National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for trans-atlantic spot product

  1. TransAtlantic Petroleum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Product: acquisition, development, exploration, and production of crude oil and natural gas. Year Founded: 1985 Phone Number: 214-220-4323 Website: www.transatlanticpetro...

  2. Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future

  3. Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Spot Prices (Crude Oil in Dollars per Barrel, Products in Dollars per Gallon) Period: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product by Area 08/30/16 08/31/16 09/01/16 09/02/16 09/05/16 09/06/16 View History Crude Oil WTI - Cushing, Oklahoma 46.32 44.68 43.17 44.39 44.39 44.85 1986-2016 Brent - Europe 47.94 47.94 45.05 45.96 46.72 46.21 1987-2016 Conventional Gasoline New York Harbor, Regular

  4. ClearSpot Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClearSpot Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: ClearSpot Energy Sector: Solar Product: US-based solar project developer for rooftop commercial installations. References:...

  5. Reactor hot spot analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, datamore » analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.« less

  7. ARM - Datastreams - aosaeth2spot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon concentration for spot 2 uncorrected for loading factors ngm3 equivalentblackcarbonspot2uncorrected ( time, wavelength ) Aethalometer instrument flags unitless...

  8. Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.archenergy.comSPOT Cost: Free Language: English References: http:www.archenergy.comSPOT SPOT(tm) is intended to...

  9. Hot Spot | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tectonic Settings List of tectonic settings known to host modern geothermal systems: Extensional Tectonics Subduction Zone Rift Zone Hot Spot...

  10. SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite brings advanced algorithms, high performance computing and data management to the masses August 18, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov als.jpg Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt) Some mysteries of science can only be explained on a nanometer scale -even smaller than a single strand of human DNA, which is about 2.5 nanometers wide. At this scale, scientists

  11. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G; Zimmermann, Bjorn; Nichols, Albert L

    2009-01-01

    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  12. HotSpot | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HotSpot HotSpot Current Central Registry Toolbox Version(s): 2.07.1 Code Owner: Department of Energy, Office of Emergency Operations and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Description: The HotSpot Health Physics Code is used for safety-analysis of DOE facilities handling nuclear material. Additionally, HotSpot provides emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. HotSpot

  13. A procedure to determine the planar integral spot dose values of proton pencil beam spots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Poenisch, Falk; Amos, Richard A.; Ciangaru, George; Titt, Uwe; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T.

    2012-02-15

    found to have angular anisotropy. This anisotropy in PPBS dose distribution could be accounted in a reasonable approximate manner by taking the average of PISD values obtained using the in-line and cross-line profiles. The PISD{sub RBPC} values fall within 3.5% of those measured by BPC. Due to inherent dosimetry challenges associated with PPBS dosimetry, which can lead to large experimental uncertainties, such an agreement is considered to be satisfactory for validation purposes. The PISD{sub full} values show differences ranging from 1 to 11% from BPC measured values, which are mainly due to the size limitation of the BPC to account for the dose in the long tail regions of the spots extending beyond its 4.08 cm radius. The dose in long tail regions occur both for high energy beams such as 221.8 MeV PPBS due to the contributions of nuclear interactions products in the medium, and for low energy PPBS because of their larger spot sizes. The calculated LTDCF values agree within 1% with those determined by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Conclusions: The area integration method to compute the PISD from PPBS lateral dose profiles is found to be useful both to determine the correction factors for the values measured by the BPC and to validate the results from MC simulations.

  14. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  15. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  16. TEVA-SPOT Toolkit 1.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-07-26

    The TEVA-SPOT Toolkit (SPOT) supports the design of contaminant warning systems (CWSs) that use real-time sensors to detect contaminants in municipal water distribution networks. Specifically, SPOT provides the capability to select the locations for installing sensors in order to maximize the utility and effectiveness of the CWS. SPOT models the sensor placement process as an optimization problem, and the user can specify a wide range of performance objectives for contaminant warning system design, including populationmore » health effects, time to detection, extent of contamination, volume consumed and number of failed detections. For example, a SPOT user can integrate expert knowledge during the design process by specigying required sensor placements or designating network locations as forbidden. Further, cost considerations can be integrated by limiting the design with user-specified installation costs at each location.« less

  17. Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials and Alternatives for Storage Batteries Session C: Strategies and Research for ... of Science and Technology, Material Flow Analysis Session D: Opportunities for ...

  18. Volume higher; spot price ranges widen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    This article is the October 1994 uranium market summary. During this reporting period, volume on the spot concentrates market doubled. Twelve deals took place: three in the spot concentrates market, one in the medium and long-term market, four in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. The restricted price range widened due to higher prices at the top end of the range, while the unrestricted price range widened because of lower prices at the bottom end. Spot conversion prices were higher, and enrichment prices were unchanged.

  19. ,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  20. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  1. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-03-02

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  2. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-18

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating insidents involving redioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  3. ATS Spotted MSI Analysis with Matlab

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-02-09

    Samples are placed on a surface using an acoustic transfer system (ATS). This results in one ore more small droplets on a surface. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of these droplets arrayed in a regular coordinate system. The surface is analyzed using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and at each position, one or more mass spectra are recorded. The purpose of the software is to help the user assign locations to the spots and buildmore » a report for each spot.« less

  4. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  5. Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs) Spot Market Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: While interested parties can still trade DE SRECs in the spot market, the spot market in itself is limited since most of the SRECs produced are part of the SREC Purchase Program, or the SREC...

  6. Fermi surface topology and hot spot distribution in the Kondo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermi surface topology and hot spot distribution in the Kondo lattice system CeB 6 ... September 17, 2016 Title: Fermi surface topology and hot spot distribution in the Kondo ...

  7. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:23:06 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  8. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:23:08 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  9. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:23:12 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  10. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-10-30

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10{sup 5} GeV {approx}< M{sub mess} {approx}< 10{sup 10} GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N{sub mess} are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group.

  11. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  12. Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil WTI - Cushing, Oklahoma 31.32 34.43 37.69 38.32 39.18 36.82 1986-2016 Brent - Europe 33.12 36.28 39.30 38.50 39.19 37.0 1987-2016 Conventional Gasoline New York Harbor, ...

  13. Spot market volume sluggish in October

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. Spot market volume reached a meager 116,000 lbs of U3O8 and equivalent. The restricted price range increased from September`s high end of $11.75 to $12.00. The unrestricted range also increased with September`s high end of $9.65 as October`s low end and a high of $9.80. Conversion prices have held steady the past few months. However, the SWU price range increased this month to a high of $97.00.

  14. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  15. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2009-09-15

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  16. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, R.J.; Bjorken, J.D.; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  17. Hot spot-ridge crest convergence in the northeast Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsten, J.L.; Delaney, J.R. )

    1989-01-10

    Evolution of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during the past 7 m.y. has been reconstructed taking into account both the propagating rift history and migration of the spreading center in the 'absolute' (fixed hot spot) reference frame. Northwestward migration of the spreading center (at a rate of 30 km/m.y.) has resulted in progressive encroachment of the ridge axis on the Cobb Hot Spot and westward jumping of the central third of the ridge axis more recently than 0.5 Ma. Seamounts in the Cobb-Eickelberg chain are predicted to display systematic variations in morphology and petrology, and a reduction in the age contrast between the edifice and underlying crust, as a result of the ridge axis approach. Relative seamount volumes also indicate that magmatic output of the hot spot varied during this interval, with a reduction in activity between 2.5 and 4.5 Ma, compared with relatively more robust activity before and after this period. Spatial relationships determined in this reconstruction allow hypotheses relating hot spot activity and rift propagation to be evaluated. In most cases, rift propagation has been directed away from the hot spot during the time period considered. Individual propagators show some reduction in propagation rate as separation between the propagating rift tip and hot spot increases, but cross comparison of multiple propagators does not uniformly display the same relationship. No obvious correlation exists between propagation rate and increasing proximity of the hot spot to the ridge axis or increasing hot spot output. Taken together, these observations do not offer compelling support for the concept of hot spot driven rift propagation. However, short-term reversals in propagation direction at the Cobb Offset coincide with activity of the Heckle melting anomaly, suggesting that local propagation effects may be related to excess magma supply at the ridge axis.

  18. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C.

    2009-03-15

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  19. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  20. Unique Bioreactor Finds Algae's Sweet Spot - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Bioreactor Finds Algae's Sweet Spot February 18, 2014 Close-up photo of a vial of green algae. Enlarge image Aeration helps algae grow and helps replicate real-life ...

  1. Portsmouth Training Exercise Helps Radiological Trainees Spot Mistakes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safely | Department of Energy Portsmouth Training Exercise Helps Radiological Trainees Spot Mistakes Safely Portsmouth Training Exercise Helps Radiological Trainees Spot Mistakes Safely February 11, 2016 - 12:10pm Addthis Connie Martin performs work inside the Error Lab while trainees observe her actions for mistakes. Connie Martin performs work inside the Error Lab while trainees observe her actions for mistakes. Lorrie Graham (left) talks with trainees in a classroom setting before

  2. Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer PEM This PEM image shows two cancerous lesions. The one on the right was depicted by conventional mammography, but the one on the left was only identified by the PEM unit. Image courtesy: Eric Rosen, Duke University Medical Center Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer March 3, 2005 Newport News, VA - A study published in the February issue of the journal Radiology shows that a positron emission mammography (PEM) device designed and built by Jefferson

  3. Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors NEWPORT NEWS, Va. Feb. 8, 2008 -- The positron emission mammography/tomography breast imaging and biopsy system was designed and constructed by scientists at Jefferson Lab, West Virginia University and the University of Maryland School of Medicine. The PEM/PET system is designed for detecting and guiding the biopsies of suspicious breast cancer lesions. "This is the most-important and most-difficult imager we've

  4. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dongxu Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.

  5. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Hovanski, Yuri [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Grant, Glenn J [ORNL; Dahl, Michael E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  6. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes

    2009-04-23

    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  7. FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF 6016 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rajiv S.; Webb, S.; Freeney, T. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-01-08

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 6016 aluminum alloy was evaluated with conventional pin tool and new off-center feature tools. The off-center feature tool provides significant control over the joint area. The tool rotation rate was varied between 1000 and 2500 rpm. Maximum failure strength was observed in the tool rotation range of 1200-1500 rpm. The results are interpreted in the context of material flow in the joint and influence of thermal input on microstructural changes. The off-center feature tool concept opens up new possibilities for plunge-type friction stir spot welding.

  8. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  9. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems You ...

  10. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas ...

  11. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  12. Texas students win regional National Science Bowl competition, secure spot

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in finals in nation's capital | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Texas students win regional National Science Bowl competition, secure spot in finals in nation's capital Monday, March 21, 2016 - 10:22am NPO's Mark Padilla congratulates the winning Amarillo High School Team Black with their victory at the Pantex Science Bowl 2016. More than 200 students from 37 from High schools across the Texas Panhandle gathered together with a few hundred volunteers for a meeting and

  13. The Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories James L. Smith, Rex Thompson, and Thomas Lee June 24, 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES June 2014 James L. Smith, Rex Thomas, and Thomas K.

  14. Price convergence in North America natural gas spot markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M.; Cuc, M.

    1996-12-01

    Government policy changes and subsequent regulatory actions in Canada and the United States (US) in the mid-1980s led to effective deregulation of the commodity market for natural gas. This was done by price deregulation, unbundling of pipeline services, and the fostering of a competitive market through equal and open access to pipeline transportation capacity by all suppliers and users. This paper attempts to measure the degree of price convergence in the North American natural gas spot markets. 38 refs.

