National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for traces energy flows

  1. Power flow tracing in a simplified highly renewable European electricity network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tranberg, Bo; Rodriguez, Rolando A; Andresen, Gorm B; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing transmission capacity needs in a future energy system raise the question how associated costs should be allocated to the users of a strengthened power grid. In contrast to straightforward oversimplified methods, a flow tracing based approach provides a fair and consistent nodal usage and thus cost assignment of transmission investments. This technique follows the power flow through the network and assigns the link capacity usage to the respective sources or sinks using a diffusion-like process, thus taking into account the underlying network structure and injection pattern. As a showcase, we apply power flow tracing to a simplified model of the European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation, based on long-term weather and load data with an hourly temporal resolution.

  2. Trace 700 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergy FacilitiesInformationTown700 Jump to: navigation,

  3. Productivity & Energy Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Randall J.

    1 Productivity & Energy Flow Ecosystem approach, focuses: on flow of energy, water, and nutrients (capture) of energy by autotrophs Gross (total) Net (total ­ costs) Secondary productivity- capture of energy by herbivores http://sciencebitz.com/?page_id=204 What Controls the Primary Productivity

  4. US energy flow, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1992-06-01

    Trends in energy consumption and assessment of energy sources are discussed. Specific topics discussed include: energy flow charts; comparison of energy use with 1990 and earlier years; supply and demand of fossil fuels (oils, natural gas, coal); electrical supply and demand; and nuclear power.

  5. ENERGY FLOWS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    ENERGY FLOWS FORCINGS CLIMATE CHANGE A REALLY TOUGH PROBLEM Stephen E. Schwartz, BNL, 7-20-11 www average temperature 15°C or 59°F #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Power per area Energy per time per area Unit" temperature to radiative flux. #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per

  6. Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry using energy flow method Azimuthal angle distribution at Q2 >100 GeV2 Energy flow method.Ukleja on behalf of the ZEUS Collaboration #12; Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I

  7. Effect of sonic poloidal flows in determining flow and density asymmetries for trace impurities in the tokamak edge pedestal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fable, E; Viezzer, E

    2013-01-01

    The structure of poloidal and toroidal flows of trace impurities in the edge pedestal of tokamak plasmas is studied analytically and numerically. Parallel momentum balance is analysed upon retaining the following terms: poloidal and toroidal centrifugal forces (inertia), pressure force, electric force, and the friction force. It is shown that, when the poloidal flow is such to produce a properly defined Mach number of order unity somewhere on the flux surface, shock fronts can form. The shock fronts can modify the predicted asymmetry structures in both the flow and the density profile along the poloidal arc. Predictions of the theory are shown against experimental observations in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, showing good qualitative and quantitative agreement if the inertia term associated with the poloidal flow is retained.

  8. US energy flow - 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, C.K.; Borg, I.Y.

    1985-07-01

    The 1984 energy flow diagram for the USA has been constructed using Department of Energy data. It is a convenient graphical device to show supply and demand as well as the size of end-use sectors. A 4% increase in overall energy consumption represented a reversal in a downward trend started in 1979. All indicators pointed to more healthy industrial and farm economies in 1984 than in the previous two years, which accounted for some part of the increase in energy use. While domestic crude oil production remained stable, oil imports rose eight percent also reversing a long-standing trend. Seventy-two million barrels of oil primarily from Mexico and the United Kingdom were added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve bringing the total oil stored at year end to 451 million barrels. At the same time 49 million barrels of oil were produced from the government-owned Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills, CA). Energy use in all end-use sectors grew in 1984 which is in keeping with increases in use of all types of fossil fuels as well as electricity. Increase in electrical power demand continued to exceed forecasts, and during 1984 contracts for imports to the northeast US were negotiated with Canada. Nuclear power contributed 15% of total power generated in the US. At year end there were 86 licensed reactors and 44 in either start-up or construction stages. Six were canceled or abandoned during construction during the year. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Trace Element Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergy FacilitiesInformationTown700 Jump

  10. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  11. Flow, Salts, and Trace Elements in the Rio Grande: A Review 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.; Fenn, L. B.; Swietlik, D.

    1995-01-01

    injection, unless ocean or inland lake disposals are feasible. Future research should include the development of cost-effective and ecologically sound saline wa- ter disposal options, including such options as saline solar ponds and salt mining. Another... stream_source_info tr169.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 135875 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name tr169.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 FLOW, SALTS, AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE RIO GRANDE...

