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1

Fractional Snow-Cover Mapping Through Artificial Neural Network Analysis of MODIS Surface Reflectance.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are especially applicable to mapping snow-cover extent in forested areas where spatial mixing of surface components is nonlinear. This study developed an ANN approach to snow-fraction mapping. A feed-forward ANN was trained with backpropagation to estimate FSC...

Dobreva, Iliyana D.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

2

The Snowmelt and Heat Balance in Snow-covered Forested Areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The snowmelt and heat balance in snow-covered formed areas have been studied with the use of a canopy model. It was found that, in general, as the canopy density increased the snowmelt decreased. However, with conditions of high air temperature, ...

Takesh Yamazaki; Junsei Kondo

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Biogeochemisiry of Seasonally Snow-Covered Catchments (Proceedings of a Boulder Symposium July 1995). IAHSPubl. no. 228, 1995. 303  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogeochemisiry of Seasonally Snow-Covered Catchments (Proceedings of a Boulder Symposium July 1995 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA KENNETH E is predominantly through the lower soil horizons, due to such processes as microbial degradation of annual litter

4

Process-level controls on CO2 fluxes from a seasonally snow-covered subalpine meadow soil, Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA e-mail:of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA B.Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA G.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Winter and summer nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxides fluxes from a seasonally snow-covered subalpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA M. W.Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA D.Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA B. Hall

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Atmospheric Flow Development and Associated Changes in Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux over a Patchy Mountain Snow Cover  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study we numerically investigated the small-scale boundary layer dynamics and the energy balance over a fractional snow-cover. The atmospheric boundary layer flows over a patchy snow-cover were calculated with an atmospheric model (...

Rebecca Mott; Michael Lehning; Megan Daniels; Michael Lehning

7

Interpretation of snow properties from imaging spectrometry Jeff Dozier a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar radiation as an input value, most significantly in locations and at times where incident solar of the fractional snow-cover and albedo estimates to multispectral sensors, particularly MODIS, the Moderate's energy balance, because the reduced albedo often occurs in the spring and summer as the incoming solar

Dozier, Jeff

8

1.8.2001 31.12.2004 SOIL-FROST AND SNOW METAMORPHISM SIMULATIONS FOR THE BALTEX-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Thus, the timing and duration of seasonal snow-cover influence climate conditions, and air-quality assimilation, 4DVAR, water and energy fluxes, BALTEX 1. Summary Modules to consider soil-frost and snow that inclusion of soil-frost and snow processes improves the predictions. The soil-frost and snow modules have

Moelders, Nicole

9

Bats  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bats Bats Nature Bulletin No. 147 March 20, 1948 Forest Preserve District of Cook County William N. Erickson, President Roberts Mann, Supt of Conservation BATS Flying squirrels only glide. Bats are the only fur bearing animals that truly fly, and they've been doing it for at least 50 million years Twisting, looping and zig-zagging through the air, at dusk and dawn, they catch flying insects more skillfully than the swallow or the chimney swift. Each twist and turn means another insect caught, A bat can consume one-half its weight in insects in a single twilight. Harmful? No, We have one in Trailside Museum that likes to be handled and fed mealworms. They do not get in women's hair. They do not distribute our kind of bed bugs. They are not blind; even in daytime they see fairly well. But they can fly through timber or the narrow twisting passages of caves in total darkness because they have radar, Bats have large specialized ears, Their squeak is pitched so high that few people can hear it, As they fly they also make a supersonic squeak about 30 times per second and are guided by the echoes bouncing back from obstacles.

10

Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid 9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid September 20, 2013 - 12:30pm Addthis Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Energy Department photo. Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Energy Department photo. Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs More Top Things: This article is part of the Energy.gov series highlighting the "Top Things You Didn't Know About..." Be sure to check back for more entries soon. Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid This article is part of the Energy.gov series highlighting the "Top Things You Didn't Know About..." Be sure to check back for more entries

11

The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power November 20, 2013 - 3:52pm Addthis Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department Flickr page. Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department Flickr page. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Tesla vs. Edison Are you on #TeamTesla or #TeamEdison? Vote now on our website for your favorite inventor! Submit questions for Tesla and Edison experts to answer during our live Google+ Hangout on Thursday, Nov. 21, at 12:30 p.m. EST. Read our lists of top facts about Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla.

12

ARM - NSA Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AlaskaNSA Science AlaskaNSA Science NSA Related Links Facilities and Instruments Barrow Atqasuk ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts NSA Science Scientific objectives for the NSA/AAO site are provided below: Provide the comprehensive data sets necessary to develop and test continually improved algorithms for GCMs to describe radiative transfer and cloud processes at high latitudes; Specifically focus on development of algorithms to describe: radiative transfer within both the clear and cloudy atmosphere, especially at low temperatures; physical and optical behavior of water (ice) and land surfaces, both bare and snow-covered, especially during transitions from winter to summer and back; physical and optical behavior of ice and mixed phase clouds.