  15. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-15

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  16. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2009-12-28

    Friction stir spot welding was used to join two advanced high-strength steels using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tooling. Numerous tool designs were employed to study the influence of tool geometry on weld joints produced in both DP780 and a hot-stamp boron steel. Tool designs included conventional, concave shouldered pin tools with several pin configurations; a number of shoulderless designs; and a convex, scrolled shoulder tool. Weld quality was assessed based on lap shear strength, microstructure, microhardness, and bonded area. Mechanical properties were functionally related to bonded area and joint microstructure, demonstrating the necessity to characterize processing windows based on tool geometry.

  17. Algorithms for a spot price responding residential load controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweppe, F.C.; Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Increased unbundling of electric utility services has become a major interest in the industry. This paper presents a description of the logic and structure for a set of spot price based algorithms designed for use in residential load control systems. The paper presents the functions to be fulfilled by such a price responding device and describes the end use devices available in residences and the control logics applicable to each. The paper concludes that there is a need to understand customer attitudes and acceptance in the design of the response strategies and in the design of the man machine interface.

  18. Hot spot-derived shock initiation phenomena in heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    The addition of solid silica particles to gelled nitromethane offers a tractable model system for interrogating the role of impedance mismatches as one type of hot spot 'seed' on the initiation behaviors of explosive formulations. Gas gun-driven plate impact experiments are used to produce well-defined shock inputs into nitromethane-silica mixtures containing size-selected silica beads at 6 wt%. The Pop-plots or relationships between shock input pressure and rundistance (or time)-to-detonation for mixtures containing small (1-4 {micro}m) and large (40 {micro}m) beads are presented. Overall, the addition of beads was found to influence the shock sensitivity of the mixtures, with the smaller beads being more sensitizing than the larger beads, lowering the shock initiation threshold for the same run distance to detonation compared with neat nitromethane. In addition, the use of embedded electromagnetic gauges provides detailed information pertaining to the mechanism of the build-up to detonation and associated reactive flow. Of note, an initiation mechanism characteristic of homogeneous liquid explosives, such as nitromethane, was observed in the nitromethane-40 {micro}m diameter silica samples at high shock input pressures, indicating that the influence of hot spots on the initiation process was minimal under these conditions.

  19. March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

  20. Diode magnetic-field influence on radiographic spot size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr.

    2012-09-04

    Flash radiography of hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a well-known diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The Dual-Axis Radiography for Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos was developed for flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) produce the bremsstrahlung radiographic source spots for orthogonal views of each experiment ('hydrotest'). The 2-kA, 20-MeV Axis-I LIA creates a single 60-ns radiography pulse. For time resolution of the hydrotest dynamics, the 1.7-kA, 16.5-MeV Axis-II LIA creates up to four radiography pulses by slicing them out of a longer pulse that has a 1.6-{micro}s flattop. Both axes now routinely produce radiographic source spot sizes having full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) less than 1 mm. To further improve on the radiographic resolution, one must consider the major factors influencing the spot size: (1) Beam convergence at the final focus; (2) Beam emittance; (3) Beam canonical angular momentum; (4) Beam-motion blur; and (5) Beam-target interactions. Beam emittance growth and motion in the accelerators have been addressed by careful tuning. Defocusing by beam-target interactions has been minimized through tuning of the final focus solenoid for optimum convergence and other means. Finally, the beam canonical angular momentum is minimized by using a 'shielded source' of electrons. An ideal shielded source creates the beam in a region where the axial magnetic field is zero, thus the canonical momentum zero, since the beam is born with no mechanical angular momentum. It then follows from Busch's conservation theorem that the canonical angular momentum is minimized at the target, at least in principal. In the DARHT accelerators, the axial magnetic field at the cathode is minmized by using a 'bucking coil' solenoid with reverse polarity to cancel out whatever solenoidal beam transport field exists there. This is imperfect in practice, because of

  1. Seven federally protected Mexican spotted owl chicks hatch on Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory property Federally protected Mexican spotted owl chicks hatch on LANL property Seven federally protected Mexican spotted owl chicks hatch on Los Alamos National Laboratory property Biologists located a record seven federally threatened Mexican spotted owl chicks on Los Alamos National Laboratory property during nest surveys last month. July 13, 2015 A parent owl sits with two chicks. A parent owl sits with two chicks. Contact Los Alamos National Laboratory Lorrie

  2. Effects of High Shock Pressures and Pore Morphology on Hot Spot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of High Shock Pressures and Pore Morphology on Hot Spot Mechanisms in HMX Citation ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 75 ...

  3. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrier, Danielle

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  4. Mechanism of cathode spot splitting in vacuum arcs in an oblique magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beilis, I. I.

    2015-10-15

    Experiments in the last decade showed that for cathode spots in a magnetic field that obliquely intercepts the cathode surface, the current per spot increased with the transverse component of the magnetic field and decreased with the normal component. The present work analyzes the nature of cathode spot splitting in an oblique magnetic field. A physical model for cathode spot current splitting was developed, which considered the relation between the plasma kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and applied magnetic pressure in a current carrying cathode plasma jet. The current per spot was calculated, and it was found to increase with the tangential component of the magnetic field and to decrease with the normal component, which agrees well with the experimental dependence.

  5. Morphological changes in ultrafast laser ablation plumes with varying spot size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Polek, M. P.; Phillips, M. C.

    2015-06-04

    We investigated the role of spot size on plume morphology during ultrafast laser ablation of metal targets. Our results show that the spatial features of fs LA plumes are strongly dependent on the focal spot size. Two-dimensional self-emission images showed that the shape of the ultrafast laser ablation plumes changes from spherical to cylindrical with an increasing spot size from 100 to 600 ?m. The changes in plume morphology and internal structures are related to ion emission dynamics from the plasma, where broader angular ion distribution and faster ions are noticed for the smallest spot size used. The present resultsmoreclearly show that the morphological changes in the plume with spot size are independent of laser pulse width.less

  6. SU-E-J-72: Geant4 Simulations of Spot-Scanned Proton Beam Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanehira, T; Sutherland, K; Matsuura, T; Umegaki, K; Shirato, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate density inhomogeneities which can effect dose distributions for real-time image gated spot-scanning proton therapy (RGPT), a dose calculation system, using treatment planning system VQA (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo) spot position data, was developed based on Geant4. Methods: A Geant4 application was developed to simulate spot-scanned proton beams at Hokkaido University Hospital. A CT scan (0.98 × 0.98 × 1.25 mm) was performed for prostate cancer treatment with three or four inserted gold markers (diameter 1.5 mm, volume 1.77 mm3) in or near the target tumor. The CT data was read into VQA. A spot scanning plan was generated and exported to text files, specifying the beam energy and position of each spot. The text files were converted and read into our Geant4-based software. The spot position was converted into steering magnet field strength (in Tesla) for our beam nozzle. Individual protons were tracked from the vacuum chamber, through the helium chamber, steering magnets, dose monitors, etc., in a straight, horizontal line. The patient CT data was converted into materials with variable density and placed in a parametrized volume at the isocenter. Gold fiducial markers were represented in the CT data by two adjacent voxels (volume 2.38 mm3). 600,000 proton histories were tracked for each target spot. As one beam contained about 1,000 spots, approximately 600 million histories were recorded for each beam on a blade server. Two plans were considered: two beam horizontal opposed (90 and 270 degree) and three beam (0, 90 and 270 degree). Results: We are able to convert spot scanning plans from VQA and simulate them with our Geant4-based code. Our system can be used to evaluate the effect of dose reduction caused by gold markers used for RGPT. Conclusion: Our Geant4 application is able to calculate dose distributions for spot scanned proton therapy.

  7. May market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Seven uranium transactions totalling nearly three million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported during May, but only two, totalling less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8, involved concentrates. As no discretionary buying occurred during the month, and as near-term supply and demand were in relative balance, prices were steady, while both buyers and sellers appeared to be awaiting some new market development to signal the direction of future spot-market prices. The May 31, 1993, Exchange Value and the Restricted American market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates were both unchanged at $7.10, and $2.95 per pound U3O8, respectively. NUEXCO's judgement was that transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that were both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on May 31 at $10.05 per pound U3O8. Two near-term concentrate transactions were reported in which one US utility purchased less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8 from two separate sellers. These sales occurred at price levels at or near the May 31 Exchange Value plus RAMP. No long-term uranium transactions were reported during May. Consequently, the UF6 Value decreased $0.20 to $24.30 per kgU as UF6, reflecting some weakening of the UF6 market outside the USA.

  8. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  9. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  10. WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J; Lindsay, P; Jaffray, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations

  11. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  12. April market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The spot market price for uranium outside the USA weakened further during April, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.35, to $7.10 per pound U3O8. This is the lowest Exchange Value observed in nearly twenty years, comparable to Values recorded during the low price levels of the early 1970s. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.40, to $2.95 per pound U3O8. Transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that are both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on April 30 at $10.05 per pound U3O8, up $0.05 from the sum of corresponding March Values. Four near-term concentrates transactions were reported, totalling nearly 1.5 million pounds equivalent U3O8. One long-term sale was reported. The UF6 Value also declined, as increased competition among sellers led to a $0.50 decrease, to $24.50 per kgU as UF6. However, the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.65, to $5.90 per kgU as UF6, reflecting an effective US market level of $30.40 per kgU. Two near term transactions were reported totalling approximately 1.1 million pounds equivalent U3O8. In total, eight uranium transactions totalling 28 million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported, which is about average for April market activity.

  13. A beam sweeping system for the Fermilab antiproton production target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    1993-08-01

    In the Main Injector era beam intensities high enough to damage the antiproton production target will be available. In order to continue to operate with a tightly-focused primary beam spot on the target, and thus maintain yield, it will be necessary to spread the hot spot on the target by use of a beam sweeping system. This report summarizes the requirements for such a system, and addresses the issues involved in the design of a sweeping system.

  14. Assessment of Prices of Natural Gas Futures Contracts As A Predictor of Realized Spot Prices, An

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article compares realized Henry Hub spot market prices for natural gas during the three most recent winters with futures prices as they evolve from April through the following February, when trading for the March contract ends.

  15. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-15

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  16. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, Carol S.; Tollaksen, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  17. Spot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tung-Chang Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2014-06-15

    We present a numerical study of the effect of the laser spot size of a circularly polarized laser beam on the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons in laser proton acceleration using a thin carbon-hydrogen foil. The used proton acceleration scheme is a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion due to the carbon ions. We observe that the spot size plays a crucial role in determining the net charge of the electron-shielded carbon ion foil and consequently the efficiency of proton acceleration. Using a laser pulse with fixed input energy and pulse length impinging on a carbon-hydrogen foil, a laser beam with smaller spot sizes can generate higher energy but fewer quasi-monoenergetic protons. We studied the scaling of the proton energy with respect to the laser spot size and obtained an optimal spot size for maximum proton energy flux. Using the optimal spot size, we can generate an 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam containing more than 10{sup 8} protons using a laser beam with power 250 TW and energy 10 J and a target of thickness 0.15 wavelength and 49 critical density made of 90% carbon and 10% hydrogen.

  18. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  19. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua

    2014-08-07

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results.

  20. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  1. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  2. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Foster, John E.

    2013-11-15

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  3. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  4. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  5. Effects of minimum monitor unit threshold on spot scanning proton plan quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, Michelle Beltran, Chris; Mayo, Charles S.; Herman, Michael G.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Methods: Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5–10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1–20 cm. Three-field, intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000–0.0060; and spot spacing range of 2–8 mm. Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. For the pediatric brain, two versions of the treatment planning system were also compared to judge the effects of the min-MU limit based on when it is accounted for in the optimization process (Eclipse v.10 and v.13, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Results: The increase of the min-MU limit with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 4 mm. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 8 mm, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Conclusions: Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤4 mm, plan quality decreases as min-MU increased beyond 0.0020. The effect of min-MU needs to be taken into consideration while planning proton therapy treatments.

