National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tracing aerosol impacts

  1. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater 3. Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maring, H.B.; Duce, R.A. )

    1990-04-15

    Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll in the tropical North Pacific were exposed to seawater in laboratory experiments to assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on lead chemistry in surface seawater. The net atmospheric flux of soluble lead to the ocean is between 16 and 32 pmol cm{sup {minus}2}/yr at Enewetak. The stable lead isotopic composition of soluble aerosol lead indicates that it is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic aerosol lead from Central and North America appears to be less soluble and/or to dissolve less rapidly than that from Asia. Dissolved organic matter and possibly lower pH appear to increase the nonaluminosilicate aerosol lead solubility and/or dissolution rate. The isotopic composition of lead in air, seawater and dry deposition suggests that after deposition in the ocean, nonaluminosilicate particulate lead can be reinjected into the atmosphere during sea salt aerosol production.

  2. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is

  3. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore » cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it

  4. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Impact of aerosol size representation on ... OSTI Identifier: 15003527 Report Number(s): PNWD-SA--5600 Journal ID: ISSN 0148-0227 ...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Heidi Yoon, Y.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2013-03-20

    Benzene has been detected in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini instruments, with concentrations ranging from sub-ppb in the stratosphere to ppm in the ionosphere. Sustained levels of benzene in the haze formation region could signify that it is an important reactant in the formation of Titan's organic aerosol. To date, there have not been laboratory investigations to assess the influence of benzene on aerosol properties. We report a laboratory study on the chemical composition of organic aerosol formed from C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} via far ultraviolet irradiation (120-200 nm). The compositional results are compared to those from aerosol generated by a more ''traditional Titan'' mixture of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}. Our results show that even a trace amount of C{sub 6}H{sub 6} (10 ppm) has significant impact on the chemical composition and production rates of organic aerosol. There are several pathways by which photolyzed benzene may react to form larger molecules, both with and without the presence of CH{sub 4}, but many of these reaction mechanisms are only beginning to be explored for the conditions at Titan. Continued work investigating the influence of benzene in aerosol growth will advance understanding of this previously unstudied reaction system.

  6. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions: AEROSOL SIZE REPRESENTATION

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Abdul-Razzak, H.

    2002-11-07

    We use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach. The modal approachmore » with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).« less

  7. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosolâ*...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Technol., 20, 1 -30, 1994. Jacobson, M. Z., Development and application of a new air pollution mod- eling system, II, Aerosol module structure and design, Atmos. Environ., 31, ...

  8. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon ...

  9. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Abdul-Razzak, H.

    2002-11-07

    In this study, we use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach.more » The modal approach with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).« less

  10. Direct impact aerosol sampling by electrostatic precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braden, Jason D.; Harter, Andrew G.; Stinson, Brad J.; Sullivan, Nicholas M.

    2016-02-02

    The present disclosure provides apparatuses for collecting aerosol samples by ionizing an air sample at different degrees. An air flow is generated through a cavity in which at least one corona wire is disposed and electrically charged to form a corona therearound. At least one grounded sample collection plate is provided downstream of the at least one corona wire so that aerosol ions generated within the corona are deposited on the at least one grounded sample collection plate. A plurality of aerosol samples ionized to different degrees can be generated. The at least one corona wire may be perpendicular to the direction of the flow, or may be parallel to the direction of the flow. The apparatus can include a serial connection of a plurality of stages such that each stage is capable of generating at least one aerosol sample, and the air flow passes through the plurality of stages serially.

  11. Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-term impacts of aerosols on ...

  12. Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2008-08-22

    Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.

  13. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they

  14. Integrated Study of MFRSR-derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facili...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Study of MFRSR-Derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facilities - Comparison with Satellite and Other Ground-Based Measurements M. D. Alexandrov and B. Cairns Columbia University National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. A. Lacis and B. E. Carlson National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Comparison of SGP MFRSR

  15. Indirect and semi-direct aerosol campaign: The impact of Arctic aerosols on clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ghan, Steven; Verlinde, Johannes; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Menqistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Dan; et al

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). ISDAC's primary aim was to examine the effects of aerosols, including those generated by Asian wildfires, on clouds that contain both liquid and ice. ISDAC utilized the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pro- gram's permanent observational facilities at Barrow and specially deployed instruments measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation, and radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties and collected data using an unprecedented 41more » stateof- the-art cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 h on 12 different days. Aerosol compositions, including fresh and processed sea salt, biomassburning particles, organics, and sulfates mixed with organics, varied between flights. Observations in a dense arctic haze on 19 April and above, within, and below the single-layer stratocumulus on 8 and 26 April are enabling a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect arctic clouds. Inhomogeneities in reflectivity, a close coupling of upward and downward Doppler motion, and a nearly constant ice profile in the single-layer stratocumulus suggests that vertical mixing is responsible for its longevity observed during ISDAC. Data acquired in cirrus on flights between Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska, are improving the understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Furthermore, ISDAC data will improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and determine the extent to which surface measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and radiative heating.« less

  16. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

  17. The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

    2009-02-24

    In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

  18. Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Song, Qingyuan; Menon, Surabi; Yu, Shaocai; Liu, Shaw C.; Shi, Guangyu; Leung, Lai R.; Luo, Yunfeng

    2008-09-19

    Although the global average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6°C during the last century (IPCC, 2001), some regions such as East Asia, Eastern North America, and Western Europe have cooled rather than warmed during the past decades (Jones, 1988; Qian and Giorgi, 2000). Coherent changes at the regional scale may reflect responses to different climate forcings that need to be understood in order to predict the future net climate response at the global and regional scales under different emission scenarios. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in global climate change (IPCC 2001). They perturb the earth’s radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing solar and long wave radiation, and indirectly by changing cloud reflectivity, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency via their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Because aerosols have much shorter lifetime (days to weeks) compared to most greenhouse gases, they tend to concentrate near their emission sources and distribute very unevenly both in time and space. This non-uniform distribution of aerosols, in conjunction with the greenhouse effect, may lead to differential net heating in some areas and net cooling in others (Penner et al. 1994). Sulfate aerosols come mainly from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from fossil fuel burning. Black carbon aerosols are directly emitted during incomplete combustion of biomass, coal, and diesel derived sources. Due to the different optical properties, sulfate and black carbon affect climate in different ways. Because of the massive emissions of sulfur and black carbon that accompany the rapid economic expansions in East Asia, understanding the effects of aerosols on climate is particularly important scientifically and politically in order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  19. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  20. Impact of aerosol on mixed-phase stratocumulus during MPACE in a mesoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model with two-moment microphysics Impact of aerosol on mixed-phase stratocumulus during MPACE in a mesoscale model with two-moment microphysics Morrison, Hugh MMM/ASP National Center for Atmospheric Research Pinto, James University of Colorado Curry, Judith Georgia Institute of Technology Category: Modeling The Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model MM5 is coupled to a new microphysics scheme to examine the impact of aerosol on mixed-phase stratocumulus during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Stratus

  1. Impacts of aerosol-cloud interactions on past and future changes in tropospheric composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unger, N.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D. M.

    2009-02-02

    The development of effective emissions control policies that are beneficial to both climate and air quality requires a detailed understanding of all the feedbacks in the atmospheric composition and climate system. We perform sensitivity studies with a global atmospheric composition-climate model to assess the impact of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry through their modification on clouds, aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). The model includes coupling between both tropospheric gas-phase and aerosol chemistry and aerosols and liquid-phase clouds. We investigate past impacts from preindustrial (PI) to present day (PD) and future impacts from PD to 2050 (for the moderate IPCC A1B scenario) that embrace a wide spectrum of precursor emission changes and consequential ACI. The aerosol indirect effect (AIE) is estimated to be -2.0 Wm{sup -2} for PD-PI and -0.6 Wm{sup -2} for 2050-PD, at the high end of current estimates. Inclusion of ACI substantially impacts changes in global mean methane lifetime across both time periods, enhancing the past and future increases by 10% and 30%, respectively. In regions where pollution emissions increase, inclusion of ACI leads to 20% enhancements in in-cloud sulfate production and {approx}10% enhancements in sulfate wet deposition that is displaced away from the immediate source regions. The enhanced in-cloud sulfate formation leads to larger increases in surface sulfate across polluted regions ({approx}10-30%). Nitric acid wet deposition is dampened by 15-20% across the industrialized regions due to ACI allowing additional re-release of reactive nitrogen that contributes to 1-2 ppbv increases in surface ozone in outflow regions. Our model findings indicate that ACI must be considered in studies of methane trends and projections of future changes to particulate matter air quality.

  2. In situ measurements of heterogeneous reactions on ambient aerosol particles: Impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertram, Timothy

    2015-02-11

    Aerosol particles play a critical role in the Earth’s energy budget through the absorption and scattering of radiation, and/or through their ability to form clouds and alter cloud lifetime. Heterogeneous and multi-phase reactions alter the climate-relevant properties of aerosol particles and catalyze reaction pathways that are energetically unfavorable in the gas phase. The chemical composition of aerosol particles dictates the kinetics of heterogeneous and multi-phase reactions. At present, the vast majority of the molecular level information on these processes has been determined in laboratory investigations on model aerosol systems. The work described here provides a comprehensive investigation into the reactivity of complex, ambient aerosol particles is proposed to determine: 1) how representative laboratory investigations of heterogeneous and multi-phase processes conducted on model, simple systems are of the real atmosphere, and 2) the impact of heterogeneous and multi-phase processes on ambient particle optical properties and their ability to nucleate clouds. This work has focused on the uptake kinetics for ammonia (NH3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5). The results of these investigations will be used to directly improve the representation of heterogeneous and multi-phase processes in global climate models, by identifying the key mechanistic drivers that control the variability in the observed kinetics.

  3. Aerosol Simulations by LLNL IMPACT and Comparisons with Field...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations by LLNL IMPACT and Comparisons with Field Measurements C. C. Chuang, D. Bergman, J. Dignon, and P. Connell Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California ...

  4. Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

    2007-11-26

    We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present

  5. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhanqing; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Yun; Shi, Guangyu; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-02-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC). The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF10 China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE). The former two are US-China collaborative projects and the latter is a part of the China’s National Basic Research program (or often referred to as “973 project”). Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies. The wealth of general and specialized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system. Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc. In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  6. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earth's troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  7. Assessment of Aerosol Radiative Impact over Oceanic Regions Adjacent to Indian Subcontinent using Multi-Satellite Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2010-10-01

    Using data from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, we have retrieved regional distribution of aerosol column single scattering albedo (parameter indicative of the relative dominance of aerosol absorption and scattering effects), a most important, but least understood aerosol property in assessing its climate impact. Consequently we provide improved assessment of short wave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) (on both regional and seasonal scales) estimates over this region. Large gradients in north-south ARF were observed as a consequence of gradients in single scattering albedo as well as aerosol optical depth. The highest ARF (-37 W m-2 at the surface) was observed over the northern Arabian Sea during June to August period (JJA). In general, ARF was higher over northern Bay of Bengal (NBoB) during winter and pre-monsoon period, whereas the ARF was higher over northern Arabian Sea (NAS) during the monsoon and post- monsoon period. The largest forcing observed over NAS during JJA is the consequence of large amounts of desert dust transported from the west Asian dust sources. High as well as seasonally invariant aerosol single scattering albedos (~0.98) were observed over the southern Indian Ocean region far from continents. The ARF estimates based on direct measurements made at a remote island location, Minicoy (8.3°N, 73°E) in the southern Arabian Sea are in good agreement with the estimates made following multisatellite analysis.

  8. Stable lead isotope compositions in selected coals from around the world and implications for present day aerosol source tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Diaz-Somoano; M.E. Kylander; M.A. Lopez-Anton; I. Suarez-Ruiz; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona; M. Ferrat; B. Kober; D.J. Weiss

    2009-02-15

    The phasing out of leaded gasoline in many countries around the world at the end of the last millennium has resulted in a complex mixture of lead sources in the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that coal combustion has become an important source of Pb in aerosols in urban and remote areas. Lead concentration and isotopic composition is reported for 59 coal samples representing major coal deposits worldwide in an attempt to characterize this potential source. The average concentration in these coals is 35 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1}, with the highest values in coals from Spain and Peru and the lowest in coals from Australia and North America. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratios range between 1.15 and 1.24, with less radiogenic Pb in coals from Europe and Asia compared to South and North America. Comparing the Pb isotopic signatures of coals from this and previous studies with those published for Northern and Southern Hemisphere aerosols, we hypothesize that coal combustion might now be an important Pb source in China, the eastern U.S., and to some extent, in Europe but not as yet in other regions including South Africa, South America, and western U.S. This supports the notion that 'old Pb pollution' from leaded gasoline reemitted into the atmosphere or long-range transport (i.e., from China to the western U.S.) is important. Comparing the isotope ratios of the coals, the age of the deposits, and Pb isotope evolution models for the major geochemical reservoirs suggests that the lead isotope ratios (PbIC) in coals is strongly influenced by the depositional coal forming environment. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol,...

  10. Aerosol cluster impact and break-up : II. Atomic and Cluster Scale Models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lechman, Jeremy B.; Takato, Yoichi

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the interaction of aerosol particle clusters/flocs with surfaces is an area of interest for a number of processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, and powder manufacturing as well as in steam-tube rupture in nuclear power plants. Developing predictive capabilities for these applications involves coupled phenomena on multiple length and timescales from the process macroscopic scale ({approx}1m) to the multi-cluster interaction scale (1mm-0.1m) to the single cluster scale ({approx}1000 - 10000 particles) to the particle scale (10nm-10{micro}m) interactions, and on down to the sub-particle, atomic scale interactions. The focus of this report is on the single cluster scale; although work directed toward developing better models of particle-particle interactions by considering sub-particle scale interactions and phenomena is also described. In particular, results of mesoscale (i.e., particle to single cluster scale) discrete element method (DEM) simulations for aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls are presented. The particle-particle interaction model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular package in the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Additionally, as mentioned, results from atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations are also described as a means of developing higher fidelity models of particle-particle interactions. Ultimately, the results from these and other studies at various scales must be collated to provide systems level models with accurate 'sub-grid' information for design, analysis and control of the underlying systems processes.

  11. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more » leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  12. Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Fu, Rong; Yu, Hongbin; Qian, Yun; Dickinson, Robert; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; da Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Fernandes, Katia

    2009-05-30

    Ensemble simulations of a regional climate model (RegCM3) forced by aerosol radiative forcing suggest that biomass burning aerosols can work against the seasonal monsoon circulation transition, thus re-enforce the dry season rainfall pattern for Southern Amazonia. Strongly absorbing smoke aerosols warm and stabilize the lower troposphere within the smoke center in southern Amazonia (where aerosol optical depth > 0.3). These changes increase the surface pressure in the smoke center, weaken the southward surface pressure gradient between northern and southern Amazonia, and consequently induce an anomalous moisture divergence in the smoke center and an anomalous convergence occurs in northwestern Amazonia (5S-5N, 60W-40 70W). The increased atmospheric thermodynamic stability, surface pressure, and divergent flow in Southern Amazonia may inhibit synoptic cyclonic activities propagated from extratropical South America, and re-enforce winter-like synoptic cyclonic activities and rainfall in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

  13. Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

  14. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric State, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above

  16. Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign Summary Atmospheric aerosol particles impact human health in urban environments, while on regional and ...