  12. Natchez Trace Elec Power Assn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation,Naples, Maine:New York: EnergyNatchez Trace

  13. MH-TRACE: MULTI-HOP TIME RESERVATION USING ADAPTIVE CONTROL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    MH-TRACE: MULTI-HOP TIME RESERVATION USING ADAPTIVE CONTROL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY Bulent Tavli, Rochester, NY 14627 Abstract- Multi-Hop Time Reservation Using Adaptive Control for Energy Efficiency (MH-TRACE) is a distributed MAC protocol for energy efficient real-time packet broadcasting in a multi-hop radio network

  14. Energy Flow: Flow Charts Illustrating United States Energy Resources and Usage, from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Decision makers have long recognized the importance of visualizing energy and material flows in a way that distinguishes between resources, transformations and services. Research priorities can be defined in terms of changes to the flows, and the consequences of policy or technology shifts can be traced both upstream and downstream. The usefulness of this top-down view is limited by the level of detail that can be conveyed in a single image. We use two techniques to balance information content with readability. First we employe visualization techniques, such as those embodied in the energy Sankey diagram below (Figure 1), to display both qualitative (relative line weight) and quantitative (listed values) information in a reader-friendly package. The second method is to augment static images with dynamic, scalable digital content containing multiple layers (e.g. energy, carbon and economic data). This transitions the audience from that of a passive reader to an active user of the information. When used in conjunction these approaches enable relatively large, interconnected processes to be described and analyzed efficiently. [copied from the description at http://en.openei.org/wiki/LLNL_Energy_Flow_Charts#cite_note-1

  15. Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchese, Francis

    Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow Flow

  16. Sandia Energy - Reacting Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNewPhotoionizationPowerRadar FriendlyReacting

  17. Flow Phenomena at AGS Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Wessels

    1997-04-07

    In this talk some of the latest data on directed sideward, elliptic, radial, and longitudinal flow at AGS energies will be reviewed. A method to identify the reaction plane event by event and the measurement of its resolution will be discussed. The distributions of global observables (transverse energy E_T and charged particle multiplicity N_c), as well as those of identified particles will be shown. Finally, the data will be put in context with measurements at other beam energies. These systematics will then be discussed in terms of possible signatures of the QCD phase transition.

  18. Managing talent flow. 2006 Energy and Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Managing talent flow. 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report Consulting #12;Executive ................................................................ 13 Contents #12;1 Managing talent flow 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report 2006 strategy. 1 #12;2 Managing talent flow 2006 Energy and Resources Talent Pulse Survey Report Key findings

  19. EnergyBox: A Trace-driven Tool for Data Transmission Energy Consumption Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .vergara, simin.nadjm-tehrani}@liu.se Abstract. Although evolving mobile technologies bring millions of users closer to the vision of information anywhere-anytime, device battery de- pletions hamper the quality-dependent laborious physical power measurements. Using real application transmission traces, we have validated Energy

  20. California energy flow in 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1993-04-01

    Energy consumption in California fell in 1991 for the first time in five years. The State`s economy was especially hard hit by a continuing national recession. The construction industry for the second year experienced a dramatic downturn. Energy use in the industrial sector showed a modest increase, but consumption in other end-use categories declined. The decrease in energy used in transportation can be traced to a substantial fall in the sales of both highway diesel fuels and vessel bunkering fuels at California ports, the latter reflecting a mid-year increase in taxes. Gasoline sales by contrast increased as did the number of miles traveled and the number of automobiles in the State. Production in California`s oil and gas fields was at 1990 levels thus arresting a steady decline in output. Due to enlarged steam flooding operations, production at several fields reached record levels. Also countering the decline in many of California fields was new production from the Port Arguello offshore field. California natural gas production, despite a modest 1991 increase, will not fill the use within the State. Petroleum comprised more than half of the State`s energy supply principally for transportation. Natural gas use showed a small increase. Oil products play virtually no role in electrical production. The largest single source of electricity to the State is imports from the Pacific Northwest and from coal-fired plants in the Southwest. Combined contributions to transmitted electricity from renewable and alternate sources declined as hydropower was constrained by a prolonged drought and as geothermal power from the largest and oldest field at The Geysers fell. Windpower grew slightly; however solar power remained at 1990 levels and made no substantial contribution to total power generation.

