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1

Tracing Aerosol Impacts on South Asian Monsoons | U.S. DOE Office of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Highlights » 2013 Science Highlights » 2013 » Tracing Aerosol Impacts on South Asian Monsoons Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E: sc.ber@science.doe.gov More Information » September 2013 Tracing Aerosol Impacts on South Asian Monsoons The effect of pollution aerosols on monsoons. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo

2

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May...

3

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in press), Organic aerosols in the earth's atmosphere,loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratoryproperties of biomass burn aerosols, Geophysical Research

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 1. Aerosol Characteristics Species Emissions Burdenc and h), IE (d, i) and BAE (e, f). List of Tables AerosolEmission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning,

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

6

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol concentrations on convective storm development and precipitation over and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri, are investigated. This is achieved through the use of a cloud-resolving mesoscale model, in which ...

Susan C. van den Heever; William R. Cotton

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Model Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, (510) 495-2404 LosAngelesSmogv1.jpg Smog over downtown Los Angeles. Aerosols are microscopic particles-like dust, pollen and soot-that ubiquitously float around in our atmosphere. Despite their tiny stature, these particles can have a huge impact on human health, climate and the environment. So scientists from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Colorado State University and the California Air Resources Board have set out to characterize the roles of various particles as atmospheric change agents on a regional scale.

8

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P.M. Forster (2004), The semi-direct aerosol effect: Impactof absorbing aerosols on marine stratocumulus. Q. J .2005), Global anthropogenic aerosol direct forcing derived

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Aerosol Impacts on the Diurnal Cycle of Marine Stratocumulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent large-eddy simulation (LES) studies of the impact of aerosol on the dynamics of nocturnal marine stratocumulus revealed that, depending on the large-scale forcings, an aerosol-induced increase of the droplet concentration can lead to ...

Irina Sandu; Jean-Louis Brenguier; Olivier Geoffroy; Odile Thouron; Valery Masson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Downscaling Aerosols and the Impact of Neglected Subgrid Processes on Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing for a Representative Global Climate Model Grid Spacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent improvements to many global climate models include detailed, prognostic aerosol calculations intended to better reproduce the observed climate. However, the trace gas and aerosol fields are treated at the grid-cell scale with no attempt to account for sub-grid impacts on the aerosol fields. This paper begins to quantify the error introduced by the neglected sub-grid variability for the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a representative climate model grid spacing of 75 km. An analysis of the value added in downscaling aerosol fields is also presented to give context to the WRF-Chem simulations used for the sub-grid analysis. We found that 1) the impact of neglected sub-grid variability on the aerosol radiative forcing is strongest in regions of complex topography and complicated flow patterns, and 2) scale-induced differences in emissions contribute strongly to the impact of neglected sub-grid processes on the aerosol radiative forcing. The two of these effects together, when simulated at 75 km vs. 3 km in WRF-Chem, result in an average daytime mean bias of over 30% error in top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a large percentage of central Mexico during the MILAGRO field campaign.

Gustafson, William I.; Qian, Yun; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

11

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

over the southwest summer monsoon region, Meteorol. Atmos.Absorbing aerosols and summer monsoon evolution over SouthK. M. Kim (2006), Asian summer monsoon anomalies induced by

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting for2005) include fossil- and biofuel sources from Bond et al. (the impacts of fossil- and biofuel BC aerosols, aerosol-

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While bank lending may fall in response to shocks to their liquidity, to what extent are such shocks transmitted to borrowing rms? Tracing such transmission mechanisms has proven di cult in the past due to a lack of micro data linking banks to borrowing rms and identication concerns. This paper uses dierential liquidity shocks arising from unanticipated nuclear tests in Pakistan in 1998, and a dataset linking over 18; 000 rms to all 145 banks to understand the full transmission mechanism. We isolate the causal impact of the bank lending channel by showing that for the same rm borrowing from two dierent banks, its loan from the bank experiencing a 1 % larger decline in liquidity drops by an additional 0.6%. The liquidity shock also leads to large declines in the probability of continued lending to old clients, and extending credit to new ones. However, we nd that rms dier in their ability to compensate the bank lending channel shock. Larger rms, while also facing a bank lending channel, are able to oset the adverse eect by borrowing more from more liquid banks. Smaller rms on the other hand are entiely unable to hedge out the bank lending channels. Consequently, a negative bank liquidity shock increases the

Asim Ijaz Khwaja; Atif Mian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate. InGeophys. Res. . In review. Aerosol climate e?ects and airChem. Phys. 6, 44274459. Aerosol climate e?ects and air

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on Indian summer monsoon  

SciTech Connect

Using an interactive aerosol-climate model we find that absorbing anthropogenic aerosols, whether coexisting with scattering aerosols or not, can significantly affect the Indian summer monsoon system. We also show that the influence is reflected in a perturbation to the moist static energy in the sub-cloud layer, initiated as a heating by absorbing aerosols to the planetary boundary layer. The perturbation appears mostly over land, extending from just north of the Arabian Sea to northern India along the southern slope of the Tibetan Plateau. As a result, during the summer monsoon season, modeled convective precipitation experiences a clear northward shift, coincidently in agreement with observed monsoon precipitation changes in recent decades particularly during the onset season. We demonstrate that the sub-cloud layer moist static energy is a useful quantity for determining the impact of aerosols on the northward extent and to a certain degree the strength of monsoon convection.

Wang, Chien; Kim, Dongchul; Ekman, Annica; Barth, Mary; Rasch, Philip J.

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

16

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during SHADE: 1. Solar spectrum, J. Geophys. Res . , 108(sensed data in the solar spectrum, J. Geophys. Res , 106 (a scattering aerosol in the solar spectrum with a SSA=1 and

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Title Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors McMeeking, Gavin R., Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Stephen Baker, Christian M. Carrico, Judith C. Chow, Jeffrey Collett L. Jr., Wei Min Hao, Amanda S. Holden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, William C. Malm, Hans Moosmuller, Amy P. Sullivan, and Cyle E. Wold Journal Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 114 Abstract We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 2, NO3, Cl, Na+, K+, and NH4 + generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

18

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

19

Impact of geoengineered aerosols on the troposphere and stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled chemistry climate model, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model was used to perform a transient climate simulation to quantify the impact of geoengineered aerosols on atmospheric processes. In contrast to previous model studies, the impact on stratospheric chemistry, including heterogeneous chemistry in the polar regions, is considered in this simulation. In the geoengineering simulation, a constant stratospheric distribution of volcanic-sized, liquid sulfate aerosols is imposed in the period 20202050, corresponding to an injection of 2 Tg S/a. The aerosol cools the troposphere compared to a baseline simulation. Assuming an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B emission scenario, global warming is delayed by about 40 years in the troposphere with respect to the baseline scenario. Large local changes of precipitation and temperatures may occur as a result of geoengineering. Comparison with simulations carried out with the Community Atmosphere Model indicates the importance of stratospheric processes for estimating the impact of stratospheric aerosols on the Earths climate. Changes in stratospheric dynamics and chemistry, especially faster heterogeneous reactions, reduce the recovery of the ozone layer in middle and high latitudes for the Southern Hemisphere. In the geoengineering case, the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole is delayed by about 30 years on the basis of this model simulation. For the Northern Hemisphere, a onefold to twofold increase of the chemical ozone depletion occurs owing to a simulated stronger polar vortex and colder temperatures compared to the baseline simulation, in agreement with observational estimates.

Tilmes, S.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Gettelman, A.; Rasch, Philip J.

2009-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

20

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.

Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor; Schmidt, Gavin A.

2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Climate impacts of carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols: A proposed study  

SciTech Connect

In addition to sulfate aerosols, carbonaceous and other non-sulfate aerosols are potentially significant contributors to global climate change. We present evidence that strongly suggests that current assessments of the effects of aerosols on climate may be inadequate because major aerosol components, especially carbonaceous aerosols, are not included in these assessments. Although data on the properties and distributions of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols are insufficient to allow quantification of their climate impacts, the existing information suggests that climate forcing by this aerosol component may be significant and comparable to that by sulfate aerosols. We propose that a research program be undertaken to support a quantitative assessment of the role in climate forcing of non-sulfate, particularly carbonaceous, aerosols.

Andreae, M.O.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cofer, W.R. III; Hollande, J.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Division] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Integrated Study of MFRSR-derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facili...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Study of MFRSR-Derived Parameters of Integrated Study of MFRSR-Derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facilities - Comparison with Satellite and Other Ground-Based Measurements M. D. Alexandrov and B. Cairns Columbia University National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. A. Lacis and B. E. Carlson National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Comparison of SGP MFRSR Network Aerosol Retrievals with MODIS Aerosol Product The network of Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site consists of 21 instrument sites

23

BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES FROM THE ORAC-AATSR RETRIEVAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL@atm.ox.ac.uk AEROSOL AND GAS PROPERTIESSEASONALITY OF BURNING Biomass burning in the Amazon shows strong seasonal counts are generally highest up to 3 months after the burning of ground. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ESA

24

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions during laboratory biomass fires, Journal ofphysical properties of biomass burn aerosols, Geophysicalaromatic hydrocarbons from biomass burning, Environ. Sci.

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

A Satellite-Based Parameter to Monitor the Aerosol Impact on Convective Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to monitor the aerosol impact on convective clouds using satellite data is presented. The impacts of forest fires and highly polluting megacities on cloud precipitation formation processes are quantified by the vertical extent above ...

Itamar M. Lensky; Ron Drori

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We present here a fully coupled global aerosol and chemistry model for the troposphere. The model is used to assess the interactions between aerosols and chemical oxidants in the troposphere, including (1) the conversion from gas-phase oxidants into the condensed phase during the formation of aerosols, (2) the heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of aerosols, and (3) the effect of aerosols on ultraviolet radiation and photolysis rates. The present study uses the global three-dimensional chemical/ transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), in which aerosols are coupled with the model. The model accounts for the presence of

Xuexi Tie; Sasha Madronich; Stacy Walters; David P. Edwards; Paul Ginoux; Natalie Mahowald; Renyi Zhang; Chao Lou; Guy Brasseur

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

THE ROLE OF SOOT PARTICLES AND NOx IN THE OXIDATION OF SO2 IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION: KINETICS, MECHANISM, AND IMPACT ON SULFATE AEROSOL FORMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND IMPACT ON SULFATE AEROSOL FORMATION S.G. Chang, R.AND IMPACT ON SULFATE AEROSOL FORMATION * S.G. Chang, R.of acid rain and sulfate aerosol formation: 1) the oxidation

Chang, S.G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

29

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbonsnow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosolclimate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model ...

Dorothy Koch; Surabi Menon; Anthony Del Genio; Reto Ruedy; Igor Alienov; Gavin A. Schmidt

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Aerosol Impacts on the Microphysical Growth Processes of Orographic Snowfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System was used to simulate four winter snowfall events over the Park Range of Colorado. For each event, three hygroscopic aerosol sensitivity simulations were performed with initial aerosol profiles representing ...

Stephen M. Saleeby; William R. Cotton; Douglas Lowenthal; Joe Messina

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

2011-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

32

Aerosol Radiative Impact on Spectral Solar Flux at the Surface, Derived from Principal-Plane Sky Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of the spectral solar flux reaching the surface in cloud-free conditions are required to determine the aerosol radiative impact and to test aerosol models that are used to calculate radiative forcing of climate. Spectral ...

Y. J. Kaufman; D. Tanr; B. N. Holben; S. Mattoo; L. A. Remer; T. F. Eck; J. Vaughan; Bernadette Chatenet

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Impact of Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing on Surface Insolation and Spring Snowmelt in the Southern Sierra Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the regional impact of the atmospheric aerosols on the surface energy and water cycle in the southern Sierra Nevada characterized by extreme variations in terrain elevation, the authors examine the aerosol radiative forcing on ...

Jinwon Kim; Yu Gu; K. N. Liou

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Impact of Precipitation on Aerosol Spectral Optical Depth and Retrieved Size Distributions: A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is presented on the impact of two isolated, strong thundershowers during a prevailing dry, sunny season on the spectral optical depths and inferred columnar size characteristics of atmospheric aerosols at a tropical station. Results ...

Auromeet Saha; K. Krishna Moorthy

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Local and Remote Impacts of Aerosol Climate Forcing on Tropical Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanisms that determine the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on the tropical climate involve moist dynamical processes and have local and remote impacts on regional tropical precipitation. These mechanisms are examined in a climate model ...

Chia Chou; J. David Neelin; Ulrike Lohmann; Johann Feichter

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. A. Brass, and V. G. Ambrosia (1988a), Trace gas emissionsA. Brass, and V. G. Ambrosia (1988b), Particulate-emissions

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

38

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

CARIBICCivil Aircraft for Global Measurement of Trace Gases and Aerosols in the Tropopause Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deployment of measurement equipment in passenger aircraft for the observation of atmospheric trace constituents is described. The package of automated instruments that is installed in a one-ton-capacity aircraft freight container positioned ...

C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; P. J. Crutzen; H. Fischer; H. Gsten; W. Hans; G. Heinrich; J. Heintzenberg; M. Hermann; T. Immelmann; D. Kersting; M. Maiss; M. Nolle; A. Pitscheider; H. Pohlkamp; D. Scharffe; K. Specht; A. Wiedensohler

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Observed Impact of Atmospheric Aerosols on the Surface Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols scatter and potentially absorb incoming solar radiation, thereby reducing the total amount of radiation reaching the surface and increasing the fraction that is diffuse. The partitioning of incoming energy at the surface into ...

Allison L. Steiner; Dori Mermelstein; Susan J. Cheng; Tracy E. Twine; Andrew Oliphant

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid and 1% decrease in ice phase clouds between 1890 andthat includes aerosol e?ects on ice phase clouds. Similar toas the shift from ice to liquid phase clouds in a warming

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Observed impact of atmospheric aerosols on the surface energy budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols scatter and potentially absorb incoming solar radiation, thereby reducing the total amount of radiation reaching the surface and increasing the fraction that is diffuse. The partitioning of incoming energy at the surface into ...

Allison L. Steiner; Dori Mermelstein; Susan J. Cheng; Tracy E. Twine; Andrew Oliphant

43

Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate matter using online High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using an online thermal-desorption electron-ionization high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the detection of particulate trace elements was investigated analyzing data from Mexico City obtained during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign, where relatively high concentrations of trace elements have been reported. This potential application is of interest due to the real-time data provided by the AMS, its high sensitivity and time resolution, and the widespread availability and use of this instrument. High resolution mass spectral analysis, isotopic ratios, and ratios of different ions containing the same elements are used to constrain the chemical identity of the measured ions. The detection of Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sn, and Sb is reported. There was no convincing evidence for the detection of other trace elements commonly reported in PM. The elements detected tend to be those with lower melting and boiling points, as expected given the use of a vaporizer at 600oC in this instrument. Operation of the AMS vaporizer at higher temperatures is likely to improve trace element detection. The detection limit is estimated at approximately 0.3 ng m-3 for 5-min of data averaging. Concentration time series obtained from the AMS data were compared to concentration records determined from offline analysis of particle samples from the same times and locations by ICP (PM2.5) and PIXE (PM1.1 and PM0.3). The degree of correlation and agreement between the three instruments (AMS, ICP, and PIXE) varied depending on the element. The AMS shows promise for real-time detection of some trace elements, although additional work including laboratory calibrations with different chemical forms of these elements are needed to further develop this technique and to understand the differences with the ambient data from the other techniques. The trace elements peaked in the morning as expected for primary sources, and the many detected plumes suggest the presence of multiple point sources, probably industrial, in Mexico City which are variable in time and space, in agreement with previous studies.

Salcedo, D.; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.; Jimenez, Jose L.

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

44

Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Although the global average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6C during the last century (IPCC, 2001), some regions such as East Asia, Eastern North America, and Western Europe have cooled rather than warmed during the past decades (Jones, 1988; Qian and Giorgi, 2000). Coherent changes at the regional scale may reflect responses to different climate forcings that need to be understood in order to predict the future net climate response at the global and regional scales under different emission scenarios. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in global climate change (IPCC 2001). They perturb the earths radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing solar and long wave radiation, and indirectly by changing cloud reflectivity, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency via their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Because aerosols have much shorter lifetime (days to weeks) compared to most greenhouse gases, they tend to concentrate near their emission sources and distribute very unevenly both in time and space. This non-uniform distribution of aerosols, in conjunction with the greenhouse effect, may lead to differential net heating in some areas and net cooling in others (Penner et al. 1994). Sulfate aerosols come mainly from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from fossil fuel burning. Black carbon aerosols are directly emitted during incomplete combustion of biomass, coal, and diesel derived sources. Due to the different optical properties, sulfate and black carbon affect climate in different ways. Because of the massive emissions of sulfur and black carbon that accompany the rapid economic expansions in East Asia, understanding the effects of aerosols on climate is particularly important scientifically and politically in order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Qian, Yun; Song, Qingyuan; Menon, Surabi; Yu, Shaocai; Liu, Shaw C.; Shi, Guangyu; Leung, Lai R.; Luo, Yunfeng

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

46

Dust Aerosol Impact on North Africa Climate: A GCM Investigation of Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions Using A-Train Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa have been investigated using the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The model includes an efficient and physically based radiation parameterization scheme developed specifically for application to clouds and aerosols. Parameterization of the effective ice particle size in association with the aerosol indirect effect based on cloud and aerosol data retrieved from A-Train satellite observations have been employed in the climate model simulations. Offline simulations reveal that the direct solar, IR, and net forcings by dust aerosols generally increase with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD). When the dust semi-direct effect is included with the presence of ice clouds, positive IR radiative forcing is enhanced, since ice clouds trap substantial IR radiation, while the positive solar forcing with dust aerosols alone has been changed to negative values due to the strong reflection of solar radiation by clouds, indicating that cloud forcing could exceed aerosol forcing. With the aerosol indirect effect, the net cloud forcing is generally reduced for ice water path (IWP) larger than 20 g m-2. The magnitude of the reduction increases with IWP. AGCM simulations show that the reduced ice crystal mean effective size due to the aerosol first indirect effect result in less OLR and net solar flux at the top of the atmosphere over the cloudy area of the North Africa region because ice clouds with smaller size trap more IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation. The precipitation in the same area, however, increases due to the aerosol indirect effect on ice clouds, corresponding to the enhanced convection as indicated by reduced OLR. The increased precipitation seems to be associated with enhanced ice water contents in this region. The 200 mb radiative heating rate shows more cooling with the aerosol indirect effect since greater cooling is produced at the cloud top with smaller ice crystal size. The 500 mb omega indicates strong upward motion, which, together with the increased cooling effect, results in the increased ice water contents. Adding the aerosol direct effect into the model simulation reduces the precipitation in the normal rainfall band over North Africa, where precipitation is shifted to the south and the northeast produced by the absorption of sunlight and the subsequent heating of the air column by dust particles. As a result, rainfall is drawn further inland to the northeast. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the climate impact of aerosol indirect effect using a GCM in connection with A-train satellite data. The parameterization for the aerosol first indirect effect developed in this study can be readily incorporated for application to any other GCMs.

Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, Jonathan; Su, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases by Means of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. Part II: Climatological Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements from ground-based sun photometer networks can be used both to provide ground-truth validation of satellite aerosol retrievals and to produce a land-based aerosol climatology that is complementary to satellite retrievals that are ...

Mikhail D. Alexandrov; Andrew A. Lacis; Barbara E. Carlson; Brian Cairns

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Atmospheric Aerosols Aging Involving Organic Compounds and Impacts on Particle Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the first part of this dissertation, we study the aging of soot, a representative type of primary aerosols, in the presence of OH-initiated oxidation products of toluene. Monodisperse soot particles are introduced into an environmental chamber where toluene is oxidized by OH radicals. The variations in soot particle properties are simultaneously monitored, including particle size, mass, organic mass faction, hygroscopicity, and optical properties. The changes in particle properties are found to be largely governed by the thickness of the organic coating that is closely related to reaction time and initial reactant concentrations. Derived from particle size and mass, the effective density increases while dynamic shape factor decreases as the organic coating grows, suggesting a compaction of the soot morphology. As the organic coating grows, the particles become more hygroscopic and have enhanced light scattering and absorption. The second part discusses the potential reactions between amines and some aerosol constituents and alteration of aerosol properties. The reactions between alkylamines and ammonium sulfate/bisulfate have been studied using a low-pressure fast flow reactor coupled to a mass spectrometer at 293 K. Alkylamines react with ammonium sulfate/bisulfate to form alkylaminium sulfates, suggesting the existence of alkylaminium salts in particle phase. We have extended our study to characterize the physicochemical properties of alkylaminium sulfates. The hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density of five representative alkylaminium sulfates have been measured by an integrated aerosol analytical system. All alkylaminium sulfate aerosols show monotonic size growth when exposed to increasing relative humidity. Mixing ammonium sulfate with alkylaminium sulfates lowers the deliquescence point corresponding to ammonium sulfate. Alkylaminium sulfates are thermally comparable to or more stable than ammonium sulfate. The densities of alkylaminium sulfate particles are lower than that of ammonium sulfate. Our results suggest that the organic compounds can effectively alter the composition and properties of atmospheric aerosols, considerably influencing the impacts of aerosols on air quality, climate forcing, and human health.

Qiu, Chong

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Aerosol Simulations by LLNL IMPACT and Comparisons with Field...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulations by LLNL IMPACT and Comparisons with Field Measurements C. C. Chuang, D. Bergman, J. Dignon, and P. Connell Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California...

50

Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite decades of study, we still do not fully understand aerosols and their interactions among gases or other aerosols in the atmosphere. Among their impacts, they influence radiative transfer in the atmosphere and contribute to cloud formation. There are many different types of aerosols, including dust particles, soot particles, and microscopic particles containing inorganic compounds such as sulfates. Most of these particles have natural origins, but many are anthropogenic. The eventual purpose of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases such as ozone, reactive nitrogen, mercury, and sulfur containing compounds. Urban areas are most impacted by these trace gases, which is a concern because ozone especially affects the health of citizens. Experiments have three basic parts. First we generate mono-disperse 3 aerosols. That aerosol is then injected into the aerosol chambers with sea salt aerosols and prescribed concentrations of trace gases to characterize relevant interactions. However, those chambers are still under construction and not used during my study. The processed aerosols are then analyzed with a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) and other equipment. Different concentrations of sea salt aerosols, Cl, NOx, and other gases were planned to be introduced during the experiments. Concentrations of other gases and intensity of solar radiation would mimic those outside. Because these reactions have proved to increase localized concentrations of ozone in other work, this could have important implications. Future work will be designed to find study these interactions. This is important because the EPA has considered tightening the standards for both ozone and particulate matter. Industries would then need to reduce emissions or move farther from current sources of Cl or NOx pollution.

Benoit, Mark David

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Aerosol effects on red blue ratio of clear sky images, and impact on solar forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

urban, and desert dust aerosols ." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICALand K. V. S. Badarinath. "Aerosol climatology: dependence ofUsing a Sky Imager for aerosol characterization."

Ghonima, Mohamed Sherif

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Impacts of aerosol-cloud interactions on past and future changes in tropospheric composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of gas-phase chemistry-aerosol interactions on directforcing by anthropogenic aerosols and ozone, J. Geophys.GCM to constrain the aerosol indirect effect, J. Geophys.

Menon, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud susceptibility and the first aerosol indirect forcing:Sensitivity to BC and aerosol concentrations. J. Geophys.of cloud droplet and aerosols number concentrations:

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

SciTech Connect

We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present-day emissions suggest that future climate projections warrant particular scrutiny.

Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

55

Nonlinear Effects of Coexisting Surface and Atmospheric Forcing of Anthropogenic Absorbing Aerosols: Impact on the South Asian Monsoon Onset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols consists of absorption-induced atmospheric heating together with scattering- and absorption-induced surface cooling. It is thus important to understand whether some of the reported climate impacts ...