  17. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, M.; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D. B.; Baidar, S.; Banta, R. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Beranek, J.; Berg, L. K.; Brechtel, F.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, J. F.; Cairns, B.; Cappa, C. D.; Chand, D.; China, S.; Comstock, J. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Easter, R. C.; Erickson, M. H.; Fast, J. D.; Floerchinger, C.; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, E.; Gaffney, J. S.; Gilles, M. K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, W. I.; Gyawali, M.; Hair, J.; Hardesty, R. M.; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, S.; Hiranuma, N.; Hostetler, C.; Hubbe, J. M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, B. T.; Kassianov, E. I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, C.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, C.; Kubátová, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, A.; Laulainen, N.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mei, F.; Moffet, R. C.; Nelson, D.; Obland, M. D.; Oetjen, H.; Onasch, T. B.; Ortega, I.; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, M.; Prather, K. A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, R. R.; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, A.; Senff, C. J.; Senum, G.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J. E.; Shrivastava, M.; Song, C.; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, K.; Tomlinson, J.; Volkamer, R.; Wallace, H. W.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Yu, X. -Y.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites – one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area – were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and “aged” urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial findings from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of

  18. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

    2012-08-22

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data

  19. A Case Study of Urbanization Impact on Summer Precipitation in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area. Urban Heat Island Versus Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Shi; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Xiuqun

    2015-10-23

    Convection-resolving ensemble simulations using the WRF-Chem model coupled with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) are conducted to investigate the individual and combined impacts of land use and anthropogenic pollutant emissions from urbanization on a heavy rainfall event in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA) in China. The simulation with the urbanization effect included generally captures the spatial pattern and temporal variation of the rainfall event. An improvement of precipitation is found in the experiment including aerosol effect on both clouds and radiation. The expanded urban land cover and increased aerosols have an opposite effect on precipitation processes, with the latter playing a more dominant role, leading to suppressed convection and rainfall over the upstream (northwest) area, and enhanced convection and more precipitation in the downstream (southeast) region of the GBMA. In addition, the influence of aerosol indirect effect is found to overwhelm that of direct effect on precipitation in this rainfall event. Increased aerosols induce more cloud droplets with smaller size, which favors evaporative cooling and reduce updrafts and suppress convection over the upstream (northwest) region in the early stage of the rainfall event. As the rainfall system propagates southeastward, more latent heat is released due to the freezing of larger number of smaller cloud drops that are lofted above the freezing level, which is responsible for the increased updraft strength and convective invigoration over the downstream (southeast) area.

  20. Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s ... of regional aerosol impacts in China as part of a joint program with the ...

  1. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Wednesday, 17 February 2016 11:37 Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those

  2. Quantifying the Uncertainties of Aerosol Indirect Effects and Impacts on Decadal-Scale Climate Variability in NCAR CAM5 and CESM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sungsu

    2014-12-12

    The main goal of this project is to systematically quantify the major uncertainties of aerosol indirect effects due to the treatment of moist turbulent processes that drive aerosol activation, cloud macrophysics and microphysics in response to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations using the CAM5/CESM1. To achieve this goal, the P.I. hired a postdoctoral research scientist (Dr. Anna Fitch) who started her work from the Nov.1st.2012. In order to achieve the project goal, the first task that the Postdoc. and the P.I. did was to quantify the role of subgrid vertical velocity variance on the activation and nucleation of cloud liquid droplets and ice crystals and its impact on the aerosol indirect effect in CAM5. First, we analyzed various LES cases (from dry stable to cloud-topped PBL) to check whether this isotropic turbulence assumption used in CAM5 is really valid. It turned out that this isotropic turbulence assumption is not universally valid. Consequently, from the analysis of LES, we derived an empirical formulation relaxing the isotropic turbulence assumption used for the CAM5 aerosol activation and ice nucleation, and implemented the empirical formulation into CAM5/CESM1, and tested in the single-column and global simulation modes, and examined how it changed aerosol indirect effects in the CAM5/CESM1. These results were reported in the poster section in the 18th Annual CESM workshop held in Breckenridge, CO during Jun.17-20.2013. While we derived an empirical formulation from the analysis of couple of LES from the first task, the general applicability of that empirical formulation was questionable, because it was obtained from the limited number of LES simulations. The second task we did was to derive a more fundamental analytical formulation relating vertical velocity variance to TKE using other information starting from basic physical principles. This was a somewhat challenging subject, but if this could be done in a successful way, it could be directly

  3. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  4. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  5. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  6. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  7. An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Since not only aot but also aab influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot ...

  8. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  9. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  10. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  11. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  12. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  13. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the

  14. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  15. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  16. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  17. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  18. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols During GoAmazon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The contrasts between pristine air and the pollution plume provided excellent opportunities to look into how and to what extent different aerosol size and compositions impact the ...

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: The SGP Aerosol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The SGP Aerosol Best-Estimate Value-Added Procedure and Its Impact on the BBHRP Project Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest...

  20. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)...

  1. Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: Explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    La, Y. S.; Camredon, M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Valorso, R.; Matsunaga, A.; Lannuque, V.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.

    2016-02-08

    Recent studies have shown that low volatility gas-phase species can be lost onto the smog chamber wall surfaces. Although this loss of organic vapors to walls could be substantial during experiments, its effect on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been well characterized and quantified yet. Here the potential impact of chamber walls on the loss of gaseous organic species and SOA formation has been explored using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of the Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) modeling tool, which explicitly represents SOA formation and gas–wall partitioning. The model was compared with 41 smog chambermore » experiments of SOA formation under OH oxidation of alkane and alkene series (linear, cyclic and C12-branched alkanes and terminal, internal and 2-methyl alkenes with 7 to 17 carbon atoms) under high NOx conditions. Simulated trends match observed trends within and between homologous series. The loss of organic vapors to the chamber walls is found to affect SOA yields as well as the composition of the gas and the particle phases. Simulated distributions of the species in various phases suggest that nitrates, hydroxynitrates and carbonylesters could substantially be lost onto walls. The extent of this process depends on the rate of gas–wall mass transfer, the vapor pressure of the species and the duration of the experiments. Furthermore, this work suggests that SOA yields inferred from chamber experiments could be underestimated up a factor of 2 due to the loss of organic vapors to chamber walls.« less

  2. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  3. Particulate Matter Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particulate matter aerosols Particulate Matter Aerosols The study of atmospheric aerosols is important because of its adverse effects on health, air quality, visibility, cultural heritage, and Earth's radiation balance. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of particulate matter (PM) aerosols. Carbon is one of the main constituents of atmospheric aerosols. Radiocarbon (14C) measurement performed on

  4. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol image

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol image Images of aerosols from which one can derive characteristics such...

  6. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol extinction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol extinction The removal of radiant energy from an incident beam by the process of aerosol absorption ...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Nephelometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer RL : Raman Lidar TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AMT : Aerosol Modeling...

  8. Aerosol Extinction Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermodynamic Responses to Uncertainty in Aerosol Extinction Profiles For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Aerosol radiative effects are of great importance for climate simulations over South Asia. For quantifying aerosol direct radiative effect, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) are often compared with observations. These comparisons have revealed large AOD underestimation and

  9. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  10. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  11. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  12. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  13. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  14. Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

    2014-01-20

    Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

  15. A general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of Pinatubo aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacis, A.A.; Carlson, B.E.; Mishchenko, M.I.

    1996-04-01

    The June 1991 volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo is the largest and best documented global climate forcing experiment in recorded history. The time development and geographical dispersion of the aerosol has been closely monitored and sampled. Based on preliminary estimates of the Pinatubo aerosol loading, general circulation model predictions of the impact on global climate have been made.

  16. Small Particles, Big Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small Particles, Big Impact Small Particles, Big Impact Small-scale effects of Aerosols Add up Over Time August 24, 2011 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 High-resolution simulation for Mexico City (top), shows a more detailed and accurate picture of aerosol pollution compared to representations of a global climate model (bottom). The deep red to light green colors represent concentrations of aerosol pollution with red being highest, light green lowest. Using systems at the National Energy

  17. Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    2013-02-12

    Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

  18. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2010-04-09

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m{sup 2} between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m{sup 2} depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  19. Effect of Aerosol Humidification on the Column Aerosol Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Aerosol Humidification on the Column Aerosol Optical Thickness over the ARM Southern Great Plains Site Li, Zhanqing University of Maryland Jeong, Myeong-Jae University of...

  20. Two-Column Aerosol Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Column Aerosol Project Tiny particles in the sky known as "aerosols" come in many forms-dust, soot, and sea salt, for example. Depending on the type of aerosol, it can either...

  1. ARM - AOS Aerosol Properties Plots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XDC Data Viewers Aerosol Properties Plots SGP AMF NSA (BRW) AOS Aerosol Properties Plots ... are raw unedited data. Do not quote and cite. Aerosol Properties Plots SGP AMF NSA (BRW)

  2. Trace Holdings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holdings Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trace Holdings Product: Trace Holdings is now fully integrated in Xantrex Technologies Inc following a 2000 merger. References: Trace...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments PILS : Particle Into Liquid Sampler TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass...

  4. Aerosol Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2001) found that during August to October 1997, such aerosols had a large impact on the surface radiative energy budget ... U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office ...

  5. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter...

  6. Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI): Status and the aerosol explanation for extra window region emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revercomb, H.E.; Knuteson, R.O.; Best, F.A.; Dirkx, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    High spectral resolution observations of downwelling emission from 3 to 19 microns have been made by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Prototype at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiative Testbed (CART) site for over two years. The spectral data set from AERI provides a basis for improving clear sky radiative transfer; determining the radiative impact of clouds, including the derivation of cloud radiative properties; defining the influences of aerosols in the window regions; and retrieving boundary layer state properties, including temperature, water vapor, and other trace gases. The data stream of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated radiances is routinely provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to those science teams requesting it, and further information on the instrument and data characteristics is available in the ARM Science Team proceedings for 1993 and 1994 and in several conference publications. This paper describes the AERI status, calibration, field experiment wit a new AERI-01 and schedule, window region emissions, and future AERI plans.

  7. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  8. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  9. Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Cable-Dunlap, Paula

    2005-11-15

    A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

  10. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  13. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. Distinct effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the East Asian summer monsoon between multi-decadal strong and weak monsoon stages: Effects of aerosols on EASM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xie, Xiaoning; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhaosheng; Liu, Yangang

    2016-06-18

    Industrial emissions of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia have greatly increased in recent decades, and so the interactions between atmospheric aerosols and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) have attracted enormous attention. In order to further understand the aerosol-EASM interaction, we investigate the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the EASM during the multidecadal strong (1950–1977) and weak (1978–2000) EASM stages using the Community Atmospheric Model 5.1. Numerical experiments are conducted for the whole period, including the two different EASM stages, with present day (PD, year 2000) and preindustrial (PI, year 1850) aerosol emissions, as well as the observed time-varying aerosolmore » emissions. A comparison of the results from PD and PI shows that, with the increase in anthropogenic aerosols, the large-scale EASM intensity is weakened to a greater degree (-9.8%) during the weak EASM stage compared with the strong EASM stage (-4.4%). The increased anthropogenic aerosols also result in a significant reduction in precipitation over North China during the weak EASM stage, as opposed to a statistically insignificant change during the strong EASM stage. Because of greater aerosol loading and the larger sensitivity of the climate system during weak EASM stages, the aerosol effects are more significant during these EASM stages. Moreover, these results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols from the same aerosol emissions have distinct effects on the EASM and the associated precipitation between the multidecadal weak and strong EASM stages.« less

  15. Monodisperse aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  16. Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, J.B.; Chan, T.L. )

    1990-03-01

    The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.

  17. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon bearing trace gases Carbon Bearing Trace Gases A critical scientific and policy oriented question is what are the present day sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the natural environment and how will these sinks evolve under rising CO2 concentrations and expected climate change and ecosystem response. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide impart their signature on the distribution, concentration, and isotopic composition of CO2. Spatial and temporal trends (variability) provide

  18. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol effective radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol effective radius Aerosol effective radius is the ratio of the third and...

  19. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-09

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in goodmore » agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  20. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-17

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Modelmore » predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  1. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  2. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, Henry S.; Clark, Mark L.

    1981-01-01

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

  3. Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

    2014-05-13

    Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

  4. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

    2011-12-07

    We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar

  5. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  6. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  7. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  8. Without a Trace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Without a Trace 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Without a Trace Some packages are so valuable that they require a way to unequivocally reveal if anyone has tried to get in. March 8, 2016 Rows of cans marked radioactive on a storage shelf The International Atomic Energy Agency uses tens of thousands of tamper-evident seals annually to help monitor nuclear material around the world. CREDIT: IAEA "The seal is designed to

  9. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-30

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 m to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 20% over northern East Asia and 20 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes

  10. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-06

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  11. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earths radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  12. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment In northeastern India, the fertile land around the Ganges River supports several hundred million people. This river, the largest in India, is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Through an intergovernmental agreement with India, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed its portable laboratory, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), to Nainital, India, in June 2011. During

  13. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  14. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Wednesday, 17 February 2016 11:37 Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid ...

  15. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Paul

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  16. Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Modeling Approach on Flutter Predictions for Very Large Wind Turbine Blade Designs Brian C. Owens bcowens@sandia.gov Graduate Student Intern Wind Energy Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories ∗ Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. D. Todd Griffith dgriffi@sandia.gov Principal Member of Technical Staff Wind Energy Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories ∗ Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. Brian R. Resor brresor@sandia.gov Senior Member of Technical Staff Wind

  17. Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Radiative forcing is the difference between the radiant energy received by earth and the energy radiated back to space. According to Zhao, California is an interesting case study ...

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Analyzer Order Data Arnott Desert Research Institute - airborne photo-acoustic aerosol extinction Order Data Bucholtz Aircraft Solar and IR Radiometers Order Data Jonsson Passive ...

  19. ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - all sites * Aerosol Sampling - SGP, NSA, AMF - scattering, absorption, number, size ... (Germany, 2007) * Near Future: - ISDAC (NSA, 2008) - AMF (China, 2008) AWG Research ...

  20. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  2. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  3. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and ...

  4. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aerosol-tower-eml

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AEROSOL-TOWER-EML) Instrument Categories Aerosols Campaigns Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Field Evaluation Download Data Southern Great Plains, 1994.04.01 - 1994.05.31...

  5. Uncertainties in global aerosol simulations: Assessment using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Uncertainties in global aerosol simulations: Assessment using three meteorological data sets Current global aerosol models use different physical and chemical schemes and 4 ...

  6. ARM - Evaluation Product - Organic Aerosol Component VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass spectral matrix data collected by the aerosol chemical speciation monitor and multivariate analysis to obtain an estimate of the types of organic aerosols. Currently, time...

  7. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 912 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 612 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  8. Collaborative research. Study of aerosol sources and processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsnop, Doug; Volkamer, Rainer

    2012-08-13

    The Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) investigated uncertainties in the aerosol direct effect in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes. The University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS and LED-CE-DOAS instruments were collocated with DOE’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) during the TCAP-1 campaign at Cape Cod, MA (1 July to 13 August 2012). We have performed atmospheric radiation closure studies to evaluate the use of a novel parameter, i.e., the Raman Scattering Probability (RSP). We have performed first measurements of RSP almucantar scans, and measure RSP in spectra of scattered solar photons at 350nm and 430nm. Radiative Transfer Modelling of RSP demonstrate that the RSP measurement is maximally sensitive to infer even extremely low aerosol optical depth (AOD < 0.01) reliably by DOAS at low solar relative azimuth angles. We further assess the role of elevated aerosol layers on near surface observations of oxygen collision complexes, O 2-O2. Elevated aerosol layers modify the near surface absorption of O2-O2 and RSP. The combination of RSP and O2-O2 holds largely unexplored potential to better constrain elevated aerosol layers and measure column aerosol optical properties such as aerosol effective radius, extinction, aerosol phase functions and refractive indices. The TCAP deployment also provides a time series of reactive trace gas vertical profiles, i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and glyoxal (C2H2O2), which are measured simultaneously with the aerosol optical properties by DOAS. NO2 is an important precursor for ozone (O3) that modifies oxidative capacity. Glyoxal modifies oxidative capacity and is a source for brown carbon by forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via multiphase reactions in aerosol and cloud water. We have performed field measurements of these gases

  9. Distinct effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the East Asian summer monsoon between multidecadal strong and weak monsoon stages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xie, Xiaoning; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhaosheng; Liu, Yangang

    2016-06-18

    Industrial emissions of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia have greatly increased in recent decades, and so the interactions between atmospheric aerosols and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) have attracted enormous attention. In order to further understand the aerosol-EASM interaction, we investigate the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the EASM during the multidecadal strong (1950–1977) and weak (1978–2000) EASM stages using the Community Atmospheric Model 5.1. Numerical experiments are conducted for the whole period, including the two different EASM stages, with present day (PD, year 2000) and preindustrial (PI, year 1850) aerosol emissions, as well as the observed time-varying aerosolmore » emissions. A comparison of the results from PD and PI shows that, with the increase in anthropogenic aerosols, the large-scale EASM intensity is weakened to a greater degree (-9.8%) during the weak EASM stage compared with the strong EASM stage (-4.4%). The increased anthropogenic aerosols also result in a significant reduction in precipitation over North China during the weak EASM stage, as opposed to a statistically insignificant change during the strong EASM stage. Because of greater aerosol loading and the larger sensitivity of the climate system during weak EASM stages, the aerosol effects are more significant during these EASM stages. Moreover, these results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols from the same aerosol emissions have distinct effects on the EASM and the associated precipitation between the multidecadal weak and strong EASM stages.« less

  10. Advancing Models and Evaluation of Cumulus, Climate and Aerosol Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, Andrew

    2015-10-27

    This project was successfully able to meet its’ goals, but faced some serious challenges due to personnel issues. Nonetheless, it was largely successful. The Project Objectives were as follows: 1. Develop a unified representation of stratifom and cumulus cloud microphysics for NCAR/DOE global community models. 2. Examine the effects of aerosols on clouds and their impact on precipitation in stratiform and cumulus clouds. We will also explore the effects of clouds and precipitation on aerosols. 3. Test these new formulations using advanced evaluation techniques and observations and release

  11. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5's prescribedmore » aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm−3, which is much lower than observed. This finding

  12. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) program is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks established by NASA and LOA-PHOTONS (CNRS) and is greatly expanded by collaborators from national agencies, institutes, universities, individual scientists, and partners. The program provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical, mircrophysical and radiative properties for aerosol research and characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with other databases. The network imposes standardization of instruments, calibration, processing and distribution. AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  13. Science Plan Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petäjä, T

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles impact human health in urban environments, while on regional and global scales they can affect climate patterns, the hydrological cycle, and the intensity of radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. In spite of recent advances in the understanding of aerosol formation processes and the links between aerosol dynamics and biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions, great challenges remain in the analysis of related processes on a global scale. Boreal forests, situated in a circumpolar belt in the northern latitudes throughout the United States, Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, are among the most active areas of atmospheric aerosol formation among all biomes. The formation of aerosol particles and their growth to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei in these areas are associated with biogenic volatile organic emissions from vegetation and soil.