  6. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 and Hot-Stamp Boron Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L.; Frederick, Alan; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2008-05-16

    Friction stir spot welds were made in two high-strength steels: DP780, and a hot-stamp-boron steel with tensile strength of 1500 MPa. The spot welds were made at either 800 or 1600 rpm using either of two polycrystalline boron nitride tools. One stir tool, BN77, had the relatively common pin-tool shape. The second tool, BN46, had a convex rather than a concave shoulder profile and a much wider and shorter pin. The tools were plunged to preprogrammed depths either at a continuous rate (1-step schedule) or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate. In all cases, the welds were completed in 4s. The range of lap-shear values were compared to values required for resistance spot welds on the same steels. The minimum value of 10.3 kN was exceeded for friction stir spot welding of DP780 using a 2-step schedule and either the BN77- or the BN46-type stir tool. The respective minimum value of 12 kN was also exceeded for the HSB steel using the 2-step process and the BN46 stir tool.

  7. Pressure fluctuations beneath instability wavepackets and turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2014-09-09

    To investigate the pressure-fluctuation field beneath turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer, a study was conducted on the nozzle wall of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel. Controlled disturbances were created by pulsed-glow perturbations based on the electrical breakdown of air. Under quiet-flow conditions, the nozzle-wall boundary layer remains laminar and grows very thick over the long nozzle length. This allows the development of large disturbances that can be well-resolved with high-frequency pressure transducers. A disturbance first grows into a second-mode instability wavepacket that is concentrated near its own centreline. Weaker disturbances are seen spreading from the centre. The wavesmore » grow and become nonlinear before breaking down to turbulence. The breakdown begins in the core of the packets where the wave amplitudes are largest. Second-mode waves are still evident in front of and behind the breakdown point and can be seen propagating in the spanwise direction. The turbulent core grows downstream, resulting in a spot with a classical arrowhead shape. Behind the spot, a low-pressure calmed region develops. However, the spot is not merely a localized patch of turbulence; instability waves remain an integral part. Limited measurements of naturally occurring disturbances show many similar characteristics. From the controlled disturbance measurements, the convection velocity, spanwise spreading angle, and typical pressure-fluctuation field were obtained.« less

  8. On the mechanism of operation of a cathode spot cell in a vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Bochkarev, M. B.; Barengolts, S. A.

    2014-05-05

    The erosive structures formed on a tungsten cathode as a result of the motion of the cathode spot of a vacuum arc over the cathode surface have been examined. It has been found that the average mass of a cathode microprotrusion having the shape of a solidified jet is approximately equal to the mass of ions removed from the cathode within the lifetime of a cathode spot cell carrying a current of several amperes. The time of formation of a new liquid-metal jet under the action of the reactive force of the plasma ejected by the cathode spot is about 10?ns, which is comparable to the lifetime of a cell. The growth rate of a liquid-metal jet is ?10{sup 4}?cm/s. The geometric shape and size of a solidified jet are such that a new explosive emission center (spot cell) can be initiated within several nanoseconds during the interaction of the jet with the dense cathode plasma. This is the underlying mechanism of the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc.

  9. Pressure fluctuations beneath instability wavepackets and turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2014-09-09

    To investigate the pressure-fluctuation field beneath turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer, a study was conducted on the nozzle wall of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel. Controlled disturbances were created by pulsed-glow perturbations based on the electrical breakdown of air. Under quiet-flow conditions, the nozzle-wall boundary layer remains laminar and grows very thick over the long nozzle length. This allows the development of large disturbances that can be well-resolved with high-frequency pressure transducers. A disturbance first grows into a second-mode instability wavepacket that is concentrated near its own centreline. Weaker disturbances are seen spreading from the centre. The waves grow and become nonlinear before breaking down to turbulence. The breakdown begins in the core of the packets where the wave amplitudes are largest. Second-mode waves are still evident in front of and behind the breakdown point and can be seen propagating in the spanwise direction. The turbulent core grows downstream, resulting in a spot with a classical arrowhead shape. Behind the spot, a low-pressure calmed region develops. However, the spot is not merely a localized patch of turbulence; instability waves remain an integral part. Limited measurements of naturally occurring disturbances show many similar characteristics. From the controlled disturbance measurements, the convection velocity, spanwise spreading angle, and typical pressure-fluctuation field were obtained.

  10. Innovative Methodology For Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobi, Rober

    2007-03-28

    This Topical Report (#6 of 9) consists of the figures 3.6-13 to (and including) 3.6-18 (and appropriate figure captions) that accompany the Final Technical Progress Report entitled: “Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin” for DOE/NETL Award DE-AC26-00NT40698.

  11. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobi, Rober

    2007-03-31

    This Topical Report (#6 of 9) consists of the figures 3.6-13 to (and including) 3.6-18 (and appropriate figure captions) that accompany the Final Technical Progress Report entitled: "Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin” for DOE/NETL Award DE-AC26-00NT40698.

  12. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; and others

    2012-05-15

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  13. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-10-15

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  14. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2013-07-15

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  15. Projectile containing metastable intermolecular composites and spot fire method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asay, Blaine W.; Son, Steven F.; Sanders, V. Eric; Foley, Timothy; Novak, Alan M.; Busse, James R.

    2012-07-31

    A method for altering the course of a conflagration involving firing a projectile comprising a powder mixture of oxidant powder and nanosized reductant powder at velocity sufficient for a violent reaction between the oxidant powder and the nanosized reductant powder upon impact of the projectile, and causing impact of the projectile at a location chosen to draw a main fire to a spot fire at such location and thereby change the course of the conflagration, whereby the air near the chosen location is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause a spot fire at such location. The invention also includes a projectile useful for such method and said mixture preferably comprises a metastable intermolecular composite.

  16. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  17. Influence of hot spot features on the initiation characteristics of heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Engelke, Ray

    2010-01-01

    To gain insights into the critical hot spot features influencing energetic materials initiation characteristics, well-defined micron-scale particles have been intentionally introduced into the homogeneous explosive nitromethane (NM). Two types of potential hot spot origins have been examined - shock impedance mismatches using solid silica beads, and porosity using hollow microballoons - as well as their sizes and inter-particle separations. Here, we present the results of several series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NM/particle mixtures with well-controlled shock inputs. Detailed insights into the nature of the reactive flow during the build-up to detonation have been obtained from the response of in-situ electromagnetic gauges, and the data have been used to establish Pop-plots (run-distance-to-detonation vs. shock input pressure) for the mixtures. Comparisons of sensitization effects and energy release characteristics relative to the initial shock front between the solid and hollow beads are presented.

  18. Geometrically nonlinear behaviour of spot welded joints in tensile and compressive shear loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radaj, D.; Zhang, S.

    1995-05-01

    The geometrically nonlinear behavior of spot welded joints including buckling and gap closure and its influence on local stress parameters at the weld spot edge (structural stresses, notch stress or fatigue notch factor, stress intensity factors) are determined by a large displacement analysis of the tensile shear specimen subjected to tensile and compressive loading. The local parameters mentioned are considered decisive for fatigue crack initiation. A continuous beam model and a plate strip model are used within a simplified procedure. A more sophisticated finite element model is applied on the specimens thereafter. The nonlinear effect is small for steel plates more than 1 mm thick in the medium and high cycle fatigue range of tensile loading. It may be stronger for compressive loading but is at least partially compensated for in this case by the gap closure effect. 4 refs.

  19. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Junjun Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos

    2014-05-12

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  20. Macrophyte mapping in ten lakes of South Carolina with multispectral SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Fall and spring multispectral SPOT HRV data for 1987 and 1988 were used to evaluate the macrophyte distributions in ten freshwater reservoirs of South Carolina. The types of macrophyte and wetland communities present along the shoreline of the lakes varied depending on the age, water level fluctuations, water quality, and basin morphology. Seasonal satellite data were important for evaluation of the extent of persistent versus non-persistent macrophyte communities in the lakes. This paper contains only the view graphs of this process.

  1. X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotation to improve fusion performance | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma rotation to improve fusion performance By Raphael Rosen June 23, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Representative plasma geometries, with the X-point location circled in red / Reprinted from T. Stoltzfus-Dueck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 245001 (2015). Copyright 2015 by the American Physical Society. Representative plasma

  2. X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotation to improve fusion performance | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma rotation to improve fusion performance By Raphael Rosen June 23, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Representative plasma geometries, with the X-point location circled in red / Reprinted from T. Stoltzfus-Dueck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 245001 (2015). Copyright 2015 by the American Physical Society. Representative plasma

  3. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  4. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  5. Students do cool summer research projects in one of the hottest spots |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Students do cool summer research projects in one of the hottest spots August 4, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Priya Jaglal (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Priya Jaglal More than 40 college students pursuing careers in physics, engineering and computer science are spending their summer at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory working with scientists and engineers on hands-on research

  6. SU-E-T-73: Commissioning of a Treatment Planning System for Proton Spot Scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, J; Kang, Y; Schultz, L; Nicewonger, D; Herrera, M; Wong, T; Bowen, S; Bloch, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A treatment planning system (TPS) was commissioned for clinical use with a fixed beam line proton delivery system. An outline of the data collection, modeling, and verification is provided. Methods: Beam data modeling for proton spot scanning in CMS Xio TPS requires the following measurements: (i) integral depth dose curves (IDDCs); (ii) absolute dose calibration; and (iii) beam spot characteristics. The IDDCs for 18 proton energies were measured using an integrating detector in a single spot field in a water phantom. Absolute scaling of the IDDCs were performed based on ion chamber measurements in mono-energetic 1010 cm{sup 2} fields in water. Beam spot shapes were measured in air using a flat panel scintillator detector at multiple planes. For beam model verification, more than 45 uniform dose phantom and patient plans were generated. These plans were used to measure range, point dose, and longitudinal and lateral profiles. Tolerances employed for verification are: point dose and longitudinal profiles, 2%; range, 1 mm; FWHM for lateral profiles, 2 mm; and patient plan dose distribution, gamma index of >90% at 3%/3 mm criteria. Results: More than 97% of the point dose measurements out of 115 were within +/-2% with maximum deviation of 3%. 98% of the ranges measured were within 1 mm with maximum deviation of 1.4mm. The normalized depth doses were within 2% at all depths. The maximum error in FWHM of lateral profiles was found to be less than 2mm. For 5 patient plans representing different anatomic sites, a total of 38 planes for 12 beams were analyzed for gamma index with average value of 99% and minimum of 94%. Conclusions: The planning system is successfully commissioned and can be safely deployed for clinical use. Measurements of IDDCs on user beam are highly recommended instead of using standard beam IDDCs.

