitous, fundamental phenomena that lie at the heart of many structural, optical and electronic properties in condensed matter physics and materials science. Many transformations, especially those occurring under extreme conditions such as rapid changes in the thermodynamic state, are controlled by poorly understood processes involving the nucleation and quenching of metastable phases. Typically these processes occur on time and length scales invisible to most experimental techniques ({micro}s and faster, nm and smaller), so our understanding of the dynamics tends to be very limited and indirect, often relying on simulations combined with experimental study of the ''time infinity'' end state. Experimental techniques that can directly probe phase transformations on their proper time and length scales are therefore key to providing fundamental insights into the whole area of transformation physics and materials science. LLNL possesses a unique dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) capable of taking images and diffraction patterns of laser-driven material processes with resolution measured in nanometers and nanoseconds. The DTEM has previously used time-resolved diffraction patterns to quantitatively study phase transformations that are orders of magnitude too fast for conventional in situ TEM. More recently the microscope has demonstrated the ability to directly image a reaction front moving at {approx}13 nm/ns and the nucleation of a new phase behind that front. Certain compound semiconductor phase change materials, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST), Sb{sub 2}Te and GeSb, exhibit a technologically important series of transformations on scales that fall neatly into the performance specifications of the DTEM. If a small portion of such material is heated above its melting point and then rapidly cooled, it quenches into an amorphous state. Heating again with a less intense pulse leads to recrystallization into a vacancy-stabilized metastable rock salt structure. Each transformation takes {approx}10-100 ns, and the cycle can be driven repeatedly a very large number of times with a nanosecond laser such as the DTEM's sample drive laser. These materials are widely used in optical storage devices such as rewritable CDs and DVDs, and they are also applied in a novel solid state memory technology - phase change memory (PCM). PCM has the potential to produce nonvolatile memory systems with high speed, extreme density, and very low power requirements. For PCM applications several materials properties are of great importance: the resistivities of both phases, the crystallization temperature, the melting point, the crystallization speed, reversibility (number of phase-transformation cycles without degradation) and stability against crystallization at elevated temperature. For a viable technology, all these properties need to have good scaling behavior, as dimensions of the memory cells will shrink with every generation. In this LDRD project, we used the unique single-shot nanosecond in situ experimentation capabilities of the DTEM to watch these transformations in GST on the time and length scales most relevant for device applications. Interpretation of the results was performed in conjunction with atomistic and finite-element computations. Samples were provided by collaborators at IBM and Stanford University. We observed, and measured the kinetics of, the amorphous-crystalline and melting-solidification transitions in uniform thin-film samples. Above a certain threshold, the crystal nucleation rate was found to be enormously high (with many nuclei appearing per cubic {micro}m even after nanosecond-scale incubation times), in agreement with atomistic simulation and consistent with an extremely low nucleation barrier. We developed data reduction techniques based on principal component analysis (PCA), revealing the complex, multi-dimensional evolution of the material while suppressing noise and irrelevant information. Using a novel specimen geometry, we also achieved repeated switching betw

  2. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Feiye; Ma, Ning; Horibe, Yoshiteru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2012-04-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 2030 nm (CNT20) and 4070 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formation at 5 and 10 ?g/ml (p < 0.05), which persisted for 24 h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p < 0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p < 0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-?B (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-?-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis. Highlights: ?Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) caused DNA damage in A549 cells. ?MWCNT formed 8-nitroguanine, a DNA lesion associated with inflammatory response. ?MWCNT was internalized into cells via caveolin- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. ?8-Nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression involved these types of endocytosis. ?Internalized MWCNT plays a key role in inflammatory response and DNA damage.

  3. Isomorphic phase transformation in shocked cerium using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C; Chen, Shao - Ping

    2010-08-12

    Cerium (Ce) undergoes a significant ({approx}16%) volume collapse associated with an isomorphic fcc-fcc phase transformation when subject to compressive loading. We present here a new Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential for Cerium that models two minima for the two fcc phases. We show results from its use in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of Ce samples subjected to shocks with pressures ranging from 0.5 to 25 GPa. A split wave structure is observed, with an elastic precursor followed by a plastic wave. The plastic wave causes the expected fcc-fcc phase transformation. Comparisons to experiments and MD simulations on Cesium (Cs) indicate that three waves could be observed. The construction of the EAM potential may be the source of the difference.

  4. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  5. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  6. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Karl A.

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  7. NREL: Technology Deployment - Solar Deployment and Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Deployment and Market Transformation NREL enables faster, easier, and less expensive solar installations by applying our expertise and knowledge to projects that addresses challenges, inefficiencies, and market barriers to solar technology deployment. Northeast Denver Housing Center Solarize Grassroots Movement Drives Down Solar Prices 30% in Portland, Oregon Solarize Northeast Denver Housing Center NREL Identifies PV for 28 Affordable Housing Units Our technical experts work with

  8. The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles > Research Highlights > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel

  9. SC15 High Performance Computing (HPC) Transforms Batteries - Joint Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Storage Research September 21, 2015, Videos SC15 High Performance Computing (HPC) Transforms Batteries A new breakthrough battery-one that has significantly higher energy, lasts longer, and is cheaper and safer-will likely be impossible without a new material discovery. Kristin Persson and other JCESR scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are taking some of the guesswork out of the discovery process with the Electrolyte Genome Project. Electrolyte Genome

  10. Our Transforming Energy Economy: Pathways to a Decarbonized Future -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Continuum Magazine | NREL Photo of natural gas pipeline, with two long pipes stretching into the distance supported at each flange by an underlying structure. JISEA's focus on the synergy of natural gas and renewable energy provides critical insights within the changing landscape of energy in the United States. Photo provided by iStock Our Transforming Energy Economy: Pathways to a Decarbonized Future A growing body of work on the nexus of natural gas and renewable energy offers insight on a