  1. LLNL Energy Flow Charts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar HydroElectric Cooperative(RedirectedChem LtdLLNL Energy Flow

  2. Evaluating Trace Cache Energy Efficiency MICHELE CO, DEE A. B. WEIKLE, and KEVIN SKADRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    Evaluating Trace Cache Energy Efficiency MICHELE CO, DEE A. B. WEIKLE, and KEVIN SKADRON University of Virginia Future fetch engines need to be energy efficient. Much research has focused on improving fetch of basic blocks translates to significant energy-efficiency gains. We compare proces- sor performance

  3. The role of high-energy synchrotron radiation in biomedical trace element research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pounds, J.G.; Long, G.J.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will present the results of an investigation of the distribution of essential elements in the normal hepatic lobule. the liver is the organ responsible for metabolism and storage of most trace elements. Although parenchymal hepatocytes are rather uniform histologically, morphometry, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and microdissection with microchemical investigations have revealed marked heterogeneity on a functional and biochemical level. Hepatocytes from the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver parrenchyma differ in oxidative energy metabolism, glucose uptake and output, unreagenesis, biotransformation, bile acid secretion, and palsma protein synthesis and secretion. Although trace elements are intimately involved in the regulation and maintenance of these functions, little is known regarding the heterogeneity of trace element localization of the liver parenchyma. Histochemical techniques for trace elements generally give high spatial resolution, but lack specificity and stoichiometry. Microdissection has been of marginal usefulness for trace element analyses due to the very small size of the dissected parenchyma. The characteristics of the high-energy x-ray microscope provide an effective approach for elucidating the trace element content of these small biological structures or regions. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Solar Energy 74 (2003) 157173 Comparison between ray-tracing simulations and bi-directional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy 74 (2003) 157­173 Comparison between ray-tracing simulations and bi-Louis Scartezzini a Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory LESO-PB, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL Cyclotron Road, MS 2-300, Berkeley, CA 94720-8134, USA Abstract Evaluation of solar heat gain and daylight

  5. TRACER: A Trace Replay Tool to Evaluate Energy-Efficiency of Mass Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    TRACER: A Trace Replay Tool to Evaluate Energy-Efficiency of Mass Storage Systems Zhuo Liu1 , Fei for Optoelectronics 1 Key Laboratory of Data Storage Systems,Ministry of Education of China 1 School of Computer Sci://www.eng.auburn.edu/xqin * Corresponding Author: wufei@hust.edu.cn Abstract--Improving energy efficiency of mass storage systems has become

  6. Energy flow structuring in the focused field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We propose an iterative method of energy flow shaping in the focal region with the amplitude, phase and polarization modulation of incident light. By using an iterative optimization based on the diffraction calculation with help of the fast Fourier transform, we can tailor the polarization and phase structure in the focal plane. By appropriate design of the polarization and phase gradients, arbitrary energy flow including spin and orbital parts can be designed and tailored independently. The capability of energy flow structuring is demonstrated by the measurement of the Stokes parameters and self-interference pattern. This provides a novel method to control the vectorial feature of the focal volume.

  7. Thermal energy scavenger (flow control)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

    1981-12-22

    A thermal energy scavenger assembly is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also including stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

  8. Measurements of sideward flow around the balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INDRA collaboration; D. Cussol; T. Lefort; J. Péter

    2001-11-13

    Sideward flow values have been determined with the INDRA multidetector for Ar+Ni, Ni+Ni and Xe+Sn systems studied at GANIL in the 30 to 100 A.MeV incident energy range. The balance energies found for Ar+Ni and Ni+Ni systems are in agreement with previous experimental results and theoretical calculations. Negative sideward flow values have been measured. The possible origins of such negative values are discussed. They could result from a more important contribution of evaporated particles with respect to the contribution of promptly emitted particles at mid-rapidity. But effects induced by the methods used to reconstruct the reaction plane cannot be totally excluded. Complete tests of these methods are presented and the origins of the ``auto-correlation'' effect have been traced back. For heavy fragments, the observed negative flow values seem to be mainly due to the reaction plane reconstruction methods. For light charged particles, these negative values could result from the dynamics of the collisions and from the reaction plane reconstruction methods as well. These effects have to be taken into account when comparisons with theoretical calculations are done.