Shao-Yi Lee; Ho-Jeong Shin; Chien Wang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Airship Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions, Cloud Droplet Spectra, and Trace Gas Concentrations in the Marine Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of an airship as a platform to conduct atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, and cloud microphysical research is described, and results from demonstration flights made off the Oregon coast are presented. The slow speed of the airship makes it ...

G. M. Frick; W. A. Hoppel

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC). The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF10 China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE). The former two are US-China collaborative projects and the latter is a part of the Chinas National Basic Research program (or often referred to as 973 project). Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies. The wealth of general and specialized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system. Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc. In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

Li, Zhanqing; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Yun; Shi, Guangyu; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Mathematical study of the selective removal of different classes of atmospheric aerosols by coagulation, condensation, and gravitational settling, and the health impact  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to study the scavenging efficiencies of aerosol particles after some given dynamic mechanisms of removal (known as coagulation, condensation, and gravitational settling) as a function of time. In addition, the health impact of ... Keywords: Aerosols, Computational fluid dynamics, Health impact, Numerical methods, Precipitation scavenging

P. J. Garca Nieto; J. J. Del Coz Diaz; A. Martn Rodrguez; J. M. Matas Fernndez

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study  

SciTech Connect

This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earth??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

Assessment of Aerosol Radiative Impact over Oceanic Regions Adjacent to Indian Subcontinent using Multi-Satellite Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Using data from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, we have retrieved regional distribution of aerosol column single scattering albedo (parameter indicative of the relative dominance of aerosol absorption and scattering effects), a most important, but least understood aerosol property in assessing its climate impact. Consequently we provide improved assessment of short wave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) (on both regional and seasonal scales) estimates over this region. Large gradients in north-south ARF were observed as a consequence of gradients in single scattering albedo as well as aerosol optical depth. The highest ARF (-37 W m-2 at the surface) was observed over the northern Arabian Sea during June to August period (JJA). In general, ARF was higher over northern Bay of Bengal (NBoB) during winter and pre-monsoon period, whereas the ARF was higher over northern Arabian Sea (NAS) during the monsoon and post- monsoon period. The largest forcing observed over NAS during JJA is the consequence of large amounts of desert dust transported from the west Asian dust sources. High as well as seasonally invariant aerosol single scattering albedos (~0.98) were observed over the southern Indian Ocean region far from continents. The ARF estimates based on direct measurements made at a remote island location, Minicoy (8.3N, 73E) in the southern Arabian Sea are in good agreement with the estimates made following multisatellite analysis.

Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Climate Studies with a Multilayer Energy Balance Model. Part III: Climatic Impact of Stratospheric Volcanic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiative and climatic effects of stratospheric volcanic aerosols are studied with a multilayer energy balance model. The results show that the latitudinal distribution of aerosols has a significant effect on climate sensitivity. When ...

Ming-Dah Chou; Li Peng; Albert Arking

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Impact of Future Climate and Emission Changes on Stratospheric Aerosols and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global climatological distributions of key aerosol quantities (extinction, optical depth, mass, and surface area density) are shown in comparison with results from a three-dimensional global model including stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol ...

G. Pitari; E. Mancini; V. Rizi; D. T. Shindell

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

PARAGON: An Integrated Approach for Characterizing Aerosol Climate Impacts and Environmental Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosols exert myriad influences on the earth's environment and climate, and on human health. The complexity of aerosol-related processes requires that information gathered to improve our understanding of climate change must originate from ...

David J. Diner; Thomas P. Ackerman; Theodore L. Anderson; Jens Bsenberg; Amy J. Braverman; Robert J. Charlson; William D. Collins; Roger Davies; Brent N. Holben; Chris A. Hostetler; Ralph A. Kahn; John V. Martonchik; Robert T. Menzies; Mark A. Miller; John A. Ogren; Joyce E. Penner; Philip J. Rasch; Stephen E. Schwartz; John H. Seinfeld; Graeme L. Stephens; Omar Torres; Larry D. Travis; Bruce A. Wielicki; Bin Yu

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A Multisensor Perspective on the Radiative Impacts of Clouds and Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The launch of CloudSat and CloudAerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) in 2006 provided the first opportunity to incorporate information about the vertical distribution of cloud and aerosols directly into global ...

David S. Henderson; Tristan LEcuyer; Graeme Stephens; Phil Partain; Miho Sekiguchi

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

A modeling study on the climate impacts of black carbon aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of black carbon (BC) aerosols in climate change is important because of its strong capability in causing extinction of solar radiation. A three-dimensional interactive aerosol-climate model has been used to study ...

Wang, Chien.

66

Stable lead isotope compositions in selected coals from around the world and implications for present day aerosol source tracing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phasing out of leaded gasoline in many countries around the world at the end of the last millennium has resulted in a complex mixture of lead sources in the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that coal combustion has become an important source of Pb in aerosols in urban and remote areas. Lead concentration and isotopic composition is reported for 59 coal samples representing major coal deposits worldwide in an attempt to characterize this potential source. The average concentration in these coals is 35 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1}, with the highest values in coals from Spain and Peru and the lowest in coals from Australia and North America. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratios range between 1.15 and 1.24, with less radiogenic Pb in coals from Europe and Asia compared to South and North America. Comparing the Pb isotopic signatures of coals from this and previous studies with those published for Northern and Southern Hemisphere aerosols, we hypothesize that coal combustion might now be an important Pb source in China, the eastern U.S., and to some extent, in Europe but not as yet in other regions including South Africa, South America, and western U.S. This supports the notion that 'old Pb pollution' from leaded gasoline reemitted into the atmosphere or long-range transport (i.e., from China to the western U.S.) is important. Comparing the isotope ratios of the coals, the age of the deposits, and Pb isotope evolution models for the major geochemical reservoirs suggests that the lead isotope ratios (PbIC) in coals is strongly influenced by the depositional coal forming environment. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

M. Diaz-Somoano; M.E. Kylander; M.A. Lopez-Anton; I. Suarez-Ruiz; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona; M. Ferrat; B. Kober; D.J. Weiss [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Evaluation of the impact of contaminant on trace metal content of compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Literature reviews indicated that batteries, ferrous, non-ferrous materials, and electronic products are major contributors of trace metals in municipal solid waste (MSW). In order to (more)

Zhou, Lixian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Do We Observe Aerosol Impacts on DSDs in Strongly Forced Tropical Thunderstorms?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain drop size distributions retrieved from polarimetric radar measurements over regularly occurring thunderstorms over the islands north of Darwin, Australia, are used to test if aerosol contributions to the probability distributions of the drop ...

P. T. May; V. N. Bringi; M. Thurai

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M.Z. (2002). Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carboncarbon aerosols from fossil fuel combustion. J. Geophys.Climate response of fossil fuel and biofuel soot, accounting

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ensemble simulations of a regional climate model (RegCM3) forced by aerosol radiative forcing suggest that biomass burning aerosols can work against the seasonal monsoon circulation transition, thus re-enforce the dry season rainfall pattern for Southern Amazonia. Strongly absorbing smoke aerosols warm and stabilize the lower troposphere within the smoke center in southern Amazonia (where aerosol optical depth > 0.3). These changes increase the surface pressure in the smoke center, weaken the southward surface pressure gradient between northern and southern Amazonia, and consequently induce an anomalous moisture divergence in the smoke center and an anomalous convergence occurs in northwestern Amazonia (5S-5N, 60W-40 70W). The increased atmospheric thermodynamic stability, surface pressure, and divergent flow in Southern Amazonia may inhibit synoptic cyclonic activities propagated from extratropical South America, and re-enforce winter-like synoptic cyclonic activities and rainfall in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

Zhang, Y.; Fu, Rong; Yu, Hongbin; Qian, Yun; Dickinson, Robert; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; da Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Fernandes, Katia

2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

71

Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Impact of Aerosols on the Summer Rainfall Frequency in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors investigate the short-term relationship between aerosol concentrations and summer rainfall frequency in China using the daily surface observations of particulate matters with a diameter of less than 10 ?m (PM10) mass concentration, ...

Yong-Sang Choi; Chang-Hoi Ho; Jinwon Kim; Dao-Yi Gong; Rokjin J. Park

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Cumulative Impact of Cloud Droplet Nucleating Aerosols on Orographic Snowfall in Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hygroscopic pollution aerosols have the potential to alter winter orographic snowfall totals and spatial distributions by modification of high-elevation supercooled orographic clouds and the riming process. The authors investigate the cumulative ...

Stephen M. Saleeby; William R. Cotton; Jamie D. Fuller

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Factors Determining the Impact of Aerosols on Surface Precipitation from Clouds: An Attempt at Classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simulation of the dynamics and the microphysics of clouds observed during the Large-Scale BiosphereAtmosphere Experiment in AmazoniaSmoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate (LBASMOCC) campaign, as well as extremely continental and ...

A. P. Khain; N. BenMoshe; A. Pokrovsky

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Aerosol Characteristics and Radiative Impacts over the Arabian Sea during the Intermonsoon Season: Results from ARMEX Field Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the second phase of the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX-II), extensive measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth, mass concentration, and mass size distribution of ambient aerosols as well as mass concentration of aerosol black ...

K. Krishna Moorthy; S. Suresh Babu; S. K. Satheesh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Urban-scale impacts on the global-scale composition and climate effects of anthropogenic aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reduced form meta model has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

Cohen, Jason Blake

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The Impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing  

SciTech Connect

Some of the global warming effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases is offset by increased solar reflection from clouds with smaller droplets that form on increased numbers of cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air. The global magnitude of the resulting indirect aerosol climate forcing is estimated to be comparable (and opposed) to the anthropogenic carbon dioxide forcing, but estimates are highly uncertain because of complexities in characterizing the physical process that determine global aerosol and cloud populations and their interactions. Beyond reflecting sunlight more effectively, smaller droplets are less efficient at producing precipitation, and decreased precipitation is expected to result in increased cloud water and cloud cover, further increasing the indirect forcing. Yet polluted marine boundary-layer clouds are not generally observed to hold more water. Here we use model simulations of stratocumulus clouds to show that suppression of precipitation from increased droplet concentrations leads to increased cloud water only when sufficient precipitation reaches the surface, a condition favored when the overlying air is moist. Otherwise, aerosol induced suppression of precipitation enhances entrainment of overlying dry air, thereby reducing cloud water and diminishing the indirect climate forcing.

Ackerman, A S; Kirkpatrick, M P; Stevens, D E; Toon, O B

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

78

BNL | Aerosol Lifecycle IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Aerosol Life Cycle IOP The primary objectives that make up the Aerosol Life Cycle IOP can be broken down into three categories: Scientific; Logistical; and GVAX preparation. Scientific Objectives The science goals are to conduct intensive aerosol observations in a region exposed to anthropogenic, biogenic, and marine emissions with atmospheric processing times depending on air mass trajectories and time of day. Take advantage of new instruments in the MAOS (e.g., SP2, HR-PTRMS, ACSM, Trace Gas Suite, PASS-3, Aethelometer, UHSAS). Within this broad umbrella are embedded three main foci: Aerosol light absorption: How does the aerosol mass absorption coefficient (absorption per unit mass of BC) vary with atmospheric processing? Do observations agree with a shell-core model?

79

Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation in Eastern China: Results from Bin and Bulk Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a 3 spectral-bin microphysics ('SBM') and measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation 4 Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility field campaign in China (AMF-China), the authors 5 examine aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in the typical cloud regimes of the warm and cold 6 seasons in Southeast China: deep convective clouds (DCC) and stratus clouds (SC), 7 respectively. Comparisons with a two-moment bulk microphysics ('Bulk') are performed 8 to gain insights for improving bulk schemes in estimating AIE in weather and climate 9 simulations. For the first time, measurements of aerosol and cloud properties acquired in 10 China are used to evaluate model simulations to better understand AIE in China. It is 11 found that changes in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration significantly 12 change the timing of storms, the spatial and temporal distributions of precipitation, the 13 frequency distribution of precipitation rate, as well as cloud base and top heights for the 14 DCC, but not for the SC. CCN increase cloud droplet number (Nc) and mass 15 concentrations, decrease raindrop number concentration (Nr), and delay the onset of 16 precipitation. It is indicated much higher Nc and the opposite CCN effects on convection 17 and heavy rain with Bulk compared to SBM stem from the fixed CCN prescribed in Bulk. 18 CCN have a significant effect on ice microphysical properties with SBM but not Bulk 19 and different condensation/deposition freezing parameterizations employed could be the 20 main reason. This study provided insights to further improve the bulk scheme to better 21 account for aerosol-cloud interactions in regional and global climate simulations, which 22 will be the focus for a follow-on paper.

Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing; Morrison, H.; Chen, Hongbin; Zhou, Yuquan; Qian, Yun; Wang, Yuan

2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

80

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

quality impacts from 1980 to 2030 Table 1. Description ofincreases to 309.9 Wm ?2 for 2030. References Albrecht B Aquality impacts from 1980 to 2030 Shindell D, Faluvegi G,

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Ganges valley aerosol experiment.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K. (Environmental Science Division); (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-system resolving simulations with the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model are used to quantify the impacts of regional anthropogenic and oceanic emissions on changes in aerosol properties, cloud macro- and microphysics, and cloud radiative forcing over the Southeast Pacific (SEP) during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) (15 OctNov 16, 2008). The effects of oceanic aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and the shortwave forcing counteract those of anthropogenic aerosols. Despite the relatively small changes in Na concentrations (2-12%) from regional oceanic emissions, their net effect (direct and indirect) on the surface shortwave forcing is opposite and comparable or even larger in magnitude compared to those of regional anthropogenic emissions over the SEP. Two distinct regions are identified in the VOCALS-REx domain. The near-coast polluted region is characterized with strong droplet activation suppression of small particles by sea-salt particles, the more important role of the first than the second indirect effect, low surface precipitation rate, and low aerosol-cloud interaction strength associated with anthropogenic emissions. The relatively clean remote region is characterized with large contributions of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN, number concentration denoted by NCCN) and droplet number concentrations (Nd) from non-local sources (lateral boundaries), a significant amount of surface precipitation, and high aerosol-cloud interactions under a scenario of five-fold increase in anthropogenic emissions. In the clean region, cloud properties have high sensitivity (e.g., 13% increase in cloud-top height and a 9% surface albedo increase) to the moderate increase in CCN concentration (?Nccn = 13 cm-3; 25%) produced by a five-fold increase in regional anthropogenic emissions. The increased anthropogenic aerosols reduce the precipitation amount over the relatively clean remote ocean. The reduction of precipitation (as a cloud water sink) more than doubles the wet scavenging timescale, resulting in an increased aerosol lifetime in the marine boundary layer. Therefore, the aerosol impacts on precipitation are amplified by the positive feedback of precipitation on aerosol. The positive feedback ultimately alters the cloud micro- and macro-properties, leading to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The higher sensitivity of clouds to anthropogenic aerosols over this region is also related to a 16% entrainment rate increase due to anthropogenic aerosols. The simulated aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are stronger at night over the clean marine region, while during the day, solar heating results in more frequent decoupling, thinner clouds, reduced precipitation, and reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The simulated high sensitivity to the increased anthropogenic emissions over the clean region suggests that the perturbation of the clean marine environment with anthropogenic aerosols may have a larger effect on climate than that of already polluted marine environments.

Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Berg, Larry K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Morrison, H.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

83

Real-Time Measurements of Engine-Out Trace Elements: Application of a Novel Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for Emissions Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lubricant-derived trace element emissions are the largest contributors to the accumulation of incombustible ash in diesel particulate filters (DPF), eventually leading to filter plugging and an increase in engine fuel ...

Cross, Eben Spencer

84

Overview of the Capstone Depleted Uranium Study of Aerosols from Impact with Armored Vehicles: Test Setup and Aerosol Generation, Characterization, and Application in Assessing Dose and Risk  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Study was conducted to generate data about DU aerosols generated during the perforation of armored combat vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, and to apply the data in assessments of human health risks to personnel exposed to these aerosols, primarily through inhalation, during the 1991 Gulf War or in future military operations. The Capstone study consisted of two components: 1) generating, sampling and characterizing DU aerosols by firing at and perforating combat vehicles and 2) applying the source-term quantities and characteristics of the aerosols to the evaluation of doses and risks. This paper reviews the background of the study including the bases for the study, previous reviews of DU particles and health assessments from DU used by the U.S. military, the objectives of the study components, the participants and oversight teams, and the types of exposures it was intended to evaluate. It then discusses exposure scenarios used in the dose and risk assessment and provides an overview of how the field tests and dose and risk assessments were conducted.

Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Guilmette, Raymond A.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

BNL | Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation Interactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Atmospheric aerosols exert important "indirect effects" on clouds and climate by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei that affect cloud radiative and microphysical properties. For example, an increase in CCN increases the number concentration of droplets enhances cloud albedo, and suppresses precipitation that alters cloud coverage and lifetime. However, in the case of moist and strong convective clouds, increasing aerosols may increase precipitation and enhance storm development. Although aerosol-induced indirect effects on climate are believed to have a significant impact on global climate change, estimating their impact continues to be one of the most uncertain climate forcings.

86

A Theoretical Study of the Wet Removal of Atmospheric Pollutants. Part IV: The Uptake and Redistribution of Aerosol Particles through Nucleation and Impaction Scavenging by Growing Cloud Drops and Ice Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical model has been formulated which allows the study of the effects of an ice phase on the removal of atmospheric aerosol particles by nucleation and impaction scavenging in a convective cloud. This microphysical modelalthough in ...

R. R. Alheit; A. I. Flossmann; H. R. Pruppacher

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Aerosol effects on red blue ratio of clear sky images, and impact on solar forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bergin, M.H. From weather forecasting to exploring the solarWai, et al. "Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imagerand Impact on Solar Forecasting A Thesis submitted in

Ghonima, Mohamed Sherif

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Aerosol Remote Sensing over Clouds Using A-Train Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The detection of aerosol above clouds is critical for the estimate of both the aerosol and cloud radiative impacts. In this study, the authors present a new method to retrieve the aerosol properties over clouds that uses the multiangle ...

F. Waquet; J. Riedi; L. C. Labonnote; P. Goloub; B. Cairns; J-L. Deuz; D. Tanr

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data analyses and focused modeling efforts that will facilitate the integration of new knowledge into improved representations of key aerosol processes in climate models.

Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

90

Study of the Impact of Summer Monsoon Circulation on Spatial Distribution of Aerosols in East Asia Based on Numerical Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The regional coupled climatechemistry/aerosol model (RegCM3) is used to investigate the difference in the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) between a strong summer monsoon year (SSMY; July 2003) and a weak summer monsoon year (...

Libin Yan; Xiaodong Liu; Ping Yang; Zhi-Yong Yin; Gerald R. North

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Coupling Aerosol-Cloud-Radiative Processes in the WRF-Chem Model: Investigating the Radiative Impact of Elevated Point Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local and regional influence of elevated point sources on summertime aerosol forcing and cloud-aerosol interactions in northeastern North America was investigated using the WRF-Chem community model. The direct effects of aerosols on incoming solar radiation were simulated using existing modules to relate aerosol sizes and chemical composition to aerosol optical properties. Indirect effects were simulated by adding a prognostic treatment of cloud droplet number and adding modules that activate aerosol particles to form cloud droplets, simulate aqueous phase chemistry, and tie a two-moment treatment of cloud water (cloud water mass and cloud droplet number) to an existing radiation scheme. Fully interactive feedbacks thus were created within the modified model, with aerosols affecting cloud droplet number and cloud radiative properties, and clouds altering aerosol size and composition via aqueous processes, wet scavenging, and gas-phase-related photolytic processes. Comparisons of a baseline simulation with observations show that the model captured the general temporal cycle of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and produced clouds of comparable thickness to observations at approximately the proper times and places. The model slightly overpredicted SO2 mixing ratios and PM2.5 mass, but reproduced the range of observed SO2 to sulfate aerosol ratios, suggesting that atmospheric oxidation processes leading to aerosol sulfate formation are captured in the model. The baseline simulation was compared to a sensitivity simulation in which all emissions at model levels above the surface layer were set to zero, thus removing stack emissions. Instantaneous, site-specific differences for aerosol and cloud related properties between the two simulations could be quite large, as removing above-surface emission sources influenced when and where clouds formed within the modeling domain. When summed spatially over the finest resolution model domain (the extent of which corresponds to the typical size of a single GCM grid cell) and temporally over a three day analysis period, total rainfall in the sensitivity simulation increased by 31% over that in the baseline simulation. Fewer optically thin clouds, arbitrarily defined as a cloud exhibiting an optical depth less than 1, formed in the sensitivity simulation. Domain-averaged AODs dropped from 0.46 in the baseline simulation to 0.38 in the sensitivity simulation. The overall net effect of additional aerosols attributable to primary particulates and aerosol precursors from point source emissions above the surface was a domain-averaged reduction of 5 W m-2 in mean daytime downwelling shortwave radiation.

Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Barnard, James C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Impact of Shortwave Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols on the Summer Season Heat Low over Saudi Arabia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-stream scattering scheme based on the delta-Eddington approximation is incorporated into the Florida State University Limited Area Model for computing the shortwave radiative fluxes due to dust aerosols over the Saudi Arabian region and to ...

Saad Mohalfi; H. S. Bedi; T. N. Krishnamurti; Steven D. Cocke

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Final report. [Impact of tropospheric aerosols on the past surface radiation income: Calibration with ARM site data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work involved a comparison of surface solar radiation observations from the SOCMET-DATA BASE from 1960-1990 and results from a General Circulation Model to test and evaluate the effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds.

Kukla, George

2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

(Scroll down to find Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, a subheading under the broader heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases, etc.) CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to isotopes in greenhouse gases includes: Monthly atmospheric 13C/12C isotopic ratios for 10 SIO stations, (2005) (Trends Online) Mixing ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and isotope ratios of associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Montaa de Oro, California, USA (2004) Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A., (2004) (Trends Online) ?13C in CO2 from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network (Trends Online) In Situ 13CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (2001) (Trends Online) In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (1995) Carbon-13 Isotopic Abundance and concentration of Atmospheric Methane for Background Air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989 (1995) Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) 14CO 2 Observations from Schauinsland, Germany (1997) (Trends Online) Carbon-14 Measurements in Atmospheric CO 2 from Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sites, 1962-1992 (1996) Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 (1998) (Specialized Interface)

95

Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

arid regions in China and Africa. Such aerosol streams have been shown to travel around the globe with silica aerosols from China impacting air quality in the continental US and #12;2 alumina and titania delivery mechanisms for a variety of drugs as an alternative to injections. As delivery devices

Beaucage, Gregory

96

A multi-sensor approach for assessing the impacts of ultraviolet-absorbing aerosols on top of atmosphere radiative fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One year (June 2006-May 2007) of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are used with Ozone Monitoring Instrument-Aerosol Index (OMI-AI) data to assess the direct radiative ...

Thomas A. Jones; Sundar A. Christopher

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

CALIPSO-Derived Three-Dimensional Structure of Aerosol over the Atlantic Basin and Adjacent Continents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate modeling of the impact of aerosols on climate requires a detailed understanding of the vertical distribution of aerosols. The CloudAerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) provides continuous high-resolution ...

Aaron M. Adams; Joseph M. Prospero; Chidong Zhang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Impact of new particle formation on the concentrations of aerosol number and cloud condensation nuclei around Beijing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New particle formation (NPF) is one of the most important processes in controlling the concentrations of aerosol number (condensation nuclei, CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. In this study, we introduced a new aerosol model representation with 20 size bins between 1 nm and 10 {mu}m and activation-type and kinetic nucleation parameterizations into the WRF-chem model (called NPF-explicit WRF-chem). Model calculations were conducted in the Beijing region in China for the periods during the CARE-Beijing 2006 campaign conducted in August and September 2006. Model calculations successfully reproduced the timing of NPF and no-NPF days in the measurements (21 of 26 days). Model calculations also reproduced the subsequent rapid growth of new particles with a time scale of half a day. These results suggest that once a reasonable nucleation rate at a diameter of 1 nm is given, explicit calculations of condensation and coagulation processes can reproduce the clear contrast between NPF and no-NPF days as well as further growth up to several tens nanometers. With this reasonable representation of the NPF process, we show that NPF contributed 20-30% of CN concentrations (> 10 nm in diameter) in and around Beijing on average. We also show that NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (S > 0.2%), while it decreases them at lower supersaturations (S aerosol emissions, such as black carbon (BC), would not necessarily decrease CCN concentrations because of an increase in NPF. Sensitivity calculations also suggest that the reduction ratio of primary aerosol and SO2 emissions will be key in enhancing or damping the BC mitigation effect.

Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Wiedensohler, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

99

ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO : Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

100

Interannual Tropospheric Aerosol Variability in the Late Twentieth Century and Its Impact on Tropical Atlantic and West African Climate by Direct and Semidirect Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new high-resolution global tropospheric aerosol dataset with monthly resolution is generated using version 4 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a bulk aerosol model and forced with recent estimates of surface emissions for the ...

Salil Mahajan; Katherine J. Evans; John E. Truesdale; James J. Hack; Jean-Franois Lamarque

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Small Particles, Big Impact  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Particles, Big Impact Small Particles, Big Impact Small-scale effects of Aerosols Add up Over Time August 24, 2011 | Tags: Climate Research, Earth Sciences, Environmental...

103

Trace Evidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Work with national and international ... 00 Optional Open House and Trace Analysis Lab Tours of ... Ethanol in Water Standard Reference Materials to ...

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

104

Emission-Induced Nonlinearities in the Global Aerosol System: Results from the ECHAM5-HAM Aerosol-Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a series of simulations with the global ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model, the response to changes in anthropogenic emissions is analyzed. Traditionally, additivity is assumed in the assessment of the aerosol climate impact, as the underlying ...

Philip Stier; Johann Feichter; Silvia Kloster; Elisabetta Vignati; Julian Wilson

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Sensitivity of aerosol radiative forcing calculations to spectral resolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential impacts of aerosol radiative forcing on climate have generated considerable recent interest. An important consideration in estimating the forcing from various aerosol components is the spectral resolution used for the solar radiative transfer calculations. This paper examines the spectral resolution required from the viewpoint of overlapping spectrally varying aerosol properties with other cross sections. A diagnostic is developed for comparing different band choices, and the impact of these choices on the radiative forcing calculated for typical sulfate and biomass aerosols was investigated.

Grant, K.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectrometer RL : Raman Lidar Field Campaign Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments AEROSOL-TOWER-EML :...

107

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol extinction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments IAP : In-situ Aerosol...

108

The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions ...

Berg, A. R.

109

Indirect Impact of Atmospheric Aerosols in Idealized Simulations of ConvectiveRadiative Quasi Equilibrium. Part II: Double-Moment Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper extends the previous cloud-resolving modeling study concerning the impact of cloud microphysics on convectiveradiative quasi equilibrium (CRQE) over a surface with fixed characteristics and prescribed solar input, both mimicking the ...

Wojciech W. Grabowski; Hugh Morrison

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10%) compared with the tail regions. This result shows that the ejector device could have a higher bin-to-bin counting uncertainty for ''soft'' particles such as DOP than for a solid dry particle like NaCl. The results suggest that it may be difficult to precisely characterize the size distribution of particles ejected from the mini-dilution system if the particle is not solid.

Cheng, M-D.

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

111

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Provenance Traces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Provenance is information about the origin, derivation, ownership, or history of an object. It has recently been studied extensively in scientific databases and other settings due to its importance in helping scientists judge data validity, quality and integrity. However, most models of provenance have been stated as ad hoc definitions motivated by informal concepts such as "comes from", "influences", "produces", or "depends on". These models lack clear formalizations describing in what sense the definitions capture these intuitive concepts. This makes it difficult to compare approaches, evaluate their effectiveness, or argue about their validity. We introduce provenance traces, a general form of provenance for the nested relational calculus (NRC), a core database query language. Provenance traces can be thought of as concrete data structures representing the operational semantics derivation of a computation; they are related to the traces that have been used in self-adjusting computation, but differ in impor...

Cheney, James; Ahmed, Amal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

A New Method for Measuring Aerosol Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique has recently been developed to measure aerosol absorption by means of a microdensitometer. Black particulate material is collected into six spots on membrane filters by a laboratory-tested impaction/concentration technique. Follow-...

B. B. Murphey; S. I. Reynolds

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties, vertical distribution and associated radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta Region of China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four years of columnar aerosol particle optical properties (2006 to 2009) and one year database worth of aerosol particle vertical profile of 527 nm extinction coefficient (June 2008 to May 2009) are analyzed at Taihu in the central Yangtze Delta region in eastern China. Seasonal variations of aerosol optical properties, vertical distribution, and influence on shortwave radiation and heating rates were investigated. Multiyear variations of aerosol optical depths (AOD), Angstrom exponents, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry factor (ASY) are analyzed, together with the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. AOD is largest in summer and smallest in winter. SSAs exhibit weak seasonal variation with the smallest values occurring during winter and the largest during summer. The vast majority of aerosol particles are below 2 km, and about 62%, 67%, 67% and 83% are confined to below 1 km in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Five-day back trajectory analyses show that the some aerosols aloft are traced back to northern/northwestern China, as far as Mongolia and Siberia, in spring, autumn and winter. The presence of dust aerosols were identified based on the linear depolarization measurements together with other information (i.e., back trajectory, precipitation, aerosol index). Dust strongly impacts the vertical particle distribution in spring and autumn, with much smaller effects in winter. The annual mean aerosol direct shortwave radiative forcing (efficiency) at the bottom, top and within the atmosphere are -34.8 {+-} 9.1 (-54.4 {+-} 5.3), -8.2 {+-} 4.8 (-13.1 {+-} 1.5) and 26.7 {+-} 9.4 (41.3 {+-} 4.6) W/m{sup 2} (Wm{sup -2} T{sup -1}), respectively. The mean reduction in direct and diffuse radiation reaching surface amount to 109.2 {+-} 49.4 and 66.8 {+-} 33.3 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. Aerosols significantly alter the vertical profile of solar heating, with great implications for atmospheric stability and dynamics within the lower troposphere.

Liu, Jianjun; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Zhanqing; Flynn, Connor J.; Cribb, Maureen

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

115

Impact of Cloud-Nucleating Aerosols in Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Warm-Rain Precipitation in the East China Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-nucleating aerosols emitted from mainland China have the potential to influence cloud and precipitation systems that propagate through the region of the East China Sea. Both simulations from the Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for ...

Stephen M. Saleeby; Wesley Berg; Susan van den Heever; Tristan LEcuyer

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

[10-461] Quantifying the Uncertainties of Aerosol Indirect Effects and Impacts on Decadal-Scale Climate Variability in NCAR CAM5 and CESM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) unified parameterization for ice nucleation that includes homogeneous nucleation (in cold cirrus) and heterogeneous nucleation on ice nuclei (IN) with different mechanisms in mixed-phase and cold cirrus clouds (vertical velocity) which drives aerosol activation, cloud microphysics parameterizations, cloud

117

Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, Cl{sub x}, HCl, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ClONO{sub 2} are calculated.

Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1992-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

118

Inter-annual Tropospheric Aerosol Variability in Late Twentieth Century and its Impact on Tropical Atlantic and West African Climate by Direct and Semi-direct Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new high-resolution (0.9$^{\\circ}$x1.25$^{\\circ}$ in the horizontal) global tropospheric aerosol dataset with monthly resolution is generated using the finite-volume configuration of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a bulk aerosol model and forced with recent estimates of surface emissions for the latter part of twentieth century. The surface emissions dataset is constructed from Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) decadal-resolution surface emissions dataset to include REanalysis of TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO) wildfire monthly emissions dataset. Experiments forced with the new tropospheric aerosol dataset and conducted using the spectral configuration of CAM4 with a T85 truncation (1.4$^{\\circ}$x1.4$^{\\circ}$) with prescribed twentieth century observed sea surface temperature, sea-ice and greenhouse gases reveal that variations in tropospheric aerosol levels can induce significant regional climate variability on the inter-annual timescales. Regression analyses over tropical Atlantic and Africa reveal that increasing dust aerosols can cool the North African landmass and shift convection southwards from West Africa into the Gulf of Guinea in the spring season in the simulations. Further, we find that increasing carbonaceous aerosols emanating from the southwestern African savannas can cool the region significantly and increase the marine stratocumulus cloud cover over the southeast tropical Atlantic ocean by aerosol-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere above the low clouds. Experiments conducted with CAM4 coupled to a slab ocean model suggest that present day aerosols can shift the ITCZ southwards over the tropical Atlantic and can reduce the ocean mixed layer temperature beneath the increased marine stratocumulus clouds in the southeastern tropical Atlantic.

Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Truesdale, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mahajan, Salil [ORNL; Lamarque, J-F [University Center for Atmospheric Research

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Longwave radiative forcing by aqueous aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a great deal of interest has been focused on the role of aerosols in climatic change because of their potential cooling impacts due to light scattering. Recent advances in infrared spectroscopy using cylindrical internal reflectance have allowed the longwave absorption of dissolved aerosol species and the associated liquid water to be accurately determined and evaluated. Experimental measurements using these techniques have shown that dissolved sulfate, nitrate, and numerous other aerosol species will act to cause greenhouse effects. Preliminary calculations indicate that the longwave climate forcing (i.e., heating) for sulfate aerosol will be comparable in magnitude to the cooling effect produced by light scattering. However, more detailed modeling will clearly be needed to address the impact of the longwave forcing due to aerosols as a function of atmospheric height and composition. Their work has shown that aerosol composition will be important in determining longwave forcing, while shortwave forcing will be more related to the physical size of the aerosol droplets. On the basis of these studies, it is increasingly apparent that aerosols, fogs, and clouds play a key role in determining the radiative balance of the atmosphere and in controlling regional and global climates.

Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Real time infrared aerosol analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

BNL | Aerosol Lifecycle Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

identified strategic process-science foci: aerosol nucleation and growth and aerosol aging and mixing state. BNL is the lead laboratory responsible for the design and...

122

Aerosol Can Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aerosol Can Failure ... Abstract Scope, A three-piece, welded seam aerosol can of liquid undercoating material failed catastrophically,...

123

Two MODIS Aerosol Products over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the impact of aerosols on the earths radiation budget and the long-term climate record requires consistent measurements of aerosol properties and radiative fluxes. The Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES) Science ...

Alexander Ignatov; Patrick Minnis; Norman Loeb; Bruce Wielicki; Walter Miller; Sunny Sun-Mack; Didier Tanr; Lorraine Remer; Istvan Laszlo; Erika Geier

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

The Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio of Tropospheric Aerosol: A Numerical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adequate estimation of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio S is important for solving the underdetermined single scattering lidar equation and for investigating the climate impact of aerosols. In this study, the extinction-to-...

Jrg Ackermann

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Developments in the CSU-RAMS Aerosol Model: Emissions, Nucleation, Regeneration, Deposition, and Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) has undergone development focused upon improving the treatment of aerosols in the microphysics model, with the goal of examining the impacts of aerosol characteristics, ...

Stephen M. Saleeby; Susan C. Van Den Heever

126

Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

Jeong, Gill-Ran

127

Using the PARAGON Framework to Establish an Accurate, Consistent, and Cohesive Long-Term Aerosol Record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive and cohesive aerosol measurement record with consistent, well-understood uncertainties is a prerequisite to understanding aerosol impacts on long-term climate and environmental variability. Objectives to attaining such an ...

David J. Diner; Robert T. Menzies; Ralph A. Kahn; Theodore L. Anderson; Jens Bsenberg; Robert J. Charlson; Brent N. Holben; Chris A. Hostetler; Mark A. Miller; John A. Ogren; Graeme L. Stephens; Omar Torres; Bruce A. Wielicki; Philip J. Rasch; Larry D. Travis; William D. Collins

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Aerosol effects on the photochemistry in Mexico City during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present study, the impact of aerosols on the photochemistry in Mexico City is evaluated using the WRF-CHEM model for the period from 24 to 29 March during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign. An aerosol radiative module ...

Li, Guohui

129

Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly Large Contribution of Coarse Mode to Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The majority of previous studies dealing with effect of coarse-mode aerosols on the radiation budget have focused primary on polluted regions with substantial aerosol loadings. We reexamine this effect for a relatively "pristine" area using a unique 1-month dataset collected during recent Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). We demonstrate that the coarse-mode (supermicron) particles can contribute substantially (more than 50%) and frequently (up to 85% of time) to the total volume. In contrast to the conventional expectations that the radiative impact of coarse-mode aerosols should be small for "pristine" regions, we find that the neglecting of the large particles may lead to significant overestimation (up to 45%) of direct aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of atmosphere despite of very small aerosol optical depth (about 0.05 at 0.5 ). Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of the coarse-mode aerosols on the pristine radiative properties over land and the need for more explicit inclusion of the coarse-mode aerosols in climate-related observational and model studies.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Barnard, James C.

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

130

Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The combustion of biomass is a major source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Regional and global-scale models of atmospheric chemistry and climate take estimates for these emissions and arbitrarily "mix" them into ...

Alvarado, Matthew James

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Assessment of Seeding Effects in Snowpack Augmentation Programs: Ice Nucleation and Scavenging of Seeding Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trace chemical analysis techniques have been used in a series of cloud-seeding experiments in the central Sierra Nevada with the ultimate purpose of distinguishing whether the submicron-sized aerosol particles used for seeding are removed by ...

J. A. Warburton; L. G. Young; R. H. Stone

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Aerosol-Induced Large-Scale Variability in Precipitation over the Tropical Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiyear satellite observations are used to document a relationship between the large-scale variability in precipitation over the tropical Atlantic and aerosol traced to African sources. During boreal winter and spring there is a significant ...

Jingfeng Huang; Chidong Zhang; Joseph M. Prospero

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Formulated 2-Traces - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 19, 1997 ... next up previous. Next: Characteristics of truth tables Up: Introduction to Traces Previous: Definition of the n-Trace...

134

between Photolytic Aerosols and Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the early 70s chemistry and transport models (ChTMs) have been proposed and improved. Tropospheric ChTMs for trace species are detailed numerical formulations intended to represent the atmospheric system as a whole, accounting for all the individual processes and phenomena that influence climate changes. The development of computer resources and the retrieval of emission inventories and observational data of the species of interest have enhanced the model evolution towards three-dimensional global models that account for more complicated chemical mechanisms, wet and dry deposition phenomena, and interactions and feedback mechanisms between meteorology and atmospheric chemistry. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the sensitivity of the solar radiative field in the atmosphere to absorption and scattering by aerosols. This effort is preliminary to the study of feedback mechanisms between photolytic processes that create and destroy aerosols and the radiation field itself. In this study, a cloud of water-soluble aerosols, randomly distributed in space within hypothetical 1-cm cubes of atmosphere, is generated. A random radius is assigned to each aerosol according to a lognormal size distribution function. The radiative field characterization is analyzed using a Mie scattering code to determine the scattering phase function and the absorption and scattering coefficients of sulfate aerosols, and a Monte Carlo ray-trace code is used to evaluate the radiative exchange. The ultimate goal of the effort is to create a tool to analyze the vertical distribution of absorption by aerosols in order to determine whether or not feedback between photolytic processes and the radiation field needs to be included in a Third Generation Chemistry and Transport model. ii

Mara Santa; Mara Iruzubieta; Mara Santa; Mara Iruzubieta

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Impacts of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impacts of aerosols and clouds on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany The impact of aerosols and clouds on CO2 uptake and water use...

136

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

137

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

138

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

139

Aerosol optical depth of the atmosphere over the ocean in the wavelength range 0.37-4m  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At least two problems, the climatic impact of aerosols and improvement in techniques for space-borne sensing, require investigation of the spatiotemporal variability of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the ocean. The marine atmosphere covers an area ...

S. M. Sakerin; D. M. Kabanov; A. V. Smirnov; B. N. Holben

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A Method for Forecasting Cloud Condensation Nuclei Using Predictions of Aerosol Physical and Chemical Properties from WRF/Chem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model investigations of aerosolcloud interactions across spatial scales are necessary to advance basic understanding of aerosol impacts on climate and the hydrological cycle. Yet these interactions are complex, involving numerous physical and ...

Daniel Ward; William Cotton

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID); Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK); Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Observations of temperature, wind, cirrus, and trace gases in the tropical tropopause transition layer during the MJO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite observations of temperature, optically thin cirrus clouds, and trace gases derived from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite ...

Katrina S. Virts; John M. Wallace

143

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. This paper presents the results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4SOM) ...

Salil Mahajan; Katherine J. Evans; James J. Hack; John E. Truesdale

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Seasonally Modulated Tropical Drought Induced by Volcanic Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Major volcanic events with a high loading of stratospheric aerosol have long been known to cause cooling, but their impact on precipitation has only recently been emphasized, especially as an analog for potential geoengineering of climate. Here, ...

Renu Joseph; Ning Zeng

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

How the Transport and Dispersion of AgI Aerosols May Affect Detectability of Seeding Effects by Statistical Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trace chemical measurements of the silver content of snow have been used to investigate the transport and dispersion of silver iodide cloud seeding aerosols into and around two large target areas in the central Sierra Nevada between 1978 and ...

Joseph A. Warburton; Richard H. Stone III; Byron L. Marler

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

absorption absorption ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol absorption The process in which radiation energy is retained by aerosols. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) PSAP : Particle Soot Absorption Photometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer External Instruments OMI : Ozone Monitoring Instrument

147

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concentration concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol concentration A measure of the amount of aerosol particles (e.g. number, mass, volume) per unit volume of air. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

148

Aerosols and solar energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief description is presented of the involvement of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in atmospheric research, including aerosol characterization and modeling. The use of both rigorous and simple models for radiation transport is described. Modeled broadband solar irradiance data are shown to illustrate the important influence that aerosols have on the energy available to solar systems and the economics of solar systems design. Standard aerosol measurement methods for solar applications are discussed along with the need for improved instrumentation and methods.

Bird, R. E.; Hulstrom, R. L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Environmental Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric particles influence many aspects of climate, air quality and human health. Understanding the composition, chemistry and behavior of atmospheric aerosols is a key remaining challenge in improving climate models. Furthermore, particles may be traced back to a particular source based on composition, stable isotope ratios, or the presence of particular surface chemistries. Finally, the characterization of atmospheric particles in the workplace plays an important role in understanding the potential for exposure and environmental and human health effects to engineered and natural nanoscale particles. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a useful tool in determining any of several aspects of the structure, composition and chemistry of these particles. Often used in conjunction with other surface analysis and electron microscopy methods, SIMS has been used to determine or confirm reactions on and in particles, the presence of particular organic species on the surface of atmospheric aerosols and several other interesting and relevant findings. Various versions of SIMS instruments dynamic SIMS, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry or TOF-SIMS, nanoSIMS have been used to determine specific aspects of aerosol structure and chemistry. This article describes the strengths of each type of SIMS instrument in the characterization of aerosols, along with guidance on sample preparation, specific characterization specific to the particular information sought in the analysis. Examples and guidance are given for each type of SIMS analysis.

Gaspar, Daniel J.; Cliff, John B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Long-term Statistics of Continental Cumuli: Does Aerosol Trigger Cumulus Variability?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric aerosols may control the formation, maintenance, and dissipation of cumuli by changing their microphysics. Recent observational and modeling results exist both in support and against strong potential impacts of aerosol [1-3]. Typically, the aerosol impact on water clouds has been investigated for regions with high aerosol loading and/or large atmospheric moisture [4]. Can we provide observational evidence of the aerosol-cloud relationship for a relatively dry continental region with low/moderate aerosol burden? To address this question, we revisit the aerosol-cloud relationship at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. In comparison with highly polluted regions, the SGP site is characterized by relatively small-to-moderate aerosol loading. Also, moisture content is small-to-moderate (compared to marine and coastal regions) for the SGP site. Because cumulus clouds have important impacts on climate forcing estimations [5] and are susceptible to aerosol effects [6], we focus on fair-weather cumuli (FWC) and their association with aerosol concentration and other potentially important factors. This association is investigated using a new 8-year aerosol and cloud climatology (2000-2007) developed with collocated and coincident surface and satellite observations.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

152

Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study Science Objective This field campaign is designed to increase scientific knowledge about the evolution of black carbon, primary organic...

153

Computational simulation of aerosol behaviour.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, computational methods have been developed for the simulation of aerosol dynamics and transport. Two different coupled aerosol-computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are (more)

Pyyknen, Jouni

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Campaign Campaign For the month of April, researchers are descending on and above Barrow, Alaska, to obtain data from the atmosphere that will help them understand the impacts that aerosols have on Arctic clouds and climate. Scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are using a heavily instrumented aircraft to collect data from the sky, while instruments based at surface sites in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, are obtaining measurements from the ground. Information obtained during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, will help scientists analyze the role of aerosols in climate, and represents a key contribution to Arctic climate research during International Polar Year.

155

Morphology effects on polydispersed aerosol deposition rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the analysis of severe nuclear accidents, accurate prediction of aerosol deposition is important since, among other things, this influences the distribution of radioactive decay heat within the primary system and containment compartments. The fact that the aerosol cloud is not comprised of dense isolated spherical particles of only one size inevitably complicates such calculations but must be taken into account. Some particle deposition mechanisms are more sensitive to particle size and morphology than others so that simplifying assumptions valid for one mechanism [such as particle thermophoresis (notoriously size and morphology insensitive)] may be seriously in error for others (e.g., convective Brownian diffusion or eddy impaction). This paper deals with aggregate aerosol deposition.

Rosner, D.E.; Tandon, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Khalil, Y.F. [Northeast Utilities Service Co., Berlin, CT (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Global tropospheric chemistry models for radiatively important trace species: Design and research recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the Earth`s climate could significantly affect regional and global concentrations of trace species that are criteria pollutants regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The policy community also needs to know how changes in global natural and anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate aerosols, and aerosol precursors will affect the distribution and concentration of these pollutants. This report maps out one path for obtaining this information.

Barchet, W.R.; Brothers, A.J.; Berkowitz, C.M.; Easter, R.C.; Ghan, S.J.; Saylor, R.D.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Introduction to Traces - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 19, 1997 ... Section 2 describes patterns that arise in the construction of truth tables for traces and their theoretical interest for the completeness problem.

158

Evolution of Ozone, Particulates, and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in the Vicinity of Houston Using a Fully Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry-Aerosol Model  

SciTech Connect

A new fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model is used to simulate the urban to regional scale variations in trace gases, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston over a five day summer period. Model performance is evaluated using a wide range of meteorological, chemistry, and particulate measurements obtained during 2000 Texas Air Quality Study. The predicted trace gas and particulate distributions were qualitatively similar to the surface and aircraft measurements with considerable spatial variations resulting from urban, power plant, and industrial sources of primary pollutants. Sulfate, organic carbon, and other inorganics were the largest constituents of the predicted particulates. The predicted shortwave radiation was 30 to 40 W m-2 closer to the observations when the aerosol optical properties were incorporated into the shortwave radiation scheme; however, the predicted hourly aerosol radiative forcing was still under-estimated by 10 to 50 W m-2. The predicted aerosol radiative forcing was larger over Houston and the industrial ship channel than over the rural areas, consistent with surface measurements. The differences between the observed and simulated aerosol radiative forcing resulted from transport errors, relative humidity errors in the upper convective boundary layer that affect aerosol water content, secondary organic aerosols that were not yet included in the model, and uncertainties in the primary particulate emission rates. The current model was run in a predictive mode and demonstrates the challenges of accurately simulating all of the meteorological, chemical, and aerosol parameters over urban to regional scales that can affect aerosol radiative forcing.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Barnard, James C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Grell, Georg; Peckham, S. E.

2006-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

159

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

160

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and atmospheric organic aerosol formation. Envir. Sci.of secondary organic aerosol mass fraction, Atmos. Chem.composition of ambient aerosol particles. Environ. Sci.