  11. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks | Department of Energy Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks Lead Performer: Case Western Reserve University - Cleveland, OH Partner: Intwine Inc. - Cleveland, OH DOE Funding: $750,000 Cost Share: N/A Project Term: October 2014 - September 2016 Funding

  12. Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Project Objective The overall goal of this project is to train building operations staff and service providers in a systematic process for identifying and correcting no-cost building operational problems that lead to energy waste. Such a training program gives building operators the "how to" on operating buildings efficiently with

  13. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the active material and its concentration in the

  14. Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results Capitalizing on the concept that everything proceeds faster with a little cooperation, researchers showed how designing cooperation into solid catalysts leads to enormous benefits.Catalysts attached to a porous solid support are preferred industrially because they are easier to separate from liquid products and reuse. But, these bound catalysts typically do not perform as well and probing their interiors to figure out how to improve them has

  15. Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

  16. Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab March 5, 2016, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium at PPPL Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy Dr. Edmund Synakowski Department of Energy, Office of Science Abstract: PDF icon Synakowski.pdf Science_on_Saturday05Mar2016_ESynakowski Contact Information Coordinator(s): Ms. Deedee Ortiz-Arias dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Dr. Andrew Zwicker

  17. Fundamental study of the relationship of austenite-ferrite transformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    details to austenite retention in carbon steels | Department of Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm017_santella_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fundamental study of the relationship of austenite-ferrite transformation details to austenite retention in carbon steels FSW & USW Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced

  18. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1{sup ¯}20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1{sup ¯}20) fiber and progressed to a (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21{sup ¯}0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1{sup ¯}30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  19. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  20. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  1. Wavelength-encoded tomography based on optical temporal Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a technique called wavelength-encoded tomography (WET) for non-invasive optical cross-sectional imaging, particularly beneficial in biological system. The WET utilizes time-lens to perform the optical Fourier transform, and the time-to-wavelength conversion generates a wavelength-encoded image of optical scattering from internal microstructures, analogous to the interferometery-based imaging such as optical coherence tomography. Optical Fourier transform, in principle, comes with twice as good axial resolution over the electrical Fourier transform, and will greatly simplify the digital signal processing after the data acquisition. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 150?-?m (ideally 36??m) resolution is achieved based on a 7.5-nm bandwidth swept-pump, using a conventional optical spectrum analyzer. This approach can potentially achieve up to 100-MHz or even higher frame rate with some proven ultrafast spectrum analyzer. We believe that this technique is innovative towards the next-generation ultrafast optical tomographic imaging application.

  2. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 ...

  3. Studies on lanthanoid complexes of open chain multidentate ligands. VIII. Preparation and structural characterization of the undecacoordinate complex of neodymium nitrate with N,N{prime}-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)tetraglycollic diamide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhijian Liang; Xinmin Gan; Ning Tang; Minyu Tan; Kaibei Yu; Ganzu Tan

    1993-12-31

    The title compound [Nd(L)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}]2CH{sub 3}CN was formed by reaction of neodymium nitrate with N,N{prime}-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)tetraglycollic diamide (L). The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group Cc with Z = 4, a = 21.305(6), b = 11.470(4), c = 14.436(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 97.41(2), V = 3498(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}. The pentadentate organic ligand wraps around the neodymium ion which is also bonded to three bidentate nitrate groups, achieving uncommon undecacoordination with the following mean bond lengths: Nd-O(etheric), 2.703; Nd-O(carbonyl), 2.518; Nd-O(nitrate), 2.546 {angstrom}. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Getting from here to there – energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krey, Volker; Luderer, Gunnar; Clarke, Leon E.; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This apper discusses Getting from here to there – energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

  5. Mechanisms of transformation toughening. Progress report, 1 August 1988--31 July 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, G.B.

    1992-02-01

    Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

  6. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Mackay; Martinot, Eric; Cox, Sadie; Speer, Bethany; Zinaman, Owen; Booth, Sam; Zissler, Romain; Cochran, Jaquelin; Soonee, S. K.; Audinet, Pierre; Munuera, Luis; Arent, Doug

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  7. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  8. NREL Supports Native American Tribes in Clean Energy Transformational

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership - News Feature | NREL NREL Supports Native American Tribes in Clean Energy Transformational Leadership March 30, 2016 Photo of a group of wind turbines in an open area. A wind farm developed in California by the Campo Band of Mission Indians of the Kumeyaay Nation. Photo from Campo Band In the redwood country of northern California, where arboreal giants can live to be 2,000 years old and can reach heights of more than 375 feet, the Blue Lake Rancheria Tribe has also grown

  9. Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of One Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price of One Improving the quality of a high magnification image on an optical microscope is simply a matter of cranking up the intensity of the illumination lamp. The same is true for x-ray microscopes, but complications arise when there just aren't enough x-rays or even worse when the sample is susceptible to damage caused by the intense x-ray beam. To address these challenges we have demonstrated a novel technique

  10. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  11. Coresident sensor fusion and compression using the wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yocky, D.A.

    1996-03-11

    Imagery from coresident sensor platforms, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, can be combined using, multiresolution decomposition of the sensor images by means of the two-dimensional wavelet transform. The wavelet approach uses the combination of spatial/spectral information at multiple scales to create a fused image. This can be done in both an ad hoc or model-based approach. We compare results from commercial ``fusion`` software and the ad hoc, wavelet approach. Results show the wavelet approach outperforms the commercial algorithms and also supports efficient compression of the fused image.