  9. Experiments using non-intrusive particle tracing techniques for granular chute flows. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.; Fischer, I.S.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this contract was to develop a system capable of non-intrusively tracking the motion of an individual particle for the study of granular flows down inclined chutes. The result of the project is a system capable of following the three-dimensional translational and rotational motion of an individual particle embedded with a flowing granular material. The basic system consists of a sphere embedded with three orthogonal transmitters emitting at different frequencies which induce voltages in an antenna array surrounding the flow regime. Analysis of the induced voltage signals within the framework of a derived model yields both the position and orientation of the sphere. Tests were performed in a small scale model chute as well as in a cylindrical vibrated granular bed, which clearly demonstrates the capability of the system. As a result of discussions at meetings held semi-annually for the Granular Flow Advanced Research Objectives (GFARO) contractors, it was deemed necessary to pursue an additional experimental program as part of this contract related to the measurement of sphere collision properties. The outcome of the work (reported in Appendix C) is the determination of certain properties which are needed for use in computer simulations and theory.

  10. Energy flow observables in hadronic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Hautmann

    2012-05-24

    We present recent QCD calculations of energy flow distributions associated with the production of jets at wide rapidity separations in high-energy hadron collisions, and discuss the role of these observables to analyze contributions from parton showering and from multiple parton collisions.

  11. Energy Flow Models for the Steel Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyman, B.; Andersen, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy patterns in the U. S. steel industry are examined using several models. First is an end-use model based on data in the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Then a seven-step process model is presented and material flow through...

  12. Trace Element Analysis (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergy FacilitiesInformationTown700 Jump to:

  13. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  14. Snowmass 2001: Jet Energy Flow Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. F. Berger; E. L. Berger; P. C. Bhat; J. M. Butterworth; S. D. Ellis; B. Flaugher; W. T. Giele; W. Kilgore; A. Kulesza; S. Lammers; S. Magill; H. Prosper

    2002-02-21

    Conventional cone jet algorithms arose from heuristic considerations of LO hard scattering coupled to independent showering. These algorithms implicitly assume that the final states of individual events can be mapped onto a unique set of jets that are in turn associated with a unique set of underlying hard scattering partons. Thus each final state hadron is assigned to a unique underlying parton. The Jet Energy Flow (JEF) analysis described here does not make such assumptions. The final states of individual events are instead described in terms of flow distributions of hadronic energy. Quantities of physical interest are constructed from the energy flow distribution summed over all events. The resulting analysis is less sensitive to higher order perturbative corrections and the impact of showering and hadronization than the standard cone algorithms.

  15. Do high energy astrophysical neutrinos trace star formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emig, Kimberly; Windhorst, Rogier

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (~ 0.01 -- 1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important identifier for sources of high energy particle acceleration. Reconstructed arrival directions are consistent with an extragalactic origin, with possibly a galactic component, of the neutrino flux. We present a statistical analysis of positional coincidences of the IceCube neutrinos with known astrophysical objects from several catalogs. For the brightest gamma-ray emitting blazars and for Seyfert galaxies, the number of coincidences is consistent with the random, or "null", distribution. Instead, when considering starburst galaxies with the highest flux in gamma-rays and infrared radiation, up to n = 8 coincidences are found, representing an excess over the ~4 predicted for the null distribution. The probability that this excess is realized in the null case, the p-value, is p = 0.042. This value falls to p = 0.003 for ...

  16. Energy flows : empowering New Orleans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiraud, Florence Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis claims to develop alternative energy-harvesting systems by looking at their implementation at the residential scale in order to facilitate the economical autonomy of a community and thus improve its living ...

  17. California energy flow in 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  18. The Flow of Energy through the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    is zero for global ocean #12;ERBE was adjusted to have zero net radiation (consistent with ocean obs was adjusted to have zero net radiation (consistent with ocean obs). Original global adjustment (Trenberth 1997The Flow of Energy through the Earth's Climate System Kevin E. Trenberth NCAR with John Fasullo