  14. Trace 700 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Trace 700 AgencyCompany Organization: Trane Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Topics: Technology characterizations...

  15. ARM - Campaign Instrument - drum-aerosol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsdrum-aerosol Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Drum Aerosol Sampler (DRUM-AEROSOL) Instrument Categories Aerosols Campaigns Aerosol IOP [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2003.05.01 - 2003.05.31 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers for the list of all available measurements, including

  16. Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study Science Objective This field campaign is designed to increase scientific knowledge about the evolution of black carbon, primary organic aerosols (POA), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both man-made and biogenic sources. Black carbon and primary organic aerosols are emitted directly into the atmosphere through diesel and gasoline vehicle exhaust, as well as during meat cooking and biomass burning; secondary organic aerosols are formed

  17. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  18. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  19. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  20. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. ... Marina, California Abstract Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles ...

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation ... Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light ...

  2. ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): auxiliary data (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Observing System (AOS): auxiliary data Title: ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): auxiliary data Aerosol Observing System (AOS): auxiliary data Authors: Ogren, John ; ...

  3. Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and external mixing between aerosol components, treating numerous complicated aerosol ... black carbon (BC) with other aerosol components, merging of the MAM7 fine dust and fine ...

  4. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  5. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  6. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: Implications for aerosol optical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Wang, Jon M.; Jeong, Cheol -Heon; Wenger, John C.; Evans, Greg J.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Lee, Alex K. Y.

    2016-04-14

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) inmore » two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was  < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Lastly, significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.« less

  7. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sky-Scanning, Sun Tracking Atmospheric Research SAM : Sun and Aureole Measurement UAV-GNAT : UAV-General Atomics GNAT Value-Added Products AOD : Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from ...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a ...

  9. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  10. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  11. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  12. ARM: Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Aerosol Particle Sizer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Aerosol concentration; Aerosol particle size distribution; Hygroscopic growth; Particle number concentration; Particle size distribution Dataset ...

  13. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  14. ARM - Evaluation Product - Aerosol Modeling Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a means of organizing a wide range of measurements into a single data set that modelers can use to evaluate the performance of aerosol, ...

  15. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2012-01-04

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (D{sub p} > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25 % of aerosol with D{sub p} > 100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the

  16. ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement

  17. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem...

  18. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  19. X-ray Vision for Aerosol Scientists: LCLS Snapshots of Soot (Narrated)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-03

    This short conceptual animation depicts how scientists can now simultaneously capture fractal morphology (structure), chemical composition and nanoscale imagery of individual aerosol particles in flight. These particles, known as "PM2.5" because they are smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter, affect climate by interacting with sunlight and impact human health by entering the lungs. The single LCLS laser pulses travel to the Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences (AMO) laboratory in the Near Experimental Hall. As we zoom in, we see deep inside a simplified aerosol inlet, where the complex fractal structure of the soot particles, each one completely unique, is shown. Individual soot particles are then delivered into the pulses of the LCLS beam, which destroys them. X-rays are scattered to the detector before the particle is destroyed, giving information about the morphology of the particle. Ion fragments released in the explosion are sent into a mass spectrometer, which measures their mass-to-charge ratio -- giving scientists information about the chemical composition of the particle. Many different particles are analyzed in this manner, allowing scientists to probe variations in the particles due to changes in their environment before being sent through the aerosol inlet. The final visual of aerosols emitted from a factory is representative of the goal that such LCLS aerosol dynamics experiments can provide critical feedback into modeling and understanding combustion, aerosol processes in manufacturing or aerosol effects on climate change.

  20. Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; McComiskey, Allison C.

    2006-09-30

    The direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosols, the change in net radiative flux due to aerosols in non-cloudy conditions, is an essential quantity for understanding the human impact on climate change. Our work has addressed several key issues that determine the accuracy, and identify the uncertainty, with which aerosol DRF can be modeled. These issues include the accuracy of several radiative transfer models when compared to measurements and to each other in a highly controlled closure study using data from the ARM 2003 Aerosol IOP. The primary focus of our work has been to determine an accurate approach to assigning aerosol properties appropriate for modeling over averaged periods of time and space that represent the observed regional variability of these properties. We have also undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the aerosol properties that contribute most to uncertainty in modeling aerosol DRF, and under what conditions they contribute the most uncertainty. Quantification of these issues enables the community to better state accuracies of radiative forcing calculations and to concentrate efforts in areas that will decrease uncertainties in these calculations in the future.

  1. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  2. Biobriefcase electrostatic aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-03-17

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air comprising a receiving surface, a liquid input that directs liquid to the receiving surface and produces a liquid surface, an air input that directs the air so that the air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface, and an electrostatic contact connected to the liquid that imparts an electric charge to the liquid. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid by the air with particles entrained in the air impacting the liquid surface. Collection efficiency is improved by the electrostatic contact electrically charging the liquid. The effects of impaction and adhesion due to electrically charging the liquid allows a unique combination in a particle capture medium that has a low fluid consumption rate while maintaining high efficiency.

  3. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-26

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  4. Development of RAMS-CMAQ to Simulate Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Its Application to East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Li-Li

    2009-11-16

    The air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) is developed to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct forcing (DF). The aerosol-specific extinction, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized based on Mie theory taking into account the aerosol size distribution, composition, refractive index, and water uptake of solution particles. A two-stream solar radiative model considers all gaseous molecular absorption, Rayleigh scattering, and aerosols and clouds. RAMSCMAQ is applied to simulate all major aerosol concentrations (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, black carbon, fine soil, and sea salt) and AOD and DF over East Asia in 2005. To evaluate its performance, the simulated AOD values were compared with ground-based in situ measurements. The comparison shows that RAMSCMAQ performed well in most of the model domain and generally captured the observed variations. High AOD values (0.2−1.0) mainly appear in the Sichuan Basin as well as in central and southeastern China. The geographic distribution of DF generally follows the AOD distribution patterns, and the DF at the top-of-the-atmosphere is less than −25 and −20 W m−2 in clear-sky and all-sky over the Sichuan Basin. Both AOD and DF exhibit seasonal variations with lower values in July and higher ones in January. The DF could obviously be impacted by high cloud fractions.

  5. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, L.I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2011-06-21

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO{sub 2} from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25% of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50% of aerosol with D{sub p} > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two

  6. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure,more » and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.« less

  7. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Camore » / Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  8. Impact-GMI Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-22

    IMPACT-GMI is an atmospheric chemical transport model designed to run on massively parallel computers. It is designed to model trace pollutants in the atmosphere. It includes models for emission, chemistry and deposition of pollutants. It can be used to assess air quality and its impact on future climate change.

  9. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  10. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  11. Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Servantes, Brandon Lee

    2013-09-01

    A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

  12. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FacilitiesSurface Aerosol Observing System AMF Information Science Architecture Baseline Instruments AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS AMF Fact Sheet Images Contacts AMF Deployments McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 2015-2016 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to San Francisco, California, 2015 Hyytiälä, Finland, 2014 Manacapuru, Brazil, 2014 Oliktok Point, Alaska, 2013 Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii, 2012 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2012 Gan Island, Maldives, 2011 Ganges Valley, India, 2011 Steamboat Springs,

  13. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refine the computer models used to predict climate change. Tiny Specks with Large Effects Most people equate aerosols with hairspray and household cleaning products, but a...

  14. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead ...

  15. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change. Tiny Specks with Large Effects Most people equate aerosols with hairspray and...

  16. ARM: Ultrahigh Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrahigh Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Authors: Cynthia Salwen ; Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Scott Smith ; Janek Uin ; Janek Uin ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette Koontz ; Annette ...

  17. Aerosol indirect effects - general circulation model intercomparison...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (a) and various cloud ... Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the ...

  18. ARM - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System on Cape...

  19. The LANL Cloud-Aerosol Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that incorporates two unique aspects in its formulation. First, the model employs a nonlinear solver that requires cloud-aerosol parameterizations be smooth or contain reasonable...

  20. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while...

  1. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  2. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  3. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-03-27

    Single-column model (SCM) capability is an important tool for general circulation model development. In this study, the SCM mode of version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is shown to handle aerosol initialization and advection improperly, resulting in aerosol, cloud-droplet, and ice crystal concentrations which are typically much lower than observed or simulated by CAM5 in global mode. This deficiency has a major impact on stratiform cloud simulations but has little impact on convective case studies because aerosol is currently not used by CAM5 convective schemes and convective cases are typically longer in duration (so initialization is less important).more » By imposing fixed aerosol or cloud-droplet and crystal number concentrations, the aerosol issues described above can be avoided. Sensitivity studies using these idealizations suggest that the Meyers et al. (1992) ice nucleation scheme prevents mixed-phase cloud from existing by producing too many ice crystals. Microphysics is shown to strongly deplete cloud water in stratiform cases, indicating problems with sequential splitting in CAM5 and the need for careful interpretation of output from sequentially split climate models. Droplet concentration in the general circulation model (GCM) version of CAM5 is also shown to be far too low (~ 25 cm−3) at the southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site.« less

  4. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-11-23

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea

  5. Trace Replay and Network Simulation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-03-23

    TraceR is a trace reply tool built upon the ROSS-based CODES simulation framework. TraceR can be used for predicting network performances and understanding network behavior by simulating messaging in High Performance Computing applications on interconnection networks.

  6. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction ...

  7. Science Plan Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In spite of recent advances in the understanding of aerosol formation processes and the links between aerosol dynamics and biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions, great ...

  8. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data Title: Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous ...

  9. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  10. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Prev Next Title: Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 ...

  11. ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; ...

  12. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Aerosols during GoAmazon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    microphysical properties of the aerosol." The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 201415) study seeks to understand how aerosol and cloud life cycles ...

  13. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol ...

  14. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  15. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial ...

  16. Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discrimination between thin cirrus and and tropospheric aerosol using multiple measurements from Darwin ARCS Mitchell, Ross CSIRO Category: Aerosols Thin cirrus cloud occurs...

  17. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report PR Buseck ... DOESC-ARM-15-076 Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report PR ...

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Campaign Links ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) ...

  19. Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long-term measurements of submicrometer aerosol chemistry at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Title: Long-term measurements of ...

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Measurement of Aerosols, Radiation and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Southern Ocean Clouds Radiation Transport Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES) has been proposed to improve our understanding of clouds, aerosols, air-sea...

  1. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  2. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  3. Analyzing the Contribution of Aerosols to an Observed Increase in Direct Normal Irradiance in Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Vignola, F.; Long, Charles N.

    2009-01-22

    Annual average total irradiance increases by 1-2% per decade at three mon- itoring stations in Oregon over the period from 1980 to 2007. Direct normal irradiance measurements increase by 5% per decade over the same time pe- riod. The measurements show no sign of a dimming before 1990. The impact of high concentrations of stratospheric aerosols following the volcanic erup- tions of El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo are clearly seen in the measurements. Removing these years from the annual average all-sky time series reduces the trends in both total and direct normal irradiance. Clear-sky periods from this long direct normal time series are used in conjunction with radiative trans- fer calculations to test whether part of the increase could be caused by an- thropogenic aerosols. All three sites show relatively low clear-sky measure- ments before the eruption of El Chichon in 1982, suggesting higher aerosol loads during this period. After removing the periods most strongly impacted by volcanic eruptions, two of the sites show statistically signicant increases in clear-sky direct normal irradiance from 1987 to 2007. Radiative transfer calculations of the impact of volcanic aerosols and tropospheric water vapor indicate that only about 20% of that clear-sky increase between background aerosol periods before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo can be explained by these two factors. Thus, a statistically signicant clear-sky trend remains between 1987 and 2007 that is consistent with the hypothesis that at least some of the increase in surface irradiance could be caused by a reduction of anthropogenic aerosols. D

  4. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    , 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops

  5. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  6. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  7. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, Gavin; Sullivan, Amy; Lee, Taehyoung; Kredenweis, Sonia; Urbanski, Shawn; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ?HCN/?CO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of hours to a day. It was

  8. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R. A.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J. F.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2015-10-12

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity, the quantification of which could be useful in determining the magnitude and sign of the biogeochemical feedback on radiative forcing. However, the impact of elemental deposition to remote ocean regions is not well understood and is not currently included in global climate models. In this study, emission inventories for eight elements primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si are determined based on a global mineral data set and a soil data set. The resulting elemental fractions are used to drive themore » desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions is evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically range from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soils, are consistent with observations, suggesting that this ratio is a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different; estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observations of elemental aerosol concentrations from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions range from 0.7 to 1.6, except for Mg and Mn (3.4 and 3.5, respectively). Using the soil database improves the correspondence of the spatial heterogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust element fluxes to different ocean basins and ice sheet regions have been estimated, based on the model results. The annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using the mineral data set are

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Impacts of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of New York at Albany The impact of aerosols and clouds on CO2 uptake and water use efficiency at Harvard Forest has been studied by using collocated turbulent flux...

  11. Aerosol single-scattering albedo over the global oceans: Comparing PARASOL retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom models estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacagnina, Carlo; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Bian, Huisheng; Curci, Gabriele; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Schulz, Michael; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zhang, Kai

    2015-09-27

    The aerosol Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) over the global oceans is evaluated based on polarimetric measurements by the PARASOL satellite. The retrieved values for SSA and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) agree well with the ground-based measurements of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The global coverage provided by the PARASOL observations represents a unique opportunity to evaluate SSA and AOD simulated by atmospheric transport model runs, as performed in the AeroCom framework. The SSA estimate provided by the AeroCom models is generally higher than the SSA retrieved from both PARASOL and AERONET. On the other hand, the mean simulated AOD is about right or slightly underestimated compared with observations. An overestimate of the SSA by the models would suggest that these simulate an overly strong aerosol radiative cooling at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and underestimate it at surface. This implies that aerosols have a potential stronger impact within the atmosphere than currently simulated.

  12. Effects of Aerosols on Autumn Precipitation over Mid-Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Qian, Yun; Ge, Jinming; Su, Jing

    2014-09-20

    Long-term observational data indicated a decreasing trend for the amount of autumn precipitation (i.e. 54.3 mm per decade) over Mid-Eastern China, especially after 1980s (~ 5.6% per decade). To examine the cause of the decreasing trend, the mechanisms associated with the change of autumn precipitation were investigated from the perspective of water vapor transportation, atmospheric stability and cloud microphysics. Results show that the decrease of convective available potential energy (i.e. 12.81 J kg-1/ decade) and change of cloud microphysics, which were closely related to the increase of aerosol loading during the past twenty years, were the two primary factors responsible for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Ours results showed that increased aerosol could enhance the atmospheric stability thus weaken the convection. Meanwhile, more aerosols also led to a significant decline of raindrop concentration and to a delay of raindrop formation because of smaller size of cloud droplets. Thus, increased aerosols produced by air pollution could be one of the major reasons for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Furthermore, we found that the aerosol effects on precipitation in autumn was more significant than in other seasons, partly due to the relatively more stable synoptic system in autumn. The impact of large-scale circulation dominated in autumn and the dynamic influence on precipitation was more important than the thermodynamic activity.