  12. Stability of linear systems in second-order form based on structure preserving similarity transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2015-10-31

    This paper deals with two stability aspects of linear systems of the form I ¨ x +B˙ x +Cx = 0 given by the triple (I;B;C). A general transformation scheme is given for a structure and Jordan form preserving transformation of the triple. We investigate how a system can be transformed by suitable choices of the transformation parameters into a new system (I;B1;C1) with a symmetrizable matrix C1. This procedure facilitates stability investigations. We also consider systems with a Hamiltonian spectrum which discloses marginal stability after a Jordan form preserving transformation.

  13. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  14. WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seljebotn, D. S.

    2012-03-01

    We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L{sup 2}log{sup 2} L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L {approx} 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.

  15. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  16. Flow directing means for air-cooled transformers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jallouk, Philip A.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to improvements in systems for force-cooling transformers of the kind in which an outer helical winding and an insulation barrier nested therein form an axially extending annular passage for cooling-fluid flow. In one form of the invention a tubular shroud is positioned about the helical winding to define an axially extending annular chamber for cooling-fluid flow. The chamber has a width in the range of from about 4 to 25 times that of the axially extending passage. Two baffles extend inward from the shroud to define with the helical winding two annular flow channels having hydraulic diameters smaller than that of the chamber. The inlet to the chamber is designed with a hydraulic diameter approximating that of the coolant-entrance end of the above-mentioned annular passage. As so modified, transformers of the kind described can be operated at significantly higher load levels without exceeding safe operating temperatures. In some instances the invention permits continuous operation at 200% of the nameplate rating.

  17. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  18. Total carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and nitrate measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 cruise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, M.F.; Feely, R.A.; Moore, L.

    1995-10-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate and Global Change (C&GC) Program, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) scientists have been measuring the growing burden of greenhouse gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. Collection of data at a series of hydrographic stations along longitude 170{degrees} W during austral autumn of 1990 was designed to enhance understanding of the increase in the column burden of chlorofluorocarbons and carbon dioxide in the thermocline waters since the last expedition in 1984. This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and nitrate data during the NOAA/PMEL research vessel (R/V) Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise. Data were collected along two legs; sampling for Leg 1 began along 170{degrees} W from 15{degrees} S to 60{degrees} S, then angled northwest toward New Zealand across the Western Boundary Current. Leg 2 included a reoccupation of some stations between 30{degrees} S and 15{degrees} S on 170{degrees} W and measurements from 15{degrees} S to 5{degrees} N along 170{degrees} W. The following data report summarizes the TCO{sub 2}, salinity, temperature, and nitrate measurements from 63 stations. The TCO, concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometric/extraction system (Models 5011 and 5030, respectively) originated by Ken Johnson. The NOAA/PMEL R/V Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise data set is available without charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a {open_quotes}readme{close_quotes} file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  19. Parallelization and checkpointing of GPU applications through program transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano-Quinde, Lizandro Dami#19;an

    2012-11-15

    GPUs have emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating general-purpose applications. The availability of programming languages that makes writing general-purpose applications for running on GPUs tractable have consolidated GPUs as an alternative for accelerating general purpose applications. Among the areas that have beneffited from GPU acceleration are: signal and image processing, computational fluid dynamics, quantum chemistry, and, in general, the High Performance Computing (HPC) Industry. In order to continue to exploit higher levels of parallelism with GPUs, multi-GPU systems are gaining popularity. In this context, single-GPU applications are parallelized for running in multi-GPU systems. Furthermore, multi-GPU systems help to solve the GPU memory limitation for applications with large application memory footprint. Parallelizing single-GPU applications has been approached by libraries that distribute the workload at runtime, however, they impose execution overhead and are not portable. On the other hand, on traditional CPU systems, parallelization has been approached through application transformation at pre-compile time, which enhances the application to distribute the workload at application level and does not have the issues of library-based approaches. Hence, a parallelization scheme for GPU systems based on application transformation is needed. Like any computing engine of today, reliability is also a concern in GPUs. GPUs are vulnerable to transient and permanent failures. Current checkpoint/restart techniques are not suitable for systems with GPUs. Checkpointing for GPU systems present new and interesting challenges, primarily due to the natural differences imposed by the hardware design, the memory subsystem architecture, the massive number of threads, and the limited amount of synchronization among threads. Therefore, a checkpoint/restart technique suitable for GPU systems is needed. The goal of this work is to exploit higher levels of parallelism and to develop support for application-level fault tolerance in applications using multiple GPUs. Our techniques reduce the burden of enhancing single-GPU applications to support these features. To achieve our goal, this work designs and implements a framework for enhancing a single-GPU OpenCL application through application transformation.

  20. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  1. Photoacoustic transformation of Bessel light beams in magnetoactive superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mityurich, G. S.; Chernenok, E. V.; Sviridova, V. V.; Serdyukov, A. N.

    2015-03-15

    Photoacoustic transformation of the TE mode of a Bessel light beam (BLB) has been studied for piezoelectric detection in short-period superlattices formed by magnetoactive crystals of bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) and bismuth silicate (Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}) types. It is shown that the resulting signal amplitude can be controlled using optical schemes of BLB formation with a tunable cone angle. A resonant increase in the signal amplitude has been found in the megahertz range of modulation frequencies and its dependences on the BLB modulation frequency, geometric sizes of the two-layer structure and piezoelectric transducer, radial coordinate of the polarization BLB mode, and dissipative superlattice parameters are analyzed.

  2. Anomalous compression behavior of germanium during phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Tan, Dayong; Ren, Xiangting; Yang, Wenge E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; He, Duanwei E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2015-04-27

    In this article, we present the abnormal compression and plastic behavior of germanium during the pressure-induced cubic diamond to β-tin structure transition. Between 8.6 GPa and 13.8 GPa, in which pressure range both phases are co-existing, first softening and followed by hardening for both phases were observed via synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These unusual behaviors can be interpreted as the volume misfit between different phases. Following Eshelby, the strain energy density reaches the maximum in the middle of the transition zone, where the switch happens from softening to hardening. Insight into these mechanical properties during phase transformation is relevant for the understanding of plasticity and compressibility of crystal materials when different phases coexist during a phase transition.