  19. California energy flow in 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Mui, N.

    1996-09-01

    California energy consumption increased in 1994 in keeping with a recovery from the previous mild recession years. Although unemployment remained above the national average, other indicators pointed to improved economic health. Increased energy use was registered principally in the residential/commercial and transportation end-use sectors. A cooler-than-usual winter and spring was reflected in increased consumption of natural gas, the principal space-heating fuel in the state. Because of low water levels behind state dams, utilities turned to natural gas for electrical generation and to increased imports from out-of- state sources to meet demand. Other factors, such as smaller output from geothermal, biomass, and cogenerators, contributed to the need for the large increase in electrical supply from these two sources. Nonetheless, petroleum dominated the supply side of the energy equation of the state in which transportation requirements comprise more than one-third of total energy demand. About half of the oil consumed derived from California production. Onshore production has been in slow decline; however, in 1994 the decrease was compensated for by increases from federal offshore fields. Until 1994 production had been limited by regulatory restrictions relating to the movement of the crude oil to onshore refineries. State natural gas production remained at 1993 levels. The increased demand was met by larger imports from Canada through the recent expansion of Pacific Transmission Company`s 804 mile pipeline. Deregulation of the state`s utilities moved ahead in 1994 when the California Public Utilities Commission issued its proposal on how to restructure the industry. Public hearings were conducted in which the chief issues were recovery of the utilities` capital investments, conflicts with the Public Utilities Policies Act, management of power transactions between new suppliers and former utility customers, and preservation of energy conservation programs currently sponsored by the utilities. The issues were not resolved at year-end, but the state`s public utilities began to take steps to improve their positions in a future competitive market by cutting costs, improving efficiencies operating plants, and enlarging their nonutility interests.

  20. Flow Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlex Fuels Energy Jump to:Flora HomeKeys ElCoTest

  1. Enviro Hurdles: Instream Flow | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hurdles: Instream Flow Enviro Hurdles: Instream Flow Enviro Hurdles: Instream Flow 76enviornlbevelhimer4.pptx More Documents & Publications Instream Flow Project Development and...

  2. Quantum Processes and Energy-Momentum Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Hiley; D. Robson

    2014-11-28

    In this paper we focus on energy flows in simple quantum systems. This is achieved by concentrating on the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We show how this equation appears in the standard quantum formalism in essentially three different but related ways, from the standard Schr\\"{o}dingier equation, from Lagrangian field theory and from the von Neumann-Moyal algebra. This equation allows us to track the energy flow using the energy-momentum tensor, the components of which are related to weak values of the four-momentum operator. This opens up a new way to explore these components empirically. The algebraic approach enables us to discuss the physical significance of the underlying non-commutative symplectic geometry, raising questions as to the structure of particles in quantum systems.

  3. RedFlow | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLCALLETEREFURecent content in EnergyRed RiverRedFlow

  4. Ocean Flow Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGE Energy Resources, IncIncOccidental,Ocean

  5. Energy, entropy and the Ricci flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph Samuel; Sutirtha Roy Chowdhury

    2007-12-18

    The Ricci flow is a heat equation for metrics, which has recently been used to study the topology of closed three manifolds. In this paper we apply Ricci flow techniques to general relativity. We view a three dimensional asymptotically flat Riemannian metric as a time symmetric initial data set for Einstein's equations. We study the evolution of the area A and Hawking mass M of a two dimensional closed surface under the Ricci flow. The physical relevance of our study derives from the fact that, in general relativity the area of apparent horizons is related to black hole entropy and the Hawking mass of an asymptotic round 2-sphere is the ADM energy.We begin by considering the special case of spherical symmetry to develop a physical feel for the geometric quantities involved. We then consider a general asymptotically flat Riemannian metric and derive an inequality which relates the evolution of the area of a closed surface S to its Hawking mass. We suggest that there may be a maximum principle which governs the long term existence of the asymptotically flat Ricci flow.

  6. Turbulent Energy Transport in Nonradiative Accretion Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven A. Balbus

    2003-09-24

    Just as correlations between fluctuating radial and azimuthal velocities produce a coherent stress contributing to the angular momentum transport in turbulent accretion disks, correlations in the velocity and temperature fluctuations produce a coherent energy flux. This nonadvective energy flux is always of secondary importance in thin radiative disks, but cannot be neglected in nonradiative flows, in which it completes the mean field description of turbulence. It is, nevertheless, generally ignored in accretion flow theory, with the exception of models explicitly driven by thermal convection, where it is modeled phenomenologically. This flux embodies both turbulent thermal convection as well as wave transport, and its presence is essential for a proper formulation of energy conservation, whether convection is present or not. The sign of the thermal flux is likely to be outward in real systems, but the restrictive assumptions used in numerical simulations may lead to inward thermal transport, in which case qualitatively new effects may be exhibited. We find, for example, that a static solution would require inward, not outward, thermal transport. Even if it were present, thermal convection would be unlikely to stifle accretion, but would simply add to the outward rotational energy flux that must already be present.