  13. Study for radionuclide transfer ratio of aerosols generated during heat cutting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro; Baba, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Hiroto; Kitahara, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2007-07-01

    The metallic elements with a low melting point and high vapor pressure seemed to transfer in aerosols selectively at dismantling reactor internals using heat cutting. Therefore, the arc melting tests of neutron irradiated zirconium alloy were conducted to investigate the radionuclide transfer behavior of aerosols generated during the heat cutting of activated metals. The arc melting test was conducted using a tungsten inert gas welding machine in an inert gas or air atmosphere. The radioactive aerosols were collected by filter and charcoal filter. The test sample was obtained from Zry-2 fuel cladding irradiated in a Japanese boiling water reactor for five fuel cycles. The activity analysis, chemical composition measurement and scanning electron microscope observation of aerosols were carried out. Some radionuclides were enriched in the aerosols generated in an inert gas atmosphere and the radionuclide transfer ratio did not change remarkably by the presence of air. The transfer ratio of Sb-125 was almost the same as that of Co-60. It was expected that Sb-125 was enriched from other elements since Sb is an element with a low melting point and high vapor pressure compared with the base metal (Zr). In the viewpoint of the environmental impact assessment, it became clear that the influence if Sb-125 is comparable to Co-60. The transfer ratio of Mn-54 was one order higher compared with other radionuclides. The results were discussed on the basis of thermal properties and oxide formation energy of the metallic elements. (authors)

  14. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-12-18

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earths climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  15. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - MASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties Campaign Links AMF Point Reyes Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP 2005.03.14, Miller, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : MASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties 2005.06.29 - 2005.08.30 Lead Scientist : Anthony Strawa For data sets, see below. Abstract Principal Investigators: J. Ogren, C.

  17. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) ... Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES aerosols, aerosol optical depth, direct aerosol ...

  18. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  19. Trace Element Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

  20. Trace Water Catalyzes Lithium Peroxide Electrochemistry - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 19, 2014, Research Highlights Trace Water Catalyzes Lithium Peroxide Electrochemistry Reaction cycle for reduction of di-oxygen by lithium and water to lithium peroxide on ...

  1. SolTrace | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolTrace is a software tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model concentrating solar power (CSP) systems and analyze their optical performance. ...

  2. Trace desulfurization. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, H.L.; Stevens, C.G.

    A method for reducing a trace concentration of sulfur-containing compounds in a gas stream from about one part in 10/sup 4/ to about one part in 10/sup 7/. The method includes the steps of irradiating the gas stream with an energy source which has a central emission frequency chosen to substantially match a wavelength of energy absorption of the sulfur-containing compounds and of subsequently contacting the gas stream with a reactive surface which includes a reactant selected from elemental metals and metal oxides so that metallic sulfur-containing compounds are formed. The reduction in concentration allows the gas stream to be processed in certain reactions having catalysts which would otherwise be poisoned by the sulfur-containing compounds.

  3. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsIn-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) 2000.03.01 - 2007.10.31 Lead Scientist : John Ogren Data Availability As of 2007-01, data prior to 2006-01 are now available through the regular ARM archive in datastreams: sgpiapC1.a1 sgpiapavgC1.a1 Current data continues to be delivered to the

  5. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2012-11-21

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the

  6. Long-Term Measurements of Submicrometer Aerosol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) including organic aerosol (OA), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and chloride (Cl-). In this study,...

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - MASRAD: Marine Aerosol Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMASRAD: Marine Aerosol Properties Campaign Links AMF Point Reyes Website Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

  8. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of ngstrm's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winterspring and summerautumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winterspring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-lesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles

  9. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12 doi: 10.1016j.egy... + ajkXjXj + ai>i,kXi2, where i 1,22 and jl,22 and k 1,37 The goodness-of-fit (R2) ...

  10. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  11. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, P.F.; Herceg, J.E.; Klocksieben, R.H.

    1984-04-11

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage t

  12. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  13. Priorities for In-situ Aerosol Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Priorities for In-situ Aerosol Measurements Parameters * Aerosol light absorption coefficient - spectral, including UV, vis, and IR - as f(RH), and at ambient RH * Phase function - or relevant integral properties (how many?) * Ice nuclei * Scattering vs. RH, for RH>90% * CCN, as f(S, D p ) * Size distribution * Chemical composition - for determining climate forcing, vs. radiative effect Calibration * Number concentration * Size and shape * Light absorption reference method Characterization *

  14. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive coverage of low clouds over the subtropical eastern oceans greatly impacts the current climate. In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future climate change. Low clouds are poorly simulated in climate models, partly due to inadequate long-term simultaneous observations of their macrophysical and microphysical structure, radiative effects, and associated aerosol distribution in regions where their impact is greatest. The thickness and extent of subtropical low clouds is dependent on tight couplings between surface fluxes of heat and moisture, radiative cooling, boundary layer turbulence, and precipitation (much of which evaporates before reaching the ocean surface and is closely connected to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei). These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding sufficient for developing parameterizations, which adequately predict aerosol indirect effects and low cloud response to climate perturbations. This is especially true of the interactions between clouds, aerosol, and precipitation. These processes take place in an ever-changing synoptic environment that can confound interpretation of short time period observations.

  15. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent

  16. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  17. The First Aerosol Indirect Effect: Beyond Twomey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Dunn, M.; Daum, P.

    2008-03-10

    The traditional first aerosol indirect effect or the Twomey effect involves several fundamental assumptions. Some of the assumptions (e.g., constant liquid water content) are explicitly stated in studies of the Twomey effect whereas others are only implicitly embedded in the quantitative formulation. This work focuses on examining the implicit assumptions. In particular, we will show that anthropogenic pollution not only increases aerosol loading and droplet concentrations but also alters the relative dispersions of both the aerosol and subsequent droplet size distributions. The indirect effects resulting from the two altered relative dispersions (aerosol dispersion effect and droplet dispersion effect) are likely opposite in sign and proportional in magnitude to the conventional Twomey effect. This result suggests that the outstanding problems of the Twomey effect (i.e., large uncertainty and overestimation reported in literature) may lie with violation of the constant spectral shapes of aerosol and droplet size distributions implicitly assumed in evaluation of the Twomey effect, and therefore, further progress in understanding and quantification of the first aerosol indirect effect demands moving beyond the traditional paradigm originally conceived by Twomey.

  18. Aerosol Properties from Multi-spectral and Multi-angular Aircraft 4STAR Observations: Expected Advantages and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The airborne Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) is developed to retrieve aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. The necessarily compact design of the 4STAR may cause noticeable apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles. We assess the sensitivity of expected 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval to such enhancement by applying the operational AERONET retrieval code and constructed synthetic 4STARlike data. Also, we assess the sensitivity of the broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing to uncertainties in aerosol retrievals associated with the sky radiance enhancement. Our sensitivity study results suggest that the 4STARbased aerosol retrieval has limitations in obtaining detailed information on particle size distribution and scattering phase function. However, these limitations have small impact on the retrieved bulk optical parameters, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or 0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 2%, or 0.02), and the calculated direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 6%, or 2 Wm-2).

  19. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  20. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  1. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Zhao, Chun; Li, Mengmeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) per year. SO₂ is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 μg m⁻³ in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 μg m⁻³ and 7.3 μg m⁻³, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO₂ oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO₂ was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO₂ reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  2. Easy system call tracing for Plan 9.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnich, Ronald G.

    2010-09-01

    Tracing system calls makes debugging easy and fast. On Plan 9, traditionally, system call tracing has been implemented with acid. New systems do not always implement all the capabilities needed for Acid, particularly the ability to rewrite the process code space to insert breakpoints. Architecture support libraries are not always available for Acid, or may not work even on a supported architecture. The requirement that Acid's libraries be available can be a problem on systems with a very small memory footprint, such as High Performance Computing systems where every Kbyte counts. Finally, Acid tracing is inconvenient in the presence of forks, which means tracing shell pipelines is particularly troublesome. The strace program available on most Unix systems is far more convenient to use and more capable than Acid for system call tracing. A similar system on Plan 9 can simplify troubleshooting. We have built a system calling tracing capability into the Plan 9 kernel. It has proven to be more convenient than strace in programming effort. One can write a shell script to implement tracing, and the C code to implement an strace equivalent is several orders of magnitude smaller.

  3. Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

    2001-09-01

    Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

  4. Corrigendum to Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust published in Atmos. ... CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust published in Atmos. ...

  5. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust Citation Details ... CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust Mineral dust ...

  6. Connecting Organic Aerosol Climate-Relevant Properties to Chemical Mechanisms of Sources and Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Joel

    2015-01-26

    The research conducted on this project aimed to improve our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere, and how the properties of the SOA impact climate through its size, phase state, and optical properties. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that the use of molecular composition information to mechanistically connect source apportionment and climate properties can improve the physical basis for simulation of SOA formation and properties in climate models. The research involved developing and improving methods to provide online measurements of the molecular composition of SOA under atmospherically relevant conditions and to apply this technology to controlled simulation chamber experiments and field measurements. The science we have completed with the methodology will impact the simulation of aerosol particles in climate models.

  7. Method for remote detection of trace contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simonson, Robert J.; Hance, Bradley G.

    2003-09-09

    A method for remote detection of trace contaminants in a target area comprises applying sensor particles that preconcentrate the trace contaminant to the target area and detecting the contaminant-sensitive fluorescence from the sensor particles. The sensor particles can have contaminant-sensitive and contaminant-insensitive fluorescent compounds to enable the determination of the amount of trace contaminant present in the target are by relative comparison of the emission of the fluorescent compounds by a local or remote fluorescence detector. The method can be used to remotely detect buried minefields.

  8. SolTrace Optical Analysis Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    SolTrace is a software package that models solar power optical systems and analyzes their performance. SolTrace can model parabolic trough collectors, point-focus concentrating systems, and power towers. It rapidly displays and saves data as scatter plots, flux maps, and performance graphs. SolTrace can model optical geometry as a series of stages, composed of optical elements that possess attributes such as shape, contour, and optical quality. It can also model any number of stages containing anymore » number of different elements, and it features an extensive variety of available shapes and contours.« less

  9. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  10. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  11. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  12. Aerosol beam-focus laser-induced plasma spectrometer device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting elements in an aerosol includes an aerosol beam focuser for concentrating aerosol into an aerosol beam; a laser for directing a laser beam into the aerosol beam to form a plasma; a detection device that detects a wavelength of a light emission caused by the formation of the plasma. The detection device can be a spectrometer having at least one grating and a gated intensified charge-coupled device. The apparatus may also include a processor that correlates the wavelength of the light emission caused by the formation of the plasma with an identity of an element that corresponds to the wavelength. Furthermore, the apparatus can also include an aerosol generator for forming an aerosol beam from bulk materials. A method for detecting elements in an aerosol is also disclosed.

  13. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the ...

  14. Biogenic Aerosols„Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign Summary T Petj ... DOESC-ARM-15-051 Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign ...

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2013.04.15, Scott, AMF Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter ...

  16. Aerosol Radiative Forcing During Spring-Summer 2002 from Measurements...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The appropriate values of ARF for the whole atmosphere (ARF ( )-ARF (0)) were between 4 Wm ... Besides, the aerosol in 2001 had a larger amount of black carbon. The total aerosol ...

  17. Aerodyne Develops an Aircraft-Deployable Precision Aerosol Analyzer...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer in flight ready rack. R&D Opportunity Aerosol ... In this project, the instrument was upgraded with a time-of-flight (ToF) mass ...

  18. A New Approach to Modeling Aerosol Effects on East Asian Climate: Parametric Uncertainties Associated with Emissions, Cloud Microphysics and their Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Huiping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Yang, Ben; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we adopt a parametric sensitivity analysis framework that integrates the quasi-Monte Carlo parameter sampling approach and a surrogate model to examine aerosol effects on the East Asian Monsoon climate simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). A total number of 256 CAM5 simulations are conducted to quantify the model responses to the uncertain parameters associated with cloud microphysics parameterizations and aerosol (e.g., sulfate, black carbon (BC), and dust) emission factors and their interactions. Results show that the interaction terms among parameters are important for quantifying the sensitivity of fields of interest, especially precipitation, to the parameters. The relative importance of cloud-microphysics parameters and emission factors (strength) depends on evaluation metrics or the model fields we focused on, and the presence of uncertainty in cloud microphysics imposes an additional challenge in quantifying the impact of aerosols on cloud and climate. Due to their different optical and microphysical properties and spatial distributions, sulfate, BC, and dust aerosols have very different impacts on East Asian Monsoon through aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. The climatic effects of aerosol do not always have a monotonic response to the change of emission factors. The spatial patterns of both sign and magnitude of aerosol-induced changes in radiative fluxes, cloud, and precipitation could be different, depending on the aerosol types, when parameters are sampled in different ranges of values. We also identify the different cloud microphysical parameters that show the most significant impact on climatic effect induced by sulfate, BC and dust, respectively, in East Asia.

  19. Direct Aerosol Forcing: Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Measurements of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Optical and Situational Properties Direct Aerosol Forcing: Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Measurements of Aerosol Optical and Situational Properties McComiskey, Allison CIRES / NOAA Schwartz, Stephen Brookhaven National Laboratory Ricchiazzi, Paul University of California, Santa Barbara Lewis, Ernie Brookhaven National Laboratory Michalsky, Joseph DOC/NOAA/OAR/ESRL/GMD Ogren, John NOAA/CMDL Category: Radiation Understanding sources of uncertainty in estimating aerosol direct radiative

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ACAPEX Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) 2015.01.14, Morris, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Ship-Based Ice Nuclei Collections 2015.01.14, DeMott, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14, Leung, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Campaign Links Final Campaign Summary BAECC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2014.06.15, Scott, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Extended Radiosonde IOP 2014.05.01, Nicoll, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 2014.04.01, Thornton, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall

  2. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Wai, Chien M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  3. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  4. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

    2008-06-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

  5. Aerosol can puncture device test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-10-01

    This test report documents the evaluation of an aerosol can puncture device to replace a system currently identified for use in the WRAP-1 facility. The new system is based upon a commercially available puncture device, as recommended by WHC Fire Protection. With modifications found necessary through the testing program, the Aerosol Can Puncture Device was found able to puncture and drain aerosol cans without incident. Modifications include the addition of a secondary collection bottle and the modification of the can puncture needle. In the course of testing, a variety of absorbents were tested to determine their performance in immobilizing drained fluids. The visibility of the puncture with Non-Destructive Examination techniques were also reviewed.

  6. Surrogate/spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio testing:phase 1 summary and results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, Manuel Gilbert; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Lange, F. , Germany); Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Dickey, Roy R.; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire , France); Young, F. I.; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und reaktorsicherheit , Germany)

    2005-10-01

    This multinational test program is quantifying the aerosol particulates produced when a high energy density device (HEDD) impacts surrogate material and actual spent fuel test rodlets. The experimental work, performed in four consecutive test phases, has been in progress for several years. The overall program provides needed data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This program also provides significant political benefits in international cooperation for nuclear security related evaluations. The spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC), and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report summarizes the preliminary, Phase 1 work performed in 2001 and 2002 at Sandia National Laboratories and the Fraunhofer Institute, Germany, and documents the experimental results obtained, observations, and preliminary interpretations. Phase 1 testing included: performance quantifications of the HEDD devices; characterization of the HEDD or conical shaped charge (CSC) jet properties with multiple tests; refinement of the aerosol particle collection apparatus being used; and, CSC jet-aerosol tests using leaded glass plates and glass pellets, serving as representative brittle materials. Phase 1 testing was quite important for the design and performance of the following Phase 2 test program and test apparatus.

  7. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  8. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Optical Depths ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of

  9. Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Patrick F. (Downers Grove, IL); Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Klocksieben, Robert H. (Park Forest, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for sampling and characterizing aerosols having a wide particle size range at relatively low velocities may comprise a chamber having an inlet and an outlet, the chamber including: a plurality of vertically stacked, successive particle collection stages; each collection stage includes a separator plate and a channel guide mounted transverse to the separator plate, defining a labyrinthine flow path across the collection stage. An opening in each separator plate provides a path for the aerosols from one collection stage to the next. Mounted within each collection stage are one or more particle collection frames.