  3. Sparse matrix transform for fast projection to reduced dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Cao, Guangzhi; Bouman, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    We investigate three algorithms that use the sparse matrix transform (SMT) to produce variance-maximizing linear projections to a lower-dimensional space. The SMT expresses the projection as a sequence of Givens rotations and this enables computationally efficient implementation of the projection operator. The baseline algorithm uses the SMT to directly approximate the optimal solution that is given by principal components analysis (PCA). A variant of the baseline begins with a standard SMT solution, but prunes the sequence of Givens rotations to only include those that contribute to the variance maximization. Finally, a simpler and faster third algorithm is introduced; this also estimates the projection operator with a sequence of Givens rotations, but in this case, the rotations are chosen to optimize a criterion that more directly expresses the dimension reduction criterion.

  4. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  5. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  6. Buying market transformation -- A cautionary tale from the Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylon, D.; Davis, B.; Hewes, T.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in April 1992, Pacific Northwest utilities, the Bonneville Power Administration, and eighteen manufactured home (HUD-code) builders undertook a large-scale experiment. Manufacturers were paid acquisition payments (initially $2,500/home) to install better insulation and windows in new electrically-heated homes. This resulted in homes 60% more efficient than HUD regulations dictated. Initial production projections of 10,000 homes per year were easily exceeded, with 94% of the manufactured homes (55,000) built to these standards during the 3.5 year program. During the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), production and on-site installation standards improved significantly. Manufactured homes made inroads into new construction markets, accounting for about 30% of regional production of new housing and competing with low- to mid-priced site-built homes in some areas. The market was transformed. Or was it? Two years have passed since the incentives stopped and the participating manufacturers were left to fend for themselves. Since MAP ended, production of homes built to the higher BPA Super Good Cents (SGC) energy efficiency standards has dropped throughout the region. The state energy offices (SEOs) have maintained an SGC inspection and certification program for which manufacturers pay $30/home, which has helped energy-efficient manufactured homes retain market share in some localities. However, where local codes do not require strict levels of energy efficiency for new homes, saturation of energy-efficient manufactured homes has declined dramatically. This paper examines factors affecting market transformation since the cessation of direct incentives, including fuel choice issues and the effects of state codes on production, infrastructure and sitting levels.

  7. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  8. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts that achieve a 45% reduction in energy

  9. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy September 5, 2012 - 12:57pm Addthis The Obama Administration's Digital Government Strategy provides a vision for a 21st century government that lays a strong foundation for modernizing technology services across the Federal Government. At Energy, we're implementing a three-pillar approach -- Transform, Protect and Advance - as part of this

  10. ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies | Department of Energy $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies August 2, 2012 - 10:34am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy today announced that 19 transformative new projects will receive a total of $43 million

  11. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014) | Department of Energy Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information about global electrical steel supply conditions and discusses the increased domestic production of large power

  12. Introduction to Control Theory. Part 2. Laplace Transforms and Linear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander

    2015-09-11

    Presentation for summer students. Start by considering linear differential equations, and how to solve them. The Laplace Transform is a great tool for solving linear differential equations.

  13. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report.

  14. An In Situ Study of the Martensitic Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Xiong, Gang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2007-04-15

    Thermally-induced martensitic phase transformations in polycrystalline CuZnAl and thin-film NiTiCu shape memory alloys were probed using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy shows a reversible change in the apparent work function during transformation, presumably due to the contrasting surface electronic structures of the martensite and austenite phases. In situ PEEM images provide information on the spatial distribution of these phases and the evolution of the surface microstructure during transformation. PEEM offers considerable potential for improving our understanding of martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys in real time.

  15. Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions () | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Software: Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions Citation Details Software Request Title: Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions BigFFT is a scalable implementation of a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform operation. Functions are included for forward and backward real-to-complex 3D transforms. Authors: Draeger, E. W. Publication Date: 2008-12-19 OSTI Identifier: 1253287 Report Number(s): BIGFFT; 002516WKSTN00 LLNL-CODE-432558 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Software

  16. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information...

  17. OE Requests Comments on Potential Creation of a Reserve of Large Power Transformers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE issued a Request for Information (RFI), asking for comments on the possible establishment of a reserve of large power transformers that would support the nation’s bulk power system. Large power transformers (LPTs), which are a critical component of the power grid, are a concern because transformer failures can interrupt electricity service to a large number of customers and replacing one quickly could be difficult. Today’s RFI responds to the recommendation in the Energy Department’s Quadrennial Energy Review to evaluate a national initiative to mitigate the risks associated with the loss of transformers.

  18. The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

  19. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Title: Shape-memory ...

  20. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different ... on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. ...

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex's Sustainable Recovery and Transformation - 12420