13

Recovery Act | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

September 24, 2013 September 24, 2013 Carbon fiber material produced at SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers in Moses Lake, Wash. (Photo courtesy of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers) Electric Car Featuring High-Tech Material Made in the USA Makes Its Debut One of the world's first electric vehicles built using ultra lightweight carbon fiber material manufactured in the U.S. was recently unveiled. September 20, 2013 Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Energy Department photo. Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid Ever wonder how electricity gets to your home? Test your knowledge with these top power grid facts. September 16, 2013 Cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through August 31, 2013 Graph of cumulative Federal Payments to OE Recovery Act Recipients, through

14

Clean Cities: Clean Cities National Parks Initiative  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

National Parks Initiative National Parks Initiative Submit a Project, National Park Service logo Clean Cities partners with the National Park Service (NPS) through the Clean Cities National Parks Initiative to support transportation projects that educate park visitors on the benefits of reducing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. This initiative complements the NPS Climate Friendly Parks program by demonstrating the environmental benefits of reducing petroleum use. Glacier Greater Yellowstone Area Rocky Mountain Denali National Mall and Memorial Park Mississippi River Sleeping Bear Dunes Yellowstone Grand Teton Mammoth Cave Zion Blue Ridge Parkway Great Smoky Mountains Shenandoah Acadia San Antonio Missions Grand Canyon Golden Gate Mesa Verde Project Locations - Photo of the snow-covered Teton Mountain range in Grand Teton National Park.

15

CDIAC Snow Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Snowfall and Snow Depth Snowfall and Snow Depth CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Snow Data Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record United States Historical Climatology Network M. Menne et al. Station data; daily snowfall and snow depth Varies by station; through 2010 Daily Snow Depth Measurements from 195 Stations in the United States (CDIAC NDP-059) D. Easterling et al. Station data; daily snow depth Varies by station; max. period is 1893-1992 Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Station data; 6- and 3-hourly state of any snowcover on ground; occurrance of snowfall in past and present weather observations Varies by station; through 2000 Two Long-Term Instrumental Climatic Data Bases of the People's Republic of China

16

OE Recovery Act Blog | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Recovery Recovery Act Blog OE Recovery Act Blog RSS September 20, 2013 Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Energy Department photo. Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid Ever wonder how electricity gets to your home? Test your knowledge with these top power grid facts. July 11, 2013 Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future Under the Recovery Act, the Energy Department awarded $3.5 billion in funds to the electricity industry, including OG&E, to help catalyze the adoption of smart grid tools, technologies and techniques such as demand response that are designed to increase the electric grid's flexibility, reliability, efficiency, affordability, and resiliency. Understanding lessons learned from these projects is vital.

17

Spatial distribution of the air temperature in mountainous areas using satellite thermal infra-red data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding the spatial distribution of air temperature in mountainous areas is essential in hydrological modelling. In the Moroccan High-Atlas range, the meteorological stations network is sparse. In order to get additional information, we investigated the thermal infrared data supplied by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM + ) sensor onboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The brightness temperature derived from ETM+ images is used as a proxy for air temperature to set up a model that describes its spatial distribution. This model accounts for sun location and topographic characteristics derived from the SRTM digital elevation model. It was evaluated on the Rheraya watershed, a 225-km2 region located within the semi-arid High-Atlas mountain range, using two different sources of data. The first data set consists in in-situ air temperature collected by meteorological stations installed during the experiment at various altitudes from 1400 to 3200 m. The second data set is satellite estimates of snow-covered areas (SCA) derived from MODIS images over the whole catchment at 500 m spatial resolution.

Abdelghani Boudhar; Benoît Duchemin; Lahoucine Hanich; Gilles Boulet; Abdelghani Chehbouni

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

Trishchenko, Alexander

19

Introduction to GlobSnow Snow Extent products with considerations for accuracy assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The European Space Agency's Data User Element (DUE) project GlobSnow was established to create a global database of Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent. The Snow Extent (SE) product portfolio provided within ESA DUE GlobSnow (2008–2014) is introduced and described, with a special focus on the Daily Fractional Snow Cover (DFSC) of the SE version 2.0 and its successor 2.1 released in 2013–2014. The fractional snow retrieval uses the \\{SCAmod\\} method designed ecpecially to enable accurate snow mapping including forests. The basics of the methodology are presented, as well as the cloud screening method applied in SE production. Considerations for future validations together with discussion on some current issues and potential inaccuracies are presented. One focus of the investigation is on the representativeness of reference FSC generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) data, with a particular interest in forested areas. Two methods for reference data generation are investigated. When comparing the GlobSnow Daily Fractional Snow Cover to these reference data, we try to identify how the comparison reflects the possible inaccuracies of the DFSC and to define the conditions where the reference data are not representative. It is obvious that the evaluation result strongly depends on the quality of the reference data, and that the two methods investigated cannot provide representative reference data for dense forests. For fully snow-covered dense conifer forest area in Finland, a Root Mean Squared Error of 20–30% was obtained from comparisons although DFSC indicated full snow cover correctly. These first evaluations would indicate a good performance of GlobSnow SE products in forests; however, this does not necessarily show up in validations due to the non-representativeness of the reference data. It is also concluded that GlobSnow SE products are sensitive to the representativeness of the applied \\{SCAmod\\} parameters and that FSC overestimations may occur in dense forests. GlobSnow SE products are available at www.globsnow.info/se/.

Sari Metsämäki; Jouni Pulliainen; Miia Salminen; Kari Luojus; Andreas Wiesmann; Rune Solberg; Kristin Böttcher; Mwaba Hiltunen; Elisabeth Ripper

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z