  7. LASER SPECTROSCOPY AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Various, Authors

    1981-05-01

    In order to control pollutants resulting from energy production and utilization, adequate methods are required for monitoring the level of various substances often present at low concentrations. The Energy and Environment Division Applied Research in Laser Spectroscopy & Analytical Techniques Program is directed toward meeting these needs, Emphasis is on the development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques. The advantages, now widely recognized, include ultra-high sensitivity coupled with minimal sample preparation. In some instances physical methods provide multi-parameter measurements which often provide the only means of achiev·ing the sensitivity necessary for the detection of trace contaminants. Work is reported in these areas: APPLIED PHYSICS AND LASER SPECTROSCOPY RESEARCH; MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETER FOR TRACE METALS ANALYSIS IN WATER; THE SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; THE POSSIBLE CHRONDRITIC NATURE OF THE DANISH CRETACEOUS~TERTIARY BOUNDARY; IMPROVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVITY AND PRECISION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SOME ELEMENTS IN PLANKTON AND PLANKTONIC FISH; and SOURCES OF SOME SECONDARILY WORKED OBSIDIAN ARTIFACTS FROM TIKAL, GUATEMALA.

  8. Free Flow 69 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban TransportFortistar LLCNorth Carolina:Arizona: EnergyFlow 69 Jump

  9. Keeping the Power Flowing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) SoldDepartment of EnergyPower Flowing

  10. Energy Flow Diagram | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science for Energy Flow Energy Flow Diagram Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy...

  11. Dark energy domination in the local flow of giant galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernin, A D; Karachentsev, I D

    2015-01-01

    A dozen most luminous galaxies at distances up to 10 Mpc from the Local Group are moving away from the group forming the local expansion flow of giants. We use recent Hubble Space Telescope data on the local giants and their numerous fainter companions to study the dynamical structure and evolutionary trends of the flow. It is demonstrated that the dynamics of the flow is dominated by local dark energy. Keywords: Galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies; local flows of galaxies; dark energy.

  12. Influence of density dependent symmetry energy on Elliptical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karan Singh Vinayak; Suneel Kumar

    2011-09-18

    The effect of density dependent symmetry energy on elliptical flow is studied using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model(IQMD). We have used the reduced isospin- dependent cross-section with hard(H) equation of state to study the sensitivity of elliptical flow towards symmetry energy in the energy range of 50 - 1000 MeV/nucleon. The elliptical flow becomes zero at a particular energy termed as transition energy. A systematic effort has been made to pin down the transition energy for the density dependent symmetry energy.

  13. Using Flow Batteries for Energy Storage Moses Sutton, Columbia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    1 Using Flow Batteries for Energy Storage Moses Sutton, Columbia University mss2197@columbia.edu Abstract - In the industry of power generation and distribution, effective energy storage devices have long that are gaining attention in the energy storage industry. I. Introduction Flow batteries are rechargeable

  14. Effect of density dependent symmetry energy on Elliptical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suneel Kumar; Karan Singh Vinayak

    2011-08-30

    The effect of the density dependent symmetry energy on elliptical flow is studied using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model(IQMD). We have used the reduced isospin-dependent cross-section with soft equation of state to study the sensitivity of elliptical flow towards symmetry energy. Aim of the present study is to pin down the Elliptical flow for the various forms of the density dependent symmetry energy.

  15. New Horizons in Gravity: The Trace Anomaly, Dark Energy and Condensate Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottola, Emil

    2010-01-01

    General Relativity receives quantum corrections relevant at macroscopic distance scales and near event horizons. These arise from the conformal scalar degrees of freedom in the extended effective field theory of gravity generated by the trace anomaly of massless quantum fields in curved space. The origin of these conformal scalar degrees of freedom as massless poles in two-particle intermediate states of anomalous amplitudes in flat space is exposed. At event horizons the conformal anomaly scalar degrees of freedom can have macroscopically large effects on the geometry, potentially removing the classical event horizon of black hole and cosmological spacetimes, replacing them with a quantum boundary layer where the effective value of the gravitational vacuum energy density can change. In the effective theory, the cosmological term becomes a dynamical condensate, whose value depends upon boundary conditions near the horizon. In the conformal phase where the anomaly induced fluctutations dominate, and the conden...