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Jan; Widman, Jeannette

    2012-07-01

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds were used at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) to remove legacy materials from large contaminated excess facilities in order to prepare the facilities for demolition, demolish five excess buildings, and clean up sources of environmental contamination. The legacy materials and buildings presented many challenges and the potential hazards included depleted uranium and other radiological contaminants, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, Freon, mold, mildew, asbestos, beryllium and mercury. Y-12 project teams have integrated sustainable waste management practices into each of the seven ARRA projects. The ARRA clean up efforts have resulted in the reduction of potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed by the excess facilities and sources of environmental contamination. Y-12's ARRA project teams focused on completing the activities in a sustainable, timely and safe manner. The site utilized a systematic material disposition evaluation process to ensure that materials were not automatically dis-positioned as waste. ARRA projects have recycled or reused over 1.3 million pounds of materials while preventing over 3 million vehicle miles traveled for waste disposal. Y-12 ARRA projects have worked over 2 million safe work hours without a lost time injury. The site has already begun to beneficially reuse land cleared by ARRA project activities to support sustainable transformation efforts. The Y-12 ARRA project activities have demonstrated that large complex projects can be completed sustainably and safely while maintaining an aggressive schedule. Through careful planning and execution, ARRA projects at the site have sustainably reduced the potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed to site employees and the community by the excess facilities and sources of environmental contamination. Y-12's systematic material disposition process ensured that materials were not automatically assumed to be wastes and facilitated the evaluation of all unneeded materials for reuse or recycling. The site's pervasive pollution prevention culture is reflected in the recycling or reuse of over 1.3 million pounds of materials by the ARRA project teams. While the disposal of a large volume of ARRA wastes could not be avoided, the projects were able to reduce the local and national impacts of waste transportation and disposal through careful planning and efficient execution. The site has conserved natural resources through the preservation and beneficial reuse of materials and land cleared by ARRA activities. Y-12 has taken steps to preserve its history as the site undergoes a sustainable and safe transformation for the future. (authors)

  2. Diagnostic and Prognostic Models for Generator Step-Up Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Binh T. Pham

    2014-09-01

    In 2014, the online monitoring (OLM) of active components project under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) focused on diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for generator step-up transformers. INL worked with subject matter experts from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the GSU fault signatures previously implemented in the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. Two prognostic models were identified and implemented for GSUs in the FW-PHM Suite software. INL and EPRI demonstrated the use of prognostic capabilities for GSUs. The complete set of fault signatures developed for GSUs in the Asset Fault Signature Database of the FW-PHM Suite for GSUs is presented in this report. Two prognostic models are described for paper insulation: the Chendong model for degree of polymerization, and an IEEE model that uses a loading profile to calculates life consumption based on hot spot winding temperatures. Both models are life consumption models, which are examples of type II prognostic models. Use of the models in the FW-PHM Suite was successfully demonstrated at the 2014 August Utility Working Group Meeting, Idaho Falls, Idaho, to representatives from different utilities, EPRI, and the Halden Research Project.

  3. A transmission-loss monitor using current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.F.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Jason, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    A system for measuring the amount of beam-charge loss in a linear-accelerator structure has been developed that uses a pair of beam-current transformers, otherwise used to monitor the linac beam current. This system is necessary to enable the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) fast-protect system to shut off the accelerated beam in the event of a beam loss that would deposit sufficient energy to damage the accelerator structure. The present GTA accelerator consists of a 2.5-MeV, H{sup {minus}} RFQ, an intermediate matching section (IMS) and a single DTL cavity with an output energy of 3.2-MeV and transmitted current of 35 mA. Based on the RFQ output beam, melting of the copper structures will occur when about 40 nC of beam is deposited in a point loss. For a grazing angle of 30 mrad, up to 640 nC may be tolerated. The beam-current-transmission-loss monitor (BCTLM) system in conjunction with the fast-protect system measures the amount of beam loss between two toroidal beam-current monitors and automatically terminates the macropulse when the integrated loss reaches a predetermined set point. The design and operation of the BCTLM system used in the IMS and DTL section of the accelerator is described.

  4. Hexagonal phase transformation in the engineered scavenger compound lithium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.K.; Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Engineered scavenger compounds (ESC's) developed by the US Bureau of Mines are a novel class of compounds that selectively can recover a desired element from a solid or molten alloy. Lithium titanate (Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] or Li[sub 2]O [center dot] 3TiO[sub 2]) is used as an ESC to recover lithium (Li) from aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] undergoes a phase change during scavenging from an orthorhombic structure to a hexagonal structure. This change is due to the incorporation of lithium in the matrix of the material and the effect of temperature. Although both phases are metastable, the hexagonal phase that forms during the scavenging of lithium from Al-Li alloys appears to be the more stable phase. Recovering lithium from the ESC by electrodeposition does not cause the structure to revert to the orthorhombic phase. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal structures of Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] have similar scavenging capacities for lithium. This report proposes a new mechanism for the phase transformation.

  5. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, A. Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V.; Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.; Dubey, S. K.; Javidi, B.

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  6. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  7. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  8. EIS-0236-S4: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SPEIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives to continue transformation of the nuclear weapons complex to be smaller, and more responsive, efficient, and secure in order to meet national security requirements.

  9. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  10. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jun-Jie; Lian, Fu-Liang; Liu, Hong-Ji; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Sheng-Wu; Du, Lin-Xiu; Liu, Yong-Ning

    2014-09-15

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 ?m, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4( 0.6) ?m, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET.

  11. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-20

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  12. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  13. Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Zhang, Fan ); Cokkinides, G.J. ); Coffeen, L.; Burnett, R.; McBride, J. ); Zelingher, S.; Stillman, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first 25 harmonics. Specifically, the following characteristics are of interest in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz: transfer function magnitude and phase, linearity, and sensitivity of the frequency response to burdens. The measurement technique is based on exciting the instrument transformer primary with an impulsive waveform. Both input and output waveforms are recorded using laboratory grade probes and digitizers. Subsequently, digital signal processing techniques are used to compute the instrument transformer frequency response. Several voltage transformers (both PTs and CCVTs) and current transformers in the 230kV-765kV voltage range were tested. The results of these tests are described in the paper. Conclusions are presented regarding the suitability of the instrument transformers and transient event recorders for harmonic measurement and the requirements for such a system. A quantitative analysis of the measurement accuracy and software based methods to enhance the measurement accuracy is also presented.

  14. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  15. Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and compression tests were performed on Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys. The reentrant martensitic transformation behavior was directly observed during the in situ XRD

  16. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the finite element method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material.