  10. Aerosol transport and wet scavenging in deep convective clouds: a case study and model evaluation using a multiple passive tracer analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Easter, Richard C.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Hailong; Berg, Larry K.; Barth, Mary; Liu, Ying; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Singh, Balwinder; Morrison, H.; Fan, Jiwen; Ziegler, Conrad L.; Bela, Megan; Apel, Eric; Diskin, G. S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2015-08-20

    The effect of wet scavenging on ambient aerosols in deep, continental convective clouds in the mid-latitudes is studied for a severe storm case in Oklahoma during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. A new passive-tracer based transport analysis framework is developed to characterize the convective transport based on the vertical distribution of several slowly reacting and nearly insoluble trace gases. The passive gas concentration in the upper troposphere convective outflow results from a mixture of 47% from the lower level (0-3 km), 21% entrained from the upper troposphere, and 32% from mid-atmosphere based on observations. The transport analysis framework is applied to aerosols to estimate aerosol transport and wet-scavenging efficiency. Observations yield high overall scavenging efficiencies of 81% and 68% for aerosol mass (Dp < 1μm) and aerosol number (0.03< Dp < 2.5μm), respectively. Little chemical selectivity to wet scavenging is seen among observed submicron sulfate (84%), organic (82%), and ammonium (80%) aerosols, while nitrate has a much lower scavenging efficiency of 57% likely due to the uptake of nitric acid. Observed larger size particles (0.15 - 2.5μm) are scavenged more efficiently (84%) than smaller particles (64%; 0.03 - 0.15μm). The storm is simulated using the chemistry version of the WRF model. Compared to the observation based analysis, the standard model underestimates the wet scavenging efficiency for both mass and number concentrations with low biases of 31% and 40%, respectively. Adding a new treatment of secondary activation significantly improves simulation results, so that the bias in scavenging efficiency in mass and number concentrations is reduced to <10%. This supports the hypothesis that secondary activation is an important process for wet removal of aerosols in deep convective storms.

  11. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness τ(λ) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent α were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of τ(0.50 μm) and α and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of α versus τ(0.50 μm) showed: (i) a considerable increase in τ(0.50 μm) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in α; and (ii) a marked increase in τ(0.50 μm) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas α decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of τ(λ) and α at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of τ(λ) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei

  12. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph; et al

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness τ(λ) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent α were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of τ(0.50 μm) and α and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of α versus τ(0.50 μm) showed: (i)more » a considerable increase in τ(0.50 μm) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in α; and (ii) a marked increase in τ(0.50 μm) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas α decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of τ(λ) and α at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of τ(λ) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring data was collected at four locations in China during 2008. The various sites are located in regions with different climate regimes and with high aerosol loadings of different optical, physical, and chemical properties. Measurements obtained at all the AMF sites during the 8-month deployment in China will help scientists to validate satellite-based findings, understand the mechanisms of the aerosol indirect effects in the region, and examine the roles of aerosols in affecting regional climate and atmospheric circulation, with a special focus on the impact of the East Asian monsoon system. As with other collections from the ARM Mobile Facility, the datasets are available from the ARM Archive. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  15. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haslam, Jeffery J

    2015-03-17

    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  16. Further improvements on TRACE 3-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusthoi, D.P.; Lysenko, W.P.; Crandall, K.R.

    1997-08-01

    TRACE 3-D, an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam (including linear space-charge forces) through a user-defined transport system, has undergone several upgrades in physics, coding, and capabilities. Recent modifications include centroid tracking (and misalignment capabilities) and an improved beam description that allows study of some nonlinear effects such as wakefields. The Fortran code has been made portable and runs on numerous platforms. It can be used with a variety of graphics packages. The additional beamline elements, new commands, expanded fitting capabilities, improved beam description, and coding modifications have extended TRACE 3-D`s usefulness and applicability to the accelerator community. These changes are documented in the third edition of TRACE 3-D Documentation.

  17. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  18. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1993-11-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  19. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  20. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  1. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  2. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2008-01-15

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  3. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Chen, Da-Ren

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  4. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  5. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  6. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign (ISDAC) The Influence of Arctic Aerosol on Clouds PIs: Steve Ghan, Greg McFarquhar, Hans Verlinde ARM AVP: Beat Schmid, Greg McFarquhar, John Hubbe, Debbie Ronfeld In situ measurements: Sarah Brooks, Don Collins, Dan Cziczo, Manvendra Dubey, Greg Kok, Alexei Korolev, Alex Laskin, Paul Lawson, Peter Liu, Claudio Mazzoleni, Ann-Marie McDonald, Greg McFarquhar, Walter Strapp, Alla Zelenyuk Retrievals: Connor Flynn, Dan Lubin, Mengistu Wolde, David Mitchell, Matthew Shupe, David Turner

  7. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B.

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis figure 1 Figure 1. Dust storm blowing glacial dusts from the Copper River Basin of southeast Alaska into the North Pacific Ocean, which depends on this and other external iron sources to support its biological communities. (Image: NASA MODIS satellite image, Nov. 1, 2006. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7094) Iron is one of

  9. Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This webinar was presented by research team Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA), and provided information about a project that uses existing aerosol duct sealing technology to seal the entire building enclosure in order to achieve greater airtightness and energy and cost savings. webinar_bira_20111014.wmv (11.57 MB) More Documents &

  10. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  11. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. ...

  12. Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PACE's primary goal was to demonstrate routine Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) field operations and improve instrumental and operational performance. LANL operated the ...

  13. About the Rhythms of Variability of the Submicron Aerosol Characterist...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the distribution of the aerosol characteristics were considered. The periodograms (Fourier spectra of the discrete data set) were calculated for all data arrays using...

  14. Overview of the COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COPS Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics (ACM) Subgroup Activities Dave Turner Space Science ... (ACM) - Chairs: Susanne Crewell, Dave Turner, Stephen Mobbs ACM Scientific Questions * ...

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on atmospheric particulate matter. The effect of aerosol properties such as size, morphology and composition on cloud droplet formation has been studied theoretically as well as...

  16. Direct Aerosol Forcing: Calculation from Observables and Sensitivities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AEROSOLS; ... SOLAR RADIATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1029...

  17. Predicting Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing over Mexico using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as the foundation of computational framework * Fully-coupled aerosol-radiation-cloud-chemistry interactions * Handles multiple ...

  18. Preliminary Results of in-situ Measurements of Aerosol Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Aerosol Optical and Water Uptake Properties from the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger Jefferson, Anne NOAA CMDL Ogren, John NOAACMDL Category: Field Campaigns The second...

  19. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ...

  20. About Effective? Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kabanov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. M. Sakerin Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol component of the atmosphere is one of the important...

  1. Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5-055 ENERGY Science Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet Formation during TCAP Field Campaign Report D Cziczo May 2016 ARM CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY ...

  2. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  3. ARM AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP A. S. Koontz and C. J. Flynn Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, and P....

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Pajarito Aerosol Coupling to Ecosystems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    woodland site used for DOE sponsored ecosystem research to measure the aerosol life ... PACE will measure changes in biogenic volatile organic from PJ ecosystem, the ...

  5. "Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: "Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties Over the ARM ACRF Sites" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: "Lidar Investigations ...

  6. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct ...

  7. Light Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors' Choice For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights...

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Cirrus Clouds and Aerosol Properties Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lead Scientist : Shadrian Strong For data sets, see below. Abstract Through the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Characterization of Cirrus and Aerosol Properties (CCAP) ...

  9. Parameterizing the Mixing State of Complex Submicron Aerosols...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DA Knopf, MK Gilles, and RC Moffet. 2015. "Chemical imaging of ambient aerosol particles: Observational constraints on mixing state parameterization." Journal of Geophysical...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of representative organic aerosols within the boundary layer. By combining a SMPS and a dual column CCN counter, the size-resolved CCN concentrations were measured. This allowed...

  11. Airborne aerosol in situ measurements during TCAP: A closure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of both non-absorbing and absorbing aerosol at ambient conditions from aircraft data. ... particles, and thus obtaining improved ambient size spectra derived from Optical ...

  12. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. ... Abstract We use Raman lidar profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, ...

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations ...

  14. Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    about a project that uses existing aerosol duct sealing technology to seal the entire building enclosure in order to achieve greater airtightness and energy and cost savings. ...

  15. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects ... DOE Contract Number: SC0007396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Leeds ...

  16. Study of in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.J.R.; Chang, S.M.; Adikesavalu, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Sulfur removal efficiency of in-duct spray drying is limited by sorbent content and surface properties of the sorbent-water aerosol. It was the purpose of this study to improve the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying by injecting condensation aerosol instead of conventional dispersion aerosol. The program was composed of three phases. In Phase I, a novel pulsed fluid bed feeder was developed and was used to feed hydrated lime for subsequent experiments. A small condensation aerosol generator was then built, which produces a lime-water condensation aerosol by condensing steam on lime particles. The results show that novel lime-water aerosols less than 10 microns were generated. The central task in Phase II was to simulate experimentally in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosols and compare the results with those using dispersion aerosols reported in the literature. A small entrained-flow reactor was constructed to simulate an in-duct spray dryer. The condensation aerosol was then introduced to the reactor at various approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur stoichiometry and sulfur dioxide concentration for desulfurization study. The results show that we have improved the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying to 90 percent or above. Thus we have met and exceeded the stated project goal of 70 percent sulfur removal. A comprehensive computer code was employed to calculate sulfur removal efficiency in Phase III.

  17. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Development for the Study of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Paul

    2011-12-10

    Soot particles are generated by incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Through direct effects clear air aerosols containing black carbon (BC) such as soot aerosols, absorb incoming light heating the atmosphere, while most other aerosols scatter light and produce cooling. Even though BC represents only 1-2% of the total annual emissions of particulate mass to the atmosphere, it has been estimated that the direct radiative effect of BC is the second-most important contributor to global warming after absorption by CO2. Ongoing studies continue to underscore the climate forcing importance of black carbon. However, estimates of the radiative effects of black carbon on climate remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of particles containing black carbon. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. Freshly emitted soot particles are typically fractal hydrophobic aggregates. The aggregates consist of black carbon spherules with diameters typically in the range of about 15-40 nm, and they are usually coated by adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced during combustion. Diesel-generated soot particles are often emitted with an organic coating composed primarily of lubricating oil and unburned fuel, as well as well as PAH compounds. Sulfuric acid has also been detected in diesel and aircraft-emitted soot particles. In the course of aging, these particle coatings may be substantially altered by chemical reactions and/or the deposition of other materials. Such processes transform the optical and CCN properties of the soot aerosols in ways that are not yet well understood. Our work over the past seven years consisted of laboratory research, instrument development and characterization, and field studies with the central focus of improving our understanding of the black carbon aerosol climate impacts. During the sixth year as well as during this seventh year (no

  18. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Stuart C.; Partin, Judy K.; Grandy, Jon D.; Jeffery, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  19. Gaseous trace impurity analyzer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jr., David (Bellport, NY); Schneider, William (Setauket, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Simple apparatus for analyzing trace impurities in a gas, such as helium or hydrogen, comprises means for drawing a measured volume of the gas as sample into a heated zone. A segregable portion of the zone is then chilled to condense trace impurities in the gas in the chilled portion. The gas sample is evacuated from the heated zone including the chilled portion. Finally, the chilled portion is warmed to vaporize the condensed impurities in the order of their boiling points. As the temperature of the chilled portion rises, pressure will develop in the evacuated, heated zone by the vaporization of an impurity. The temperature at which the pressure increase occurs identifies that impurity and the pressure increase attained until the vaporization of the next impurity causes a further pressure increase is a measure of the quantity of the preceding impurity.

  20. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R.; Hildemann, L.M.; Mazurek, M.A.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D{sub p} {ge} 2 {mu}m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  1. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. ); Hildemann, L.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mazurek, M.A. ); Simoneit, B.R.T. Environmental Geochemistry Group)

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D[sub p] [ge] 2 [mu]m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  2. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-18

    cloudiness) are shown to respond differently between Case I and Case II, underlining the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both the direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.« less

  3. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    differently between Case I and Case II underlying the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.less

  4. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    differently between Case I and Case II underlying the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.

  5. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-18

    shown to respond differently between Case I and Case II, underlining the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both the direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.« less

  6. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    differently between Case I and Case II underlying the importance of determining the exact portion of scattering or absorbing aerosols that lead to the underestimation of aerosol optical depth in the model. In addition, the model results suggest that both direct radiative effect and rapid thermodynamic responses need to be quantified for understanding aerosol radiative impacts.« less

  7. Unique DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles for studying aerosol transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harding, Ruth N.; Hara, Christine A.; Hall, Sara B.; Vitalis, Elizabeth A.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Jones, A. Daniel; Day, James A.; Tur-Rojas, Vincent R.; Jorgensen, Trond; Herchert, Edwin; et al

    2016-03-22

    Data are presented for the first use of novel DNA-barcoded aerosol test particles that have been developed to track the fate of airborne contaminants in populated environments. Until DNATrax (DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol eXperiments) particles were developed, there was no way to rapidly validate air transport models with realistic particles in the respirable range of 1–10 μm in diameter. The DNATrax particles, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and tested with the assistance of the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, are the first safe and effective materials for aerosol transport studies that are identified by DNA molecules. The usemore » of unique synthetic DNA barcodes overcomes the challenges of discerning the test material from pre-existing environmental or background contaminants (either naturally occurring or previously released). The DNATrax particle properties are demonstrated to have appropriate size range (approximately 1–4.5 μm in diameter) to accurately simulate bacterial spore transport. As a result, we describe details of the first field test of the DNATrax aerosol test particles in a large indoor facility.« less

  8. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  9. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: Results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, Dominique E.; Kim, Hwajin; Parworth, Caroline; Zhou, Shan; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; Zhang, Qi

    2016-05-02

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air-quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physicochemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air-quality models. During January and February 2013, a ground supersite was installed at the Fresno–Garland California Air Resources Board (CARB) monitoring station, where comprehensive, real-time measurements of PM and trace gases were performed using instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) andmore » an Ionicon proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) concentration was 31.0 µg m–3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %), followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %). High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA, O/C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 18 % of total OA, O/C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OA (BBOA1: 13 % of total OA, O/C = 0.33; BBOA2: 20 % of total OA, O/C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV

  10. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, Dominique E.; Kim, Hwajin; Parworth, Caroline; Zhou, Shan; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; Zhang, Qi

    2016-05-02

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air-quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physicochemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air-quality models. During January and February 2013, a ground supersite was installed at the Fresno–Garland California Air Resources Board (CARB) monitoring station, where comprehensive, real-time measurements of PM and trace gases were performed using instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) andmore » an Ionicon proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) concentration was 31.0 µg m−3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %), followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %). High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C) ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 18 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OA (BBOA1: 13 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.33; BBOA2: 20 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.60) most likely

  11. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  12. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-03-28

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  13. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  14. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-06-02

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  15. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  16. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Holland, Redus F.; Beattie, Willard H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (.about.2 ppm) present in commercial Xe and ppm levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  17. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  18. Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over China: Modeling and Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Giorgi, Filippo

    2003-09-01

    We present regional simulations of aerosol properties, direct radiative forcing and aerosol climatic effects over China, and compare the simulations with observed aerosol characteristics and climatic data over the region. The climate simulations are performed with a regional climate model, which is shown to capture the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of temperature and precipitation. Aerosol concentrations are obtained from a global tracer-transport model and are provided to the regional model for the calculation of radiative forcing. Different aerosols are included: sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt and MSA particles. Generally, the aerosol optical depth is well simulated in both magnitude and spatial distribution. The direct radiative forcing of the aerosol is in the range of –1 to –14 W m-2 in autumn and summer and -1 to –9 W m-2 in spring and winter, with substantial spatial variability at the regional scale. A strong maximum in aerosol optical depth and negative radiative forcing is found over the Sichuan Basin. The negative radiative forcing of aerosol induces a surface cooling in the range of –0.6 to –1.2oC in autumn and winter, –0.3 to –0.6oC in spring and 0.0 to –0.9oC in summer throughout East China. The aerosol-induced cooling is mainly due to a decrease in day-time maximum temperature. The cooling is maximum and is statistically significant over the Sichuan Basin. The effect of aerosol on precipitation is not evident in our simulations. The temporal and spatial patterns of the temperature trends observed in the second half of the twentieth century, including different trends for daily maximum and minimum temperature, are at least qualitatively consistent with the simulated aerosol-induced cooling over the Sichuan Basin and East China. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed temperature trends during the latter decades of the twentieth century, especially the cooling trends over the

  19. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  20. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  2. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  3. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  4. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  5. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  6. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  7. Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; White, B.W.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Corkran, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300/degree/C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 ..mu..m as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 ft/sup 3//min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150/degree/C, and 300/degree/C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. GCM parameterization of radiative forcing by Pinatubo aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacis, A.A.; Mishchenko, M.I.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the question of whether the general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of volcanic aerosol forcing can be adequately described in terms of just two physical aerosol parameters: (1) the aerosol column optical thickness and (2) the effective radius of the aerosol size distribution. Data recorded from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991 was analyzed to attempt to answer this question. The spatial distribution of the particle size showed considerable variability and was found to increase steadily following the eruption. The time evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol particle size distribution as derived from satellite data differed significantly, particularly in the early phases of the eruption, from that assumed in the initial GCM simulation of the Pinatubo eruption. A bimodal distribution was used to examine the possibility that the actual size distribution of the volcanic aerosol was multimodal. However, results suggested that in most cases the aerosol size distribution was essentially monomodal in nature. Results from the radiative model used in the calculations are also presented. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  10. Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR)-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Sinyuk, Alexander

    2012-10-24

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) being developed for airborne measurements will offer retrievals of aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. In this study, we assess the expected accuracy of the 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval and its sensitivity to major sources of anticipated perturbations in the 4STAR measurements by adapting a theoretical approach previously developed for the AERONET measurements. The major anticipated perturbations are (1) an apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles associated with the necessarily compact design of the 4STAR and (2) and an offset (i.e. uncertainty) of sky radiance calibration independent of scattering angle. The assessment is performed through application of the operational AERONET aerosol retrieval and constructed synthetic 4STAR-like data. Particular attention is given to the impact of these perturbations on the upwelling and downwelling broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing at the bottom and top of the atmosphere. The results from this study suggest that limitations in the accuracy of 4STAR-retrieved particle size distributions and scattering phase functions have diminished impact on the accuracy of retrieved bulk microphysical parameters, permitting quite accurate retrievals of properties including the effective radius (up to 10%, or 0.03), and the radiatively important optical properties, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or 0.02) and single-scattering albedo (up to 6%, or 0.04). Also, the obtained results indicate that the uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol optical properties are quite small in the context of the calculated fluxes and direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 15%, or 3 Wm-2).