  16. Elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions near the balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Ming Zheng; C. M. Ko; Bao-An Li; Bin Zhang

    1999-06-24

    The proton elliptic flow in collisions of Ca on Ca at energies from 30 to 100 MeV/nucleon is studied in an isospin-dependent transport model. With increasing incident energy, the elliptic flow shows a transition from positive to negative flow. Its magnitude depends on both the nuclear equation of state (EOS) and the nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section. Different elliptic flows are obtained for a stiff EOS with free nucleon-nucleon cross sections and a soft EOS with reduced nucleon-nucleon cross sections, although both lead to vanishing in-plane transverse flow at the same balance energy. The study of both in-plane and elliptic flows at intermediate energies thus provides a means to extract simultaneously the information on the nuclear equation of state and the nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section in medium.

  17. Trace species detection: Spectroscopy and molecular energy transfer at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Monitoring the concentration of trace species such as atomic and molecular free radicals is essential in forming predictive models of combustion processes. LIF-based techniques have the necessary sensitivity for concentration and temperature measurements but have limited accuracy due to collisional quenching in combustion applications. The goal of this program is to use spectroscopic and kinetic measurements to quantify nonradiative and collisional effects on LIF signals and to develop new background-free alternatives to LIF. The authors have measured the natural linewidth of several OH A-X (3,0) rotational transitions to determine predissociation lifetimes in the upper state, which were presumed to be short compared to quenching lifetimes, and as a result, quantitative predictions about the applicability of predissociation fluorescence methods at high pressures are made. The authors are investigating collisional energy transfer in the A-state of NO. Quenching rates which enable direct corrections to NO LIF quantum yields at high temperature were calculations. These quenching rates are now being used in studies of turbulence/chemistry interactions. The authors have measured the electric dipole moment {mu} of excited-state NO using Stark quantum-beat spectroscopy. {mu} is an essential input to a harpoon model which predicts quenching efficiencies for NO (A) by a variety of combustion-related species. The authors are developing new coherent multiphoton techniques for measurements of atomic hydrogen concentration in laboratory flames to avoid the quenching problems associated with previous multiphoton LIF schemes.

  18. Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger...

  19. Differential flow in heavy-ion collisions at balance energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-An Li; Andrew T. Sustich

    1999-05-18

    A strong differential transverse collective flow is predicted for the first time to occur in heavy-ion collisions at balance energies. We also give a novel explanation for the disappearance of the total transverse collective flow at the balance energies. It is further shown that the differential flow especially at high transverse momenta is a useful microscope capable of resolving the balance energy's dual sensitivity to both the nuclear equation of state and in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections in the reaction dynamics.

  20. Classification of Energy Flow Observables in Narrow Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guy Gur-Ari; Michele Papucci; Gilad Perez

    2011-01-14

    We present a classification of energy flow variables for highly collimated jets. Observables are constructed by taking moments of the energy flow and forming scalars of a suitable Lorentz subgroup. The jet shapes are naturally arranged in an expansion in both angular and energy resolution, allowing us to derive the natural observables for describing an N-particle jet. We classify the leading variables that characterize jets with up to 4 particles. We rediscover the familiar jet mass, angularities, and planar flow, which dominate the lowest order substructure variables. We also discover several new observables and we briefly discuss their physical interpretation.

  1. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  2. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Title Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

  3. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the...

  4. Competitive Non-migratory Scheduling for Flow Time and Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Prudence W.H.

    @liv.ac.uk ABSTRACT Energy usage has been an important concern in recent re- search on online scheduling technology to reduce energy usage is dynamic speed scaling (see, e.g., [9, 15, 24, 28]) where the processorCompetitive Non-migratory Scheduling for Flow Time and Energy Tak-Wah Lam Department of Computer

  5. Flow Effects on Jet Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan Cheng; Jia Liu; Enke Wang

    2014-06-03

    In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out, considering the collective flow with velocity $v_z$ along the jet direction, the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium. The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption, however, decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation, which is $(1 - v_z )$ times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. In the presence of collective flow, the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order. So that the total effective energy loss is decreased. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high $p_T$ hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter $v_2$ in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Smoothing the Flow of Renewable Solar Energy in California's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy in California's Central Valley May 23, 2014 - 3:21pm Addthis This EnerVault flow battery stores power from the solar panels and releases it as needed. | Photo courtesy of...