  7. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

    2012-04-16

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

  8. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Chuko; Jerry Gould

    2002-07-08

    This report describes work accomplished in the project, titled ''Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels.'' The Phase 1 of the program involved development of in-situ temper diagrams for two gauges of representative dual-phase and martensitic grades of steels. The results showed that tempering is an effective way of reducing hold-time sensitivity (HTS) in hardenable high-strength sheet steels. In Phase 2, post-weld cooling rate techniques, incorporating tempering, were evaluated to reduce HTS for the same four steels. Three alternative methods, viz., post-heating, downsloping, and spike tempering, for HTS reduction were investigated. Downsloping was selected for detailed additional study, as it appeared to be the most promising of the cooling rate control methods. The downsloping maps for each of the candidate steels were used to locate the conditions necessary for the peak response. Three specific downslope conditions (at a fix ed final current for each material, timed for a zero-, medium-, and full-softening response) were chosen for further metallurgical and mechanical testing. Representative samples, were inspected metallographically, examining both local hardness variations and microstructures. The resulting downslope diagrams were found to consist largely of a C-curve. The softening observed in these curves, however, was not supported by subsequent metallography, which showed that all welds made, regardless of material and downslope condition, were essentially martensitic. CCT/TTT diagrams, generated based on microstructural modeling done at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, showed that minimum downslope times of 2 and 10 s for the martensitic and dual-phase grades of steels, respectively, were required to avoid martensite formation. These times, however, were beyond those examined in this study. These results show that downsloping is not an effective means of reducing HTS for production resistance spot

  9. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B. Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ?10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  10. MODELING OF HIGH SPEED FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING USING A LAGRANGIAN FINITE ELEMENT APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Karki, U.; Woodward, C.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2013-09-03

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been shown to be capable of joining steels of very high strength, while also being very flexible in terms of controlling the heat of welding and the resulting microstructure of the joint. This makes FSSW a potential alternative to resistance spot welding (RSW) if tool life is sufficiently high, and if machine spindle loads are sufficiently low so that the process can be implemented on an industrial robot. Robots for spot welding can typically sustain vertical loads of about 8kN, but FSSW at tool speeds of less than 3000 rpm cause loads that are too high, in the range of 11-14 kN. Therefore, in the current work tool speeds of 3000 rpm and higher were employed, in order to generate heat more quickly and to reduce welding loads to acceptable levels. The FSSW process was modeled using a finite element approach with the Forge® software package. An updated Lagrangian scheme with explicit time integration was employed to model the flow of the sheet material, subjected to boundary conditions of a rotating tool and a fixed backing plate [3]. The modeling approach can be described as two-dimensional, axisymmetric, but with an aspect of three dimensions in terms of thermal boundary conditions. Material flow was calculated from a velocity field which was two dimensional, but heat generated by friction was computed using a virtual rotational velocity component from the tool surface. An isotropic, viscoplastic Norton-Hoff law was used to model the evolution of material flow stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. The model predicted welding temperatures and the movement of the joint interface with reasonable accuracy for the welding of a dual phase 980 steel.

  11. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Liubin; Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Xi Tingting; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; He Duanwei

    2012-07-15

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  12. Cushing, Oklahoma Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Product Price Formation August 9, 2016 | Washington, DC An analysis of the factors that influence product prices, with chart data updated monthly, quarterly and annually Gasoline spot prices 2 Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Bloomberg L.P. August 9, 2016 dollars per gallon Chicago CBOB New York Harbor Conventional gasoline Gulf Coast Conventional gasoline Los Angeles CARBOB Northwest Europe gasoline Singapore gasoline 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

  13. Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail: mkazemi@sharif.edu; Kokabi, A.H.

    2012-07-15

    Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

  14. SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, M. J. N.

    2000-12-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

  15. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  16. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-12-31

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  17. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  18. Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

    2014-05-01

    High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

  19. Wear testing of friction stir spot welding tools for joining of DP 980 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridges, Chris; Miles, Michael; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Steel, Russell

    2011-06-06

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Several tooling materials have been evaluated in prior studies, including silicon nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, where a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) was used in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re (designated as Q60), and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re (designated at Q70). The sheet material used for all wear testing was DP 980. Tool profiles were measured periodically during the testing process in order to show the progression of wear as a function of the number of spots produced. Lap shear testing was done each time a tool profile was taken in order to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. For the welding parameters chosen for this study the Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  20. Effects of Fusion Zone Size on Failure Modes and Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-04-28

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using the limit load based analytical model and the micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that the conventional weld size of 4 t can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials. The results also suggest that performance based spot weld acceptance criteria should be developed for different AHSS spot welds.

  1. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  2. Femtosecond laser-induced size reduction of carbon nanodots in solution: Effect of laser fluence, spot size, and irradiation time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Vanthan; Yan, Lihe Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2015-02-28

    Photoluminescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) with size tunability and uniformity were fabricated in polyethylene glycol (PEG{sub 200N}) solution using femtosecond laser ablation method. The size distributions and photoluminescence (PL) properties of C-dots are well controlled by adjusting the combined parameters of laser fluence, spot size, and irradiation time. The size reduction efficiency of the C-dots progressively increases with decreasing laser fluence and spot size. The optimal PL spectra are red-shifted and the quantum yields decrease with the increase in C-dots size, which could be attributed to the more complex surface functional groups attached on C-dots induced at higher laser fluence and larger spot size. Moreover, an increase in irradiation time leads to a decrease in size of C-dots, but long-time irradiation will result in the generation of complex functional groups on C-dots, subsequently the PL spectra are red-shifted.

  3. A dynamic collimation system for penumbra reduction in spot-scanning proton therapy: Proof of concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyer, Daniel E. Hill, Patrick M.; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: In the absence of a collimation system the lateral penumbra of spot scanning (SS) dose distributions delivered by low energy proton beams is highly dependent on the spot size. For current commercial equipment, spot size increases with decreasing proton energy thereby reducing the benefit of the SS technique. This paper presents a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for sharpening the lateral penumbra of proton therapy dose distributions delivered by SS. Methods: The collimation system presented here exploits the property that a proton pencil beam used for SS requires collimation only when it is near the target edge, enabling the use of trimmers that are in motion at times when the pencil beam is away from the target edge. The device consists of two pairs of parallel nickel trimmer blades of 2 cm thickness and dimensions of 2 cm × 18 cm in the beam's eye view. The two pairs of trimmer blades are rotated 90° relative to each other to form a rectangular shape. Each trimmer blade is capable of rapid motion in the direction perpendicular to the central beam axis by means of a linear motor, with maximum velocity and acceleration of 2.5 m/s and 19.6 m/s{sup 2}, respectively. The blades travel on curved tracks to match the divergence of the proton source. An algorithm for selecting blade positions is developed to minimize the dose delivered outside of the target, and treatment plans are created both with and without the DCS. Results: The snout of the DCS has outer dimensions of 22.6 × 22.6 cm{sup 2} and is capable of delivering a minimum treatment field size of 15 × 15 cm{sup 2}. Using currently available components, the constructed system would weigh less than 20 kg. For irregularly shaped fields, the use of the DCS reduces the mean dose outside of a 2D target of 46.6 cm{sup 2} by approximately 40% as compared to an identical plan without collimation. The use of the DCS increased treatment time by 1–3 s per energy layer. Conclusions: The spread of the

  4. Identifying and Mitigating Potential Nutrient and Sediment Hot Spots under a Future Scenario in the Missouri River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, May; Zhang, Zhonglong

    2015-09-01

    clearly attributable to the conversion of a large amount of land to switchgrass. The Middle Lower Missouri River and Lower Missouri River were identified as hot regions. Further analysis identified four subbasins (10240002, 10230007, 10290402, and 10300200) as being the most vulnerable in terms of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings. Overall, results suggest that increasing the amount of switchgrass acreage in the hot spots should be considered to mitigate the nutrient loads. The study provides an analytical method to support stakeholders in making informed decisions that balance biofuel production and water sustainability.

  5. Effect of the laser spot shape on spatial distribution of the ion bunch accelerated in a superstrong field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komarov, V M; Charukhchev, A V; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu

    2014-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of the laser spot shape on the spatial distribution of accelerated ions on the front and back sides of a thin target irradiated by a picosecond laser pulse having the intensity of (3 – 4) × 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}. Experimental data are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that the spatial structure of the ion bunch on the front side of the target resembles the laser spot structure rotated by 90°. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  6. Electric rate that shifts hourly may foretell spot-market kWh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, N.

    1985-11-25

    Four California industrial plants have cut their electricity bills up to 16% by shifting from the traditional time-of-use rates to an experimental real-time program (RTP) that varies prices hourly. The users receive a price schedule reflecting changing generating costs one day in advance to encourage them to increase power consumption during the cheapest time periods. Savings during the pilot program range between $11,000 and $32,000 per customer. The hourly cost breakdown encourages consumption during the night and early morning. The signalling system could be expanded to cogenerators and independent small power producers. If an electricity spot market develops, forecasters think a place on the stock exchanges for future-delivery contracts could develop in the future.

  7. Reciprocal space mapping by spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2005-08-15

    We present an experimental approach for the recording of two-dimensional reciprocal space maps using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). A specialized alignment procedure eliminates the shifting of LEED patterns on the screen which is commonly observed upon variation of the electron energy. After the alignment, a set of one-dimensional sections through the diffraction pattern is recorded at different energies. A freely available software tool is used to assemble the sections into a reciprocal space map. The necessary modifications of the Burr-Brown computer interface of the two Leybold and Omicron type SPA-LEED instruments are discussed and step-by-step instructions are given to adapt the SPA 4.1d software to the changed hardware. Au induced faceting of 4 deg. vicinal Si(001) is used as an example to demonstrate the technique.

  8. Chopped sample heating for quantitative profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction spots at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kury, P.; Zahl, P.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.; Voges, C.; Frischat, H.; Guenter, H.-L.; Pfnuer, H.; Henzler, M.

    2004-11-01

    Spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) is one of the most versatile and powerful methods for the determination of the structure and morphology of surfaces even at elevated temperatures. In setups where the sample is heated directly by an electric current, the resolution of the diffraction images at higher temperatures can be heavily degraded due to the inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields around the sample. Here we present an easily applicable modification of the common data acquisition hardware of the SPA-LEED, which enables the system to work in a pulsed heating mode: Instead of heating the sample with a constant current, a square wave is used and electron counting is only performed when the current through the sample vanishes. Thus, undistorted diffration images can be acquired at high temperatures.

  9. On the development of nugget growth model for resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Kang, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk; Cai, Lilong, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-04-28

    In this paper, we developed a general mathematical model to estimate the nugget growth process based on the heat energy delivered into the welds by the resistance spot welding. According to the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer, and the effect of electrode force during the welding process, the shape of the nugget can be estimated. Then, a mathematical model between heat energy absorbed and nugget diameter can be obtained theoretically. It is shown in this paper that the nugget diameter can be precisely described by piecewise fractal polynomial functions. Experiments were conducted with different welding operation conditions, such as welding currents, workpiece thickness, and widths, to validate the model and the theoretical analysis. All the experiments confirmed that the proposed model can predict the nugget diameters with high accuracy based on the input heat energy to the welds.

  10. Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding of DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Ridges, Chris; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Santella, M. L.; Steel, Russel

    2011-09-14

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, using a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re, and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re. The sheet material used for all wear testing was 1.4 mm DP 980. Lap shear testing was used to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. The Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  11. Crystal structure of Spot 14, a modulator of fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbert, Christopher L.; Kim, Chai-Wan; Moon, Young-Ah; Henry, Lisa; Palnitkar, Maya; McKean, William B.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Deisenhofer, Johann; Horton, Jay D.; Kwon, Hyock Joo

    2011-09-06

    Spot 14 (S14) is a protein that is abundantly expressed in lipogenic tissues and is regulated in a manner similar to other enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Deletion of S14 in mice decreased lipid synthesis in lactating mammary tissue, but the mechanism of S14's action is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of S14 to 2.65 {angstrom} and biochemical data showing that S14 can form heterodimers with MIG12. MIG12 modulates fatty acid synthesis by inducing the polymerization and activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the first committed enzymatic reaction in the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Coexpression of S14 and MIG12 leads to heterodimers and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase polymerization and activity. The structure of S14 suggests a mechanism whereby heterodimer formation with MIG12 attenuates the ability of MIG12 to activate ACC.

  12. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of AZ31B to Galvanized Mild Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dr. Tsung-Yu; Franklin, Teresa; Pan, Professor Jwo; Brown, Elliot; Santella, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic spot welds were made between sheets of 0.8-mm-thick hot-dip-galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm-thick AZ31B-H24. Lap-shear strengths of 3.0-4.2 kN were achieved with weld times of 0.3-1.2 s. Failure to achieve strong bonding of joints where the Zn coating was removed from the steel surface indicate that Zn is essential to the bonding mechanism. Microstructure characterization and microchemical analysis indicated temperatures at the AZ31-steel interfaces reached at least 344 C in less than 0.3 s. The elevated temperature conditions promoted annealing of the AZ31-H24 metal and chemical reactions between it and the Zn coating.