  11. Method of Producing Ultra-heavy Homogeneous Aerosol of Sub-micron Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ernest J. Valeo and Nathaniel J. Fisch | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method of Producing Ultra-heavy Homogeneous Aerosol of Sub-micron Particles Ernest J. Valeo and Nathaniel J. Fisch This invention forms a heavy homogeneous aerosol by agitating sub-micron particles throughacoustic forces and then releasing the aerosol into a low-pressure reservoir. Through this method, the aerosol particulates comprise the dominant mass of the aerosol to produce plasma of the requisite homogeneity,

  12. Apparatus and method for the characterization of respirable aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Douglas K.; Hodges, Bradley W.; Bush, Jesse D.; Mishima, Jofu

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus for the characterization of respirable aerosols, including: a burn chamber configured to selectively contain a sample that is selectively heated to generate an aerosol; a heating assembly disposed within the burn chamber adjacent to the sample; and a sampling segment coupled to the burn chamber and configured to collect the aerosol such that it may be analyzed. The apparatus also includes an optional sight window disposed in a wall of the burn chamber such that the sample may be viewed during heating. Optionally, the sample includes one of a Lanthanide, an Actinide, and a Transition metal.

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Process Study (CHAPS) 2007.06.04 - 2007.06.25 Lead Scientist : Carl Berkowitz For data sets, see below. Abstract The primary goal of this campaign was to characterize and contrast freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus,

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment - ALIVE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Lidar Validation Experiment - ALIVE Campaign Links ALIVE Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment - ALIVE 2005.09.12 - 2005.09.22 Website : http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sgg/ALIVE/index.html Lead Scientist : Beat Schmid For data sets, see below. Abstract We performed the simultaneous validation of aerosol extinction profiles obtained from a

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MASRAD) IOP govCampaignsMArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP Campaign Links Science Plan AMF Point Reyes Website AMF Point Reyes Data Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns MASRAD: Pt. Reyes Stratus Cloud and Drizzle Study 2005.07.07, Coulter, AMF MASRAD: Cloud Condensate Nuclei Chemistry Measurements 2005.07.01, Berkowitz, AMF MASRAD - Aerosol Optical Properties 2005.06.29, Strawa, AMF MASRAD:Sub-Micron Aerosol Measurements 2005.06.20, Wang, AMF MASRAD:

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Sizer govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic Particle Sizer ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Aerodynamic Particle Sizer 2012.07.01 - 2013.02.28 Lead Scientist : Larry Berg For data sets, see below. Abstract A TSI model 3321 APS was deployed at the

  17. Microsoft Word - Aerosol Working Group_Norfolk 2008.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Aerosol Working Group, Agenda, Monday, March 10, 2008 15:00 0:13 Flynn 4STAR - a next-generation spectrometer for sky-scanning solar tracking radiometry 15:13 0:13 Yu FastTRAC 15:26 0:13 Obland Initial Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Results from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) and Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) 15:39 0:13 Kim Efficacy of Aerosol - Cloud Interactions Under Varying Meteorological Conditions: Southern Great Plains Vs.

  18. Investigation into Spectral Parameters as they Impact CPV Module Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Rodriguez, J.

    2011-03-01

    The CPV industry is well aware that performance of triple junction cells depends on spectral conditions but there is a lack of data quantifying this spectral dependence at the module level. This paper explores the impact of precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and optical air mass on multiple CPV module technologies on-sun in Golden, CO.

  19. Observation of meshlike traces on nuclear emulsions during cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki )

    1993-01-01

    Cold fusion products from the electrolysis of heavy water have been directly measured by using a thin palladium foil. Several anomalous traces have been clearly recorded on nuclear emulsions. Some traces have meshlike structures, which are classified into two types: (a) ones associated with ring traces that are caused by the gravity decay of quad-neutrons and (b) ones with no ring traces. The mechanisms that form these meshlike traces are discussed in terms of the Nattoh model. It is inferred that multiple-neutron nuclei such as quad-neutrons, covered by itonic mesh and iton beads, are born during cold fusion. Furthermore, other anomalous traces suggest the production of a new heavy particle during gravity decay. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  1. Trace Element Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    release has occurred. References Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano, Joseph N. Moore (1983) Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot...

  2. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    enabling the investigation of high beta physics in a compact stellarator geometry. ... In this paper, we report on the magnetic field line tracing calculations used to evaluate ...

  3. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  4. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Abstract A major campaign to quantify the...

  5. SolTrace Background | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Download Current Official Release SolTrace Version 2012.7.9 is now available. The plug-in for Trimble SketchUp requires SketchUp Version 8 to be loaded on your computer. The current version of the plug-in is SolTrace 0.6. SolTrace and the plug-in are available for both Windows (XP and Windows 7 32-bit) and Mac (OS X 10.6). All fields are required. First Name: Last Name: Email Address: Organization: Planned Use of SolarTrace: Platform: Windows (XP and Windows 7 32-bit) Mac (OS X 10.6) Do you want

  6. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  7. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  8. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  9. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  10. ARM - Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 1.45MB) G-1 Aircraft Fact Sheet (PDF, 1.3MB) Contacts Rahul Zaveri, Lead Scientist Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)...

  11. Method for HEPA filter leak scanning with differentiating aerosol detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, B.J.; Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.

    1997-08-01

    While scanning HEPA filters for leaks with {open_quotes}Off the Shelf{close_quote} aerosol detection equipment, the operator`s scanning speed is limited by the time constant and threshold sensitivity of the detector. This is based on detection of the aerosol density, where the maximum signal is achieved when the scanning probe resides over the pinhole longer than several detector time-constants. Since the differential value of the changing signal can be determined by observing only the first small fraction of the rising signal, using a differentiating amplifier will speed up the locating process. The other advantage of differentiation is that slow signal drift or zero offset will not interfere with the process of locating the leak, since they are not detected. A scanning hand-probe attachable to any NUCON{reg_sign} Aerosol Detector displaying the combination of both aerosol density and differentiated signal was designed. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14...

  13. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric; Riot, Vincent; Coffee, Keith; Woods, Bruce; Tobias, Herbert; Birch, Jim; Weisgraber, Todd

    2008-04-22

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  14. Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plains (SGP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites to begin development of a set of ... Aerosol properties at the SGP and NSA sites show considerable variability on multiple time ...

  15. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference between the net fluxes of the solar radiation, calculated with and without the aerosol component of the atmosphere. The...

  16. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Curtis; Springer, David

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology.

  17. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-03-02

    We used an electrostatic size classification technique to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, we counted size-segregated particles with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized bymore » the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10-5 to 10-11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was

  18. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  19. Observed Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources A. M. Vogelmann Center for Atmospheric Sciences and Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California Introduction The modeling of radiative forcing, and aerosol radiative forcing in particular, is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change (Hansen et al. 1998). Addressing this uncertainty first requires an accurate

  20. Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo and asymmetry parameter at Barrow. Determination of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter at Barrow. Sivaraman, Chitra Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Aerosols Efforts are currently underway to run and evaluate the Broadband Heating Rate Profile project at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site for the time period

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding - Surface Meteorological Sounding Campaign Links ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) 2010.06.02, Zaveri, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26 - 2010.07.07 Lead Scientist : Rahul Zaveri For data sets, see

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CACTI) govCampaignsCloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) 2018.08.15 - 2019.04.30 Lead Scientist : Adam Varble Abstract General circulation models and downscaled regional models exhibit persistent biases in deep convective initiation location and timing, cloud top height, stratiform area and precipitation

  3. Atmospheric Science Program Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) General Description 'Cumulus humilis' is the scientific term used to describe the small fair weather clouds that dot the summer skies over Oklahoma. During the month of June, scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program will use aircraft and ground based instruments to obtain information about the physical and chemical properties of these clouds and the small airborne particles - called aerosols -

  4. Surface based remote sensing of aerosol-cloud interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface based remote sensing of aerosol-cloud interactions Feingold, Graham NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Frisch, Shelby NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Category: Cloud Properties We will present an analysis of the effect of aerosol on clouds at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. New methods for retrieving cloud droplet effective radius with radar (MMCR), multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), and microwave

  5. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (HI-SCALE) Science Plan (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Science Plan Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the Southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the

  6. On modification of global warming by sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.F.B.; Johns, T.C.

    1997-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the response of climate to increasing greenhouse gases may be modified by accompanying increases in sulfate aerosols. In this study, the patterns of response in the surface climatology of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model forced by increases in carbon dioxide alone is compared with those obtained by increasing carbon dioxide and aerosol forcing. The simulations are run from early industrial times using the estimated historical forcing and continued to the end of the twenty-first century assuming a nonintervention emissions scenario for greenhouse gases and aerosols. The comparison is made for the period 2030-2050 when the aerosol forcing is a maximum. In winter, the cooling due to aerosols merely tends to reduce the response to carbon dioxide, whereas in summer, it weakens the monsoon circulations and reverses some of the changes in the hydrological cycle on increasing carbon dioxide. This response is in some respects similar to that found in simulations with changed orbital parameters, as between today and the middle Holocene. The hydrological response in the palaeosimulations is supported by palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The results of changes in aerosol concentrations of the magnetic projected in the scenarios would have a major effect on regional climate, especially over Europe and Southeast Asia. 74 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Thermodynamic Characterization of Mexico City Aerosol during MILAGRO 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountoukis, C.; Nenes, A.; Sullivan, A.; Weber, R.; VanReken, T.; Fischer, M.; Matias, E.; Moya, M.; Farmer, D.; Cohen, R.C.

    2008-12-05

    Fast measurements of aerosol and gas-phase constituents coupled with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model are used to study the partitioning of semivolatile inorganic species and phase state of Mexico City aerosol sampled at the T1 site during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. Overall, predicted semivolatile partitioning agrees well with measurements. PM{sub 2.5} is insensitive to changes in ammonia but is to acidic semivolatile species. For particle sizes up to 1 {micro}m diameter, semi-volatile partitioning requires 30-60 min to equilibrate; longer time is typically required during the night and early morning hours. When the aerosol sulfate-to-nitrate molar ratio is less than unity, predictions improve substantially if the aerosol is assumed to follow the deliquescent phase diagram. Treating crustal species as 'equivalent sodium' (rather than explicitly) in the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations introduces important biases in predicted aerosol water uptake, nitrate and ammonium; neglecting crustals further increases errors dramatically. This suggests that explicitly considering crustals in the thermodynamic calculations is required to accurately predict the partitioning and phase state of aerosols.

  8. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of α-Pinene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Thornton, Joel A.; Madronich, Sasha; Ortega, John V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Laskin, Alexander; Maughan, A. D.

    2007-10-16

    Semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models typically assume a well-mixed organic aerosol phase even in the presence of hydrophobic primary organic aerosols (POA). This assumption significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields as additional organic mass is made available to absorb greater amounts of oxidized secondary organic gases than otherwise. We investigate the applicability of this critical assumption by measuring SOA yields from ozonolysis of α-pinene (a major biogenic SOA precursor) in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA. The results show that these POA did not enhance the SOA yields. If these results are found to apply to other biogenic SOA precursors, then the semi-empirical models used in many global models would predict significantly less biogenic SOA mass and display reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic POA emissions than previously thought.

  9. Method for removing trace pollutants from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.

    A method of substantially removing a trace metallic contaminant from a liquid containing the same comprises: adding an oxidizing agent to a liquid containing a trace amount of a metallic contaminant of a concentration of up to about 0.1 ppM, and separating the homogeneously precipitated product from the liquid.

  10. New understanding and quantification of the regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interaction for studying aerosol indirect effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Jingyi; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Minghua; Peng, Yiran

    2016-02-28

    In this study, aerosol indirect effects suffer from large uncertainty in climate models and among observations. This study focuses on two plausible factors: regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interactions and the effect of cloud droplet spectral shape. We show, using a new parcel model, that combined consideration of droplet number concentration (Nc) and relative dispersion (ε, ratio of standard deviation to mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) better characterizes the regime dependence of aerosol-cloud interactions than considering Nc alone. Given updraft velocity (w), ε increases with increasing aerosol number concentration (Na) in the aerosol-limited regime, peaks in the transitionalmore » regime, and decreases with further increasing Na in the updraft-limited regime. This new finding further reconciles contrasting observations in literature and reinforces the compensating role of dispersion effect. The nonmonotonic behavior of ε further quantifies the relationship between the transitional Na and w that separates the aerosol- and updraft-limited regimes.« less

  11. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence

  12. Electric heat tracing designed to prevent icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonsdale, J.T.; Norrby, T.

    1985-11-01

    Mobile offshore rigs designed for warmer climates are not capable of operating year-round in the arctic or near-arctic regions. Icing is but one major operational problem in these waters. The danger of instability due to ice loading exists on an oil rig as well as on a ship. From a safety standpoint, ice must be prevented from forming on the helideck, escape passages, escape doors and hatches and handrails. Norsk Hydro A/S, as one of the major operators in the harsh environment outside northern Norway, recognized at an early stage the need for special considerations for the drilling rigs intended for year-round drilling in these regions. In 1982 Norsk Hydro awarded a contract for an engineering study leading to the design of a harsh environment semisubmersible drilling rig. The basic requirement was to develop a unit for safe and efficient year-round drilling operation in the waters of northern Norway. The study was completed in 1983 and resulted in a comprehensive report including a building specification. The electric heat tracing system designed to prevent icing on the unit is described.

  13. Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

    2010-04-22

    A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

  14. Aerosol penetration of leak pathways : an examination of the available data and models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-04-01

    Data and models of aerosol particle deposition in leak pathways are described. Pathways considered include capillaries, orifices, slots and cracks in concrete. The Morewitz-Vaughan criterion for aerosol plugging of leak pathways is shown to be applicable only to a limited range of particle settling velocities and Stokes numbers. More useful are sampling efficiency criteria defined by Davies and by Liu and Agarwal. Deposition of particles can be limited by bounce from surfaces defining leak pathways and by resuspension of particles deposited on these surfaces. A model of the probability of particle bounce is described. Resuspension of deposited particles can be triggered by changes in flow conditions, particle impact on deposits and by shock or vibration of the surfaces. This examination was performed as part of the review of the AP1000 Standard Combined License Technical Report, APP-GW-GLN-12, Revision 0, 'Offsite and Control Room Dose Changes' (TR-112) in support of the USNRC AP1000 Standard Combined License Pre-Application Review.