  17. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material.

  18. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds

  19. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  20. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  1. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  2. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  3. Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Dow Chemical Company, under the BOS-X funding opportunity, has launched a transformational product in the building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) industry: the Dow POWERHOUSE Solar Shingle.

  4. Transformations in Lighting: The Ninth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 300 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Atlanta January 31–February 2, 2012, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  5. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  6. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-03

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d > 1.4 nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0 eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d ≤ 1.4 nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  7. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape ...

  8. TIME Magazine Profiles Transformative Work by DOE and the Recovery Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In case you missed it, TIME magazine published a feature story last week about the incredible, transformative work being done by the Department of Energy through the Recovery Act.

  9. Transformations in Lighting: The Eighth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 350 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in San Diego February 1–3, 2011, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  10. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  11. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated

  12. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," held on November 13, 2012. PDF icon Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications DOE/Boeing Sponsored Projects in Aviation Fuel Cell Technology at Sandia Fuel Cell Product

  13. Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies April 23, 2014 - 1:43pm Addthis Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Cedric

  14. Extraction and transformation of proton beam at RHIC using bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurushev, S.B.; Krivosheev, O.E.; Pivovarov, Y.L.; Potylitsin, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    The effect of transformation of polarization of relativistic protons using extraction and deflection by bent crystal is investigated by means of computer simulation. The 250 {ital GeV}/{ital c} proton beam from RHIC can be deflected to an angle, {theta}{sub {ital p}}=3 mrad with simultaneous transformation of initial longitudinal polarization to transverse polarization. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. X-ray diffraction study of the phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchil, J.; Fernandes, F.M. Braz . E-mail: kkmahesh@rediffmail.com

    2007-03-15

    The phase transformations occurring in heat-treated NiTi shape memory alloys have been studied through the analysis of variation in integrated peak area (integrated intensity) with temperature, under the XRD peak profiles in the transformation temperature range. For this purpose, integrated peak area under the prominent peak corresponding to (110) plane of the austenitic phase has been chosen. The results so obtained are compared with those got from the DSC method. The XRD method is found to be more sensitive.

  16. Holistic data analysis and modeling poised to transform protein X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crystallography Protein X-ray crystallography Holistic data analysis and modeling poised to transform protein X-ray crystallography A new 3-D modeling and data-extraction technique is about to transform the field of X-ray crystallography. March 29, 2016 Conventional protein X-ray diffraction images are processed to remove the sharp Bragg reflections, producing noisy images of diffuse intensity (left). Images from multiple crystal orientations are integrated into a 3-D dataset in which the

  17. Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    superelasticity in shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast superelasticity in shape memory alloys This content will become publicly available on May 30, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast superelasticity in shape memory alloys Authors: Morrison, Keith R. ; Cherukara, Mathew J. ; Kim, Hojin ; Strachan, Alejandro Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI

  18. Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  19. Symmetry transformation in the problem of the conductivity of anisotropic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balagurov, B. Ya.

    2013-11-15

    A transformation of the coordinates, current density, and electric field strength has been proposed such that holds the direct-current equations. One of the components of a composite can be made isotropic by choosing the coefficients of the transformation. This allows the generalization of the standard theory of the effective medium to the case of an anisotropic composite with inclusions of an arbitrary shape.

  20. Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    first-principles studies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Authors: Podlesnyak, A. ; Ehlers, G. ; Cao, H. ; Matsuda, M. ; Frontzek, M. ; Zaharko, O. ; Kazantsev, V. A. ; Gubkin, A. F. ; Baranov, N. V. Publication Date: 2013-07-26 OSTI Identifier: 1104316

  1. The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Authors: Zong, Hongxiang ; Lookman, Turab ; Ding, Xiangdong

  2. Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cell transmission electron microscopy. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. Abstract not provided. Authors: Leenheer, Andrew Jay ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Sullivan, John P ; Harris, Charles Thomas

  3. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-induced phase transformation of BeO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, H. Y.; Duan, G.; Zu, X. T.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-05-05

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been used to study high pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO based on the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both methods show that the wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) BeO transforms to the rocksalt (RS) structure smoothly at high pressure. The transition pressures obtained from the LDA method are about 40 GPa larger than the GGA result for both WZ ? RS and ZB ? RS phase transformations, and the phase transformation mechanisms revealed by the LDA and GGA methods are different. For WZ ? RS phase transformations both mechanisms obtained from the LDA and GGA methods are not comparable to the previous ab initio MD simulations of WZ BeO at 700 GPa based on the GGA method. It is suggested that the phase transformation mechanisms of BeO revealed by the ab initio MD simulations are affected remarkably by the exchangecorrelation functional employed and the way of applying pressure.

  4. Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-02-27

    Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

  5. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Background

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reliability Considerations from the Integration of Smart Grid 116-390 Village Blvd., Princeton, NJ 08540 609.452.8060 | 609.452.9550 fax www.nerc.com the reliability of the to ensure bulk power system December 2010 (This page intentionally left blank) to ensure the reliability of the bulk power system Reliability Considerations of Integration of Smart Grid i December 2010 N N E E R R C C ' ' s s M M i i s s s s i i o o n n The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is an

  6. Effects of finite sampling and additive noise on image reconstruction from Radon transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, E.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The Radon transform arises naturally in the problem of reconstructing an image or cross section from line integral measurements through a specified object. Each line integral or ray is a sample of the Radon transform of the object and the set of all samples at a particular angle is called a projection or view. Consequently, the set of all possible samples at all possible projections in a particular plane constitutes the two-dimensional Radon transform. Of course, it is impossible to acquire an infinite number of data points for the purpose of image reconstruction. However, with a sufficient set of Radon transform samples, an images can be determined through various Radon transform inversion techniques. From this statement, however, arises the question of just what constitutes a sufficient set of Radon transform samples. Acquiring an insufficient number of samples results in various artifacts in the reconstructed image. On the other hand, taking too many samples utilizes the data inefficiently. Thus, the problem of interest is to determine the optimum number of projections and the optimum number of samples per projection required to adequately represent the Radon transform such that the image can be accurately reconstructed. The problem of image reconstruction is further complicated if noise is introduced in the projection domain. Noise may be caused by round-off error in the sampled projection data or by various other factors inherent in data acquisition processes. However, several filtering techniques can be implemented to suppress the effects of noise. Therefore, a second problem of interest is to study the effectiveness of different filtering techniques in noise suppression.