  13. Landsat and SPOT data for oil exploration in North-Western China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishidai, Takashi

    1996-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has been employed by Japex to provide information related to oil exploration programs for many years. Since the beginning of the 1980`s, regional geological interpretation through to advanced studies using satellite imagery with high spectral and spatial resolutions (such as Landsat TM and SPOT HRV), have been carried out, for both exploration programs and for scientific research. Advanced techniques (including analysis of airborne hyper-multispectral imaging sensor data) as well as conventional photogeological techniques were used throughout these programs. The first program using remote sensing technology in China focused on the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and was carried out using Landsat MSS data. Landsat MSS imagery allows us to gain useful preliminary geological information about an area of interest, prior to field studies. About 90 Landsat scenes cover the entire Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region, this allowed us to give comprehensive overviews of 3 hydrocarbon-bearing basins (Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan-Hami) in NW China. The overviews were based on the interpretations and assessments of the satellite imagery and on a synthesis of the most up-to-date accessible geological and geophysical data as well as some field works. Pairs of stereoscopic SPOT HRV images were used to generate digital elevation data with a 40 in grid cover for part of the Tarim Basin. Topographic contour maps, created from this digital elevation data, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 with contour intervals of 100 m and 50 m, allowed us to make precise geological interpretation, and to carry out swift and efficient geological field work. Satellite imagery was also utilized to make medium scale to large scale image maps, not only to interpret geological features but also to support field workers and seismic survey field operations.

  14. Heat-affected zone liquation crack on resistance spot welded TWIP steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, InSung [Automotive Production Development Division, Hyundai Motor Company (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Do, E-mail: ypark@deu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the heat affected zone (HAZ) liquation crack and segregation behavior of the resistance spot welded twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel have been reported. Cracks appeared in the post-welded joints that originated at the partially melted zone (PMZ) and propagated from the PMZ through the heat affected zone (HAZ) to the base metal (BM). The crack length and crack opening widths were observed increasing with heat input; and the welding current was identified to be the most influencing parameter for crack formation. Cracks appeared at the PMZ when nugget diameter reached at 4.50 mm or above; and the liquation cracks were found to occur along two sides of the notch tip in the sheet direction rather than in the electrode direction. Cracks were backfilled with the liquid films which has lamellar structure and supposed to be the eutectic constituent. Co-segregation of alloy elements such as, C and Mn were detected on the liquid films by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) line scanning and element map which suggests that the liquid film was enrich of Mn and C. The eutectic constituent was identified by analyzing the calculated phase diagram along with thermal temperature history of finite element simulation. Preliminary experimental results showed that cracks have less/no significant effect on the static cross-tensile strength (CTS) and the tensile-shear strength (TSS). In addition, possible ways to avoid cracking were discussed. - Highlights: The HAZ liquation crack during resistance spot welding of TWIP steel was examined. Cracks were completely backfilled and healed with divorced eutectic secondary phase. Co-segregation of C and Mn was detected in the cracked zone. Heat input was the most influencing factor to initiate liquation crack. Cracks have less/no significant effect on static tensile properties.

  15. SU-D-BRE-03: Dosimetric Impact of In-Air Spot Size Variations for Commissioning a Room-Matched Beam Model for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Perles, L; Lepage, R; Dong, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the two treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was ?0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data with Replicated Spots: A Case Study withSynechococcusWH8102

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, E. V.; Phillippy, K. H.; Brahamsha, B.; Haaland, D. M.; Timlin, J. A.; Elbourne, L. D. H.; Palenik, B.; Paulsen, I. T.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently microarray experiments often involved relatively few arrays with only a single representation of each gene on each array. A complete genome microarray with multiple spots per gene (spread out spatially across the array) was developed in order to compare the gene expression of a marine cyanobacterium and a knockout mutant strain in a defined artificial seawater medium. Statistical methods were developed for analysis in the special situation of this case study where there is gene replication within an array and where relatively few arrays are used, which can be the case with current array technology. Due in partmoreto the replication within an array, it was possible to detect very small changes in the levels of expression between the wild type and mutant strains. One interesting biological outcome of this experiment is the indication of the extent to which the phosphorus regulatory system of this cyanobacterium affects the expression of multiple genes beyond those strictly involved in phosphorus acquisition.less

  17. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MEASUREMENTS AT A PM2.5 HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Miller, Terry L.; Storey, John Morse; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a 5-month long air monitoring study at the Watt Road interchange on I-40 in Knoxville Tennessee where there are 20,000 heavy-duty trucks per day traveling the interstate. In addition, there are 3 large truck stops at this interchange where as many as 400 trucks idle engines at night. As a result, high levels of PM2.5 were measured near the interchange often exceeding National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This paper presents the results of the air monitoring study illustrating the hourly, day-of-week, and seasonal patterns of PM2.5 resulting from diesel truck emissions on the interstate and at the truck stops. Surprisingly, most of the PM2.5 concentrations occurred during the night when the largest contribution of emissions was from idling trucks rather than trucks on the interstate. A nearby background air monitoring site was used to identify the contribution of regional PM2.5 emissions which also contribute significantly to the concentrations measured at the site. The relative contributions of regional background, local truck idling and trucks on the interstate to local PM2.5 concentrations are presented and discussed in the paper. The results indicate the potential significance of diesel truck idling emissions to the occurrence of hot-spots of high PM2.5 concentrations near large truck stops, ports or border crossings.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data with Replicated Spots: A Case Study with Synechococcus WH8102

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, E. V.; Phillippy, K. H.; Brahamsha, B.; Haaland, D. M.; Timlin, J. A.; Elbourne, L. D. H.; Palenik, B.; Paulsen, I. T.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently microarray experiments often involved relatively few arrays with only a single representation of each gene on each array. A complete genome microarray with multiple spots per gene (spread out spatially across the array) was developed in order to compare the gene expression of a marine cyanobacterium and a knockout mutant strain in a defined artificial seawater medium. Statistical methods were developed for analysis in the special situation of this case study where there is gene replication within an array and where relatively few arrays are used, which can be the case with current array technology. Due in partmore » to the replication within an array, it was possible to detect very small changes in the levels of expression between the wild type and mutant strains. One interesting biological outcome of this experiment is the indication of the extent to which the phosphorus regulatory system of this cyanobacterium affects the expression of multiple genes beyond those strictly involved in phosphorus acquisition.« less

  19. Direct optical measurement of the on-shot incoherent focal spot and intensity contrast on the OMEGA EP laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dorrer, C.; Consentino, A.; Irwin, D.

    2016-05-18

    Characterizing the prepulse temporal contrast of optical pulses is required to understand their interaction with matter. Light with relatively low intensity can interact with the target before the main high-intensity pulse. Estimating the intensity contrast, instead of the spatially averaged power contrast, is important to understand intensity-dependent laser–matter interactions. A direct optical approach to determining the on-shot intensity of the incoherent pedestal on an aberrated high-intensity laser system is presented. The spatially resolved focal spot of the incoherent pedestal preceding the main coherent pulse and the intensity contrast are calculated using experimental data. Furthermore, this technique is experimentally validated onmore » one of the chirped pulse amplification beamlines of the OMEGA EP Laser System. The intensity contrast of a 1-kJ, 10-ps laser pulse is shown to be ~10× higher than the power contrast because of the larger spatial extent of the incoherent focal spot relative to the coherent focal spot.« less

  20. The net utility revenue impact of small power producing facilities operating under spot pricing policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacGregor, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The National Energy Act, in general, and Section 210 of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 in particular, have dramatically stimulated increasing levels of independent non-utility power generation. As these levels of independent non-utility power generation increase, the electric utility is subjected to new and significant operational and financial impacts. One important concern is the net revenue impact on the utility which is the focus of the research discussed in this thesis and which is inextricably intertwined with the operational functions of the utility system. In general, non-utility generation, and specifically, cogeneration, impact utility revenues by affecting the structure and magnitude of the system load, the scheduling of utility generation, and the reliability of the composite system. These effects are examined by developing a comprehensive model non-utility independent power producing facilities, referenced as Small Power Producing Facilities, a cash-flow-based corporate model of the electric utility, a thermal plant based generation scheduling algorithm, and a system reliability evaluation. All of these components are integrated into an iterative closed loop solution algorithm to both assess and enhance the net revenue. In this solution algorithm, the spot pricing policy of the utility is the principal control mechanism in the process and the system reliability is the primary procedural constraint. A key issue in reducing the negative financial impact of non-utility generation is the possibility of shutting down utility generation units given sufficient magnitudes of non-utility generation in the system. A case study simulating the financial and system operations of the Georgia Power Company with representative cogeneration capacity and individual plant characteristics is analyzed in order to demonstrate the solution process.

  1. SU-E-T-552: Minimum Monitor Unit Effects On Plan Quality for Multi-Field Optimized Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, M; Beltran, C; Herman, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Methods: Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5-10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1-20 cm. Three field intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000-0.0060; and spot spacing range of 0.5-2.0σ of the nominal spot size at isocenter in water (σ=4mm in this work). Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. Results: The increase of the min-MU with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 1σ. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 2σ, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Conclusion: Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤ 1σ of the spot size in water, plan quality decreases as min- MU increases greater than 0.0020. The effect of min-MU should be taken into consideration while planning spot scanning proton therapy treatments to realize its full potential.

  2. ARM - PI Product - CCRS Landcover Maps From Satellite Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsCCRS Landcover Maps From Satellite Data ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : CCRS Landcover Maps From Satellite Data The Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) presents several landcover maps over the SGP CART site area (32-40N, 92-102W) derived from satellite data including AVHRR, MODIS, SPOT vegetation data, and Landsat satellite TM imagery

  3. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  4. Temperature and Material Flow Prediction in Friction-Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Karki, U.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Friction-stir spot welding (FSSW) has been shown to be capable of joining advanced high-strength steel, with its flexibility in controlling the heat of welding and the resulting microstructure of the joint. This makes FSSW a potential alternative to resistance spot welding if tool life is sufficiently high, and if machine spindle loads are sufficiently low that the process can be implemented on an industrial robot. Robots for spot welding can typically sustain vertical loads of about 8 kN, but FSSW at tool speeds of less than 3000 rpm cause loads that are too high, in the range of 1114 kN. Therefore, in the current work, tool speeds of 5000 rpm were employed to generate heat more quickly and to reduce welding loads to acceptable levels. Si3N4 tools were used for the welding experiments on 1.2-mm DP 980 steel. The FSSW process was modeled with a finite element approach using the Forge* software. An updated Lagrangian scheme with explicit time integration was employed to predict the flow of the sheet material, subjected to boundary conditions of a rotating tool and a fixed backing plate. Material flow was calculated from a velocity field that is two-dimensional, but heat generated by friction was computed by a novel approach, where the rotational velocity component imparted to the sheet by the tool surface was included in the thermal boundary conditions. An isotropic, viscoplastic Norton-Hoff law was used to compute the material flow stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. The model predicted welding temperatures to within percent, and the position of the joint interface to within 10 percent, of the experimental results.