  15. Effects of sulfate aerosol on the central Pennsylvania surface shortwave radiation budget. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimond, P.W.

    1994-12-01

    Surface radiation measurements are taken simultaneously with measurements of meteorological variables including temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and visibility to evaluate the impact of sulfate haze on the surface radiation budget. A relationship is sought between flux losses due only to aerosol and relative humidity, visibility or both, with the goal of facilitating parameterization of sulfate hazes by climate modelers. At the same time, a rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) is compared with a more costly sun photometer to determine the feasibility of substituting the former for the latter in future research. It is found that depletion of surface radiation due to aerosol is typically ten to twenty percent of initial insolation, and that the losses can be correlated with zenith angle, relative humidity and optical depth. In the case of flux loss as a function of optical depth, the two are related in a nearly linear fashion. It is also discovered that the RSR has a predictable error owing to a wider field of view than the sun photometer, and can be used as a replacement for the former by correcting for the error.

  16. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetz, K. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Hoerber, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Franke, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  17. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Moisseev, Dmitri; Sinclair, Victoria; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Manninen, Antti J.; Levula, Janne; Väänänen, Riikka; Heikkinen, Liine; Äijälä, Mikko; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana

    2015-11-01

    “Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)”, featured the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s 2nd Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Hyytiälä, Finland. It operated for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. One of the reasons to perform BAECC study in Hyytiälä was the fact that it hosts SMEAR-II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), which is one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in-situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere-biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. The BAECC enables combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in-situ SMEAR-II observations and allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. With the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements, and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations of AMF2 and SMEAR-II provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud-to-precipitation processes. The BAECC dataset will initiate new opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary-layer structures.

  18. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  19. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-07-12

    The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

  20. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument ...

  1. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook The Greenhouse Gas ...

  2. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  3. SolTrace FAQs | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAQs This section will be expanded in the future. You may send questions and comments to the user support team at SolTrace Support. Q: What changes have been implemented in the current version of SolTrace? A: Here are the highlights of the modifications made since version 2012.3.28: We updated sample files, including example scripts to set up a system programmatically. We fixed situations in which SolTrace would hang on certain geometry files. We made scripting enhancements, including several

  4. SolTrace Support | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Support The best place to find answers about using SolTrace are found in the software's Help system - just click Help Contents under the Help menu or select Help from the system tree in the main SolTrace screen. Currently, there are no user guides or other reference manuals. You may send questions and comments to the user support team at SolTrace Support. However, there is a very limited budget for support, so complex requests may be difficult to accommodate

  5. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-06

    aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient amount of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide-range of solubilities.« less

  6. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-14

    , chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient number of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and is not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide range of solubilities.« less

  7. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  8. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-03-29

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  9. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-06-02

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  10. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Bacon, Diana H. carbon...

  11. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-24

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data.

  12. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles: Marine Aerosol Organic Mass Composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-26

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 6512% hydroxyl, 219% alkane, 66% amine, and 78% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmorereactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak

  13. Ldrd-2015-00076 -- Validation Study Of The SRNL Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegfried, M.

    2015-10-14

    SRNL recently developed a prototype device for the IAEA to prepare particulate samples collected on swipes for laboratory analysis. The Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (VacACE) utilizes electrostatic precipitation in lieu of the impaction or ultrasonic solvent extraction methods presently employed by the IAEA to place particles of interest on carbon planchets for investigation. The project was funded by the Intentional Safeguards Projects Office (ISPO) with scope for device design and fabrication, but no scope for validation or testing. Without documented validation of the tool, sample processing and subsequent analysis fidelity cannot be assured. The goal of this project was to determine collection efficacy in a rigorous fashion, demonstrate proof of concept with standardized particulates, and produce a validated VacACE sampling protocol.

  14. Sodium storage facility trace heat system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.D.

    1997-06-12

    This document describes the SSF PLC Ladder Logic, Cross references, and the software that was used to control the amount of power applied to the SSF Trace Heated components.

  15. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two methods for tracing the edge field line topology were used in this study. The first ... The details of the magnetic topology differ when computed with VMECMFBE as compared with ...

  16. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: TRACE Version 6.3.2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides required documentation that the TRACE version 6.3.2 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D (c)(1) and (d) Regulations Notice 2006-52, Section 6 requirements as amplified by Notice 2008-40, Section 4 requirements.

  17. Technique for identifying, tracing, or tracking objects in image data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J.; Rothganger, Fredrick

    2012-08-28

    A technique for computer vision uses a polygon contour to trace an object. The technique includes rendering a polygon contour superimposed over a first frame of image data. The polygon contour is iteratively refined to more accurately trace the object within the first frame after each iteration. The refinement includes computing image energies along lengths of contour lines of the polygon contour and adjusting positions of the contour lines based at least in part on the image energies.

  18. SolTrace Publications | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications The following publications are related to SolTrace. Jorgensen, G. (1991). "Comparison of Predicted Optical Performance with Measured Results for Dish Concentrators." National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. NREL/TP-257-4245. Wendelin, T. (2003). "SolTRACE: A New Optical Modeling Tool for Concentrating Solar Optics." Proceedings of the ISEC 2003: International Solar Energy Conference, 15-18 March 2003, Kohala Coast, Hawaii. New York: American Society of

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE): Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors Related Campaigns Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) 2016.04.24, Fast, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE): Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors 2016.08.21 - 2016.09.27 Lead

  20. ARM - PI Product - Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Azores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) govCampaignsAzores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Campaign Links Azores Website Final Campaign Report Related Campaigns Azores: Above-Cloud Radiation Budget near Graciosa Island 2010.04.15, Miller, AMF Azores: Extension to Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 2010.01.01, Wood, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud OD Sensor TWST Cloud OD Sensor TWST Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2014.06.15 - 2014.08.31 Lead Scientist : Herman Scott For data sets, see below. Abstract This deployment

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extended Radiosonde IOP Extended Radiosonde IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Extended Radiosonde IOP 2014.05.01 - 2014.08.31 Lead Scientist : Keri Nicoll For data sets, see below. Abstract Modified meteorological radiosondes have been

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Snowfall Experiment Snowfall Experiment ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment 2014.02.01 - 2014.04.30 Lead Scientist : Dmitri Moisseev For data sets, see below. Abstract The snowfall measurement campaign, took place during AMF2

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CARES) Ground Based Instruments Ground Based Instruments ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) 2010.06.02, Zaveri, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01 - 2010.07.15 Lead Scientist : Daniel Cziczo For data sets, see below. Abstract New ARRA funded ARM

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Measurement of Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds over

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Southern Ocean (MARCUS: Ice Nucleating Particle Measurements) Ocean (MARCUS: Ice Nucleating Particle Measurements) Related Campaigns Measurement of Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds over the Southern Oceans (MARCUS) 2017.09.01, McFarquhar, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Measurement of Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds over the Southern Ocean (MARCUS: Ice Nucleating Particle Measurements) 2017.09.01 - 2018.04.30

  7. Final Project Report - ARM CLASIC CIRPAS Twin Otter Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John A. Ogren

    2010-04-05

    The NOAA/ESRL/GMD aerosol group made three types of contributions related to airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering and absorption for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) in June 2007 on the Twin Otter research airplane operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS). GMD scientists served as the instrument mentor for the integrating nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) on the Twin Otter during CLASIC, and were responsible for (1) instrument checks/comparisons; (2) instrument trouble shooting/repair; and (3) data quality control (QC) and submittal to the archive.

  8. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1986-01-01

    A method for separating gaseous samples from a contained atmosphere that includes aerosol particles uses the step of repelling particles from a gas permeable surface or membrane by heating the surface to a temperature greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere. The resulting thermophoretic forces maintain the gas permeable surface clear of aerosol particles. The disclosed apparatus utilizes a downwardly facing heated plate of gas permeable material to combine thermophoretic repulsion and gravity forces to prevent particles of any size from contacting the separating plate surfaces.

  9. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, A.K.

    1984-09-07

    This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  10. The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 25, 2014, 9:30am to 11:00am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate Peter DeCarlo, Assistant Professor of Environmental Engineering and Chemistry Drexel University Abstract: PDF icon PeterDeCarlo.pdf Can't make it to the lab? Watch it LIVE here! The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality and Climate Contact Information Coordinator(s): Deedee Ortiz dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Ronald Hatcher

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP):

  12. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  13. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. Effects of Ocean Ecosystem on Marine Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    Using smore » atellite data for the surface ocean, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and cloud microphysical parameters, we show that statistically significant positive correlations exist between ocean ecosystem productivity, the abundance of submicron aerosols, and cloud microphysical properties over different parts of the remote oceans. The correlation coefficient for remotely sensed surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl- a ]) and liquid cloud effective radii over productive areas of the oceans varies between − 0.2 and − 0.6 . Special attention is given to identifying (and addressing) problems from correlation analysis used in the previous studies that can lead to erroneous conclusions. A new approach (using the difference between retrieved AOD and predicted sea salt aerosol optical depth, AOD diff ) is developed to explore causal links between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine atmosphere. We have found that over multiple time periods, 550 nm AOD diff (sensitive to accumulation mode aerosol, which is the prime contributor to CCN) correlates well with [Chl- a ] over the productive waters of the Southern Ocean. Since [Chl- a ] can be used as a proxy of ocean biological productivity, our analysis demonstrates the role of ocean ecology in contributing CCN, thus shaping the microphysical properties of low-level marine clouds.« less

  15. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  16. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-03-16

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  17. LESSONS LEARNED IN AEROSOL MONITORING WITH THE RASA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrester, Joel B.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Eslinger, Paul W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Litke, Kevin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Schrom, Brian T.; Van Davelaar, Peter; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-09-14

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the 1990's and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The RASA operates unattended, save for regularly scheduled maintenance, iterating samples through a three-step process on a 24-hour interval. In its 15-year history, much has been learned from the operation and maintenance of the RASA that can benefit engineering updates or future aerosol systems. On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami rocked the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in power loss and cooling failures at the Daiichi nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture. Aerosol collections were conducted with the RASA in Richland, WA. We present a summary of the lessons learned over the history of the RASA, including lessons taken from the Fukushima incident, regarding the RASA IMS stations operated by the United States.

  18. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Curtis; Springer, David

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology. However, this technology is capable of bringing the air leakage of a building that was built with standard construction techniques and HERS-verified sealing down to levels that would meet DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes program requirements. When a developer is striving to meet a tighter envelope leakage specification, this technology could greatly reduce the cost to achieve that goal by providing a simple and relatively low cost method for reducing the air leakage of a building envelope with little to no change in their common building practices.

  19. Steal Tree: Low-Overhead Tracing of Work Stealing Schedulers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2013-06-16

    Work stealing is a popular approach to scheduling task-parallel programs. The flexibility inherent in work stealing when dealing with load imbalance results in seemingly irregular computation structures, complicating the study of its runtime behavior. In this paper, we present an approach to efficiently trace async-finish parallel programs scheduled using work stealing. We identify key properties that allow us to trace the execution of tasks with low time and space overheads. We also study the usefulness of the proposed schemes in supporting algorithms for data-race detection and retentive steal- ing presented in the literature. We demonstrate that the perturbation due to tracing is within the variation in the execution time with 99% confidence and the traces are concise, amounting to a few tens of kilobytes per thread in most cases. We also demonstrate that the traces enable significant reductions in the cost of detecting data races and result in low, stable space overheads in supporting retentive stealing for async-finish programs.

  20. FY 2011 Second Quarter: Demonstration of New Aerosol Measurement Verification Testbed for Present-Day Global Aerosol Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-03-20

    The regional-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is being used by a DOE Earth System Modeling (ESM) project titled Improving the Characterization of Clouds, Aerosols and the Cryosphere in Climate Models to evaluate the performance of atmospheric process modules that treat aerosols and aerosol radiative forcing in the Arctic. We are using a regional-scale modeling framework for three reasons: (1) It is easier to produce a useful comparison to observations with a high resolution model; (2) We can compare the behavior of the CAM parameterization suite with some of the more complex and computationally expensive parameterizations used in WRF; (3) we can explore the behavior of this parameterization suite at high resolution. Climate models like the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) being used within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) will not likely be run at mesoscale spatial resolutions (1020 km) until 510 years from now. The performance of the current suite of physics modules in CAM5 at such resolutions is not known, and current computing resources do not permit high-resolution global simulations to be performed routinely. We are taking advantage of two tools recently developed under PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects for this activity. The first is the Aerosol Modeling Testbed (Fast et al., 2011b), a new computational framework designed to streamline the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The second is the CAM5 suite of physics parameterizations that have been ported into WRF so that their performance and scale dependency can be quantified at mesoscale spatial resolutions (Gustafson et al., 2010; with more publications in preparation).

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  2. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-08-11

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  3. Assessment of multi-decadal WRF-CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gan, C.-M.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Hogrefe, C.; Long, C. N.; Xing, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Wei, C.

    2015-07-01

    Multi-decadal simulations with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 21 years (1990–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analyses conducted by Gan et al. (2014) utilizingmore » observations (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even through it tends to underestimate the AOD. In particular, the sulfate concentration predictions were well matched with the observations. The discrenpancies found in the clear-sky diffuse SW radiation are likely due to several factors such as potential increase of ice particles associated with increasing air traffic, the definition of "clear-sky" in the radiation retrieval methodology and aerosol semi-direct and/or indirect effects which cannot be

  4. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gan, C.-M.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Hogrefe, C.; Long, C. N.; Xing, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Wei, C.

    2015-11-03

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analysesmore » conducted by Gan et al. (2014a) utilizing observations (e.g., SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE, and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US, while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF–CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even though it tends to underestimate the AOD. In particular, the sulfate concentration predictions were well matched with the observations. The discrepancies found in the clear-sky diffuse SW radiation are likely due to several factors such as the potential increase of ice particles associated with increasing air traffic, the definition of "clear-sky" in the radiation retrieval

  5. Trace metal levels and partitioning in Wisconsin rivers: Results of background trace metals study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, M.M.; Overdier, J.T.; Armstrong, D.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Webb, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Levels of total and filtrable Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in 41 Wisconsin rivers draining watersheds of distinct homogeneous characteristics (land use/cover, soil type, surficial geology) were quantified. Levels, fluxes, and yields of trace metals are interpreted in terms of principal geochemical controls. The study samples were also used to evaluate the capability of modern ICP-MS techniques for ``background`` level quantification of metals. Order-of-magnitude variations in levels of a given metal between sites was measured. This large natural variance reflects influences of soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOC), ionic strength, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on metal levels. Significant positive correlations between DOC levels and filtrable metal concentrations were observed, demonstrating the important role that DOC plays in metal speciation and behavior. Systematic, chemically consistent, differences in behavior between the metals is evident with partition coefficients (K,) and fraction in particulate forms ranking in the order: Al > Pb > Zn > Cr >Cd > Cu. Total metal yields correlate well with SPM yields, especially for highly partitioned elements, whereas filtrable metal yields reflect the interplay of partitioning and water yield. The State of Wisconsin will use these data in a re-evaluation of regulatory limits and in the development of water effects ratio criteria.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCarbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes 2012.03.26 - 2012.06.07 Lead Scientist : Elliott Campbell For data sets, see below. Abstract Regional flux partitioning represents a critical knowledge gap due to a lack of robust methods for regional-scale flux partitioning and large uncertainties in

  7. Method for removing trace pollutants from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of substantially removing a trace metallic contaminant from a liquid containing the same comprises, adding an oxidizing agent to a liquid containing a trace amount of a metallic contaminant of a concentration of up to about 10.sup.-1 ppm, the oxidizing agent being one which oxidizes the contaminant to form an oxidized product which is insoluble in the liquid and precipitates therefrom, and the conditions of the addition being selected to ensure that the precipitation of the oxidized product is homogeneous, and separating the homogeneously precipitated product from the liquid.

  8. Dynamic ray tracing and traveltime corrections for global seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian Yue Hung, S.-H.; Nolet, Guust; Montelli, Raffaella; Dahlen, F.A.