  7. Transformation toughening of ceramics. Final report, 1 September 1985-31 August 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.B.

    1988-12-01

    The results of a three-year study, aimed at understanding factors that dictate microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of transformation toughened ceramics, are summarized. Large crack-growth resistance curves (rather than single-valued toughness) were discovered in toughened zirconia, and these were shown to be responsible for strength-toughness relations, damage tolerance, and other mechanical properties. New insight was gained into mechanisms of controlling grain growth during processing, and a method for forming high strength, fine-grained ZrO/sub 2/ fibers was discovered. In the final year's work, reported in detail here, a new tetragonal-to-orthorhomic phase transformation at low temperatures was discovered and shown to have a dramatic effect on mechanical properties. New methods were applied to measure the amount and location of phase transformation within crack tip zones and to quantify crack tip shielding, evaluate stability and reversibility of the martensitic transformation, and to determine the net transformation strain that gives to toughening. Finally, crack growth under cyclic loading was demonstrated to be important in zirconia materials.

  8. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radha, A. V.; Forbes, Tori Z.; Killian, Christopher E.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC ? less metastable hydrated ACC?anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC?vaterite ? aragonite ? calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO? sequestration.

  9. In-Situ Observations of Phase Transformations in the HAZ of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W; Wong, J

    2001-08-15

    Ferrite ({delta})/austenite ({gamma}) transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld in 2205 duplex stainless steel are observed in real-time using spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) with high intensity synchrotron radiation. A map showing the locations of the {delta} and {gamma} phases with respect to the calculated weld pool dimensions has been constructed from a series of SRXRD scans. Regions of liquid, completely transformed {gamma}, a combination of partially transformed {gamma} with untransformed {delta}, and untransformed {delta}+{gamma} are identified. Analysis of each SRXRD pattern provides a semi-quantitative definition of both the {delta}/{gamma} phase balance and the extent of annealing which are mapped for the first time with respect to the calculated weld pool size and shape. A combination of these analyses provides a unique real-time description of the progression of phase transformations in the HAZ. Using these real-time observations, important kinetic information about the transformations occurring in duplex stainless steels during heating and cooling cycles typical of welding can be determined.

  10. Non-parametric transformation for data correlation and integration: From theory to practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta-Gupta, A.; Xue, Guoping; Lee, Sang Heon

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce the use of non-parametric transformations for correlating petrophysical data during reservoir characterization. Such transformations are completely data driven and do not require a priori functional relationship between response and predictor variables which is the case with traditional multiple regression. The transformations are very general, computationally efficient and can easily handle mixed data types for example, continuous variables such as porosity, permeability and categorical variables such as rock type, lithofacies. The power of the non-parametric transformation techniques for data correlation has been illustrated through synthetic and field examples. Second, we utilize these transformations to propose a two-stage approach for data integration during heterogeneity characterization. The principal advantages of our approach over traditional cokriging or cosimulation methods are: (1) it does not require a linear relationship between primary and secondary data, (2) it exploits the secondary information to its fullest potential by maximizing the correlation between the primary and secondary data, (3) it can be easily applied to cases where several types of secondary or soft data are involved, and (4) it significantly reduces variance function calculations and thus, greatly facilitates non-Gaussian cosimulation. We demonstrate the data integration procedure using synthetic and field examples. The field example involves estimation of pore-footage distribution using well data and multiple seismic attributes.

  11. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO?, and compared to previous calculations.

  12. High-temperature phase transformation in Cr added TiAl base alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, E.; Niinobe, K.; Nobuki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1999-07-01

    The authors have investigated a microstructure evolution of a Ti-48Al-3.5Cr (in at.%) alloy at high-temperatures ({gt} 1,473K). In the alloy annealed at 1673K for 1.8ks, followed by air-cooling, a characteristic microstructure with a feathery fashion was uniformly formed. From a cooling-rate-controlling study, it was found that formation of the feathery structure is accomplished during continuous cooling from 1673K to 1573K, within the {alpha} + {gamma} two-phase region. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the feathery structure is composed of lamellar colonies (5--10{micro}m) which are crystallographically tilted slightly (a few degree) with their neighbors. A surprising fact is that lamellae in each colony are mostly the {gamma} phase with few {alpha}{sub 2} phase less than 5% in volume. This suggests that the feathery structure is a metastable product and has not resulted from the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation above 1,573 K. Instead, the feathery structure formation should be attributed to the non-equilibrium {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} transformation which occurs at high-temperatures with a small degree of supercooling. The authors discuss this interesting phase transformation in terms of the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} massive transformation, based on the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram constructed for the present alloy.

  13. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the originalmore » Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.« less

  14. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study has also shown that the arsenic-transformed cells acquired apoptosis resistance. The inhibition of catalase to increase ROS level restored apoptosis capability of arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells, further showing that ROS levels are low in these cells. The apoptosis resistance due to the low ROS levels may increase cells proliferation, providing a favorable environment for tumorigenesis of arsenic-transformed cells.