Qi, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing Numerical Sensitivity Study of Aerosol Influence on Immersion Freezing in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds Gijs de Boer, Tempei Hashino, Edwin W. Eloranta and Gregory J. Tripoli The University of Wisconsin - Madison (1) Introduction (1) Introduction Mixed-phase stratiform clouds are commonly observed at high latitudes (Shupe et al., 2006; de Boer et al., 2009a). These clouds significaly impact the atmospheric radiative

164

GPU ray tracing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NVIDIA OptiX ray tracing engine is a programmable system designed for NVIDIA GPUs and other highly parallel architectures. The OptiX engine builds on the key observation that most ray tracing algorithms can be implemented using a small ...

Steven G. Parker; Heiko Friedrich; David Luebke; Keith Morley; James Bigler; Jared Hoberock; David McAllister; Austin Robison; Andreas Dietrich; Greg Humphreys; Morgan McGuire; Martin Stich

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Trace element emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Ray tracing visualization toolkit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ray Tracing Visualization Toolkit (rtVTK) is a collection of programming and visualization tools supporting visual analysis of ray-based rendering algorithms. rtVTK leverages layered visualization within the spatial domain of computation, enabling ... Keywords: ray tracing, ray-based rendering, visualization

Christiaan Gribble; Jeremy Fisher; Daniel Eby; Ed Quigley; Gideon Ludwig

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

168

Monodisperse aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

Ortiz, L.W.; Soderholm, S.C.

1988-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

169

Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

RACORO aerosol data processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States  

SciTech Connect

We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar ecosystems.

Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

172

Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient for Stratospheric Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple empirical formula for the wavelength dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficient is proposed. The relationship between the constants in the formula and the variable parameter in the aerosol size distribution is explicitly expressed. ...

Glenn K. Yue

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Policy Applications Speaker(s): Susanne Bauer Date: December 6, 2011 - 4:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar...

174

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: TRACE 700  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

700 700 TRACE 700 logo. Trane's TRACE 700 software - the latest version of Trane Air Conditioning Economics - brings the algorithms recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) to the familiar Windows operating environment. Use it to assess the energy and economic impacts of building-related selections such as architectural features, comfort-system design, HVAC equipment selections, operating schedules, and financial options. Flexible data entry, coupled with multiple views and "drag-and-drop" load assignments, simplify the modeling process and help you identify optimal zoning and plant configurations. Compare up to four alternatives for a single project by modeling various air distribution and mechanical

175

Sensor Data Trace Communication  

This is a method and process for detecting, locating and quantifying physical phenomena using a data trace that may be incorporated and/or installed on structures including oil and gas pipes and bridges, buildings, etc.

176

Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

Paulson, S E

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Mobile Climate Observatory for Atmospheric Aerosols in India  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosols in India Atmospheric Aerosols in India Nainital, India, was the site chosen for deployment of a portable climate research laboratory to study how aerosols impact clouds and energy transfer in the atmosphere. The well-being of hundreds of millions of residents in northeastern India depends on the fertile land around the Ganges River, which is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Any disturbance to the monsoon rains could threaten the population. In the same region, increased industrial activities due to economic growth are releasing small aerosol particles, such as soot and dust, that absorb and scatter sunlight and thus can change cloud formation processes and the heat distribution in the atmosphere. Such changes could greatly increase or

178

AerosolCCN Closure at a Semi-rural Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

aerosol size distributions and size-resolved aerosol compositions measured by ... Keywords Cloud condensation nuclei, closure study, organic aerosols, Khler.

179

Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric submicron aerosol . . . . . . . 2.3 Partitioningon SOA organic aerosol formation alkyl nitrate and secondaryPeroxy radical fate . . . . . . Aerosol . . . . . . . .

Rollins, Andrew Waite

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. Ruedy, Matrix (multiconfiguration aerosol tracker ofmixing state): An aerosol microphysical module for globalAn investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Technol. , Vol. 40,

Bauer, Susanne E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system. Analysis of the aerosol and water vapor data collected by the Raman lidar during the 2003 Aerosol IOP indicated that the sensitivity of the lidar was significantly lower than when the lidar was initially deployed. A detailed analysis after the IOP of the long-term dataset demonstrated that the lidar began degrading in early 2002, and that it lost approximately a factor of 4 in sensitivity between 2002 and 2004. We participated in the development of the remediation plan for the system to restore its initial performance. We conducted this refurbishment and upgrade from May- September 2004. This remediation lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of 10 and 30 for the Raman lidar's water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol backscatter coefficient data, respectively as compared to the signal strengths when the system was first deployed. The DOE ARM Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE), which was conducted during September 2005, evaluated the impact of these modifications and upgrades on the SGP Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and optical thickness. The CARL modifications significantly improved the accuracy and temporal resolution of the aerosol measurements. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Raman lidar were also used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter-Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) (http://nansen.ipsl.jussieu.fr/AEROCOM/aerocomhome.html) project. There was a wide range in how the models represent the aerosol extinction profiles over the ARM SGP site, even though the average annual AOT represented by the various models and measured by CARL and the Sun photometer were in general agreement, at least within the standard deviations of the averages. There were considerable differences in the average vertical distributions among the models, even among models that had similar average aerosol optical thickness. Deviations between mean aerosol extinction profiles were generally small (~20-30%) for altitudes above 2 km, and grew consider

Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

Highly stable aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Clark, Mark L. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Highly stable aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

184

Adaptation for Nature: Ecological Impacts of Climate Change and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Models CyberGIS for Geospatial Discovery and Innovation Ecological Impacts of Climate Change Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics in CAM5 Adaptation for Nature: Ecological...

185

Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

Jankovic Aerosol Characterization.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization, Characterization, Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Interpretation, and Application of Data Application of Data NSRC Symposium NSRC Symposium July 8, 2008 John Jankovic, CIH CIH Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Aerosol Characterization, Interpretation, and Application of Data Application of Data Department of Energy (DOE) Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) developing Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H - The CNMS Approach * Establish Exposure Control Guideline (ECG) - Characterize Aerosol * Collect and interpret data * Assign Process to a Control Band Aerosol Particle Characterization * Size distribution (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation related to either mass, surface, or number)

187

Influence of Absorbing Aerosols on the Inference of Solar Surface Radiation Budget and Cloud Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study addresses the impact of absorbing aerosols on the retrieval of the solar surface radiation budget (SSRB) and on the inference of cloud absorption using multiple global datasets. The data pertain to the radiation budgets at the top of ...

Zhanqing Li

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Effects of Aerosol and Horizontal Inhomogeneity on the Broadband Albedo of Marine Stratus: Numerical Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent estimates of the effect of increasing amounts of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere have indicated that its impact may be comparable in magnitude to the effect from increases in CO2. Much of this ...

D. P. Duda; G. L. Stephens; B. Stevens; W. R. Cotton

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Aerosol Indirect Effects on Tropical Convection Characteristics under Conditions of RadiativeConvective Equilibrium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of enhanced aerosol concentrations such as those associated with dust intrusions on the trimodal distribution of tropical convection have been investigated through the use of large-domain (10 000 grid points), fine-resolution (1 km), ...

Susan C. van den Heever; Graeme L. Stephens; Norman B. Wood

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Wind Tunnel Study of Turbulence Effects on the Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Water Drops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments are described where the effects of turbulence on the impaction scavenging of aerosol particles by water drops were investigated. During the experiments the drops were freely suspended at their terminal velocities in the ...

O. Vohl; S. K. Mitra; K. Diehl; G. Huber; S. C. Wurzler; K-L. Kratz; H. R. Pruppacher

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A numerical study of the effect of different aerosol types on East Asian summer clouds and precipitation  

SciTech Connect

The impact of anthropogenic aerosol on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated with NCAR CAM5, a state-of-the-art climate model with aerosols direct and indirect effects. Results indicate that anthropogenic aerosol tends to cause a weakened EASM with a southward shift of precipitation in East Asia mostly by its radiative effect. Anthropogenic aerosol induced surface cooling stabilizes the boundary layer, suppresses the convection and latent heat release in northern China, and reduces the tropospheric temperature over land and land-sea thermal contrast, thus leading to a weakened EASM. Meanwhile, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), anthropogenic aerosol can significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration but decrease the cloud droplet effective radius over Indochina and Indian Peninsulas as well as over southwestern and northern China, inhibiting the precipitation in these regions. Thus, anthropogenic aerosol tends to reduce Southeast and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation by its indirect effect.

Jiang, Yiquan; Liu, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiuqun; Wang, Minghuai

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Tracing Geothermal Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical compounds have been designed under this contract that can be used to trace water that has been injected into vapor-dominated and two-phase geothermal fields. Increased knowledge of the injection flow is provided by the tracers, and this augments the power that can be produced. Details on the stability and use of these tracers are included in this report.

Michael C. Adams Greg Nash

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhancement of Atmospheric Solar Heating from Forest FiresScale dependence of solar heating rates in convective cloudScale Dependence of Solar Heating Rates in Convective Cloud

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

strong northwesterly offshore wind [Pease et al. , 1998],dusty air moves offshore blown by the easterly winds, it is

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel, biofuel and biomass combustion, organic carbon hasefficient combustion processes such as biomass burning haveincomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass burning. BC

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wind carries warm marine air mass from the Southern Hemisphere northward and brings moisture and precipitation over India

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resolved Radiative Transfer Model: MODTRAN.131 APMEXModerate Imaging Spectroradiometer MODTRAN MODerate spectralprovide by MODTRAN133 Table 4.2

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Global Aerosol Health Impacts: Quantifying Uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric fine particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5) can cause cardiovasculatory and respiratory damages and mortalities. Assessing population exposure to and damages from PM2.5 is important for policy, but measurement ...

Selin, Noelle E.

199

Chemical Bonding and Structural Information of Black Carbon Reference Materials and Individual Carbonaceous Atmospheric Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HULIS) in biomass-burning aerosols, Atmospheric Chemistrymicroscopical and aerosol dynamical characterizationof soot aerosols, Journal of Aerosol Science , 34 , 1347-

Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Marten, Bryan D.; Gilles, Mary K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Aerosols in a Changing Atmosphere: From Detailed Aerosol Microphysics to Policy Applications Speaker(s): Susanne Bauer Date: December 6, 2011 - 4:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, However, understanding the net effect of multi-source emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ARM - Mobile Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesMobile Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Mobile Aerosol Observing System Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York, using the ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System. Intensive aerosol observations conducted on the campus of Brookhaven

202

Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earths radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

Jefferson, A

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

Trace Impurities and Activation Products in Base Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the results of research related to the concentrations of trace impurities and activation products in stainless steel alloys used for reactor vessels and internals. While present in extremely low concentrations, these trace elements and radionuclides can impact radioactive waste disposal of the components upon decommissioning.BackgroundThe primary basis of activity in a decommissioning source term is activated metals from the reactor and ...

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

THE ROLE OF SOOT IN AEROSOL CHEMISTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characterization of aerosols." in Nature. Aim. and MethodsLAWRENCE THE ROLE OF SOOT IN AEROSOL CHEMISTRY T. NovakovTHE ROLE OF SOOT IN AEROSOL CHEMISTRY* T. Novakov Lawrence

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Flagan, R.C. (1990) Aerosol Sci. and Technol. 13 , 230.and Seinfeld, J.H. (2002) Aerosol Science and Technology ,light absorption by atmospheric aerosol, in preparation for

Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paulson, S. E. ; Chung, A. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2007 , 41,Y. G. ; Daum, P. H. J. Aerosol Sci 2008 , 39, 974-986. (32)Accurate Monitoring of Terrestrial Aerosols and Total Solar

Kim, Hwajin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

208

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

CGC Trace Species Partitioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trace Species Partitioning as Affected Trace Species Partitioning as Affected by Cold Gas Cleanup Conditions: A Thermodynamic Analysis February 10, 2011 DOE/NETL-2011/1503 T r ace Species P ar titioning at C old G as C leanup C onditions Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name,

210

Multimedia Trace Elements Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current and future trace element regulations on flue gas emissions, water discharges, and solid waste disposal will result in increasingly stringent limits and substantially increased costs for energy companies. As a result, there is a critical need to address environmental pollutant releases in a holistic, multimedia manner so that a pollutant removed by a control technology in one medium (for example, flue gas) is properly managed in regard to discharges in the other media (water and solid waste). This...

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

211

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

212

Aerosol Metrology for Climate Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the interaction of aerosols with solar radiation ... that will accelerate the development of new ... together experts from government, industry and academia ...

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

213

ScalaTrace: Tracing, Analysis and Modeling of HPC Codes at Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterizing the communication behavior of large-scale applications is a difficult and costly task due to code/system complexity and their long execution times. An alternative to running actual codes is to gather their communication traces and then replay them, which facilitates application tuning and future procurements. While past approaches lacked lossless scalable trace collection, we contribute an approach that provides orders of magnitude smaller, if not near constant-size, communication traces regardless of the number of nodes while preserving structural information. We introduce intra- and inter-node compression techniques of MPI events, we develop a scheme to preserve time and causality of communication events, and we present results of our implementation for BlueGene/L. Given this novel capability, we discuss its impact on communication tuning and on trace extrapolation. To the best of our knowledge, such a concise representation of MPI traces in a scalable manner combined with time-preserving deterministic MPI call replay are without any precedence.

Mueller, F; Wu, X; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B; Gamblin, T

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

ARM - Field Campaign - Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsGanges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) govCampaignsGanges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Campaign Links Science Plan AMF India Deployment Website Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) 2011.06.13 - 2012.03.31 Website : http://www.arm.gov/sites/amf/pgh/ Lead Scientist : V. Rao Kotamarthi Description The Ganges valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoon. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers could be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that

215

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Effects of Aerosol Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Polarization in the Oxygen A-Band Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany A vector radiative transfer code with successive order of scattering method was used to simulate the high-resolution polarization spectra in the oxygen A-band. The effects of aerosol size distribution and vertical profile on the radiance and polarization at the top and bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed. The impacts of instrument specification on information content are also analyzed. Polarized radiances were dominated (>95%) by the first and second orders of scattering. The contributions of scattering from different levels to the TOA and surface observation are analyzed. The

216

Flexible reference trace reduction for VM simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The unmanageably large size of reference traces has spurred the development of sophisticated trace reduction techniques. In this article we present two new algorithms for trace reduction: Safely Allowed Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction ... Keywords: cache hierarchies, locality, reference traces, trace compression, trace reduction

Scott F. Kaplan; Yannis Smaragdakis; Paul R. Wilson

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Organic Aerosol Partition Module Documentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM-2.5), data and analytical tools are needed to support their implementation. This report documents an EPRI modeling component for efficiently simulating aspects of organic aerosol formation. Without this component, simulations would tend to overestimate the contribution of power plant emissions to atmospheric aerosol mass.

1999-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

218

Relative Content of Black Carbon in Submicron Aerosol as a Sign of the Effect of Forest Fire Smokes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass burning occurs often in regions containing vast forest tracts and peat-bogs. These processes are accompanied by the emission of a large amount of aerosol particles and crystal carbon (black carbon [BC], soot). BC is the predominant source of solar absorption in atmospheric aerosol, which impacts climate. (Jacobson 2001; Rozenberg 1982). In this paper, we analyze the results of laboratory and field investigations that focused on the relative content of BC in aerosol particles. Main attention is given to the study of possibility using this parameter as an informative sign for estimating the effect of remote forest fire smokes on the near-ground aerosol composition.

Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Yauscheva, E.P.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

219

Aerosol Laboratory - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities > Engineering Capabilities > Engineering Experimentation > Aerosol Laboratory Capabilities Engineering Experimentation Reactor Safety Experimentation Aerosol Experiments System Components Laser Applications Robots Applications Other Facilities Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Aerosol Laboratory The Aerosol Laboratory (AL) houses equipment to measure and record the physical parameters necessary to characterize the formation and transport of aerosols. Bookmark and Share The Aerosol Laboratory (AL) has extensive analytic and experimental capabilities to characterize the formation and transport of aerosols formed from the condensation of vapors. Computer codes have been developed to

220

Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest uncertainty in climate forcing and projection. Previous IPCC reported aerosol indirect forcing is negative, which does not account for aerosol-convective cloud interactions because the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead to enhanced regional convergence and a strong top-of atmosphere (TOA) warming. Aerosol invigoration effect on convection can result in a strong radiative warming in the atmosphere (+5.6 W m-2) due to strong night-time warming, a lofted latent heating, and a reduced diurnal temperature difference, all of which could remarkably impact regional circulation and modify weather systems. We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear and cloud base temperature play key roles in determining the significance of aerosol invigoration effect for convective systems.

Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High Resolution Aerosol Modeling: Decadal Changes in Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Science Division of LLNL has performed high-resolution calculations of direct sulfate forcing using a DOE-provided computer resource at NERSC. We integrated our global chemistry-aerosol model (IMPACT) with the LLNL high-resolution global climate model (horizontal resolution as high as 100 km) to examine the temporal evolution of sulfate forcing since 1950. We note that all previous assessments of sulfate forcing reported in IPCC (2001) were based on global models with coarse spatial resolutions ({approx} 300 km or even coarser). However, the short lifetime of aerosols ({approx} days) results in large spatial and temporal variations of radiative forcing by sulfate. As a result, global climate models with coarse resolutions do not accurately simulate sulfate forcing on regional scales. It requires much finer spatial resolutions in order to address the effects of regional anthropogenic SO{sub 2} emissions on the global atmosphere as well as the effects of long-range transport of sulfate aerosols on the regional climate forcing. By taking advantage of the tera-scale computer resources at NERSC, we simulated the historic direct sulfate forcing at much finer spatial resolutions than ever attempted before. Furthermore, we performed high-resolution chemistry simulations and saved monthly averaged oxidant fields, which will be used in subsequent simulations of sulfate aerosol formation and their radiative impact.

Bergmann, D J; Chuang, C C; Govindasamy, B; Cameron-Smith, P J; Rotman, D A

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Relating Secondary Organic Aerosol Characteristics with Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and microphysical characterization of ambient aerosols withthe aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, Mass Spectrom Rev,of secondary organic aerosol under near atmospheric

Tang, Xiaochen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ ][Dca ? ]. Figure 2. Aerosol particle size distribution ofhypergolic ionic liquid aerosols Christine J. Koh , Chen-ionization of evaporated IL aerosols Isolated ion pairs of a

Koh, Christine J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this room ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH -RECEIVED I.AWSSKCEDIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTMass and Composition of Aerosol as a Function of Time,

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes T. Novakov, T.W.indicator of anthropogenic aerosols with observed surfacetemperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends

Novakov, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Aerosol measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Tellus, Ser. A, vol. 43, p.Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols. New York : Elsevier ScientificCo. , 45. B.A. Albrecht, Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Lithgow, Gregg Arthur

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTLow-Z Elements in Atmospheric Aerosol Particles by Nuclearof sulfur dioxide by aerosols of manganese sulfate," Ind.

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimations in global aerosol models, Atmos. Chem. Phys. ,Cloud mi- crophysics and aerosol indirect efefcts in theuncertainties in assessing aerosol effects on climate, Ann.

Menon, Surabi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the ?rst indirect aerosol effect, Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 5,Cloud susceptibility and the ?rst aerosol indirect forcing:to black carbon and aerosol concentrations, J. Geophys.

Lohmann, Ulrike

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

GCM Aerosol Radiative Effects Using Geographically Varying Aerosol Sizes Deduced from AERONET Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical properties, and hence the direct radiative effects, are largely determined by the assumed aerosol size distribution. In order to relax the fixed aerosol size constraint commonly used in general circulation models (GCMs), ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

232

Analyzing signatures of aerosol-cloud interactions from satellite retrievals and the GISS GCM to constrain the aerosol indirect effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud developmentclouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,1014 Albrecht, B. A. , Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

ScalaTrace: Scalable Compression and Replay of Communication Traces for High Performance Computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterizing the communication behavior of large-scale applications is a difficult and costly task due to code/system complexity and long execution times. While many tools to study this behavior have been developed, these approaches either aggregate information in a lossy way through high-level statistics or produce huge trace files that are hard to handle. We contribute an approach that provides orders of magnitude smaller, if not near-constant size, communication traces regardless of the number of nodes while preserving structural information. We introduce intra- and inter-node compression techniques of MPI events that are capable of extracting an application's communication structure. We further present a replay mechanism for the traces generated by our approach and discuss results of our implementation for BlueGene/L. Given this novel capability, we discuss its impact on communication tuning and beyond. To the best of our knowledge, such a concise representation of MPI traces in a scalable manner combined with deterministic MPI call replay are without any precedent.

Noeth, M; Ratn, P; Mueller, F; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B R

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

234

LLNL Scientists Use NERSC to Advance Global Aerosol Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While ''greenhouse gases'' have been the focus of climate change research for a number of years, DOE's ''Aerosol Initiative'' is now examining how aerosols (small particles of approximately micron size) affect the climate on both a global and regional scale. Scientists in the Atmospheric Science Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are using NERSC's IBM supercomputer and LLNL's IMPACT (atmospheric chemistry) model to perform simulations showing the historic effects of sulfur aerosols at a finer spatial resolution than ever done before. Simulations were carried out for five decades, from the 1950s through the 1990s. The results clearly show the effects of the changing global pattern of sulfur emissions. Whereas in 1950 the United States emitted 41 percent of the world's sulfur aerosols, this figure had dropped to 15 percent by 1990, due to conservation and anti-pollution policies. By contrast, the fraction of total sulfur emissions of European origin has only dropped by a factor of 2 and the Asian emission fraction jumped six fold during the same time, from 7 percent in 1950 to 44 percent in 1990. Under a special allocation of computing time provided by the Office of Science INCITE (Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment) program, Dan Bergmann, working with a team of LLNL scientists including Cathy Chuang, Philip Cameron-Smith, and Bala Govindasamy, was able to carry out a large number of calculations during the past month, making the aerosol project one of the largest users of NERSC resources. The applications ran on 128 and 256 processors. The objective was to assess the effects of anthropogenic (man-made) sulfate aerosols. The IMPACT model calculates the rate at which SO{sub 2} (a gas emitted by industrial activity) is oxidized and forms particles known as sulfate aerosols. These particles have a short lifespan in the atmosphere, often washing out in about a week. This means that their effects on climate tend to be more regional, occurring near the area where the SO{sub 2} is emitted. To accurately study these regional effects, Bergmann needed to run the simulations at a finer horizontal resolution, as the coarser resolution (typically 300km by 300km) of other climate models are insufficient for studying changes on a regional scale. Livermore's use of CAM3, the Community Atmospheric Model which is a high-resolution climate model developed at NCAR (with collaboration from DOE), allows a 100km by 100km grid to be applied. NERSC's terascale computing capability provided the needed computational horsepower to run the application at the finer level.

Bergmann, D J; Chuang, C; Rotman, D

2004-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

235

Trace metal transformation in gasification  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to 1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, 2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and 3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; Allen, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Holcombe, N.T. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Trace metal transformations in gasification  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

Benson, S.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J. [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Optimally profiling and tracing programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes algorithms for inserting monitoring code to profile and trace programs. These algorithms greatly reduce the cost of measuring programs with respect to the commonly used technique of placing code in each basic block. Program profiling ... Keywords: control-flow graph, instruction tracing, instrumentation, profiling

Thomas Ball; James R. Larus

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Trace Anomaly in Geometric Discretization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I develop the simplest geometric-discretized analogue of two dimensional scalar field theory, which qualitatively reproduces the trace anomaly of the continuous theory. The discrete analogue provides an interpretation of the trace anomaly in terms of a non-trivial transformation of electric-magnetic duality-invariant modes of resistor networks that accommodate both electric and magnetic charge currents.

Czech, B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 2010 Graciosa Island, Azores, 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Surface Aerosol Observing System The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is equipped to quantify the interaction between clouds and aerosol particles. A counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) is used to selectively sample cloud drops. The CVI takes advantage of the

240

Two-Column Aerosol Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Research Facility is conducting the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod National Seashore. From July 2012 to June 2013, the ARM Mobile Facility-a portable...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Mesoscale Variations of Tropospheric Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropospheric aerosols are calculated to cause global-scale changes in the earth's heat balance, but these forcings are space/time integrals over highly variable quantities. Accurate quantification of these forcings will require an unprecedented ...