  5. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean ismore » the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.« less

  6. Magnetostatic focal spot correction for x-ray tubes operating in strong magnetic fields using iterative optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Conolly, Steven M.; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Combining x-ray fluoroscopy and MR imaging systems for guidance of interventional procedures has become more commonplace. By designing an x-ray tube that is immune to the magnetic fields outside of the MR bore, the two systems can be placed in close proximity to each other. A major obstacle to robust x-ray tube design is correcting for the effects of the magnetic fields on the x-ray tube focal spot. A potential solution is to design active shielding that locally cancels the magnetic fields near the focal spot. Methods: An iterative optimization algorithm is implemented to design resistive active shielding coils that will be placed outside the x-ray tube insert. The optimization procedure attempts to minimize the power consumption of the shielding coils while satisfying magnetic field homogeneity constraints. The algorithm is composed of a linear programming step and a nonlinear programming step that are interleaved with each other. The coil results are verified using a finite element space charge simulation of the electron beam inside the x-ray tube. To alleviate heating concerns an optimized coil solution is derived that includes a neodymium permanent magnet. Any demagnetization of the permanent magnet is calculated prior to solving for the optimized coils. The temperature dynamics of the coil solutions are calculated using a lumped parameter model, which is used to estimate operation times of the coils before temperature failure. Results: For a magnetic field strength of 88 mT, the algorithm solves for coils that consume 588 A/cm{sup 2}. This specific coil geometry can operate for 15 min continuously before reaching temperature failure. By including a neodymium magnet in the design the current density drops to 337 A/cm{sup 2}, which increases the operation time to 59 min. Space charge simulations verify that the coil designs are effective, but for oblique x-ray tube geometries there is still distortion of the focal spot shape along with deflections of

  7. Oxygen chemisorption on Cu(19 19 1) studied by spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2007-12-15

    Cu(110) and the vicinal Cu(19 19 1) surfaces were characterized by recording maps of the reciprocal space by means of spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). For both surfaces, kinematic simulations were performed to get insight into the main features of the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that chemisorption of oxygen and subsequent annealing lead to the formation of a Cu-CuO stripe phase and induce faceting of the Cu(19 19 1) surface. The evolution from the clean Cu(19 19 1) surface to the coexistence of the (110) and (111) facets with increasing oxygen exposure was characterized by SPA-LEED.

  8. Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Malignancies of the Base of Skull: Treatment Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosshans, David R.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Melancon, Adam; Allen, Pamela K.; Poenisch, Falk; Palmer, Matthew; McAleer, Mary Frances; McGovern, Susan L.; Gillin, Michael; DeMonte, Franco; Chang, Eric L.; Brown, Paul D.; Mahajan, Anita

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To describe treatment planning techniques and early clinical outcomes in patients treated with spot scanning proton therapy for chordoma or chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 through August 2011, 15 patients were treated with spot scanning proton therapy for chordoma (n=10) or chondrosarcoma (n=5) at a single institution. Toxicity was prospectively evaluated and scored weekly and at all follow-up visits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Treatment planning techniques and dosimetric data were recorded and compared with those of passive scattering plans created with clinically applicable dose constraints. Results: Ten patients were treated with single-field-optimized scanning beam plans and 5 with multifield-optimized intensity modulated proton therapy. All but 2 patients received a simultaneous integrated boost as well. The mean prescribed radiation doses were 69.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]; range, 68-70 Gy [RBE]) for chordoma and 68.4 Gy (RBE) (range, 66-70) for chondrosarcoma. In comparison with passive scattering plans, spot scanning plans demonstrated improved high-dose conformality and sparing of temporal lobes and brainstem. Clinically, the most common acute toxicities included fatigue (grade 2 for 2 patients, grade 1 for 8 patients) and nausea (grade 2 for 2 patients, grade 1 for 6 patients). No toxicities of grades 3 to 5 were recorded. At a median follow-up time of 27 months (range, 13-42 months), 1 patient had experienced local recurrence and a second developed distant metastatic disease. Two patients had magnetic resonance imaging-documented temporal lobe changes, and a third patient developed facial numbness. No other subacute or late effects were recorded. Conclusions: In comparison to passive scattering, treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy displayed improved high-dose conformality. Clinically, the treatment was well tolerated, and

  9. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Y/ER-301) was prepared (1) to safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate the environmental impact of solid material in the two debris areas in the context of industrial land uses (as defined in the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study) to support the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Assessment and (2) to evaluate, define, and implement the actions to mitigate these impacts. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.x.01.20.01.08.

  10. Signal processing Model/Method for Recovering Acoustic Reflectivity of Spot Weld

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-08

    Until recently, U.S. auto manufacturers have inspected the veracity of welds in the auto bodies they build by using destructive tear-down, which typically results in more than $1 M of scrappage per plant per year. Much of this expense could possibly be avoided with a nondestructive technique (and 100% instead of 1% inspection could be achieved). Recent advances in ultrasound probes promise to provide a sufficiently accurate non-destructive evaluation technique, but the necessary signal processingmore » has not yet been developed. This disclosure describes a signal processing model and method useful for diagnosing the veracity of spot welds between two sheets of the same thickness from ultrasound signals Standard systems theory describes a signal as a convolution of a transducer function, h(t), and an impulse train (beta(t), tau(t)) [1] (see Eq. (1) attached). With a Gaussian wavelet as a transducer function, this model describes the signal from an ultrasound probe quite well, and the literature provides many methods for "deconvolution," for recovery of the impulse train from the signal [see e.g., 2-3]. What is novel about the technique disclosed is the model that describes the impulse train as a function of reflectivity, the share of energy incident on the interface that is reflected, and that allows the recovery of its estimated value. The reflectivity estimate provides an ideal indicator of weld veracity, compressing each signal into a single value between 0 and 1, which can then be displayed as a 2d greyscale or colormap of the weld. The model describing the system is attached as Eqs. (2). These equations account for the energy in the probe-side and opposite sheets. In each period, this energy is a sum of that reflected from the same sheet plus that transmitted from the opposite (dampened by material attenuation at rate a). This model is consistent with physical first principles (in particular the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics) and has been verified

  11. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes Products Isotopes Products Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole stress-inducible lateral wall and apical ischemia. (http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/image/machac/machaci.htm#f2,3,4) Strontium-82 is supplied to our customers for use in Sr-82/Rb-82 generator technologies. The generators in turn are supplied to

  12. Forest Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Purchased energy remains the third largest manufacturing cost for the forest products industry–despite its extensive use of highly efficient co-generation technology. The industry has worked with...

  13. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  14. TH-C-18A-10: The Influence of Tube Current On X-Ray Focal Spot Size for 70 KV CT Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, X; Grimes, J; Yu, L; Leng, S; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Focal spot blooming is an increase in the focal spot size at increased tube current and/or decreased tube potential. In this work, we evaluated the influence of tube current on the focal spot size at low kV for two CT systems, one of which used a tube designed to reduce blooming effects. Methods: A slit camera (10 micron slit) was used to measure focal spot size on two CT scanners from the same manufacturer (Siemens Somatom Force and Definition Flash) at 70 kV and low, medium and maximum tube currents, according to the capabilities of each system (Force: 100, 800 and 1300 mA; Flash: 100, 200 and 500 mA). Exposures were made with a stationary tube in service mode using a raised stand without table movement or flying focal spot technique. Focal spot size, nominally 0.8 and 1.2 mm, respectively, was measured parallel and perpendicular to the cathode-anode axis by calculating the full-width-at-half-maximum of the slit profile recording using computed radiographic plates. Results: Focal spot sizes perpendicular to the anode-cathode axis increased at the maximum mA by 5.7% on the Force and 39.1% on the Flash relative to that at the minimal mA, even though the mA was increased 13-fold on the Force and only 5- fold on the Flash. Focal spot size increased parallel to the anode-cathode axis by 70.4% on Force and 40.9% on Flash. Conclusion: For CT protocols using low kV, high mA is typically required. These protocols are relevant in children and smaller adults, and for dual-energy scanning. Technical measures to limit focal spot blooming are important in these settings to avoid reduced spatial resolution. The x-ray tube on a recently-introduced scanner appears to greatly reduce blooming effects, even at very high mA values. CHM has research support from Siemens Healthcare.

  15. Effects of Fusion Zone Size on Failure Modes and Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds (2006-01-0531)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using the limit load based analytical model and the micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that the conventional weld size of 4 t1/2 can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials. The results also suggest that performance based spot weld acceptance criteria should be developed for different AHSS spot welds.

  16. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  17. Demonstration of fuel hot-spot pressure in excess of 50 Gbar for direct-drive, layered deuterium-tritium implosions on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Cao, D.; et al

    2016-07-07

    A record fuel hot-spot pressure Phs = 56±7 Gbar was inferred from x-ray and nuclear diagnostics for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion cryogenic, layered deuterium–tritium implosions on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA Laser System. When hydrodynamically scaled to the energy of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), these implosions achieved a Lawson parameter ~60% of the value required for ignition [A. Bose et al., Phys. Rev. E (in press)], similar to indirect-drive implosions [R. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 255003 (2015)], and nearly half of the direct-drive ignition-threshold pressure. Relative to symmetric, one-dimensional simulations, the inferred hot-spot pressure is ~40%more » lower. Furthermore, three-dimensional simulations suggest that low-mode distortion of the hot spot seeded by laser-drive nonuniformity and target-positioning error reduces target performance.« less

  18. SU-E-T-133: Dosimetric Impact of Scan Orientation Relative to Target Motion During Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoker, J; Summers, P; Li, X; Gomez, D; Sahoo, N; Zhu, X; Gillin, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to evaluate the dosimetric effects of intra-fraction motion during spot scanning proton beam therapy as a function of beam-scan orientation and target motion amplitude. Method: Multiple 4DCT scans were collected of a dynamic anthropomorphic phantom mimicking respiration amplitudes of 0 (static), 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm. A spot-scanning treatment plan was developed on the maximum intensity projection image set, using an inverse-planning approach. Dynamic phantom motion was continuous throughout treatment plan delivery.The target nodule was designed to accommodate film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Film and TLDs were uniquely labeled by location within the target. The phantom was localized on the treatment table using the clinically available orthogonal kV on-board imaging device. Film inserts provided data for dose uniformity; TLDs provided a 3% precision estimate of absolute dose. An inhouse script was developed to modify the delivery order of the beam spots, to orient the scanning direction parallel or perpendicular to target motion.TLD detector characterization and analysis was performed by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core group (IROC)-Houston. Film inserts, exhibiting a spatial resolution of 1mm, were analyzed to determine dose homogeneity within the radiation target. Results: Parallel scanning and target motions exhibited reduced target dose heterogeneity, relative to perpendicular scanning orientation. The average percent deviation in absolute dose for the motion deliveries relative to the static delivery was 4.9±1.1% for parallel scanning, and 11.7±3.5% (p<<0.05) for perpendicularly oriented scanning. Individual delivery dose deviations were not necessarily correlated to amplitude of motion for either scan orientation. Conclusions: Results demonstrate a quantifiable difference in dose heterogeneity as a function of scan orientation, more so than target amplitude. Comparison to the analyzed planar dose of a single

  19. Operational Experiences Tuning the ATF2 Final Focus Optics Towards Obtaining a 37nm Electron Beam IP Spot Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Glen; Seryi, Andrei; Woodley, Mark; Bai, Sha; Bambade, Philip; Renier, Yves; Bolzon, Benoit; Kamiya, Yoshio; Komamiya, Sachio; Oroku, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Marin, Eduardo; /CERN

    2012-07-06

    The primary aim of the ATF2 research accelerator is to test a scaled version of the final focus optics planned for use in next-generation linear lepton colliders. ATF2 consists of a 1.3 GeV linac, damping ring providing low-emittance electron beams (< 12pm in the vertical plane), extraction line and final focus optics. The design details of the final focus optics and implementation at ATF2 are presented elsewhere. The ATF2 accelerator is currently being commissioned, with a staged approach to achieving the design IP spot size. It is expected that as we implement more demanding optics and reduce the vertical beta function at the IP, the tuning becomes more difficult and takes longer. We present here a description of the implementation of the tuning procedures and describe operational experiences and performances.