  15. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  16. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  17. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-11-20

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  18. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-01-06

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  19. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-03

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  20. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  1. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: I. shape transformation and dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C. (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    We report on the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation of embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs), which change from spheres to prolate spheroids to rods upon irradiation. Using a broad range of ion irradiation energies and NC mean sizes we demonstrate that the elongation and dissolution processes are energy and size dependent, attaining comparable levels of shape transformation and dissolution upon a given energy density deposited in the matrix. The NC shape transformation remains operative despite discontinuous ion tracks in the matrix and exhibits a constant threshold size for elongation. In contrast, for ion irradiations in which the ion tracks are continuous, the threshold size for elongation is clearly energy dependent.

  2. Titanium α-ω phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkevich, Nickolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-01-15

    A titanium is a highly utilized metal for structural lightweighting and its phases, transformation pathways (transition states), and structures have scientific and industrial importance. Using a proper solid-state nudged elastic band method employing two climbing images combined with density functional theory DFT + U methods for accurate energetics, we detail the pressure-induced α (ductile) to ω (brittle) transformation at the coexistence pressure. We also find two transition states along the minimal-enthalpy path and discover a metastable body-centered orthorhombic structure, with stable phonons, a lower density than the end-point phases, and decreasing stability with increasing pressure.

  3. Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles May 4, 2016 - 10:57am Addthis As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers are exploring synergies among new bio-based fuels, engines, powertrains, and fueling infrastructure. Image by Loren Stacks, Sandia National Laboratories As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers

  4. From Rice Paddies to the Road: Transforming Rice Husks into Lithium-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anodes for Plug-in Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy From Rice Paddies to the Road: Transforming Rice Husks into Lithium-ion Anodes for Plug-in Electric Vehicles From Rice Paddies to the Road: Transforming Rice Husks into Lithium-ion Anodes for Plug-in Electric Vehicles April 27, 2016 - 10:15am Addthis Rice hulls and other samples used for demonstrating the capabilities of the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Rapid Biomass Analysis System. Researchers

  5. Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel March 7, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Learn how an Indiana dairy fuels milk delivery trucks with compressed natural gas. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? An anaerobic digester is helping Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas turn agriculture waste into renewable natural gas. The natural gas will be used to fuel the fleet of

  6. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  7. 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape April 8, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo County. | Photo courtesy of SunPower. The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo

  8. ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency's Establishment | Department of Energy FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment June 22, 2011 - 10:30am Addthis Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? ARPA-E has funded 121 projects -- in amounts ranging from roughly $400,000 to $9 million, with an average award value of $3

  9. ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel October 23, 2013 - 12:13pm Addthis ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. Mark D. Mitchell Communications Support

  10. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-02-19 OSTI Identifier: 1212137 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-650216 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: JOM, vol. 66, no. 8, June 25, 2014, pp. 1520

  11. Generalized Bogoliubov transformation for confined fields: Applications for the Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, J.C. da; Khanna, F.C.; Matos Neto, A.; Santana, A.E.

    2002-11-01

    The Bogoliubov transformation in thermofield dynamics, an operator formalism for the finite-temperature quantum field theory, is generalized to describe a field in arbitrary confined regions of space and time. Starting with the scalar field, the approach is extended to the electromagnetic field and the energy-momentum tensor is written via the Bogoliubov transformation. In this context, the Casimir effect is calculated for zero and nonzero temperature, and therefore it can be considered as a vacuum condensation effect of the electromagnetic field. This aspect opens an interesting perspective for using this procedure as an effective scheme for calculations in the studies of confined fields, including interacting fields.

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc., Custom House,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Devens, MA | Department of Energy Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Devens, MA, that scored HERS 34 without PV or HERS -21 with PV. This 3,168-square-foot custom home has R-46 double-stud walls, a vented attic with R-67 blown cellulose, plus R-10 rigid XPS under the slab, R-20 closed-cell spray foam on basement walls, triple-pane windows, and

  13. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using dynamic-DAC (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations using dynamic-DAC Authors: Chen, J Y ; Kim, M ; Yoo, C ; Evans, W J Publication Date: 2013-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1104527 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-645202 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  14. "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released the "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" report, an assessment of the procurement and supply environment of large power transformers (LPTs). The report examines the characteristics and procurement of LPTs,

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Michigan at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about phase transformation...

  16. Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish

    2006-10-10

    An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.

  17. INSIGHT On Transforming Our Global Energy Economy, 2015 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    From its inception, JISEA has provided critical clarity and insights to inform decision making through leading-edge interdisciplinary research and objective, credible, cross-functional analysis. JISEA, drawing on the unique capabilities of its founding institutions and research affiliates around the world, continues to inform the landscape of transformation.

  18. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Elvira, Gema; Silva, Augusto

    2009-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  19. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  20. A transform of complementary aspects with applications to entropic uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandayam, Prabha; Wehner, Stephanie; Balachandran, Niranjan

    2010-08-15

    Even though mutually unbiased bases and entropic uncertainty relations play an important role in quantum cryptographic protocols, they remain ill understood. Here, we construct special sets of up to 2n+1 mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in dimension d=2{sup n}, which have particularly beautiful symmetry properties derived from the Clifford algebra. More precisely, we show that there exists a unitary transformation that cyclically permutes such bases. This unitary can be understood as a generalization of the Fourier transform, which exchanges two MUBs, to multiple complementary aspects. We proceed to prove a lower bound for min-entropic entropic uncertainty relations for any set of MUBs and show that symmetry plays a central role in obtaining tight bounds. For example, we obtain for the first time a tight bound for four MUBs in dimension d=4, which is attained by an eigenstate of our complementarity transform. Finally, we discuss the relation to other symmetries obtained by transformations in discrete phase space and note that the extrema of discrete Wigner functions are directly related to min-entropic uncertainty relations for MUBs.