Theodore L. Anderson; Robert J. Charlson; David M. Winker; John A. Ogren; Kim Holmn

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Addition of Tropospheric Chemistry and Aerosols to the NCAR Community Climate System Model  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric chemistry and aerosols have several important roles in climate change. They affect the Earth's radiative balance directly: cooling the earth by scattering sunlight (aerosols) and warming the Earth by trapping the Earth's thermal radiation (methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, and CFCs are greenhouse gases). Atmospheric chemistry and aerosols also impact many other parts of the climate system: modifying cloud properties (aerosols can be cloud condensation nuclei), fertilizing the biosphere (nitrogen species and soil dust), and damaging the biosphere (acid rain and ozone damage). In order to understand and quantify the effects of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols on the climate and the biosphere in the future, it is necessary to incorporate atmospheric chemistry and aerosols into state-of-the-art climate system models. We have taken several important strides down that path. Working with the latest NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM), we have incorporated a state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry model to simulate tropospheric ozone. Ozone is not just a greenhouse gas, it damages biological systems including lungs, tires, and crops. Ozone chemistry is also central to the oxidizing power of the atmosphere, which destroys a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere (which is a good thing). We have also implemented a fast chemical mechanism that has high fidelity with the full mechanism, for significantly reduced computational cost (to facilitate millennium scale simulations). Sulfate aerosols have a strong effect on climate by reflecting sunlight and modifying cloud properties. So in order to simulate the sulfur cycle more fully in CCSM simulations, we have linked the formation of sulfate aerosols to the oxidizing power of the atmosphere calculated by the ozone mechanisms, and to dimethyl sulfide emissions from the ocean ecosystem in the model. Since the impact of sulfate aerosols depends on the relative abundance of other aerosols in the atmosphere, we also implemented interactive simulation of nitrate, sea-salt, black carbon, and both primary and secondary organic aerosols into CCSM (using assumed size distributions). These new capabilities are opening the door to studies of the role atmospheric chemistry and aerosols in climate change, and their impact on the biosphere, that were previously impossible.

Cameron-Smith, P; Lamarque, J; Connell, P; Chuang, C; Rotman, D; Taylor, J

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

243

Method for producing monodisperse aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Background Stratospheric Aerosol Variations Deduced from Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products from 1998 to 2004 have been analyzed for the tendency of changes in background stratospheric aerosol properties. The aerosol extinction coefficient E has apparently ...

Yu Liu; Xuepeng Zhao; Weiliang Li; Xiuji Zhou

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Tracing Geothermal Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol during MILAGRO 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol duringA computationally efficient thermodynamic equilibrium modelurban aerosols determined by thermodynamic equilibrium? An

Fountoukis, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant Particles Title Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant Particles Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-42414 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Modera, Mark P., Olivier Brzozowski, François Rémi Carrié, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, William W. Delp, William J. Fisk, Ronnen M. Levinson, and Duo Wang Journal Energy & Buildings Volume 34 Start Page Chapter Pagination 705-714 Abstract Electricity energy savings potential by eliminating air leakage from ducts in large commercial buildings is on the order of 10 kWh/m2 per year (1 kWh/ft2). We have tested, in two large commercial buildings, a new technology that simultaneously seals duct leaks and measures effective leakage area of ducts. The technology is based upon injecting a fog of aerosolized sealant particles into a pressurized duct system. In brief, this process involves blocking all of the intentional openings in a duct system (e.g., diffusers). Therefore, when the system is pressurized, the only place for the air carrying the aerosol particles to exit the system is through the leaks. The key to the technology is to keep the particles suspended within the airstream until they reach the leaks, and then to have them leave the airstream and deposit on the leak sites. The principal finding from this field study was that the aerosol technology is capable of sealing the leaks in a large commercial building duct system within a reasonable time frame. In the first building, 66% of the leakage area was sealed within 2.5 hours of injection, and in the second building 86% of the leakage area was sealed within 5 hours. We also found that the aerosol could be blown through the VAV boxes in the second building without impacting their calibrations or performance. Some remaining questions are (1) how to achieve sealing rates comparable to those experienced in smaller residential systems; and (2) what tightness level these ducts systems can be brought to by means of aerosol sealing.

248

Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (D{sub p} > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25 % of aerosol with D{sub p} > 100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the interstitial aerosol appears to have a background, upon which is superimposed a high frequency signal that contains the anti-correlation. The anti-correlation is a possible source of information on particle activation or evaporation.

Kleinman L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; SedlacekIII, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

Subarctic atmospheric aerosol composition: 1. Ambient aerosol characterization  

SciTech Connect

Sub-Arctic aerosol was sampled during July 2007 at the Abisko Research Station Stordalen field site operated by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Located in northern Sweden at 68 latitude and 385 meters above sea level (msl), this site is classified as a semi-continuous permafrost mire. Number density, size distribution, cloud condensation nucleus properties, and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol were determined. Backtrajectories showed that three distinct airmasses were present over Stordalen during the sampling period. Aerosol properties changed and correlated with airmass origin to the south, northeast, or west. We observe that Arctic aerosol is not compositionally unlike that found in the free troposphere at mid-latitudes. Internal mixtures of sulfates and organics, many on insoluble biomass burning and/or elemental carbon cores, dominate the number density of particles from ~200 to 2000 nm aerodynamic diameter. Mineral dust which had taken up gas phase species was observed in all airmasses. Sea salt, and the extent to which it had lost volatile components, was the aerosol type that most varied with airmass.

Friedman, Beth; Herich, Hanna; Kammermann, Lukas; Gross, Deborah S.; Ameth, Almut; Holst, Thomas; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

250

Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol indirect effects have remained the largest uncertainty in estimates of the radiative forcing of past and future climate change. Observational constraints on cloud lifetime effects are particularly challenging since it is difficult to separate aerosol effects from meteorological influences. Here we use three global climate models, including a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF, to show that the dependence of the probability of precipitation on aerosol loading, termed the precipitation frequency susceptibility (S{sub pop}), is a good measure of the liquid water path response to aerosol perturbation ({lambda}), as both Spop and {lambda} strongly depend on the magnitude of autoconversion, a model representation of precipitation formation via collisions among cloud droplets. This provides a method to use satellite observations to constrain cloud lifetime effects in global climate models. S{sub pop} in marine clouds estimated from CloudSat, MODIS and AMSR-E observations is substantially lower than that from global climate models and suggests a liquid water path increase of less than 5% from doubled cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. This implies a substantially smaller impact on shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCF) over ocean due to aerosol indirect effects than simulated by current global climate models (a reduction by one-third for one of the conventional aerosol-climate models). Further work is needed to quantify the uncertainties in satellite-derived estimates of S{sub pop} and to examine S{sub pop} in high-resolution models.

Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ecuyer, Tristan L.; Zhang, Kai; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Easter, Richard C.; Marchand, Roger; Chand, Duli; Qian, Yun; Penner, Joyce E.

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Model simulations of the first aerosol indirect effect and comparison of cloud susceptibility fo satellite measurements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Present-day global anthropogenic emissions contribute more than half of the mass in submicron particles primarily due to sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol components derived from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. These anthropogenic aerosols modify the microphysics of clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the reflectivity of low-level water clouds, leading to a cooling effect on climate (the Twomey effect or first indirect effect). The magnitude of the first aerosol indirect effect is associated with cloud frequency as well as a quantity representing the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in cloud drop number concentration. This quantity is referred to as cloud susceptibility [Twomey, 1991]. Analysis of satellite measurements demonstrates that marine stratus clouds are likely to be of higher susceptibility than continental clouds because of their lower number concentrations of cloud drops [Platnick and Twomey, 1994]. Here, we use an improved version of the fully coupled climate/chemistry model [Chuang et al., 1997] to calculate the global concentrations Of sulfate, dust, sea salt, and carbonaceous aerosols (biomass smoke and fossil fuel organic matter and black carbon). We investigated the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud susceptibility and calculated the associated changes of shortwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We also examined the correspondence between the model simulation of cloud susceptibility and that inferred from satellite measurements to test whether our simulated aerosol concentrations and aerosol/cloud interactions give a faithful representation of these features.

Chuang, C; Penner, J E; Kawamoto, K

2002-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fast and Slow Responses of the South Asian Monsoon System to Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a global climate model with fully predictive aerosol life cycle, we investigate the fast and slow responses of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Our results show that the feedbacks associated with sea surface temperature (SST) change caused by aerosols play a more important role than the aerosol's direct impact on radiation, clouds and land surface (rapid adjustments) in shaping the total equilibrium climate response of the monsoon system to aerosol forcing. Inhomogeneous SST cooling caused by anthropogenic aerosols eventually reduces the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient and the easterly shear of zonal winds over the region, slowing down the local Hadley cell circulation, decreasing the northward moisture transport, and causing a reduction in precipitation over South Asia. Although total responses in precipitation are closer to the slow responses in general, the fast component dominates over land areas north of 25N. Our results also show an east-west asymmetry in the fast responses to anthropogenic aerosols causing increases in precipitation west of 80E but decreases east of it.

Ganguly, Dilip; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Yoon, Jin-Ho

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

253

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

SciTech Connect

Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Reduction of photosynthetically active radiation under extreme stratospheric aerosol loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recently published hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions might be caused by an obstruction of sunlight is tested by model calculations. First we compute the total mass of stratospheric aerosols under normal atmospheric conditions for four different (measured) aerosol size distributions and vertical profiles. For comparison, the stratospheric dust masses after four volcanic eruptions are also evaluated. Detailed solar radiative transfer calculations are then performed for artificially increased aerosol amounts until the postulated darkness scenario is obtained. Thus we find that a total stratospheric aerosol mass between 1 and 4 times 10/sup 1/ g is sufficient to reduce photosynthesis to 10/sup -3/ of normal. We also infer from this result tha the impact of a 0.4- to 3-km-diameter asteroid or a close encounter with a Halley-size comet may deposit that amount of particulates into the stratosphere. The darkness scenario of Alvarez et al. is thus shown to be a possible extinction mechanism, even with smaller size asteroids of comets than previously estimated.

Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Aerosol-Based Duct Sealing Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Aerosol-Based Duct Sealing Technology During the past five years, research has quantified the impacts of residential duct system leakage on HVAC energy consumption and peak electricity demand. A typical house with ducts located in the attic or crawlspace wastes approximately 20% of heating and cooling energy through duct leaks and draws approximately 0.5 KW more electricity during peak cooling periods. A 1991 study indicated that sealing leaks could save close to one Quadrillion Btus per year. (see also Commercializing a New Technology) Because the major cost of sealing leaks in existing air distribution systems is the labor for the location and sealing process, reducing the labor could greatly improve the cost-effectiveness of such a retrofit. Field studies of duct sealing programs performed by HVAC contractors show

256

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

257

Trace 700 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trace 700 Trace 700 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Trace 700 Agency/Company /Organization: Trane Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.trane.com/Commercial/Dna/View.aspx?i=1136 References: http://www.trane.com/Commercial/Dna/View.aspx?i=1136 Detailed HVAC design tool. Can provide heating and cooling load calculation, system sizing, and energy use. A fairly thorough understanding of HVAC is necessary to use this tool. Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Trace 700 Agency/Company /Organization: Trane Phase: Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, "Evaluate Options and Determine Feasibility" is not in the list of possible values (Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed) for this property.

258

The trace partitioning abstract domain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to achieve better precision of abstract interpretation-based static analysis, we introduce a new generic abstract domain, the trace partitioning abstract domain. We develop a theoretical framework allowing a wide range of instantiations of the ...

Xavier Rival; Laurent Mauborgne

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol IOP Aerosol IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Stephen Schwartz For data sets, see below. Summary The Aerosol IOP was highlighted by the Gulfstream-1 aircraft flying clear-sky aerosol missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on clear sky radiation fields, with weather particularly favorable for these flights during the first and third weeks of the IOP. A secondary but important goal of this IOP was to fly cloudy-sky missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on cloud microphysics, and the effect of the microphysics on cloud optical properties. The Gulfstream obtained aerosol data in support of some of the

260

ARM - Evaluation Product - Organic Aerosol Component VAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsOrganic Aerosol Component VAP ProductsOrganic Aerosol Component VAP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Organic Aerosol Component VAP 2011.01.08 - 2012.03.24 Site(s) SGP General Description Organic aerosol (OA, i.e., the organic fraction of particles) accounts for 10-90% of the fine aerosol mass globally and is a key determinant of aerosol radiative forcing. But atmospheric OA is poorly characterized and its life cycle insufficiently represented in models. As a result, current models are unable to simulate OA concentrations and properties. This deficiency represents a large source of uncertainty in the quantification of aerosol direct and indirect effects and the prediction of future climate change. The Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) value-added product (VAP) uses

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Volcanoes and Climate Effects of Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTENTS 8.1 Importance of volcanoes, natural aerosols, and anthropogenic aerosols 341 8.2 Major scientific questions and hypotheses 342 8.2.1 Stratospheric volcanic aerosols and climate 342 8.2.1.1 Source gases for stratospheric aerosols 342 8.2.1.2 Explosiveness and plume history during individual eruptions 343 8.2.1.3 Frequency of eruptions, tectonic setting, rock/ash vs. SO 2 343 8.2.1.4 Gas-to-particle conversion and removal mechanisms 343 8.2.1.5 Radiative properties and climatic effects of stratospheric aerosols 345 8.2.1.6 Needed satellite and in situ measurements 347 8.2.1.6.1 Global observations of stratospheric aerosol optical properties 347 8.2.1.6.2 Lidar measurements of aerosols 347 8.2.2 Volcanic aerosols and stratospheric ozone depletion 349 8.2.3 Climatic effects of t

Hartmann And Mouginis-Mark; Volcanoes; D. L. Hartmann; P. Mouginis-mark; G. J. Bluth; J. A. Coakley; J. Crisp; R. E. Dickinson; P. W. Francis; J. E. Hansen; P. V. Hobbs; B. L. Isacks; Y. J. Kaufman; M. D. King; W. I. Rose; S. Self; L. D. Travis

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Climate Response to Soil Dust Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols upon climate is calculated. Two atmospheric GCM (AGCM) simulations are compared, one containing a prescribed seasonally varying concentration of dust aerosols, and the other omitting dust. ...

R. L. Miller; I. Tegen

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Indirect and Semi-direct Aerosol Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). ISDAC's ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Steven Ghan; Johannes Verlinde; Alexei Korolev; J. Walter Strapp; Beat Schmid; Jason M. Tomlinson; Mengistu Wolde; Sarah D. Brooks; Dan Cziczo; Manvendra K. Dubey; Jiwen Fan; Connor Flynn; Ismail Gultepe; John Hubbe; Mary K. Gilles; Alexander Laskin; Paul Lawson; W. Richard Leaitch; Peter Liu; Xiaohong Liu; Dan Lubin; Claudio Mazzoleni; Ann-Marie Macdonald; Ryan C. Moffet; Hugh Morrison; Mikhail Ovchinnikov; Matthew D. Shupe; David D. Turner; Shaocheng Xie; Alla Zelenyuk; Kenny Bae; Matt Freer; Andrew Glen

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Single particle characterization, source apportionment, and aging effects of ambient aerosols in Southern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

detection efficiencies of aerosol time of flight masscomposition of ambient aerosol particles. Environmentalsize dependent response of aerosol counters, Atmospheric

Shields, Laura Grace

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluating WRF-Chem multi-scale model in simulating aerosol radiative properties over the tropics A case study over India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We utilized WRF-Chem multi-scale model to simulate the regional distribution of aerosols, optical properties and its effect on radiation over India for a winter month. The model is evaluated using measurements obtained from upper-air soundings, AERONET sun photometers, various satellite instruments, and pyranometers operated by the Indian Meteorological Department. The simulated downward shortwave flux was overestimated when the effect of aerosols on radiation and clouds was neglected. Downward shortwave radiation from a simulation that included aerosol-radiation interaction processes was 5 to 25 Wm{sup -2} closer to the observations, while a simulation that included aerosol-cloud interaction processes were another 1 to 20 Wm{sup -2} closer to the observations. For the few observations available, the model usually underestimated particulate concentration. This is likely due to turbulent mixing, transport errors and the lack of secondary organic aerosol treatment in the model. The model efficiently captured the broad regional hotspots such as high aerosol optical depth over Indo-Gangetic basin as well as the northwestern and southern part of India. The regional distribution of aerosol optical depth compares well with AVHRR aerosol optical depth and the TOMS aerosol index. The magnitude and wavelength-dependence of simulated aerosol optical depth was also similar to the AERONET observations across India. Differences in surface shortwave radiation between simulations that included and neglected aerosol-radiation interactions were as high as -25 Wm{sup -2}, while differences in surface shortwave radiation between simulations that included and neglect aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions were as high as -30 Wm{sup -2}. The spatial variations of these differences were also compared with AVHRR observation. This study suggests that the model is able to qualitatively simulate the impact of aerosols on radiation over India; however, additional measurements of particulate mass and composition are needed to fully evaluate whether the aerosol precursor emissions are adequate when simulating radiative forcing in the region.

Seethala, C.; Pandithurai, G.; Fast, Jerome D.; Polade, Suraj D.; Reddy, M. S.; Peckham, Steven E.

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

266

ATI TDA 5A aerosol generator evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Oil based aerosol ``Smoke`` commonly used for testing the efficiency and penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters (HEPA) and HEPA systems can produce flammability hazards that may not have been previously considered. A combustion incident involving an aerosol generator has caused an investigation into the hazards of the aerosol used to test HEPA systems at Hanford.

Gilles, D.A.

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

267

Atmospheric Measurements of Submicron Aerosols at the California-Mexico Border and in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using an innovative arrangement of instruments to obtain a comprehensive set of properties, we present a description of the submicron aerosol properties for two distinct regions. During the 2009 SHARP/SOOT campaign in Houston, TX, the average effective density was 1.54 0.07 g cm^-3, consistent with a population comprised largely of sulfates and organics Even in low concentrations (0.31 0.22 g m^-3), black carbon concentration has a significant impact on the overall density and optical properties. Under prevailing northerly winds, the average black carbon concentration increases from 0.26 0.18 g m^-3 to 0.60 0.21 g m^-3. Throughout the campaign, aerosols are often internally mixed, with one peak in the effective density distribution located at 1.55 0.07 g cm^-3. In addition, we conclude that in this region the meteorology has a discernible impact on the concentration and properties of aerosols. After a frontal passage, there is a significant shift in the size distribution as the concentration of aerosols are heavily influenced by vehicle emissions. We observe an average single scattering albedo of 0.75. This average SSA is lower than observed in many US urban environments, and indicates a high concentration of black carbon. The average black carbon concentration is 2.71 2.65 g cm^-3. The aerosol size distributions reveal a high concentration of small particles (aerosol composition. 151 and 240 nm aerosols are less cyclical, and the hygroscopicity, volatility, and effect density distributions all exhibit a bimodal distribution, which indicates an external mixture of aerosols. Black carbon and vehicle and industrial organic emissions appear to be the main components of the external mixture.

Levy, Misti E

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of competition between aerosol particle removal andof secondary organic aerosol. Part I: ?-pinene/ozone system.data when measuring ambient aerosol. Aerosol Science and

Coleman, Beverly K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in secondary organic aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 ,particles from an urban aerosol. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26 ,carbonaceous atmospheric aerosols. Journal of Aerosol

Moffet, Ryan C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

properties properties ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter fraction. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

271

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

backscattered radiation backscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System MPL : Micropulse Lidar NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer

272

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

273

Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO{sub 2} from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25% of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50% of aerosol with D{sub p} > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two approaches possibly representing shattered cloud droplets or unknown artifact. CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated in all cloud transects, consistent with the occurrence of dry in-cloud areas due to entrainment or circulation mixing.

Kleinman, L.I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; SedlacekIII, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

Effects of Aerosol Solubility and Regeneration on Warm-Phase Orographic Clouds and Precipitation Simulated by a Detailed Bin Microphysical Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the possible impact of aerosol solubility and regeneration on warm-phase orographic clouds and precipitation. The sensitivity evaluation is performed by simulating cloud formation over two identical 2D idealized mountains ...

Lulin Xue; Amit Teller; Roy Rasmussen; Istvan Geresdi; Zaitao Pan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.  

SciTech Connect

A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Servantes, Brandon Lee

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Investigation of the optical and cloud forming properties of pollution, biomass burning, and mineral dust aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation describes the use of measured aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopic growth to examine the physical and chemical properties of several particle classes. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the optical and cloud forming properties of a range of ambient aerosol types measured in a number of different locations. The tool used for most of these analyses is a differential mobility analyzer / tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA / TDMA) system developed in our research group. To collect the data described in two of the chapters of this dissertation, an aircraft-based version of the DMA / TDMA was deployed to Japan and California. The data described in two other chapters were conveniently collected during a period when the aerosol of interest came to us. The unique aspect of this analysis is the use of these data to isolate the size distributions of distinct aerosol types in order to quantify their optical and cloud forming properties. I used collected data during the Asian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) to examine the composition and homogeneity of a complex aerosol generated in the deserts and urban regions of China and other Asian countries. An aircraft-based TDMA was used for the first time during this campaign to examine the size-resolved hygroscopic properties of the aerosol. The Asian Dust Above Monterey (ADAM-2003) study was designed both to evaluate the degree to which models can predict the long-range transport of Asian dust, and to examine the physical and optical properties of that aged dust upon reaching the California coast. Aerosol size distributions and hygroscopic growth were measured in College Station, Texas to investigate the cloud nucleating and optical properties of a biomass burning aerosol generated from fires on the Yucatan Peninsula. Measured aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopicity and volatility were used to infer critical supersaturation distributions of the distinct particle types that were observed during this period. The predicted cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were used in a cloud model to determine the impact of the different aerosol types on the expected cloud droplet concentration. RH-dependent aerosol extinction coefficients were also calculated.

Lee, Yong Seob

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Evaluation of Empirical Aerosol Correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examined the adequacy of novel scaling and correlation methods used to analyze aerosol behavior in versions 2.0 and 3.0 of the MAAP computer code. The results show that the MAAP 2.0 method suffers from inaccurate scaling. The method used in MAAP 3.0 is theoretically superior and more consistent with experimental data.

1986-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

280

Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) comprise a substantial fraction of the total global aerosol budget. While laboratory studies involving smog chambers have advanced our understanding of the formation mechanisms responsible for SOA, our knowledge of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly or indirectly by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, soot is thought to have a significant warming effect through absorption. Like inorganic salts, soot may undergo atmospheric transformation through the vapor condensation of non-volatile gaseous species which will alter both its chemical and physical properties. Typical smog chamber studies investigating the formation and growth of SOA as well as the soot aging process are temporally limited by the initial gaseous concentrations injected into the chamber environment. Furthermore, data interpretation from such experiments is generally restricted to the singular gaseous species under investigation. This dissertation discusses the use of a new aerosol chamber designed to study the formation and growth of SOA and soot aging under atmospherically relevant conditions. The Ambient Aerosol Chamber for Evolution Studies (AACES) was deployed at three field sites where size and hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of ammonium sulfate seed particles was monitored over time to examine the formation and growth of SOA. Similar studies investigating the soot aging process were also conducted in Houston, TX. It is shown that during the ambient growth of ammonium sulfate seed particles, as particle size increases, hygroscopic growth factors decrease considerably resulting in a significant organic mass fraction in the particle phase concluding an experiment. Observations of soot aging show an increase in measured size, HGF, mass and single scattering albedo. Ambient growth rate comparisons with chamber growth yielded similar trends verifying the use of AACES to study aerosol aging. Based on the results from this study, it is recommended that AACES be employed in future studies involving the production and growth of SOA and soot aging under ambient conditions in order to bridge the gaps in our current scientific knowledge.