  20. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-23

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot “mix” may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields — not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or “grains” of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation, and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. Finally, we describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulationsmore » and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.« less

  1. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  2. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources. Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal, can be converted to produce hydrogen, and the use of carbon capture, utilization, and storage can reduce the carbon footprint of these processes. Hydrogen can also be produced from low carbon and renewable resources, including biomass grown from non-food crops and splitting water using electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric. This diversity of potential

  3. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  4. Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  5. Product separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  6. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  7. SU-D-304-05: Validation of Low-Dose-Tail Modeling for Proton Pencil Beam Spot Scanning Using a Quality Assurance Test Pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, L; Huang, S; Kang, M; Solberg, T; McDonough, J; Ainsley, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive test pattern in validating calculation models of the low-dose tails of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) spots. Such a pattern has been used previously for quality assurance purposes to assess spot shape and location, and for determining monitor units. Methods: In this study, a scintillation detector was used to measure the test pattern in air at isocenter for two proton beam energies (115 and 225 MeV) of two IBA universal nozzles (UN). Planar measurements were compared with calculated dose distribution based on the weighted superposition of spot profiles previously measured using a pair-magnification method. Results: Including the halo component below 1% of the central dose is shown to improve the gamma-map comparison between calculation and measurement from 94.9% to 98.4% using 2 mm/2% criteria for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #1. In contrast, including the halo component below 1% of the central dose does not improve the gamma agreement for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #2, due to the cutoff of the halo component at off-axis locations. When location-dependent spot profiles are used for calculation instead of spot profiles at central axis, the gamma agreement is improved from 98.0% to 99.5% using 2 mm/2% criteria. The cutoff of the halo component is smaller at higher energies, and is not observable for the 225 MeV proton beam for UN #2. Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of a comprehensive test pattern can facilitate the validation of the halo component of proton PBS spots at off axis locations. The cutoff of the halo component should be taken into consideration for large fields or PBS systems that intend to trim spot profiles using apertures. This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-07-2-0121 and W81XWH-09-2-0174.

  8. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  9. Development of Appropriate Spot Welding Practice for Advanced High Strength Steels (TRP 0114)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Girvin; Warren Peterson; Jerry Gould

    2004-09-17

    This program evaluated the effects of common manufacturing variables on spike-tempering effectiveness. The investigation used design-of-experiment (DOE) techniques, and examined both dual-phase and martensitic grades of high-strength steels (HSS). The specific grades chosen for this project were: Dual-phase (DP) 600, galvannealed (GA), 1.55 mm (DP) 600; Dual-phase (DP) 980 (uncoated), 1.55 mm (DP) 980; and Martensitic (M) 1300, 1.55 mm (M) 1300. Common manufacturing conditions of interest included tempering practice (quench and temper time), button size, simulated part fitup (sheet angular misalignment and fitup), and electrode wear (increased electrode face diameter). All of these conditions were evaluated against mechanical performance (static and dynamic tensile shear). Weld hardness data was also used to examine correlations between mechanical performance and the degree of tempering. Mechanical performance data was used to develop empirical models. The models were used to examine the robustness of weld strength and toughness to the selected processing conditions. This was done using standard EWI techniques. Graphical representations of robustness were then coupled with metallographic data to relate mechanical properties to the effectiveness of spike tempering. Mechanical properties for all three materials were relatively robust to variation in tempering. Major deviations in mechanical properties were caused by degradation of the weld itself. This was supported by a lack of correlation between hardness data and mechanical results. Small button sizes and large electrode face diameters (worn electrodes) produced large reductions in both static and dynamic strength levels when compared to standard production setups. Dynamic strength was further degraded by edge-located welds.

  10. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  11. SU-D-BRE-02: Development and Commissioning of A Gated Spot Scanning Proton Beam Therapy System with Real-Time Tumor-Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umegaki, K; Matsuura, T.; Takao, S.; Nihongi, H.; Yamada, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Shimizu, S.; Shirato, H.; Matsuda, K.; Nakamura, F.; Umezawa, M.; Hiramoto, K.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel Proton Beam Therapy system has been developed by integrating Real-Time Tumor-Tracking (RTRT) and discrete spot scanning techniques. The system dedicated for spot scanning delivers significant advantages for both clinical and economical points of view. The system has the ability to control dose distribution with spot scanning beams and to gate the beams from the synchrotron to irradiate moving tumors only when the actual positions of them are within the planned position. Methods: The newly designed system consists of a synchrotron, beam transport systems, a compact and rotating gantry system with robotic couch and two orthogonal sets of X-ray fluoroscopes. The fully compact design of the system has been realized by reducing the maximum energy of the beam to 220MeV, corresponding to 30g/cm2 range and the number of circulating protons per synchrotron operation cycle, due to higher beam utilization efficiency in spot scanning. To improve the irradiation efficiency in the integration of RTRT and spot scanning, a new control system has been developed to enable multiple gated irradiation per operation cycle according to the gating signals. After the completion of the equipment installation, beam tests and commissioning has been successfully performed. Results: The basic performances and beam characteristics through the synchrotron accelerator to iso-center have been confirmed and the performance test of the irradiation nozzle and whole system has been appropriately completed. CBCT image has been checked and sufficient quality was obtained. RTRT system has been demonstrated and realized accurate dose distributions for moving targets. Conclusion: The gated spot scanning Proton Beam Therapy system with Real-Time Tumor-Tracking has been developed, successfully installed and tested. The new system enables us to deliver higher dose to the moving target tumors while sparing surrounding normal tissues and to realize the compact design of the system and facility

  12. Plasmon Mapping in Metallic Nanostructures and its Application to Single Molecule Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: Imaging Electromagnetic Hot-Spots and Analyte Location

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camden, Jon P

    2013-07-16

    A major component of this proposal is to elucidate the connection between optical and electron excitation of plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures. These accomplishments are reported: developed a routine protocol for obtaining spatially resolved, low energy EELS spectra, and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra from the same nanostructures.; correlated optical scattering spectra and plasmon maps obtained using STEM/EELS.; and imaged electromagnetic hot spots responsible for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SMSERS).

  13. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production capacity and production million gallons Period Annual Production ... B100 is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  14. Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousef, Adel K. M.; Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A.

    2011-01-17

    This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

  15. Development and Clinical Implementation of a Universal Bolus to Maintain Spot Size During Delivery of Base of Skull Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Both, Stefan; Shen, Jiajian; Kirk, Maura; Lin, Liyong; Tang, Shikui; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lustig, Robert; Lin, Haibo; Deville, Curtiland; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Tochner, Zelig; McDonough, James

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To report on a universal bolus (UB) designed to replace the range shifter (RS); the UB allows the treatment of shallow tumors while keeping the pencil beam scanning (PBS) spot size small. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with brain cancers treated from 2010 to 2011 were planned using the PBS technique with bolus and the RS. In-air spot sizes of the pencil beam were measured and compared for 4 conditions (open field, with RS, and with UB at 2- and 8-cm air gap) in isocentric geometry. The UB was applied in our clinic to treat brain tumors, and the plans with UB were compared with the plans with RS. Results: A UB of 5.5 cm water equivalent thickness was found to meet the needs of the majority of patients. By using the UB, the PBS spot sizes are similar with the open beam (P>.1). The heterogeneity index was found to be approximately 10% lower for the UB plans than for the RS plans. The coverage for plans with UB is more conformal than for plans with RS; the largest increase in sparing is usually for peripheral organs at risk. Conclusions: The integrity of the physical properties of the PBS beam can be maintained using a UB that allows for highly conformal PBS treatment design, even in a simple geometry of the fixed beam line when noncoplanar beams are used.

  16. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K., E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ?0.5 baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ?2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ?2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ?3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ?2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a larger patient

  17. Spot-Hadoop

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Set of scripts (Python and Bash) to help users configure, run, and benchmark Hadoop clusters on ORNL computing infrastructure.

  18. ARM - VAP Product - armbestns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Products : ARMBESTNS Measurements The measurements below provided by this product are those considered scientifically relevant. Atmospheric moisture Atmospheric...

  19. ANNUAL TRILATERAL U.S. - EU - JAPAN CONFERENCE ON CRITICAL MATERIALS...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 4, 2014 LAB COMMISSION MEETING MINUTES Microsoft Word - USJapanREEagendaver7.doc Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a ...

  20. Dallas County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation NatEl Panda Energy International Inc Shermco Industries Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  1. Kaufman County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Meridian Biorefining Corporation Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  2. Denton County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions NatEl Panda Energy International Inc Power Generating Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Sunluz Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic...

  3. Collin County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation NCRC Energy Solutions Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  4. Dallas, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Meridian Biorefining Corporation Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  5. Rockwall County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Meridian Biorefining Corporation Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  6. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  7. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  8. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean is the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.

  9. Method based on atomic photoionization for spot-size measurement on focused soft x-ray free-electron laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Schoeppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.; Bobashev, S. V.; Domracheva, I. V.; Smirnov, D. N.; Tiedtke, K.; Duesterer, S.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Kuhlmann, M.; Nunez, T.; Ploenjes, E.; Treusch, R.

    2006-11-27

    A method has been developed and applied to measure the beam waist and spot size of a focused soft x-ray beam at the free-electron laser FLASH of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg. The method is based on a saturation effect upon atomic photoionization and represents an indestructible tool for the characterization of powerful beams of ionizing electromagnetic radiation. At the microfocus beamline BL2 at FLASH, a full width at half maximum focus diameter of (15{+-}2) {mu}m was determined.

  10. Grid-based Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid-based Production Grid-based Production PDSF is a Tier 2 site for ALICE and as such has the infrastructure in place to run automated grid-based ALICE production jobs. The main...

  11. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, R.; Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J.; Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P.; Short, S. C.; Loughrey, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  12. J/ψ Production

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA (Dated: October 30, 2006) We study J production at RHIC and LHC energies with both initial production and regener- ation. ...

  13. ,"Weekly Blender Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline (Thousand Barrels per Day)","Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline (Thousand Barrels per ...

  14. Production | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research & Development Algal Biofuels Production Production PNNL image Algae ... growth rate and high oil content, that make algae attractive to convert into biofuels. ...

  15. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel (B100) production by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  16. Use of Aria to simulate laser weld pool dynamics for neutron generator production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, David R.; Notz, Patrick K.; Martinez, Mario J.; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-09-01

    This report documents the results for the FY07 ASC Integrated Codes Level 2 Milestone number 2354. The description for this milestone is, 'Demonstrate level set free surface tracking capabilities in ARIA to simulate the dynamics of the formation and time evolution of a weld pool in laser welding applications for neutron generator production'. The specialized boundary conditions and material properties for the laser welding application were implemented and verified by comparison with existing, two-dimensional applications. Analyses of stationary spot welds and traveling line welds were performed and the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3D) level set algorithm is assessed by comparison with 3D moving mesh calculations.

  17. Transmission Losses Product (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov Pricing for Transmission Losses Product Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Power Services offers to sell transmission...

  18. Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of high power ultrasonic spot welded aluminum alloy AA6111–TiAl6V4 dissimilar joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, C.Q. Robson, J.D.; Ciuca, O.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2014-11-15

    Aluminum alloy AA6111 and TiAl6V4 dissimilar alloys were successfully welded by high power ultrasonic spot welding. No visible intermetallic reaction layer was detected in as-welded AA6111/TiAl6V4 welds, even when transmission electron microscopy was used. The effects of welding time and natural aging on peak load and fracture energy were investigated. The peak load and fracture energy of welds increased with an increase in welding time and then reached a plateau. The lap shear strength (peak load) can reach the same level as that of similar Al–Al joints. After natural aging, the fracture mode of welds transferred from ductile fracture of the softened aluminum to interfacial failure due to the strength recovery of AA6111. - Highlights: • Dissimilar Al/Ti welds were produced by high power ultrasonic spot welding. • No visible intermetallic reaction layer was detected on weld interface. • The lap shear strength can reach the same level as that of similar Al–Al joints. • The fracture mode becomes interfacial failure after natural aging.