    2007-09-10

    We present a dynamic ray tracing program for a spherically symmetric Earth that may be used to compute Frechet kernels for traveltime and amplitude anomalies at finite frequency. The program works for arbitrarily defined phases and background models. The numerical precisions of kinematic and dynamic ray tracing are optimized to produce traveltime errors under 0.1 s, which is well below the data uncertainty in global seismology. This tolerance level is obtained for an integration step size of about 20 km for the most common seismic phases. We also give software to compute ellipticity, crustal and topographic corrections and attenuation.

  9. Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol-climate model intercomparison studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, K.; Wan, H.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-04-24

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Constraining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the sensitivity of simulated ice formation to anthropogenic aerosolmore » concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects through ice clouds, since it provides well-constrained meteorology without strongly perturbing the model's mean climate.« less

  10. Technical Note: On the Use of Nudging for Aerosol-Climate Model Intercomparison Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kai; Wan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Con- straining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the artificial forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the relatively strong sensitivity of homogeneous ice nucleation to aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests that nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy, especially for studies that involve both warm and cold clouds.

  11. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger

  12. Economic Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Impact on New Mexico Delivering the best possible science and technology results for the nation while making a positive impact on our New Mexico communities and economy July 1, 2016 Contacts Community Partnerships Kathy Keith (505) 665-4400 Email Economic Development Vangie Trujillo (505) 665-4284 Email Market Transition Program Micheline Devaurs (505) 665-9090 Email Small Business Program Chris Fresquez (505) 667-4419 Email Positive impact on New Mexico's economy, communities Through

  13. Impact Statements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Room / Final Environment Impact Statements Record of Decision on Bonneville Power Administration’s Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project (DOE/EIS-3790, November 2008). February 2009.

  14. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SJ Ghan; B Schmid; JM Hubbe; CJ Flynn; A Laskin; AA Zelenyuk; DJ Czizco; CN Long; G McFarquhar; J Verlinde; J Harrington; JW Strapp; P Liu; A Korolev; A McDonald; M Wolde; A Fridlind; T Garrett; G Mace; G Kok; S Brooks; D Collins; D Lubin; P Lawson; M Dubey; C Mazzoleni; M Shupe; S Xie; DD Turner; Q Min; EJ Mlawer; D Mitchell

    2007-11-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facility’s (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) during period 29 March through 30 April 2008. The deployment period is within the International Polar Year, thus contributing to and benefiting from the many ancillary observing systems collecting data synergistically. We will deploy the Canadian National Research Council Convair 580 aircraft to measure temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, single particle composition, concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, ISDAC will deploy two instruments at the ARM site in Barrow: a spectroradiometer to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius, and a tandem differential mobility analyzer to measure the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity. By using many of the same instruments used during Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during the fall and spring transitions. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary

  15. Cirrus and aerosol lidar profilometer - analysis and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinhirne, J.D.; Scott, V.S.; Reagan, J.A.; Galbraith, A.

    1996-04-01

    A cloud and aerosol lidar set from over a year of near continuous operation of a micro pulse lidar (MPL) instrument at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been established. MPL instruments are to be included in the Ames Research Center (ARC) instrument compliments for the SW Pacific and Arctic ARM sites. Operational processing algorithms are in development for the data sets. The derived products are to be cloud presence and classification, base height, cirrus thickness, cirrus optical thickness, cirrus extinction profile, aerosol optical thickness and profile, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. A cloud presence and base height algorithm is in use, and a data set from the CART site is available. The scientific basis for the algorithm development of the higher level data products and plans for implementation are discussed.

  16. Code System to Calculate Particle Penetration Through Aerosol Transport Lines.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-07-14

    Version 00 Distribution is restricted to US Government Agencies and Their Contractors Only. DEPOSITION1.03 is an interactive software program which was developed for the design and analysis of aerosol transport lines. Models are presented for calculating aerosol particle penetration through straight tubes of arbitrary orientation, inlets, and elbows. An expression to calculate effective depositional velocities of particles on tube walls is derived. The concept of maximum penetration is introduced, which is the maximum possible penetrationmore » through a sampling line connecting any two points in a three-dimensional space. A procedure to predict optimum tube diameter for an existing transport line is developed. Note that there is a discrepancy in this package which includes the DEPOSITION 1.03 executable and the DEPOSITION 2.0 report. RSICC was unable to obtain other executables or reports.« less

  17. The role of aerosols in cloud drop parameterizations and its applications in global climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The characteristics of the cloud drop size distribution near cloud base are initially determined by aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei and the updraft velocity. We have developed parameterizations relating cloud drop number concentration to aerosol number and sulfate mass concentrations and used them in a coupled global aerosol/general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the indirect aerosol forcing. The global aerosol model made use of our detailed emissions inventories for the amount of particulate matter from biomass burning sources and from fossil fuel sources as well as emissions inventories of the gas-phase anthropogenic SO{sub 2}. This work is aimed at validating the coupled model with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurements and assessing the possible magnitude of the aerosol-induced cloud effects on climate.

  18. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  19. Modeling the Explicit Chemistry of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madronich, Sasha

    2015-12-09

    The atmospheric burden of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) remains one of the most important yet uncertain aspects of the radiative forcing of climate. This grant focused on improving our quantitative understanding of SOA formation and evolution, by developing, applying, and improving a highly detailed model of atmospheric organic chemistry, the Generation of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) model. Eleven (11) publications have resulted from this grant.

  20. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, C.; Modera, M.

    2012-05-01

    Space conditioning energy use can be significantly reduced by addressing uncontrolled infiltration and exfiltration through the envelope of a building. A process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology is presented. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  1. Caused? A Monsoon Example: India Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    issue: What is a Monsoon? How are Monsoons Caused? A Monsoon Example: India Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment Definitions Activity About ARM: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is a U.S. Department of Energy scientific user facility for the study of global climate change. As part of its outreach program, ARM provides education resources for students, teachers, and communities. www.arm.gov EDUCATION NEWS Monsoons: Bring on the Rain Imagine weeks of hot, dry heat,

  2. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  3. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  4. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  5. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Kodas, Toivo T.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  6. Source terms for plutonium aerosolization from nuclear weapon accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    The source term literature was reviewed to estimate aerosolized and respirable release fractions for accidents involving plutonium in high-explosive (HE) detonation and in fuel fires. For HE detonation, all estimates are based on the total amount of Pu. For fuel fires, all estimates are based on the amount of Pu oxidized. I based my estimates for HE detonation primarily upon the results from the Roller Coaster experiment. For hydrocarbon fuel fire oxidation of plutonium, I based lower bound values on laboratory experiments which represent accident scenarios with very little turbulence and updraft of a fire. Expected values for aerosolization were obtained from the Vixen A field tests, which represent a realistic case for modest turbulence and updraft, and for respirable fractions from some laboratory experiments involving large samples of Pu. Upper bound estimates for credible accidents are based on experiments involving combustion of molten plutonium droplets. In May of 1991 the DOE Pilot Safety Study Program established a group of experts to estimate the fractions of plutonium which would be aerosolized and respirable for certain nuclear weapon accident scenarios.

  7. One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols One ARM, Two Columns and a Whole Lot of Aerosols July 25, 2012 - 5:49pm Addthis This observatory is part of an air particles research initiative at Cape Cod National Seashore in Massachusetts, and includes dozens of sophisticated instruments that take continuous ground-based measurements of clouds, aerosols, and other atmospheric properties. | Photo courtesy of the ARM Climate Research Facility. This observatory is part of an air particles research

  8. Some results of an experimental study of the atmospheric aerosol in Tomsk: A combined approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.V.

    1996-04-01

    As widely accepted, aerosols strongly contribute to the formation of the earth`s radiation balance through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In addition, aerosols, being active condensation nuclei, also have a role in the cloud formation process. In this paper, results are presented of aerosol studies undertaken at the field measurement sites of the Institute of Atmospheric Optics in Tomsk and the Tomsk region.

  9. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B.

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  10. Investigation of Absorption Properties of Submicron Aerosol in the Troposphere Over West Siberia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of Absorption Properties of Submicron Aerosol in the Troposphere Over West Siberia M. V. Panchenko, V. S. Kozlov, and V. P. Shmargunov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Improving radiative climate models for the cloudless atmosphere depends largely on the correct way to simulate single-scattering albedo of atmospheric aerosol. Solving this problem requires performing detailed experiments on the study of the aerosol absorption characteristics in the

  11. Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Gianelli, Scott Columbia University - NASA/GISS Lacis, Andrew NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Carlson, Barbara NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Category: Aerosols Bimodal aerosol retrievals, and high-resolution retrevals of nitrogen dioxide, are performed on the Langley optical depth data from the RSS 103 device

  12. Posters Cloud Parameterizations in Global Climate Models: The Role of Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Posters Cloud Parameterizations in Global Climate Models: The Role of Aerosols J. E. Penner and C. C. Chuang Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Introduction Aerosols influence warm clouds in two ways. First, they determine initial drop size distributions, thereby influencing the albedo of clouds. Second, they determine the lifetime of clouds, thereby possibly changing global cloud cover statistics. At the present time, neither effect of aerosols on clouds is included

  13. Some Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Slant Paths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Slant Paths S. M. Sakerin, D. M. Kabanov, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction It's a well-known fact that the contribution atmospheric aerosol makes in the total extinction of radiation in calculations and models of radiation must be considered; the quantitative measure of this contribution is the aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere. The

  14. Cloud Droplet Spectral Shape Sheds New Light on Aerosol- Cloud-Interaction Regimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Droplet Spectral Shape Sheds New Light on Aerosol- Cloud-Interaction Regimes For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Despite decades of research, aerosol indirect effects remain among the most uncertain climate forcings according to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report. Furthermore, climate models tend to overestimate the cooling of aerosol indirect effects and are more susceptible than

  15. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 ..mu..g/g, 49 ..mu..g/g, and 272 ..mu..g/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel.

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01, Sedlacek, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS 2011.06.15 - 2011.08.15 Lead Scientist : Qi Zhang For data sets, see below. Abstract An Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed during the Aerosol Life Cycle - IOP campaign at BNL in

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD measurements ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD measurements 2012.05.20 - 2012.07.30 Lead Scientist : Phil Russell For data sets, see below. Abstract To anchor aerosol optical depth (AOD)

  18. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan (Program Document...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan Citation Details ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  19. The role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dust storms have become a distinct feature in many regions around the globe, including east Asia, west Africa, and South America. The mineral aerosols, uplifted in these storms, ...

  20. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan (Program Document...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate ... of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. ...

  1. DOE/SC-ARM-14-011 Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. ...

  2. Analyzing signatures of aerosol-cloud interactions from satelliteretrievals and the GISS GCM to constrain the aerosol indirecteffect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, S.; Del Genio, A.D.; Kaufman, Y.; Bennartz, R.; Koch, D.; Loeb, N.; Orlikowski, D.

    2007-10-01

    Evidence of aerosol-cloud interactions are evaluated using satellite data from MODIS, CERES, AMSR-E, reanalysis data from NCEP and data from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model. We evaluate a series of model simulations: (1) Exp N- aerosol direct radiative effects; (2) Exp C- Like Exp N but with aerosol effects on liquid-phase cumulus and stratus clouds; (3) Exp CN- Like Exp C but with model wind fields nudged to reanalysis data. Comparison between satellite-retrieved data and model simulations for June to August 2002, over the Atlantic Ocean indicate the following: a negative correlation between aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and cloud droplet effective radius (R{sub eff}) for all cases and satellite data, except for Exp N; a weak but negative correlation between liquid water path (LWP) and AOT for MODIS and CERES; and a robust increase in cloud cover with AOT for both MODIS and CERES. In all simulations, there is a positive correlation between AOT and both cloud cover and LWP (except in the case of LWP-AOT for Exp CN). The largest slopes are obtained for Exp N, implying that meteorological variability may be an important factor. The main fields associated with AOT variability in NCEP/MODIS data are warmer temperatures and increased subsidence for less clean cases, not well captured by the model. Simulated cloud fields compared with an enhanced data product from MODIS and AMSR-E indicate that model cloud thickness is over-predicted and cloud droplet number is within retrieval uncertainties. Since LWP fields are comparable this implies an under-prediction of R{sub eff} and thus an over-prediction of the indirect effect.

  3. Advances in atmospheric chemistry modeling: the LLNL impact tropospheric/stratospheric chemistry model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D A; Atherton, C

    1999-10-07

    We present a unique modeling capability to understand the global distribution of trace gases and aerosols throughout both the troposphere and stratosphere. It includes the ability to simulate tropospheric chemistry that occurs both in the gas phase as well as on the surfaces of solid particles. We have used this capability to analyze observations from particular flight campaigns as well as averaged observed data. Results show the model to accurately simulate the complex chemistry occurring near the tropopause and throughout the troposphere and stratosphere.

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  5. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  6. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and

  7. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2015-07-10

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In-situ observations of snow cover fraction since the 1960s suggest that the snow pack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 22.5 C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution oceanatmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover fraction to various anthropogenic factors. Atmorethe Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7 C, BC 1.3 C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7 C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. Especially, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow are coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. These findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.less

  8. Dendrite-free Li deposition using trace-amounts of water as an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dendrite-free Li deposition using trace-amounts of water as an electrolyte additive ... Title: Dendrite-free Li deposition using trace-amounts of water as an electrolyte additive ...

  9. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte ...

  10. GloudSim: Google trace based cloud simulator with virtual machines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GloudSim: Google trace based cloud simulator with virtual machines: GloudSim: Google trace based cloud simulator with virtual machines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  11. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  12. Scientific Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    impact Scientific Impact Since its inception over twenty years ago, CAMS has achieved noteworthy scientific progress by developing new capabilities and by combining state-of-the-art tools and expertise to address important scientific challenges. Scientific Leadership CAMS scientists are recognized as scientific leaders in the field of AMS and the disciplines that it supports. Many CAMS staff participate on federal agency (NIH, NSF, NOAA and DOE) scientific review panels as well as giving a

  13. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate, and effects of army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of hexachloroethane obscurant smokes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1989-09-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of hexachloroethane (HC) smoke were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on exposure scenarios, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of HC smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and two soil types. HC aerosols were generated in a controlled atmosphere wind tunnel by combustion of hexachloroethane mixtures prepared to simulate normal pot burn rates and conditions. The aerosol was characterized and used to expose plant, soil, and other test systems. Particle sizes of airborne HC ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 {mu}m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), and particle size was affected by relative humidity over a range of 20% to 85%. Air concentrations employed ranged from 130 to 680 mg/m{sup 3}, depending on exposure scenario. Chlorocarbon concentrations within smokes, deposition rates for plant and soil surfaces, and persistence were determined. The fate of principal inorganic species (Zn, Al, and Cl) in a range of soils was assessed.

  14. Matrix Optimization for the MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis of Trace Biodiesel Components (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpin, C. R.; Voorhees, K. J.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace biodiesel components that could reduce the fuel's operability in cold weather are analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

  15. Fast stereoscopic images with ray-traced volume rendering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adelson, S.J.; Hansen, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    One of the drawbacks of standard volume rendering techniques is that is it often difficult to comprehend the three-dimensional structure of the volume from a single frame; this is especially true in cases where there is no solid surface. Generally, several frames must be generated and viewed sequentially, using motion parallax to relay depth. Another option is to generate a single spectroscopic pair, resulting in clear and unambiguous depth information in both static and moving images. Methods have been developed which take advantage of the coherence between the two halves of a stereo pair for polygon rendering and ray-tracing, generating the second half of the pair in significantly less time than that required to completely render a single image. This paper reports the results of implementing these techniques with parallel ray-traced volume rendering. In tests with different data types, the time savings is in the range of 70--80%.

  16. Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron

    2013-02-26

    Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.

  17. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. ...

  18. Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Ablation | The Ames Laboratory Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond Laser Ablation FWP/Project Description: This project will develop analytical methodology for the use of femtosecond laser ablation sampling and analysis techniques for the rapid screening of samples derived from detection of clandestine nuclear operations, and nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards activities. A state-of-the-art femtosecond laser ablation system in conjunction with

  19. SolTrace Background | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolTrace Background Since the late 1980s, a number of different optical design codes have been developed at NREL for designing and modeling solar concentrating systems. Each of these codes was written to model a very specific optical geometry, and each one built upon the others in an evolutionary way. Examples of such codes include: OPTDSH, a code written to model circular aperture parabolic dish concentrators; ODMF, a code based on OPTDSH that modeled multifaceted parabolic dish concentrators;

  20. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.