Glen, Crystal

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Aerosol observing system platform integration and AAF instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As part of the federal governments 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the U.S. DOE Office of Science allocated funds for the capital upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility to improve and expand observational capabilities related to cloud and aerosol properties. The ARM Facility was established as a national user facility for the global scientific community to conduct a wide range of interdisciplinary science. Part of the ARRA-funded expansion of the ARM Facility includes four new Aerosol Observing Systems (AOS) to be designed, instrumented, and mentored by BNL. The enclosures will be customized SeaTainers. These new platforms ([AMF2]: ARM Mobile Facility-2; [TWP-D]: Tropical Western Pacific at Darwin; and [MAOS-A]/[MAOS-C]: Mobile Aerosol Observing System-Aerosol/-Chemistry) will provide a laboratory environment for fielding instruments to collect data on aerosol life cycle, microphysics, and optical/physical properties. The extensive instrument suite includes both established methods and initial deployments of new techniques to add breadth and depth to the AOS data sets. The platforms are designed: (1) to have all instruments pre-installed before deployment, allowing a higher measurement duty cycle; (2) with a standardized configuration improving the robustness of data inter-comparability; (3) to provide remote access capability for instrument mentors; and (4) to readily accommodate guest instrumentation. The first deployment of the AMF2 platform will be at the upcoming StormVEx campaign held at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, October 15, 2010March 31, 2011 while the TWP-D AOS will be stationed at the ARM Darwin site. The maiden deployments of the MAOS-A and MAOS-C platforms will be during the Ganges Valley Experiment (GVAX) scheduled for April 2011April 2012. In addition to the ground-based AOS platforms, thee major instrument builds for the AAF are also being undertaken (new trace gas package [NO, NOx, NOy, CO, O3, and SO2]; Scanning Mobility Particle Sampler [SMPS]; and Particle into Liquid Sampler [PILS]). The current status of the AOS platforms, instrument suites, instituted QA/QC activities, projected AOS VAPs, and inlet design, as well as still-unresolved issues, will be presented.

Springston, S.; Sedlacek, A.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous sampling has shown that air pollution control devices can have a significant impact on mercury and other trace elements. For example, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can substantially increase the percentage of oxidized mercury that can then be removed by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) also readily captures most of the trace elements of interest. The emission of these trace elements is then directly related to the overall particulate collect...

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

283

Impact of Urban Effects on Precipitation in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This numerical study examines the impact of urban growth and release of aerosols, moisture, and heat on precipitation for Fairbanks, Alaska, a remote city at high latitude. The remote location allows atmospheric changes to be attributed to the ...

Nicole Mlders; Mark A. Olson

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A system for simulating aerosols has been developed using a chemical transport model together with an assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals. The methodology and model components are described in this paper, and the modeled distribution of aerosols for the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) is presented by Rasch et al. [this issue]. The system generated aerosol forecasts to guide deployment of ships and aircraft during INDOEX. The system consists of the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) combined with an assimilation package developed for applications in atmospheric chemistry. MATCH predicts the evolution of sulfate, carbonaceous, and mineral dust aerosols, and it diagnoses the distribution of sea salt aerosols. The model includes a detailed treatment of the sources, chemical transformation, transport, and deposition of the aerosol species. The aerosol forecasts involve a two-stage process. During the assimilation phase the total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) is estimated from the model aerosol fields. The model state is then adjusted to improve the agreement between the simulated AOD and satellite retrievals of AOD. During the subsequent integration phase the aerosol fields are evolved using meteorological fields from an external model. Comparison of the modeled AOD against estimates of the AOD from INDOEX Sun photometer data show that the differences in daily means are #0.03 # 0.06. Although the initial application is limited to the Indian Ocean, the methodology could be extended to derive global aerosol analyses combining in situ and remotely sensed aerosol observations.

William D. Collins; Phillip J. Rasch; Brian E. Eaton; Boris V. Khattatov; Jean-francois Lamarque; C. Zender

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Trace species emissions for IGFC  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this investigation are to study both the fate and distribution of at least five significant, coal-derived trace elements commonly present in coal-gas, in terms of their vaporization during gasification, their condensation and sorption during hot-gas cleanup, as well as their effects on fuel cells, gas turbines, and ultimately the environment. The definition here of trace does not include the major contaminants of sulfur and chlorine, etc., although the simultaneous presence of such major species is always considered in our thermochemical calculations. Of course, many other elements can vaporize in trace quantities from raw coal as either volatile, molecular compounds or as metallic vapors which, besides their deleterious action on the energy conversion systems, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when emitted into the atmosphere. Hence, an understanding is sought of how the type and quantity of significant trace species in coal-gas changes from the coal pile through cleanup subsystems and the electric generators to the exhaust stack of an integrated system.

Pigeaud, A.E.; Helble, J.J.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Design and Sampling Characteristics of a New Airborne Aerosol Inlet for Aerosol Measurements in Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design of a new submicron aerosol inlet (SMAI) for airborne sampling of aerosol particles is introduced and its performance characteristics under a range of sampling conditions are presented. Analysis of inlet performance in clear-air and cloud ...

Lucas Craig; Allen Schanot; Arash Moharreri; David C. Rogers; Suresh Dhaniyala

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A Community Tool to Objectively Evaluate Aerosol Process Modules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current paradigm of developing and testing new aerosol process modules is haphazard and slow. Aerosol modules are often tested for short simulation periods using limited data so that their overall performance over a wide range of ...

Jerome D. Fast; William I. Gustafson Jr.; Elaine G. Chapman; Richard C. Easter; Jeremy P. Rishel; Rahul A. Zaveri; Georg A. Grell; Mary C. Barth

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Another Look at the Influence of Absorbing Aerosols in Drops on Cloud Absorption: Large Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since as early as 1969, solar absorbing aerosols inside of cloud drops have been suggested to influence cloud radiative properties. The absorbing aerosols were invoked to help explain two anomalies: 1) the maximum visible albedo of thick ...

Carynelisa Erlick; Dana Schlesinger

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Assessment of Aerosol Modes Used in the MODIS Ocean Aerosol Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coastal and island Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites are used to determine characteristic aerosol modes over marine environments. They are compared with the assumed modes used in the operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (...

Jiacheng Wang; Qiang Zhao; Shengcheng Cui; Chengjie Zhu

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Enabling Event Tracing at Leadership-Class Scale through I/O Forwarding Middleware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Event tracing is an important tool for understanding the performance of parallel applications. As concurrency increases in leadership-class computing systems, the quantity of performance log data can overload the parallel file system, perturbing the application being observed. In this work we present a solution for event tracing at leadership scales. We enhance the I/O forwarding system software to aggregate and reorganize log data prior to writing to the storage system, significantly reducing the burden on the underlying file system for this type of traffic. Furthermore, we augment the I/O forwarding system with a write buffering capability to limit the impact of artificial perturbations from log data accesses on traced applications. To validate the approach, we modify the Vampir tracing tool to take advantage of this new capability and show that the approach increases the maximum traced application size by a factor of 5x to more than 200,000 processors.

Ilsche, Thomas [Technische Universitat Dresden; Schuchart, Joseph [Technische Universitat Dresden; Cope, Joseph [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kimpe, Dries [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Knuepfer, Andreas [Technische Universitat Dresden; Iskra, Kamil [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ross, Robert [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Nagel, Wolfgang E. [Technische Universitat Dresden; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

T-720: Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits Cross-Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits 0: Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks T-720: Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks September 19, 2011 - 8:45am Addthis PROBLEM Blue Coat Director HTTP Trace Processing Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks. PLATFORM: All versions of Director prior to 5.5.2.3 are vulnerable. ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in Blue Coat Director. A remote user can conduct cross-site scripting attacks. reference LINKS: Blue Coat Advisories ID: SA62 SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1026061 Blue Coat Director 510 Blue Coat SGME 5 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: An attacker can use the HTTP TRACE method to echo malicious script back to the client as part of a Cross Site Scripting (XSS) attack. No

293

V-011: IBM Tivoli Monitoring Web Server HTTP TRACE/TRACK Support Lets  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: IBM Tivoli Monitoring Web Server HTTP TRACE/TRACK Support 1: IBM Tivoli Monitoring Web Server HTTP TRACE/TRACK Support Lets Remote Users Obtain Potentially Sensitive Information V-011: IBM Tivoli Monitoring Web Server HTTP TRACE/TRACK Support Lets Remote Users Obtain Potentially Sensitive Information October 26, 2012 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: IBM Tivoli Monitoring Web Server HTTP TRACE/TRACK Support Lets Remote Users Obtain Potentially Sensitive Information PLATFORM: Software version: 6.2.3, 6.2.3.1 ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in IBM Tivoli Monitoring. REFERENCE LINKS: IBM Support Document: 1614003 IBM Support Portal SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1027692 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High DISCUSSION: A remote user may be able to conduct HTTP TRACE and HTTP TRACK attacks to access sensitive information from the HTTP headers.

294

Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

295

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in

296

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Campaign Links TCAP website Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2013.04.15, Scott, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter Aerosol Effects on Cloud Formation 2013.02.04, Cziczo, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): CU GMAX-DOAS Deployment 2012.07.15, Volkamer, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerosol Light Extinction Measurements 2012.07.15, Dubey, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial Campaign 2012.07.07, Berg, AAF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic Particle Sizer 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): KASPRR Engineering Tests 2012.07.01, Mead, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Airborne HSRL and RSP Measurements

297

Using MODIS and AERONET to Determine GCM Aerosol Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol size is still a poorly constrained quantity in general circulation models (GCMs). By using the modal radii of the coarse and fine mode retrieved from 103 stations in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the fine mode aerosol optical ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

AEROSOL ANALYSIS FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY - FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beta-Gauge Methods Applied to Aerosol Samples." Submitted toHusar and B.Y.H. Liu. "The Aerosol Size Distribution of LosAngeles Smog." In: Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry, G.M.

Jaklevic, J.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

OH-initiated heterogeneous aging of highly oxidized organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. ; Jimenez, J. L. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004, 38,A. G. Highly dispersed aerosols; Halsted Press, New York,highly oxidized organic aerosol Sean H. Kessler 1 , Theodora

Kessler, Sean H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

SPURIOUS SULFATE FORMATION ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FORMATION ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES B. W. Loo, R.FORMATION ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES Billy W. Lao,ON COLLECTED AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLES* _B_il_l~y ___ W_. _L~o

Loo, B.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Descriptions are provided of the aerosol classification algorithms and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) selection schemes for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) aerosol products. One ...

Ali H. Omar; David M. Winker; Mark A. Vaughan; Yongxiang Hu; Charles R. Trepte; Richard A. Ferrare; Kam-Pui Lee; Chris A. Hostetler; Chieko Kittaka; Raymond R. Rogers; Ralph E. Kuehn; Zhaoyan Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Trace Metals in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for Trace Metals in Oil. Soybean oil sample to test for Iron, Copper, and Nickel using AOCS Official method Ca 18-79. Trace Metals in Oil Laboratory Proficiency Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants

303

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

304

Distributed trace using central performance counter memory  

SciTech Connect

A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

305

Distributed trace using central performance counter memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

306

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

change. Tiny Specks with Large Effects Most people equate aerosols with hairspray and household cleaning products, but a large portion of these microscopic particles floating...

307

Micro Aerosol-based Decontamination System - Available ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Micro Aerosol-based Decontamination System. Battelle Number(s): 15847. ...

308

Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

range transport of biomass combustion aerosols. Environ.6 6.1 Introduction Biomass combustion emissions contributeparticles from the combustion of biomass fuels. Environ.

Qi, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Aerosol Retrieval Using Remote-sensed Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electromagnetic solar radiation. The amount of atmosphericas the amount of solar radiation that aerosols scatter andbased on reflected solar radiation field measurements

Wang, Yueqing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Phytoremediation of Trace Elements by Wetland Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some plants naturally absorb and hyperaccumulate trace elements in their tissues. In a process known as phytoremediation, scientists are harnessing this ability to remove toxic heavy metals and trace elements from contaminated soils and waters. This screening program quantified the capacity of various wetland plant species for removing trace elements from polluted water.

2001-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

311

THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION Title THERMOPHORESIS AND ITS THERMAL PARAMETERS FOR AEROSOL COLLECTION Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report...

312

Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate twentieth century transient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate twentieth century transient model investigation: Trends in short-lived species and climate responses Title Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate...

313

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

314

OLIGOMERIZATION OF LEVOGLUCOSAN IN PROXIES OF BIOMASS BURNING AEROSOLS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass burning aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere and therefore, affect global climate. Biomass burning aerosols are generally (more)

Holmes, Bryan J.

315

Evaluating the Direct and Indirect Aerosol Effect on Climate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

one of the largest uncertainties in climate forcing studies is the effect of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. Aerosols affect the radiation budget under both clear...

316

Aerosol Jet Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aerosol Jet printing, is finding wide use in a number of ... The Aerosol Jet systems deposit a wide variety of functional materials onto a wide...

317

Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols-Interim...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols-Interim Report. Title Characterizing the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols-Interim Report. Publication Type Report...

318

Modeling Corrosion of a Metal under an Aerosol Droplet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deposition of aerosol droplets produced either by marine or industrial activity on the ... The atmospheric corrosion caused by aerosols is a result of a complex...

319

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton,...

320

Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin Title Factors affecting the indoor concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols of outdoor origin...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Transformation of Outdoor Ammonium Nitrate Aerosols in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Transformation of Outdoor Ammonium Nitrate Aerosols in the Indoor Environment Title The Transformation of Outdoor Ammonium Nitrate Aerosols in the Indoor Environment...

322

Retrieval of Aerosol Mass Concentration from Elastic Lidar Data.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Agricultural aerosol sources can contribute significantly to air pollution in many regions of the country. Characterization of the aerosol emissions of agricultural operations is required (more)

Marchant, Christian C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Studies of urban atmospheric aerosols using lidar and sky radiometer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

???This thesis discusses the remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, the corresponding instrumental technology and inversion algorithm. The urban aerosol optical properties in Hong Kong have (more)

Yang, Xun (??)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

325

Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog Analysis of Aerosol Indirect Effects in California Coastal Stratus and Fog Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Bartholomew, Mary Jane Brookhaven National Laboratory Daum, Peter Brookhaven National Laboratory Dunn, Maureen Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Liu, Yangang Brookhaven National Laboratory Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Andrews, Betsy NOAA/CMDL Ogren, John NOAA/CMDL Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Field Campaigns Impacts of aerosol indirect effects are considered too uncertain for inclusion in reports issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A major reason for this uncertainty is an insufficient physical

326

Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC) and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Mo, Tin (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Billone, Michael C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Young, F. I. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Thompson, Nancy Slater (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Hibbs, Russell S. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The importance of aerosol mixing state and size-resolved composition on CCN concentration and the variation of the importance with atmospheric aging of aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols through coagulation and local photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. CCN concentrations (N{sub CCN}) are derived using Kohler theory from the measured aerosol size distribution and various simplified aerosol mixing state and chemical composition, and are compared to concurrent measurements at five supersaturations ranging from 0.11% to 0.35%. The influence of assumed mixing state on calculated N{sub CCN} is examined using both aerosols observed during MILAGRO and representative aerosol types. The results indicate that while ambient aerosols often consist of particles with a wide range of compositions at a given size, N{sub CCN} may be derived within {approx}20% assuming an internal mixture (i.e., particles at a given size are mixtures of all participating species, and have the identical composition) if great majority of particles has an overall {kappa} (hygroscopicity parameter) value greater than 0.1. For a non-hygroscopic particle with a diameter of 100 nm, a 3 nm coating of sulfate or nitrate is sufficient to increase its {kappa} from 0 to 0.1. The measurements during MILAGRO suggest that the mixing of non-hygroscopic primary organic aerosol (POA) and black carbon (BC) particles with photochemically produced hygroscopic species and thereby the increase of their {kappa} to 0.1 take place in a few hours during daytime. This rapid process suggests that during daytime, a few tens of kilometers away for POA and BC sources, N{sub CCN} may be derived with sufficient accuracy by assuming an internal mixture, and using bulk chemical composition. The rapid mixing also indicates that, at least for very active photochemical environments such as Mexico City, a substantially shorter timescale during daytime for the conversion of hydrophobic POA and BC to hydrophilic particles than the 1-2 days used in some global models. The conversion time scale is substantially longer during night. Most POA and BC particles emitted during evening hours likely remain non-hygroscopic until efficiently internally mixed with secondary species in the next morning. The results also suggest that the assumed mixing state strongly impacts calculated N{sub CCN} only when POA and BC represent a large fraction of the total aerosol volume. One of the implications is that while physically unrealistic, external mixtures, which are used in many global models, may also sufficiently predict N{sub CCN} for aged aerosol, as the contribution of non-hygroscopic POA and BC to overall aerosol volume is often substantially reduced due to the condensation of secondary species.

Wang, J.; Cubison, M. J.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Collins, D. R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

BNL | Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) The Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) is a platform and instrument suite for Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) to conduct in situ measurements of aerosols and their precursors. MAOS is part of the ARM Climate Research Facility. Physically MAOS is contained in two 20' SeaTainers custom adapted to provide a sheltered laboratory environment for operators and instruments even under harsh conditions. The two structures are designated MAOS-A and MAOS-C for Aerosol and Chemistry respectively. Although independent, with separate data systems, inlets and power distribution, the two structures are normally a single operating unit. The two enclosures comprising MAOS are designed for rapid deployment. All components (except for the Radar Wind Profiler) are transported internally

329

The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC) The Opposed Migration Aerosol Classifier (OMAC) Speaker(s): Harmony Gates Date: February 22, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Melissa Lunden A new differential mobility classifier will be described. The instrument classifies aerosol particles in a channel flow between porous (or screen) electrodes. The aerosol enters the channel parallel to the porous electrodes, while a larger, particle-free cross-flow enters through one of the porous electrode. A potential difference between electrodes causes the charged aerosol particles to migrate upstream against the cross-flow. Only particles whose upward migration velocity balances the cross flow will be transmitted along the path of the classifier. Simulations of the OMAC show that it should give the same resolution at the traditional

330

Influence of sky radiance measurement errors on inversion-retrieved aerosol properties  

SciTech Connect

Remote sensing of the atmospheric aerosol is a well-established technique that is currently used for routine monitoring of this atmospheric component, both from ground-based and satellite. The AERONET program, initiated in the 90's, is the most extended network and the data provided are currently used by a wide community of users for aerosol characterization, satellite and model validation and synergetic use with other instrumentation (lidar, in-situ, etc.). Aerosol properties are derived within the network from measurements made by ground-based Sun-sky scanning radiometers. Sky radiances are acquired in two geometries: almucantar and principal plane. Discrepancies in the products obtained following both geometries have been observed and the main aim of this work is to determine if they could be justified by measurement errors. Three systematic errors have been analyzed in order to quantify the effects on the inversion-derived aerosol properties: calibration, pointing accuracy and finite field of view. Simulations have shown that typical uncertainty in the analyzed quantities (5% in calibration, 0.2 Degree-Sign in pointing and 1.2 Degree-Sign field of view) yields to errors in the retrieved parameters that vary depending on the aerosol type and geometry. While calibration and pointing errors have relevant impact on the products, the finite field of view does not produce notable differences.

Torres, B.; Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Bennouna, Y. S.; Fuertes, D.; Gonzalez, R.; Frutos, A. M. de [Atmospheric Optics Group (GOA), University of Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Berjon, A. J. [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Dubovik, O.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Blarel, L. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics, Universite Lille 1, Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

331

Study for radionuclide transfer ratio of aerosols generated during heat cutting  

SciTech Connect

The metallic elements with a low melting point and high vapor pressure seemed to transfer in aerosols selectively at dismantling reactor internals using heat cutting. Therefore, the arc melting tests of neutron irradiated zirconium alloy were conducted to investigate the radionuclide transfer behavior of aerosols generated during the heat cutting of activated metals. The arc melting test was conducted using a tungsten inert gas welding machine in an inert gas or air atmosphere. The radioactive aerosols were collected by filter and charcoal filter. The test sample was obtained from Zry-2 fuel cladding irradiated in a Japanese boiling water reactor for five fuel cycles. The activity analysis, chemical composition measurement and scanning electron microscope observation of aerosols were carried out. Some radionuclides were enriched in the aerosols generated in an inert gas atmosphere and the radionuclide transfer ratio did not change remarkably by the presence of air. The transfer ratio of Sb-125 was almost the same as that of Co-60. It was expected that Sb-125 was enriched from other elements since Sb is an element with a low melting point and high vapor pressure compared with the base metal (Zr). In the viewpoint of the environmental impact assessment, it became clear that the influence if Sb-125 is comparable to Co-60. The transfer ratio of Mn-54 was one order higher compared with other radionuclides. The results were discussed on the basis of thermal properties and oxide formation energy of the metallic elements. (authors)

Iguchi, Yukihiro; Baba, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Hiroto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES (Japan); Kitahara, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Kodama, Mitsuhiro [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the climate impacts of aerosol in California.

Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

333

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions during biomass combustion: Controlling factors andopen burning of biomass in a combustion wind-tunnel, Globalfrom smoldering combustion of biomass measured by open-path

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterizationfrom fireplace combustion of woods grown in the northeasternfrom the fireplace combustion of woods grown in the southern

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dry fuels were ignited using a butane pilot lighter applied4 H 8 (butene), and C 4 H 10 (n-butane) gases with a Hewlett

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

337

Source characterization studies at the Paraho semiworks oil shale retort. [Redistribution of trace and major elements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to determine the redistribution of trace and major elements and species during aboveground oil shale retorting, a comprehensive program was carried out for the sampling and analysis of feedstock, products, effluents, and ambient particulates from the Paraho Semiworks Retort. Samples were obtained during two periods in 1977 when the retort was operating in the direct mode. The data were used to construct mass balances for 31 trace and major elements in various effluents, including the offgas. The computed mass balances indicated that approx. 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S, and Se were released during retorting and redistributed to the product oil, retort water, or product offgas. The fraction released for these seven elements ranged from approx. 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% each of the As and Se were released. Ambient aerosols were found to be elevated near the retorting facility and associated crushing and retorted shale disposal sites. Approximately 50% of these particles were in the respirable range (< 5 ..mu..m). The elevated dust loadings are presented very local, as indicated by relatively low aerosol loadings at background sites 100 to 200 m away. State-of-the-art dust control measures were not employed. 15 figures, 19 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Evans, J.C.; Sanders, R.W.; Abel, K.W.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME burning events. It is found that the regional AAI data follow the regional tropospheric NO2 data well sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

339

Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Seinfeld, J. H. : Organic aerosol formation from theJ. : A large organic aerosol source in the free troposphereand Worsnop, D. R. : Organic aerosol components observed in

Cappa, Christopher D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. : A parameterization of aerosol activation - 3. Sectionalclouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,2004. Albrecht, B. A. : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Quaas, Johannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Primary Aliphatic Amines with Nitrate Radical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

back- ground atmospheric aerosol in the UK determined inof secondary organic aerosols, Atmos. Environ. , 31, 3921et al. : Secondary organic aerosol formation from amines

Malloy, Q G J; Qi, L; Warren, B; Cocker III, D R; Erupe, M E; Silva, P J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

instruments and photoelectric aerosol sensors in source-sampling of black carbon aerosol and particle-bound PAHsAirborne minerals and related aerosol particles: Effects on

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Composition, sources, and formation of secondary organic aerosols from urban emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles200 5.1v aerosol Chapter 3 Meteorological conditions during theSecondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources

Liu, Shang; Liu, Shang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

X-RAY METHODS FOR THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Goulding Fine Particles: Aerosol Generation, Sampling andCHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS J.M. Jaklevic andCHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS J.M. Jaklevic and

Jaklevic, J.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Characterization of the Molecular Composition of Secondary Organic Aerosols using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene, Proc.biogenic secondary organic aerosol, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112(in secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 41(

Sellon, Rachel Elizabeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition of ambient aerosol particles, EnvironmentalParticle Measurement of Ambient Aerosol Particles Containingfor quantifying direct aerosol forcing of climate, Bull. Am.