  19. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  20. Energy Efficiency Product Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey Energy Efficiency Product Standards, enacted in 2005, include minimum standards for eight products, which were preempted by the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. Future standards, if...

  1. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks million gallons Period B100 production Sales of B100 Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends Ending stocks of B100 B100 stock change ...

  2. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production million pounds Period Canola oil Corn oil Cottonseed ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  3. Vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amirov, R. Kh. Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Lizyakin, G. D.; Polishchuk, V. P.; Samoilov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.

    2015-10-15

    Results from experimental studies of a vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot on the heated cathode are presented. Such an arc can be used as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The experiments were performed with a gadolinium cathode, the properties of which are similar to those of an uranium arc cathode. The heat flux from the plasma to the cathode (and its volt equivalent) at discharge voltages of 4-15 V and discharge currents of 44-81 A, the radial distribution of the emission intensity of gadolinium atoms and singly charged ions in the arc channel at a voltage of 4.3 V, and the plasma electron temperature behind the anode were measured. The average charge of plasma ions at arc voltages of 3.5-8 V and a discharge current of 52 A and the average rate of gadolinium evaporation in the discharge were also determined.

  4. MECS 2006- Forest Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Forest Products (NAICS 321, 322) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  5. APEX user`s guide - (Argonne production, expansion, and exchange model for electrical systems), version 3.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Veselka, T.D.; Guziel, K.A.; Blodgett, D.W.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Koritarov, V.S.; North, M.J.; Novickas, A.A.; Paprockas, K.R.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes operating procedures and background documentation for the Argonne Production, Expansion, and Exchange Model for Electrical Systems (APEX). This modeling system was developed to provide the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Energy, Office of Coal and Electricity with in-house capabilities for addressing policy options that affect electrical utilities. To meet this objective, Argonne National Laboratory developed a menu-driven programming package that enables the user to develop and conduct simulations of production costs, system reliability, spot market network flows, and optimal system capacity expansion. The APEX system consists of three basic simulation components, supported by various databases and data management software. The components include (1) the investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems (ICARUS) model, (2) the Spot Market Network (SMN) model, and (3) the Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model. The ICARUS model provides generating-unit-level production-cost and reliability simulations with explicit recognition of planned and unplanned outages. The SMN model addresses optimal network flows with recognition of marginal costs, wheeling charges, and transmission constraints. The PACE model determines long-term (e.g., longer than 10 years) capacity expansion schedules on the basis of candidate expansion technologies and load growth estimates. In addition, the Automated Data Assembly Package (ADAP) and case management features simplify user-input requirements. The ADAP, ICARUS, and SMN modules are described in detail. The PACE module is expected to be addressed in a future publication.

  6. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  7. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  8. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  9. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  10. Microbial production of epoxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2003-06-10

    A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

  11. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  12. Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum > Petroleum Survey Forms> Petroleum Survey Forms Tutorial Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe ...

  13. Forest Products Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wood and paper products meet the everyday needs of consumers and businesses. They provide materials essential for communication, education, packaging, construction, shelter, sanitation, and protection.

  14. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  15. Forest Products (2010 MECS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321, 322) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

  16. Weekly Ethanol Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Area: U.S. Lower 48 (Crude Oil Production) PADD 1 New England Central Atlantic Lower Atlantic PADD 2 Cushing, Oklahoma (Crude Oil Stocks) PADD 3 PADD 4 PADD 5 Alaska (Crude Oil Production) PADD's 4 & 5 Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/22/16 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 View History Crude Oil Production Domestic Production 8,515 8,460

  17. Shale Gas Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012...

  18. Procurable Products, Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    printed wiring boards (PWB) using performance and design specifications. Commercial products and services procurement The following items are purchased through Just-In-Time...

  19. Product Efficiency Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    granting an Application for Exception filed by Technical Consumer Products, Inc. (TCP) for relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program:...

  20. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  1. probabilistic energy production forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy production forecasts - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary ...

  2. Pion Production Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pion Production Data Release This page gives the updated results for three different MINERvA Publications: Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino induced pion production on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region using MINERvA hep-ex/1606.07127 and Single neutral pion production by charged current antinu interactions on plastic scintillator at Enu ∼ 4 GeV hep-ex/1503.02107 and Charged Pion Production from CH in a Neutrino Beam hep-ex/1406.6415 Data Ancillary files for this result are available

  3. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  4. Sunforce Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Product: Manufacturer and distributor of solar and wind power generation and battery charging products. References: Sunforce Products1 This article is a stub. You can...

  5. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  6. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Development Drilling","Mine Production of Uranium ","Uranium Concentrate Production ","Uranium Concentrate Shipments ","Employment " "Year","Drilling (million feet)"," ...

  7. sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 laser-probe dating by step heating and spot fusion of phengites from the Dora Maira nappe of the western Alps, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaillet, S.; Feraud, G. ); Lagabrielle, Y. ); Ballevre, M.; Ruffet, G. )

    1990-08-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar laser-probe dating of phengitic micas has been carried out by step-heating and spot-fusion procedures. These micas represent successive deformation stages in the structural evolution of the internal Dora Maira nappe, western Alps. Single phengites from a gneiss affected by a single ductile strain under retrogressive conditions (sample 99.1) display complete isotopic resetting with nearly homogeneous intracrystalline Ar distribution and yield plateau ages of about 40 Ma. Small clusters of phengites from an earlier foliation were selected from a polydeformed mica schist (sample PTX3). They show a partial isotopic resetting in response to overprinting during the retrogressive deformation stage with a concentric age zoning from 68 Ma on the rim to 87 Ma in the core one cleavage plane. This zonation is fully consistent with the laser-derived discordant age spectrum, which ranges from 40 to 90 Ma from low to high temperatures. According to the deformation history of both samples, these preliminary data suggest a deformation control on Ar migration during recrystallization processes, and they are consistent with the timing of the collisional evolution previously reported for southern Dora Maira units. This study shows that the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar continuous laser-probe dating technique produces data accurate enough to discriminate several tectonometamorphic episodes recorded in single hand samples.

  8. Product Realization Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-06-12

    PRE provides a common framework for information flow and product information management based on Common Object Request Brokering Architecture (CORBA). More specific goals for PRE are using the technologies to improve business practices, to decrease product cycle time, and developing tools to rapidly access specialists (e.g. designers, engineers, scientists) expertise both as preserved knowledge and for real time collaboration. The PRE framework will utilize an object based approach (CORBA) to integrate product development with themore » enterprise by providing software integration for business, engineering, and manufacturing practices across organizational boundaries.« less

  9. Fundamentals of energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The theory, methods of conversion, and costs of various energy sources, transformations, and production techniques are summarized. Specific attention is given to carbon-based fuels in liquid, gaseous, and solid forms and processes for producing synthetic fuels. Additional details are presented for hydrogen and biomass technologies, as well as nuclear fuel-based electricity production. Renewable energy methods are dealt with in terms of the potentials and current applications of tidal generating stations, hydroelectric installations, solar thermal and electrical energy production, and the development of large wind turbines. Consideration is given to the environmental effects of individual energy technologies, along with associated costs and transportability of the energy produced.

  10. Simplified subsea production wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, H.R.

    1980-10-28

    A simplified subsea production wellhead which permits (1) pumpdown tool operations for routine well maintenance and (2) vertical entry to the wellbore for major workover operations. The wellhead can be lowered by the production pipeline to a wellhead site on the sea floor. The production wellhead includes a diverter spool for releasably attaching to a subsea well. Pumpdown tools can be used with the diverter spool. If vertical entry of the subsea well is required, the diverter spool can be released, raised and moved horizontally to one side of the subsea well, giving vertical entry. After workover operations, the diverter spool is again moved over the subsea well and reattached.

  11. Biomass Energy Production Incentive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2007 South Carolina enacted the Energy Freedom and Rural Development Act, which provides production incentives for certain biomass-energy facilities. Eligible systems earn $0.01 per kilowatt-h...

  12. Power production and ADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

    2010-03-01

    We describe the power production process in Accelerator Driven Sub-critical systems employing Thorium-232 and Uranium-238 as fuel and examine the demands on the power of the accelerator required.

  13. Bacterial Fermentative Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Melanie Mormile, Missouri University of Science and Technology, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  14. Forest products technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2006-07-18

    Report highlights DOE Industrial Technology Program co-funded R&D resulting in commercial energy-efficient technologies and emerging technologies helping the forest products industry save energy.

  15. Offshore Development and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas production in the federal offshore has increased substantially in recent years, gaining more than 400 billion cubic feet between 1993 and 1997 to a level of 5.14 trillion cubic feet.

  16. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  17. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  18. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Biodiesel Production Report With data for June 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 2016 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Monthly Biodiesel Production Report This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or

  19. Drilling Productivity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drilling Productivity Report Report Background and Methodological Overview August 2014 Updated March 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Drilling Productivity Report: Report Background and Methodological Overview i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data,

  20. LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS April 1, 2011 Mr. Daniel Cohen U.S. Department of Energy Assistant General Council for Legislation, Regulation and Energy Efficiency Office of the General Counsel 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: Regulatory Burden RFI Dear Mr. Cohen: Lennox Hearth Products (LHP) is hereby responding to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) request for information - published at 76 Fed. Reg. 6123 (February 3, 2011) - seeking comment and information to assist the DOE in

  1. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  2. MTBE Production Economics

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne

  3. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  4. Validation and Spatiotemporal Analysis of CERES Surface Net Radiation Product

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jia, Aolin; Jiang, Bo; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Ma, Han

    2016-01-23

    The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) generates one of the few global satellite radiation products. The CERES ARM Validation Experiment (CAVE) has been providing long-term in situ observations for the validation of the CERES products. However, the number of these sites is low and their distribution is globally sparse, and particularly the surface net radiation product has not been rigorously validated yet. Therefore, additional validation efforts are highly required to determine the accuracy of the CERES radiation products. In this study, global land surface measurements were comprehensively collected for use in the validation of the CERES netmore » radiation (Rn) product on a daily (340 sites) and a monthly (260 sites) basis, respectively. The validation results demonstrated that the CERES Rn product was, overall, highly accurate. The daily validations had a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of 3.43 W·m−2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 33.56 W·m−2, and R2 of 0.79, and the monthly validations had an MBE of 3.40 W·m−2, RMSE of 25.57 W·m−2, and R2 of 0.84. The accuracy was slightly lower for the high latitudes. Following the validation, the monthly CERES Rn product, from March 2000 to July 2014, was used for a further analysis. We analysed the global spatiotemporal variation of the Rn, which occurred during the measurement period. In addition, two hot spot regions, the southern Great Plains and south-central Africa, were then selected for use in determining the driving factors or attribution of the Rn variation. We determined that Rn over the southern Great Plains decreased by −0.33 W·m−2 per year, which was mainly driven by changes in surface green vegetation and precipitation. In south-central Africa, Rn decreased at a rate of −0.63 W·m−2 per year, the major driving factor of which was surface green vegetation.« less

  5. Technology's Impact on Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

    2009-06-30

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

  6. Regions for Select Spot Prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are used to represent the following regions: Region Gas Point Used Power Point Used New England Algonquin Citygate Massachusetts Hub (ISONE) New York City Transco Zone 6-NY...

  7. ARM - Datastreams - aosaeth1spot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black carbon concentration Equivalent black carbon concentration ngm3 equivalentblackcarbon ( time, wavelength ) North latitude degreeN lat East longitude degreeE lon...

  8. SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drive, import it to his computer and manually manipulate and reconstruct it. Because each image file was about 20 gigabytes, this process was very time-intensive. And while he was...

  9. "Period","Annual Production Capacity",,"Monthly B100 Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel production capacity and production" "million gallons" "Period","Annual ... is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  10. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-15 Production / Mining method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Underground (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Open Pit (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching (thousand pounds U3O8) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W W W W Other1 (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mine Production (thousand pounds U3O8)