Moffet, Ryan Christopher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

DETERMINATION OF CARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deuteron irradiation of an atmospheric aerosol sample.CARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEARCARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEAR

Clemenson, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

On the Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols, J. Geophys. Res. -particulate diesel exhaust, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 25: 221-climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols, J. Geophys. Res. -

Pang, Y.; Turpin, B.J.; Gundel, L.A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oscillation influence aerosol variability? , J. Geophys.clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432,2004. Albrecht, B. A. : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and

Quaas, Johannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol. J. Phys. Chem. A 2008,H. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from reactionsec- ondary organic aerosol yields. Atmospheric Chemistry

Rollins, Andrew W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Radical-Initiated Reactions of Alkenes: Development of Mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Secondary Organic Aerosols in Southern California duringSources of Organic Carbon Aerosols in the Free Troposphere21 co-authors), 2005. Organic Aerosol and Global Climate

Matsunaga, Aiko

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ryu (2004), Carbonaceous aerosol characteristics ofPM 2.5Allen (1990), Transported acid aerosols measured in southernconference international aerosol carbon round robin test

Novakov, T.; Menon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Koch, D.; Hansen, J.E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH FY-1979, CHAPTER IN THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT, 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California atmospheric aerosols," Environ. Sci. Technol. llsuspensions," in Atmospheric Aerosol Research Annual Report,formation," in Atmospheric Aerosol Research Annual Report,

Authors, Various

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Trace gases could double climate warming  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of several trace gases capable of changing the climate are increasing. Researchers are concerned about the trace gases despite their miniscule concentrations because they are such efficient absorbers of far-infrared radiation. The trace gases that concern climatologists are methane, nitrous oxide, and the chlorofluorocarbons or CFC's. The increase in atmospheric concentrations of these gases are discussed and atmospheric models predicting their greenhouse effect are described.

Kerr, R.A.

1983-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

355

Visualization and observations on traces - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 19, 1997 ... A similar quality appears in resulting columns of a 2-trace operation with the difference that the pattern now merges aspects of the truth table...

356

Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Aerosols over Land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of accurate polarized reflectance measurements over a broad spectral (410 -2250 nm) and angular (60 from nadir) range to the presence of aerosols over land is analyzed and the consequent ability to retrieve the aerosol burden and microphysical model is assessed. Here we present a new approach to the correction of polarization observations for the effects of the surface that uses longer wavelength observations to provide a direct estimate of the surface polarized reflectance. This approach to surface modeling is incorporated into an optimal estimation framework for retrieving the particle number density and a detailed aerosol microphysical model: effective radius, effective variance and complex refractive index of aerosols. A sensitivity analysis shows that the uncertainties in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) increase with AOT while the uncertainties in the microphysical model decrease. Of particular note is that the uncertainty in the single scattering albedo is less than 0.05 by the time the AOT is greater than 0.2. We also find that calibration is the major source of uncertainty and that perfect angular and spectral correlation of calibration errors reduces the uncertainties in retrieved quantities compared with the case of uncorrelated errors. Finally, in terms of required spectral range, we observe that shorter wavelength (aerosols from polarized reflectance observations. The optimal estimation scheme is then tested on observations made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter during the Aerosol Lidar Validation experiment and over Southern California wild fires. These two sets of observations test the retrieval scheme under pristine and polluted conditions respectively. In both cases we find that the retrievals are within the combined uncertainties of the retrieval and the Aerosol Robotic Network Cimel products and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index that we are comparing to. This confirms the validity of the sensitivity analysis of the polarized reflectance observations to the aerosol number density and microphysical model and demonstrates the unique capability to accurately retrieve aerosol optical depths under pristine conditions and also the single scattering albedo of aerosols at higher optical depths.

Waquet, F.; Cairns, Brian; Knobelspiesse, Kirk D.; Chowdhary, J.; Travis, Larry D.; Schmid, Beat; Mishchenko, M.

2009-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

357

Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia and Istanbul, Turkey, respectively. A set of 24 pairs of sub-cloud aerosol and cloud penetration data are analyzed. Measurements of fine and coarse mode aerosol concentrations from 3 different instruments were combined and fitted with lognormal distributions. The fit parameters of the lognormal distributions are compared with cloud droplet effective radii retrieved from 260 cloud penetrations. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements for a subset of 10 cases from the Istanbul region are compared with concentrations predicted from aerosol size distributions. Ammonium sulfate was assumed to represent the soluble component of aerosol with dry sizes smaller than 0.5 mm and sodium chloride for aerosol larger than 0.5 mm. The measured CCN spectrum was used to estimate the soluble fraction. The correlations of the measured CCN concentration with the predicted CCN concentration were strong (R2 > 0.89) for supersaturations of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6%. The measured concentrations were typically consistent with an aerosol having a soluble fraction between roughly 0.5 and 1.0, suggesting a contribution of sulfate or some other similarly soluble inorganic compound. The predicted CCN were found to vary by +or-3.7% when the soluble fraction was varied by 0.1. Cumulative aerosol concentrations at cutoff dry diameters of 1.1, 0.1 and 0.06 mm were found to be correlated with cloud condensation nuclei concentrations but not with maximum cloud base droplet concentrations. It is also shown that in some cases the predominant mechanisms involved in the formation of precipitation were altered and modified by the aerosol properties. This study suggests that CCN-forced variations in cloud droplet number concentration can change the effective radius profile and the type of precipitation hydrometeors. These differences may have a major impact on the global hydrological cycle and energy budget.

Axisa, Duncan

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Aerosol Properties from Multi-spectral and Multi-angular Aircraft 4STAR Observations: Expected Advantages and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

The airborne Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) is developed to retrieve aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. The necessarily compact design of the 4STAR may cause noticeable apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles. We assess the sensitivity of expected 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval to such enhancement by applying the operational AERONET retrieval code and constructed synthetic 4STARlike data. Also, we assess the sensitivity of the broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing to uncertainties in aerosol retrievals associated with the sky radiance enhancement. Our sensitivity study results suggest that the 4STARbased aerosol retrieval has limitations in obtaining detailed information on particle size distribution and scattering phase function. However, these limitations have small impact on the retrieved bulk optical parameters, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or 0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 2%, or 0.02), and the calculated direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 6%, or 2 Wm-2).

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Measurement of Trace Uranium Isotopes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extent to which thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) can measure trace quantities of 233U and 236U in the presence of a huge excess of natural uranium is evaluated. This is an important nuclear non-proliferation measurement. Four ion production methods were evaluated with three mass spectrometer combinations. The most favorable combinations are not limited by abundance sensitivity; rather, the limitations are the ability to generate a uranium ion beam of sufficient intensity to obtain the required number of counts on the minor isotopes in relationship to detector background. The most favorable situations can measure isotope ratios in the range of E10 if sufficient sample intensity is available. These are the triple sector mass spectrometer with porous ion emitters (PIE) and the single sector mass spectrometer with energy filtering.

Matthew G. Watrous; James E. Delmore

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Biokinetics, Concentrations, and Doses  

SciTech Connect

One of the principal goals of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was to quantify and characterize DU aerosols generated inside armored vehicles by perforation with a DU penetrator. This study consequently produced a database in which the DU aerosol source terms were specified both physically and chemically for a variety of penetrator-impact geometries and conditions. These source terms were used to calculate radiation doses and uranium concentrations for various scenarios as part of the Capstone DU Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA). This paper describes the scenario-related biokinetics of uranium, and summarizes intakes, chemical concentrations to the organs, and E(50) and HT(50) for organs and tissues based on exposure scenarios for personnel in vehicles at the time of perforation as well as for first responders. For a given exposure scenario (duration time and breathing rates), the range of DU intakes among the target vehicles and shots was not large, about a factor of 10, with the lowest being from a ventilated operational Abrams tank and the highest being for an unventilated Abrams with DU penetrator perforating DU armor. The ranges of committed effective doses were more scenario-dependent than were intakes. For example, the largest range, a factor of 20, was shown for scenario A, a 1-min exposure, whereas, the range was only a factor of two for the first-responder scenario (E). In general, the committed effective doses were found to be in the tens of mSv. The risks ascribed to these doses are discussed separately.

Guilmette, Raymond A.; Miller, Guthrie; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

363

Emerging Technology for Measuring Atmospheric Aerosol Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven Laboratory and with funding from the DOE STTR program. DMT is developing a new technique for measuring aerosol size distributions in the sub-0.1 um size range. The...

364

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

365

BNL | Two-Column Aerosol Program (TCAP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) There remain many key knowledge gaps despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. Many climatically important processes depend on particles that undergo continuous changes within a size range spanning a few nanometers to a few microns, and with compositions that consist of a variety of carbonaceous materials, soluble inorganic salts and acids and insoluble mineral dust. Primary particles, which are externally-mixed when emitted, are subject to coagulation and chemical changes associated with the condensation of semi-volatile gases to their surface resulting in a spectrum of compositions or mixing-states with a range of climate-affecting optical and hygroscopic properties. The numerical treatments of aerosol transformation

366

Exploring Atmospheric Aerosols by Twilight Photometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instrument twilight photometer was designed, developed, and installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India (1843?N, 7351?E), to monitor the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The instrument, based ...

B. Padma Kumari; S. H. Kulkarni; D. B. Jadhav; A. L. Londhe; H. K. Trimbake

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosolcloudradiation interactions are widely held to be the largest single source of uncertainty in climate model projections of future radiative forcing due to increasing anthropogenic emissions. The underlying causes of this uncertainty among modeled ...

Lynn M. Russell; Armin Sorooshian; John H. Seinfeld; Bruce A. Albrecht; Athanasios Nenes; Lars Ahlm; Yi-Chun Chen; Matthew Coggon; Jill S. Craven; Richard C. Flagan; Amanda A. Frossard; Haflidi Jonsson; Eunsil Jung; Jack J. Lin; Andrew R. Metcalf; Robin Modini; Johannes Mlmenstdt; Greg Roberts; Taylor Shingler; Siwon Song; Zhen Wang; Anna Wonaschtz

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

ARM - Campaign Instrument - aerosol-tower-eml  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsaerosol-tower-eml Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : EML Tower based Aerosol...

369

Remote Sensing of Aerosol Properties during CARES  

SciTech Connect

One month of MFRSR data collected at two sites in the central California (USA) region during the CARES campaign are processed and the MFRSR-derived AODs at 500 nm wavelength are compared with available AODs provided by AERONET measurements. We find that the MFRSR and AERONET AODs are small ({approx}0.05) and comparable. A reasonable quantitative agreement between column aerosol size distributions (up to 2 um) from the MFRSR and AERONET retrievals is illustrated as well. Analysis of the retrieved (MFRSR and AERONET) and in situ measured aerosol size distributions suggests that the contribution of the coarse mode to aerosol optical properties is substantial for several days. The results of a radiative closure experiment performed for the two sites and one-month period show a favorable agreement between the calculated and measured broadband downwelling irradiances (bias does not exceed about 3 Wm-2), and thus imply that the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are reasonable.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Jobson, Bertram Thomas

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The ...

Patrick Hamill; Eric J. Jensen; P. B. Russell; Jill J. Bauman

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

On the Background Stratospheric Aerosol Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near ...

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile...

373

Aerosol Transport in the Southern Sierra Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol transport and meteorology were investigated during 10 days in August 1985, at three elevations in the southern Sierra. Ground weather station and pilot balloon data revealed the diurnal variation of the topographic winds to be remarkably ...

D. M. Ewell; R. G. Flocchini; L. O. Myrup; T. A. Cahill

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.

Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

375

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Lidar Validation Experiment - ALIVE Campaign Links ALIVE Website Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

376

Mercury and Other Trace Metals in Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes the trace metal analyses of more than 150 as-received bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coal samples from full-scale power plants. Analyses for mercury, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead offer a benchmark for utilities to compare and contrast their own estimates and measurements of trace element content in coal.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

377

Diagnostic tracing for wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless sensor networks are typically deployed in harsh environments, thus post-deployment failures are not infrequent. An execution trace containing events in their order of execution could play a crucial role in postmortem diagnosis of these failures. ... Keywords: Embedded debugging, diagnosis, tracing, wireless sensor networks

Vinaitheerthan Sundaram; Patrick Eugster; Xiangyu Zhang; Vamsidhar Addanki

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Tracing the Birth of an OSN: Social Graph and Profile Analysis in Google+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tracing the Birth of an OSN: Social Graph and Profile Analysis in Google+ Doris Schi¨oberg Fabian of Google launch- ing the Google+ OSN. Through multiple crawls of the Google+ OSN, before and after of the birth of an OSN. Our findings underline the impact of peculiar aspects of Google+ such as (a) Google

Schmid, Stefan

379

Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O[subscript 3]) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire ...

Lei, W.

380

A decadal satellite analysis of the origins and impacts of smoke in Colorado  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM[subscript 2.5] to investigate the impact ...

Val Martin, M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL Campaign Links Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle: Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer - CIMS 2011.07.10, Lee, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS 2011.06.15, Zhang, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: ARM Mobile Facility 2 Aerosol Observing System 2011.06.15, Sedlacek, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10, Hallar, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01 - 2011.08.31 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below.

382

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: A decade long aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A decade long aerosol and cloud statistics and aerosol indirect effect at A decade long aerosol and cloud statistics and aerosol indirect effect at the ARM SGP site Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Harrison, Lee State University of New York Joseph, Everette Howard University Twelve-year data of MFRSR and MWR have been used to derive aerosol and cloud optical properties at the ARM SGP. Diurnal, monthly, seasonal and interannual variability of aerosol (optical depth and Angstrom coefficient) and cloud (optical depth and effective radius) have been analyzed. We specially focused on aerosol-cloud interactions. We found a signature of indirect aerosol effect for summer data: increased aerosol index has a statistically-significant anti-correlation with mean effective radius. No

383

DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL DETERMINATION OF RADIAL MOMENTS OF AN AEROSOL SIZE DISTRIBUTION FROM MEASUREMENTS OF LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE AND SCATTERING Ernie R. Lewis and Stephen E. Schwartz Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11933 ses@bnl.gov elewis@bnl.gov MOMENTS FROM MEASUREMENTS As each of the measured quantities is linear in the size distribution dn/dr, it is possible to construct linear combinations of measurements that yield

384

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage t

Dunn, P.F.; Herceg, J.E.; Klocksieben, R.H.

1984-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

385

Transport and Mixing Patterns over Central California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scales flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar; WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere which then can be entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.; Shaw, William J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Barnard, James C.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Erickson, Matthew H.; Jobson, Tom; Flowers, Bradley; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Springston, Stephen R.; Pirce, Bradley R.; Dolislager, Leon; Pederson, J. R.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

386

Transport and mixing patterns over Central California during the carbonaceous aerosol and radiative effects study (CARES)  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synoptic and regional-scale meteorological conditions that affected the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols in the vicinity of Sacramento, California during June 2010 when the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was conducted. The meteorological measurements collected by various instruments deployed during the campaign and the performance of the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) are both discussed. WRF-Chem was run daily during the campaign to forecast the spatial and temporal variation of carbon monoxide emitted from 20 anthropogenic source regions in California to guide aircraft sampling. The model is shown to reproduce the overall circulations and boundary-layer characteristics in the region, although errors in the upslope wind speed and boundary-layer depth contribute to differences in the observed and simulated carbon monoxide. Thermally-driven upslope flows that transported pollutants from Sacramento over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada occurred every afternoon, except during three periods when the passage of mid-tropospheric troughs disrupted the regional-scale flow patterns. The meteorological conditions after the passage of the third trough were the most favorable for photochemistry and likely formation of secondary organic aerosols. Meteorological measurements and model forecasts indicate that the Sacramento pollutant plume was likely transported over a downwind site that collected trace gas and aerosol measurements during 23 time periods; however, direct transport occurred during only eight of these periods. The model also showed that emissions from the San Francisco Bay area transported by intrusions of marine air contributed a large fraction of the carbon monoxide in the vicinity of Sacramento, suggesting that this source likely affects local chemistry. Contributions from other sources of pollutants, such as those in the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley, were relatively low. Aerosol layering in the free troposphere was observed during the morning by an airborne Lidar. WRF-Chem forecasts showed that mountain venting processes contributed to aged pollutants aloft in the valley atmosphere that are then entrained into the growing boundary layer the subsequent day.

Fast J. D.; Springston S.; GustafsonJr., W. I.; Berg, L. K.; Shaw, W. J.; Pekour, M.; Shrivastava, M.; Barnard, J. C.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. A.; Erickson, M.; Jobson, B. T.; Flowers, B.; Dubey, M. K.; Pierce, R. B.; Dolislager, L.; Pederson, J.; Zaveri, R. A.

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

387

Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GHG increase (bottom) for ACF I or net cloud forcing (a, f),forcing from 1890 to 1995, ACF I , is shown in Figure 3a,f. The ACF I is generally negative in polluted regions where

Koch, Dorothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

389

Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

390

Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. F. , Brass, J. A. and Ambrosia, V. G. , 1988a, Trace gasJ. , Brass, J. A. and Ambrosia, V. G. , 1988b, Particulate-

Qi, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Seven Data Sets Released from LBA Carbon Dynamics and Trace Gas Teams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Sets Released from LBA Carbon Dynamics and Trace Gas Teams Data Sets Released from LBA Carbon Dynamics and Trace Gas Teams The ORNL DAAC and the LBA DIS announce the release of four data sets from the Carbon Dynamics teams and three data sets from the Trace Gas and Aerosol Fluxes science teams, components of the LBA-ECO Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). LBA-ECO CD-02 C and N Isotopes in Leaves and Atmospheric CO2, Amazonas, Brazil . Data set prepared by A.C. de Araujo, J.P.H.B. Ometto, A.J. Dolman, B. Kruijt, M.J. Waterloo and J.R. Ehleringer. This data set reports delta 13C/12C results for leaf tissues and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), delta 15N/14N ratios for leaf tissue, and leaf carbon and nitrogen concentrations along a topographical gradient in old-growth forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Also included are coincident

392

TBBT: scalable and accurate trace replay for file server evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of TBBT, the first comprehensive NFS trace replay tool. Given an NFS trace, TBBT automatically detects and repairs missing operations in the trace, derives a file system image required to ...

Ningning Zhu; Jiawu Chen; Tzi-Cker Chiueh

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Easy system call tracing for Plan 9.  

SciTech Connect

Tracing system calls makes debugging easy and fast. On Plan 9, traditionally, system call tracing has been implemented with acid. New systems do not always implement all the capabilities needed for Acid, particularly the ability to rewrite the process code space to insert breakpoints. Architecture support libraries are not always available for Acid, or may not work even on a supported architecture. The requirement that Acid's libraries be available can be a problem on systems with a very small memory footprint, such as High Performance Computing systems where every Kbyte counts. Finally, Acid tracing is inconvenient in the presence of forks, which means tracing shell pipelines is particularly troublesome. The strace program available on most Unix systems is far more convenient to use and more capable than Acid for system call tracing. A similar system on Plan 9 can simplify troubleshooting. We have built a system calling tracing capability into the Plan 9 kernel. It has proven to be more convenient than strace in programming effort. One can write a shell script to implement tracing, and the C code to implement an strace equivalent is several orders of magnitude smaller.

Minnich, Ronald G.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection  

SciTech Connect

Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

PHELAN, JAMES M.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Author(s) 2007. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We present an intercomparison of several aerosol modules, sectional and modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acidwater aerosols in this study. Three versions of the sectional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the prescribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs. 150) used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sectional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all situations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signficant impact on modelcalculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol extinction and surface area density calculated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability, with a 20-bin sectional model performing much better than any of the modal models. 1

D. K. Weisenstein; J. E. Penner; M. Herzog; X. Liu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width length) 0.3 5 to 2.74 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width length) 0.3 5 to 2.74 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

A spherical Monte-Carlo model of aerosols: Validation and first applications to Mars and Titan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The atmospheres of Mars and Titan are loaded with aerosols that impact remote sensing observations of their surface. Here we present the algorithm and the first applications of a radiative transfer model in spherical geometry designed for planetary data analysis. We first describe a fast Monte-Carlo code that takes advantage of symmetries and geometric redundancies. We then apply this model to observations of the surface of Mars and Titan at the terminator as acquired by OMEGA/Mars Express and VIMS/Cassini. These observations are used to probe the vertical distribution of aerosols down to the surface. On Mars, we find the scale height of dust particles to vary between 6 km and 12 km depending on season. Temporal variations in the vertical size distribution of aerosols are also highlighted. On Titan, an aerosols scale height of 80 \\pm 10 km is inferred, and the total optical depth is found to decrease with wavelength as a power-law with an exponent of -2.0 \\pm 0.4 from a value of 2.3 \\pm 0.5 at 1.08 {\\mu}m. On...

Vincendon, Mathieu; 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.018

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries) and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.

Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Jones, C. D. [Hadley Center, Devon, England

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TRACING...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and MFRSR Measurements ARM STM 2008 Norfolk, VA Connor Flynn 1 , Annette Koontz 1 , Anne Jefferson 2 , Jim Barnard 1 , Sally McFarlane 1 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2 CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder Progress towards ARM DOE 2008 Performance Metric 3 & 4 * Produce and make available new continuous time series of aerosol total column depth, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. * Produce and make available new continuous time series of retrieved dust properties, based on results from the AMF deployment in Niger, Africa. 0 100 200 300 400 0 20 40 60 80 100 ITF movement and surface RH % RH day of year (2006) 0 100 200 300 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 day of year wind direction (N = 0, E = 90) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Wind speed m/s 0 100 200 300 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 MFRSR Vo for filter2, Niamey

402

Aerosol Data Sources and Their Roles within PARAGON  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We briefly but systematically review major sources of aerosol data, emphasizing suites of measurements that seem most likely to contribute to assessments of global aerosol climate forcing. The strengths and limitations of existing satellite, ...

Ralph A. Kahn; John A. Ogren; Thomas P. Ackerman; Jens Bsenberg; Robert J. Charlson; David J. Diner; Brent N. Holben; Robert T. Menzies; Mark A. Miller; John H. Seinfeld

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

Cheng, Meng-Dawn (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systematic characterization of aerosol over the oceans is needed to understand the aerosol effect on climate and on transport of pollutants between continents. Reported are the results of a comprehensive optical and physical characterization of ...

Alexander Smirnov; Brent N. Holben; Yoram J. Kaufman; Oleg Dubovik; Thomas F. Eck; Ilya Slutsker; Christophe Pietras; Rangasayi N. Halthore

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26, Zaveri, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering 2010.05.26, Arnott, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES): SMPS & CCN counter deployment during CARES/Cal-NEx 2010.05.04, Wang, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01, Cziczo, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

406

Optical Properties of Aerosol Particles over the Northeast Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In July 2002, atmospheric aerosol measurements were conducted over the northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enhancement Study (SERIES). The following aerosol quantities were measured: particle number size ...

Julia Marshall; Ulrike Lohmann; W. Richard Leaitch; Nicole Shantz; Lisa Phinney; Desiree Toom-Sauntry; Sangeeta Sharma

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and joint-type leaks Title Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and joint-type leaks Publication Type...

408

ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) will be deployed on Cape Cod (MA) for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol...

409

Dynamical Effects of Aerosol Perturbations on Simulated Idealized Squall Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical effects of increased aerosol loading on the strength and structure of numerically simulated squall lines are explored. Results are explained in the context of RKW theory. Changes in aerosol loading lead to changes in rain drop size ...

Zachary J. Lebo; Hugh Morrison

410

Light Extinction by Aerosols during Summer Air Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to utilize satellite measurements of optical thickness over land for estimating aerosol properties during air pollution episodes the optical thickness was measured from the surface and investigated. Aerosol optical thicknesses have been ...

Yoram J. Kaufman; Robert S. Fraser

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Quantifying and Minimizing Uncertainty of Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic aerosols are composed of a variety of aerosol types and components including water-soluble inorganic species (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), condensed organic species, elemental or black carbon, and mineral dust. Previous ...

J. E. Penner; R. J. Charlson; S. E. Schwartz; J. M. Hales; N. S. Laulainen; L. Travis; R. Leifer; T. Novakov; J. Ogren; L. F. Radke

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Overview of the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) was to characterize and contrast freshly emitted aerosols below, within, and above fields of cumuli, and to study changes to the cloud microphysical structure within these ...

Larry K. Berg; Carl M. Berkowitz; John M. Hubbe; John A. Ogren; Chris A. Hostetler; Richard A. Ferrare; Johnathan W. Hair; Manvendra K. Dubey; Claudio Mazzoleni; Elisabeth Andrews; Richard L. Coulter; Yin-Nan Lee; Jasono Olfert; Stephen R. Springston

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

A Critical Examination of the Observed First Aerosol Indirect Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative change in cloud droplet number concentration with respect to the relative change in aerosol number concentration, ?, is an indicator of the strength of the aerosol indirect effect and is commonly used in models to parameterize this ...

Hongfei Shao; Guosheng Liu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crutzen, P. : Atmospheric Aerosols: Biogeochemical sourcesof optically active aerosol particles over the Amazonproperties of Amazonian aerosol particles: Rev. Geophys. ,

Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Accelerating ray tracing using constrained tetrahedralizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce the constrained tetrahedralization as a new acceleration structure for ray tracing. A constrained tetrahedralization of a scene is a tetrahedralization that respects the faces of the scene geometry. The closest intersection ...

Ares Lagae; Philip Dutr

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Definition of the n-Trace - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 19, 1997 ... Definition of the n-Trace. Suppose $\\Sigma$ is a set of inputs $\\Sigma = \\{\\ alpha_1,\\alpha_2,\\alpha_3.. . Then the set $\\wp(\\Sigma)$...

417

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

420

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic ...

S. J. Ghan; X. Liu; R. C. Easter; R. Zaveri; P. J. Rasch; J.-H. Yoon; B. Eaton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Observations of Saharan Aerosols: Results of ECLATS Field Experiment. Part I: Optical Thicknesses and Aerosol Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ground-based and airborne observations of desert aerosols, the ECLATS experiment was carried out in December 1980 in the vicinity of Niamey (Niger). This paper deals with aerosol optical thicknesses and size distributions derived from ...

Y. Fouquart; B. Bonnel; M. Chaoui Roquai; R. Santer; A. Cerf

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Possible Aerosol Effects on Ice Clouds via Contact Nucleation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The indirect effect of aerosols on water clouds, whereby aerosol particles change cloud optical properties, is caused by aerosol-induced changes of the size and number of cloud droplets. This affects the lifetime of the water clouds as well as ...

Ulrike Lohmann

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including ... Keywords: Aerosols, Aggregation, Particle adhesion, Particulate flow

J. S. Marshall

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework that describes the atmospheric evolution of OA and is constrained and motivated by new, high time resolution, experimental characterizations of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of large amounts of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass that has comparable concentrations to sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. Our new model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in the atmosphere and the laboratory and can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Qi; Kroll, Jesse H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, Allison; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Dunlea, E. J.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, Paul I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Yutaka; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, Robert; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, Joel; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, Scott C.; Trimborn, Achim; Williams, L. R.; Wood, Ezra C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

425

Can aerosols be trapped in open flows?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fate of aerosols in open flows is relevant in a variety of physical contexts. Previous results are consistent with the assumption that such finite-size particles always escape in open chaotic advection. Here we show that a different behavior is possible. We analyze the dynamics of aerosols both in the absence and presence of gravitational effects, and both when the dynamics of the fluid particles is hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic. Permanent trapping of aerosols much heavier than the advecting fluid is shown to occur in all these cases. This phenomenon is determined by the occurrence of multiple vortices in the flow and is predicted to happen for realistic particle-fluid density ratios.

Rafael D. Vilela; Adilson E. Motter

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

426

Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A high-resolution estimate of monthly 3D aerosol solar heating rates and surface solar fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2004 is described here. This product stems from an Asian aerosol assimilation project, in which a) the PNNL regional model bounded by the NCEP reanalyses was used to provide meteorology, b) MODIS and AERONET data were integrated for aerosol observations, c) the Iowa aerosol/chemistry model STEM-2K1 used the PNNL meteorology and assimilated aerosol observations, and d) 3D (X-Y-Z) aerosol simulations from the STEM-2K1 were used in the Scripps Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR) model to produce total and anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing for average cloudy skies. The MACR model and STEM both used the PNNL model resolution of 0.450.4 in the horizontal and of 23 layers in the troposphere. The 20012004 averaged anthropogenic all-sky aerosol forcing is ?1.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +7.3 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?8.6 Wm-2 (surface) averaged in Asia (60?138E & Eq. ?45N). In the absence of AERONET SSA assimilation, absorbing aerosol concentration (especially BC aerosol) is much smaller, giving ?2.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +4.5 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?6.8 Wm-2 (surface), averaged in Asia. In the vertical, monthly forcing is mainly concentrated below 600hPa with maxima around 800hPa. Seasonally, low-level forcing is far larger in dry season than in wet season in South Asia, whereas the wet season forcing exceeds the dry season forcing in East Asia. The anthropogenic forcing in the present study is similar to that in Chung et al.s [2005] in overall magnitude but the former offers fine-scale features and simulated vertical profiles. The interannual variability of the computed anthropogenic forcing is significant and extremely large over major emission outflow areas. In view of this, the present studys estimate is within the implicated range of the 1999 INDOEX result. However, NCAR/CCSM3s anthropogenic aerosol forcing is much smaller than the present studys estimate at the surface, and is outside of what the INDOEX findings can support.

Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V.; Carmichael, Gregory; Kulkarni, S.; Tang, Youhua; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

427

Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] This study simulates the direct radiative forcing of organic aerosol using the GFDL AM2 GCM. The aerosol climatology is provided by the MOZART chemical transport model (CTM). The approach to calculating aerosol optical properties explicitly considers relative humiditydependent hygroscopic growth by employing a functional group based thermodynamic model, and makes use of the size distribution derived from AERONET measurements. The preindustrial (PI) and present-day (PD) global burdens of organic carbon are 0.17 and 1.36 Tg OC, respectively. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) forcings (PI to PD) are estimated as 0.34 and 0.71 W m 2, respectively. Geographically the radiative cooling largely lies over the source regions, namely part of South America, Central Africa, Europe and South and East Asia. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky surface forcings are 0.63 and 0.98 W m 2, respectively. A series of sensitivity analyses shows that the treatments of hygroscopic growth and optical properties of organic aerosol are intertwined in the determination of the global organic aerosol forcing. For example, complete deprivation of water uptake by hydrophilic organic particles reduces the standard (total-sky) and clearsky TOA forcing estimates by 18 % and 20%, respectively, while the uptake by a highly soluble organic compound (malonic acid) enhances them by 18 % and 32%, respectively. Treating particles as non-absorbing enhances aerosol reflection and increases the total-sky and clear-sky TOA forcing by 47 % and 18%, respectively, while neglecting the scattering brought about by the water associated with particles reduces them by 24% and 7%, respectively.

Yi Ming; V. Ramaswamy; Paul A. Ginoux; Larry H. Horowitz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing in summer 2006: 2. Local and column aerosol optical properties  

SciTech Connect

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-chem model calculations were conducted to study aerosol optical properties around Beijing, China, during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006) period. In this paper, we interpret aerosol optical properties in terms of aerosol mass concentrations and their chemical compositions by linking model calculations with measurements. In general, model calculations reproduced observed features of spatial and temporal variations of various surface and column aerosol optical parameters in and around Beijing. Spatial and temporal variations of aerosol absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficient corresponded well to those of elemental carbon (primary aerosol), sulfate (secondary aerosol), and the total aerosol mass concentration, respectively. These results show that spatial and temporal variations of the absorption coefficient are controlled by local emissions (within 100 km around Beijing during the preceding 24 h), while those of the scattering coefficient are controlled by regional-scale emissions (within 500 km around Beijing during the preceding 3 days) under synoptic-scale meteorological conditions, as discussed in our previous study of aerosol mass concentration. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction revealed that the contribution of secondary aerosols and their water uptake increased with altitude within the planetary boundary layer, leading to a considerable increase in column aerosol optical depth (AOD) around Beijing. These effects are the main factors causing differences in regional and temporal variations between particulate matter (PM) mass concentration at the surface and column AOD over a wide region in the northern part of the Great North China Plain.

Matsui, Hitoshi; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Fast, Jerome D.; Poschl, U.; Garland, R. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Wiedensohler, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Zhu, T.

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

429

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage to the next. Mounted within each collection stage are one or more particle collection frames.

Dunn, Patrick F. (Downers Grove, IL); Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Klocksieben, Robert H. (Park Forest, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols III: Morphologic and Chemical Oxide Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against an armored target causes erosion and fragmentation of the penetrators, the extent of which is dependent on the thickness and material composition of the target. Vigorous oxidation of the DU particles and fragments creates an aerosol of DU oxide particles and DU particle agglomerations combined with target materials. Aerosols from the Capstone DU aerosol study, in which vehicles were perforated by DU penetrators, were evaluated for their oxidation states using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle morphologies using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). The oxidation state of a DU aerosol is important as it offers a clue to its solubility in lung fluids. The XRD analysis showed that the aerosols evaluated were a combination primarily of U3O8 (insoluble) and UO3 (relatively more soluble) phases, though intermediate phases resembling U4O9 and other oxides were prominent in some samples. Analysis of particle residues in the micrometer-size range by SEM/EDS provided microstructural information such as phase composition and distribution, fracture morphology, size distribution, and material homogeneity. Observations from SEM analysis show a wide variability in the shapes of the DU particles. Some of the larger particles appear to have been fractured (perhaps as a result of abrasion and comminution); others were spherical, occasionally with dendritic or lobed surface structures. Amorphous conglomerates containing metals other than uranium were also common, especially with the smallest particle sizes. A few samples seemed to contain small chunks of nearly pure uranium metal, which were verified by EDS to have a higher uranium content exceeding that expected for uranium oxides. Results of the XRD and SEM/EDS analyses were used in other studies described in this issue of The Journal of Health Physics to interpret the results of lung solubility studies and in selecting input parameters for dose assessments.

Krupka, Kenneth M.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Gold, Kenneth; Arey, Bruce W.; Jenson, Evan D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Near-Real-Time Measurement of Sea-Salt Aerosol during the SEAS Campaign: Comparison of Emission-Based Sodium Detection with an Aerosol Volatility Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first deployment of an emission-based aerosol sodium detector (ASD), designed to chemically characterize marine aerosols on a near-real-time basis, is reported. Deployment occurred as part of the Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS) ...

P. Campuzano-Jost; C. D. Clark; H. Maring; D. S. Covert; S. Howell; V. Kapustin; K. A. Clarke; E. S. Saltzman; A. J. Hynes

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Prius: generic hybrid trace compression for wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several diagnostic tracing techniques (e.g., event, power, and control-flow tracing) have been proposed for run-time debugging and postmortem analysis of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traces generated by such techniques can become large, defying the ... Keywords: compression, sensor networks, tracing

Vinaitheerthan Sundaram; Patrick Eugster; Xiangyu Zhang

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Radially Classified Aerosol Detector for Aircraft-Based Submicron Aerosol Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radially classified aerosol detector (RCAD) for fast characterization of fine particle size distributions aboard aircraft has been designed and implemented. The measurement system includes a radial differential mobility analyzer and a high-flow,...

Lynn M. Russell; Shou-Hua Zhang; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld; Mark R. Stolzenburg; Robert Caldow

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

Kroll, Jesse

435

Understanding Brown Carbon Aerosols and Their Role in Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brown Carbon Aerosols Brown Carbon Aerosols Tiny aerosol particles in the atmosphere are a possible cause of climate change. Among the many contributors to climate change are aerosols in the atmosphere. These tiny particles suspended in the air come from many sources, some natural and some man-made. Some aerosols are organic (containing carbon), while others are inorganic (such as sea salt and sulfates). Most aerosols reflect sunlight, and some also absorb it. Many of these nanoparticles have severe health effects in addition to climate effects. Human activities that produce aerosols include transportation, industry, and agriculture. Black carbon particles (a component of soot) originating from combustion processes have been known for some time to absorb sunlight and warm the

436

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Title Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Novakov, Tihomir, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, Surabi Menon, and Jeffery Aguiar Journal Geophysical Research Letters Volume 35 Issue 19 Abstract In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC) - an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols - with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

437

The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules  

SciTech Connect

This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

438

THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR: CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SURFACTANTS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of various urban sulfate aerosol production mechanisms.radius of an evaporating aerosol droplet in which oxidationEnvironment THE LIFETIME OF AEROSOL DROPLETS IN AMBIENT AIR:

Toossi, R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The radiative influence of aerosol effects on liquid-phase cumulus clouds based on sensitivity studies with two climate models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A global black carbon aerosol model. J Geophys Res 101:of interactions between aerosols and cloud microphysics overby anthropogenic sulfate aerosol. J Geophys Res 106: 5279-

Menon, Surabi; Rotstayn, Leon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

Hohaus, T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracing aerosol impacts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE BY AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nonbelievers. #12;Level of Scientific Understanding 2 1 0 1 2 3 Radiativeforcing(Wattspersquaremetre) Cooling scattering -- Cooling influence Light absorption -- Warming influence, depending on surface Indirect Effects is highly sensitive to modest aerosol loadings. Global-average AOT 0.1 corresponds to global-average forcing

Schwartz, Stephen E.

442

Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements have been made of aerosol particle size distributions (>0.01 ?m) in aged air masses, in the plumes from several coal power plants and a large Kraft paper mill, and in the emissions from a volcano, before and after rain or ...

Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Mark W. Eltgroth

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Scanning 6-Wavelength 11-Channel Aerosol Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transportable multiple-wavelength lidar is presented, which is used for the profiling of optical and physical aerosol properties. Two Nd:YAG and two dye lasers in combination with frequency-doubling crystals emit simultaneously at 355, 400, 532,...

Dietrich Althausen; Detlef Mller; Albert Ansmann; Ulla Wandinger; Helgard Hube; Ernst Clauder; Steffen Zrner

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Aerosol Condensational Growth in Cloud Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A code for the quasi-stationary solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations for aerosols in a finite volume was developed. Both mass and heat are conserved effectively in the volume, which results in a competitive aerosol condensation growth computational model. A further model that couples this competitive aerosol condensation growth computational model with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (ANSYS FLUENT) enables the simulation of the realistic atmospheric environment. One or more air parcels, where the aerosols reside, are placed in a very big volume in order to mimic the large atmospheric environment. Mass (water vapor) and heat transportat between the air parcels and the environment facilitates the growth and prevents the parcels from unrealistically overheating. The suppression of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) growth by high number densities was quantified by our model study. Model study with organic particles (Lmalic acid and maleic acid) indicates that when these organic species and ammonium sulfate are internally mixed, the particles can grow much more than if they are separately associated with distinct particles. Moreover, by using more multiple air parcels, which are randomly assigned with different initial relative humidity values according to a power law distribution, we studied the effects of atmospheric stochastic RH distribution on the growth of CCN.

Geng, Jun

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) is an optical particle spectrometer capable of measuring size-resolved particle concentrations in 16 user-defined size bins spanning diameters in the range 0.24 < D < 18.5 ?m at a rate of ...

Martin K. Hill; Barbara J. Brooks; Sarah J. Norris; Michael H. Smith; Ian M. Brooks; Gerrit de Leeuw

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Trace Element Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trace Element Analysis Trace Element Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Trace Element Analysis Details Activities (8) Areas (8) Regions (4) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Reconstructing the fluid circulation of a hydrothermal system Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 15.001,500 centUSD 0.015 kUSD 1.5e-5 MUSD 1.5e-8 TUSD / element Median Estimate (USD): 18.001,800 centUSD 0.018 kUSD 1.8e-5 MUSD 1.8e-8 TUSD / element High-End Estimate (USD): 106.0010,600 centUSD 0.106 kUSD 1.06e-4 MUSD 1.06e-7 TUSD / element

450

Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trace analysis of radionuclides is an essential and versatile tool in modern science and technology. Due to their ideal geophysical and geochemical properties, long-lived noble gas radionuclides, in particular, 39Ar (t1/2 = 269 yr), 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x10^5 yr) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 yr), have long been recognized to have a wide range of important applications in Earth sciences. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of practical analytical methods, and has led to applications of these isotopes in the hydrosphere (tracing the flow of groundwater and ocean water). In this article, we introduce the applications of these isotopes and review three leading analytical methods: Low-Level Counting (LLC), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA).

P. Collon; W. Kutschera; Z. -T. Lu

2004-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

451

Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A clear understanding of particle formation mechanisms is critical for assessing aerosol indirect radiative forcing and associated climate feedback processes. Recent studies reveal the importance of ion-mediated nucleation (IMN) in generating new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Here we implement for the first time a physically based treatment of IMN into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. Our simulations show that, compared to globally averaged results based on binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN), the presence of ionization (i.e., IMN) halves H2SO4 column burden, but increases the column integrated nucleation rate by around one order of magnitude, total particle number burden by a factor of ~ 3, CCN burden by ~ 10% (at 0.2% supersaturation) to 65% (at 1.0% supersaturation), and cloud droplet number burden by ~ 18%. Compared to BHN, IMN increases cloud liquid water path by 7.5%, decreases precipitation by 1.1%, and increases total cloud cover by 1.9%. This leads to an increase of total shortwave cloud radiative forcing by 3.67 W/m2 (more negative) and longwave cloud forcing by 1.78 W/m2 (more positive), resulting in a -1.9 W/m2 net change in cloud radiative forcing associated with IMN. The significant impacts of ionization on global aerosol formation, CCN abundance, and cloud radiative forcing may provide an important physical mechanism linking the global energy balance to various processes affecting atmospheric ionization, which should be properly represented in climate models.

Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ghan, Steven J.

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

452

Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $\\textnormal W^{-1} \\textnormal m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $\\textnormal PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Truesdale, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Ultra-Trace Forensics Science Center (UFSC) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

analysis methods Development and application of aerosol sampling systems for non-proliferation R&D Design and fabrication of field deployable collection systems Clean assembly...

454

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

455

Report of a workshop on the impact of chemicals on the radiative transfer imbalance  

SciTech Connect

This workshop delineates the significant factors, possessed by any chemical, that may directly or indirectly affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Atmospheric physics research has already given information on direct and indirect effects. An example of direct effect is the cumulative infrared greenhouse effect of several trace gases, some of which are anthropogenic, and the short wave radiative effects of unactivated aerosol particles in clouds. Examples of indirect effects are those of aerosols as they change cloud droplet size distributions and hence albedo and radiative properties, and as found in observations of albedo and absorption anomalies in clouds, and cloud modification by urban pollution. 26 references.

DeLuisi, J.J. (ed.)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Environmental Impact  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Environmental Impact - a single comprehensive bibliographic information resource on climate change & other impacts of humans on the biosphere.

457

Aerosol size distribution using Lidar data and a typical Lidar assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is developed and detailed in this paper which determines atmospheric aerosol parameters such as backscatter and extinction coefficients, aerosol optical thickness, and the aerosol size distribution. The algorithm uses the power profile data ... Keywords: LIDAR system, aerosol optical depth, aerosol size distribution, remote sensing

Hamed Parsiani; Javier Mndez

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Title Offline Trace Synchronization for Smartphone Energy Profiling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy profiling is a means to effectively understand the power behavior of smartphone applications. However, no tool that effectively combines portability, accuracy and automation has been proposed yet. In this thesis a new approach is proposed, which sets the basis for such a tool by solving a trace synchronization problem. TRAM (TRAce Merger) uses the event trace from a mobile device and the power trace from a measurement device. It synchronizes them offline, maps the mobile device events trace on the corresponding trace from the power measurement tool, and attributes energy consumption to smartphone functionalities. The event and power traces traces from these two systems contain timestamps based on the corresponding local clocks. Taking the aforementioned clocks inaccuracy and deviation into account, we synchronize these traces to extract useful information from their contents. We achieved energy consumption attribution to smartphone functionalities by solving this synchronization problem with milliseconds accuracy.

Ioannis Oikonomidis; Offline Trace; Synchronization Smartphone; Ioannis Oikonomidis; Msc Presentation

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Possible Change of Extratropical Cyclone Activity due to Enhanced Greenhouse Gases and Sulfate AerosolsStudy with a High-Resolution AGCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the possible impacts of enhanced greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols on extratropical cyclone activity, two 20-yr time-slice experimentsthe control run and the global warming runare performed with a high-resolution AGCM (T106) ...

Quanzhen Geng; Masato Sugi

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Recent activities in the Aerosol Generation and Transport Program  

SciTech Connect

General statements may be made on the behavior of single-component and multi-component aerosols in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant vessel. The removal processes for U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols are enhanced in a steam-air atmosphere. Steam-air seems to have little effect on removal of concrete aerosol from the vessel atmosphere. A steam-air environment causes a change in aerosol shape from chain-agglomerate to basically spherical for U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol; for concrete the change in aerosol shape is from chain-agglomerate to partially spherical. The mass ratio of the individual components of a multi-component aerosol seems to have an observable influence on the resultant behavior of these aerosols in steam. The enhanced rate of removal of the U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and the mixed U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ + Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosols from the atmosphere of the NSPP vessel by steam-air is probably caused by the change in aerosol shape and the condensation of steam on the aerosol surfaces combining to increase the effect of gravitational settling. The apparent lack of an effect by steam-air on the removal rate of concrete aerosol could result from a differing physical/chemical response of the surfaces of this aerosol to condensing steam.

Adams, R.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code  

SciTech Connect

The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S. [Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Universitat Politenica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46021, Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Stochastic path tracing on consumer graphics cards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a path tracer using the GPU of a consumers graphics card to render images. It is implemented in Java and GLSL using GroIMP as modelling platform and runtime environment. The path tracer is capable of rendering primitives like sphere, cone, ... Keywords: GPU, HDR, global illumination, path tracing, procedural texturing, raytracing, texture mapping

Thomas Huwe; Reinhard Hemmerling

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Investigation into Spectral Parameters as they Impact CPV Module Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CPV industry is well aware that performance of triple junction cells depends on spectral conditions but there is a lack of data quantifying this spectral dependence at the module level. This paper explores the impact of precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and optical air mass on multiple CPV module technologies on-sun in Golden, CO.

Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Rodriguez, J.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Aerosol Modeling at LLNL - Our capability, results, and perspective  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Parameterizations in Short-Range Weather Forecasts with CAM3 Over the Southern Great Plains during May 2003 IOP Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 Catherine Chuang, James Boyle Shaocheng Xie and James Kelly LLNL-POST-401948 March 11, 2008 Why are aerosol/cloud interactions important? The greatest uncertainty in the assessment of radiative forcing arises from the interactions of aerosols with clouds. Radiative forcing of climate between 1750 and 2005 (IPCC, 2007) Sources of uncertainty Emissions Gas to particle conversion Aerosol size distribution Linkage between aerosols

466

ARM - Field Campaign - 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 7 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 2007.06.04 - 2007.06.25 Lead Scientist : Carl Berkowitz For data sets, see below. Description The primary goal of this campaign was to characterize and contrast freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus, FWC) and to use these observations to address how below-cloud and above-cloud aerosol optical and cloud nucleating properties differ downwind of a mid-size city relative to similar aerosols in air less affected by emissions. The observations from this campaign can also be used to aid in the development and evaluation of parameterizations of the

467

ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: govCampaignsBiogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols- Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 2014.04.01 - 2014.06.01 Lead Scientist : Joel Thornton Description The ultimate goal of this work is to connect field and laboratory observations of organic aerosol chemical and physical properties during the nascent growth stage to the diurnal and vertical distributions of aerosol abundance measured over the boreal forest by the ARM Mobile Facility 2