  7. Energy flows in graphene: hot carrier dynamics and cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Justin C. W.

    Long lifetimes of hot carriers can lead to qualitatively new types of responses in materials. The magnitude and time scales for these responses reflect the mechanisms governing energy flows. We examine the microscopics of ...

  8. Excitation Energy Flow in Photosynthesis | MIT-Harvard Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Excitation Energy Flow in Photosynthesis April 25, 2013 at 3pm36-428 Graham Fleming Department of Chemistry University of California, Berkeley GrahamFleming000 Abstract: The...

  9. Study of elliptical flow at VECC-SCC500 energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varinderjit Kaur; Suneel Kumar; Rajeev K. Puri; S. Bhattacharya

    2011-07-29

    We study the transverse momentum dependence of elliptical flow at VECC energies by using the projectiles having masses lying between 16 and 56 units. The detailed study in this direction will be fruitful for experimentlists.

  10. Flow visualization using momentum and energy transport tubes and applications to turbulent flow in wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a generalization of the mass-flux based classical stream-tube, the concept of momentum and energy transport tubes is discussed as a flow visualization tool. These transport tubes have the property, respectively, that no fluxes of momentum or energy exist over their respective tube mantles. As an example application using data from large-eddy simulation, such tubes are visualized for the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow in large wind farms, in fully developed wind-turbine-array boundary layers. The three-dimensional organization of energy transport tubes changes considerably when turbine spacings are varied, enabling the visualization of the path taken by the kinetic energy flux that is ultimately available at any given turbine within the array.

  11. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  12. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Adams Greg Nash

    2004-03-31

    Chemical compounds have been designed under this contract that can be used to trace water that has been injected into vapor-dominated and two-phase geothermal fields. Increased knowledge of the injection flow is provided by the tracers, and this augments the power that can be produced. Details on the stability and use of these tracers are included in this report.

  13. Stocks, Flows, and Prospects of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . While the potential supply of energy services will probably not constrain us in the immediate future of knowledge on the boundaries that will impact a sustainable energy system. A more integrated view of energy and climate change issues. Although the potential supply of energy services will probably not constrain us

  14. Distributed Power Flow Control: Distributed Power Flow Control using Smart Wires for Energy Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-24

    GENI Project: Smart Wire Grid is developing a solution for controlling power flow within the electric grid to better manage unused and overall transmission capacity. The 300,000 miles of high-voltage transmission line in the U.S. today are congested and inefficient, with only around 50% of all transmission capacity utilized at any given time. Increased consumer demand should be met in part with more efficient and an economical power flow. Smart Wire Grid’s devices clamp onto existing transmission lines and control the flow of power within—much like how internet routers help allocate bandwidth throughout the web. Smart wires could support greater use of renewable energy by providing more consistent control over how that energy is routed within the grid on a real-time basis. This would lessen the concerns surrounding the grid’s inability to effectively store intermittent energy from renewables for later use.

  15. Stocks, Flows, and Prospects of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loschel, Andrea; Johnston, John; Delucchi, Mark A; Demayo, Trevor N; Gautier, Donald L; Greene, David L; Ogden, Joan; Rayner, Steve; Worrell, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of future energy systems have typically focused on energy sufficiency and climate change issues. While the potential supply of energy services will probably not constrain us in the immediate future, there are limits imposed on the energy system by climate change considerations, which, in turn, are inextricably bound up with land, water, and nonrenewable mineral resources issues. These could pose constraints to energy systems that may not have been fully accounted for in current analyses. There is a pressing lack of knowledge on the boundaries that will impact a sustainable energy system. A more integrated view of energy sustainability is necessary to ensure the well-being of current and future generations. This chapter proposes a set of measures related to sustainability within the context of selected energy scenarios and develops a methodology to define and measure relevant quantities and important links to other resource areas.

  16. Stocks, Flows, and Prospects of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loschel, Andrea; Johnston, John; Delucchi, Mark A; Demayo, Trevor N; Gautier, Donald L; Greene, David L; Ogden, Joan; Rayner, Steve; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of future energy systems have typically focused on energy suffi ciency and climate change issues. While the potential supply of energy services will probably not constrain us in the immediate future, there are limits imposed on the energy system by climate change considerations, which, in turn, are inextricably bound up with land, water, and nonrenewable mineral resources issues. These could pose constraints to energy systems that may not have been fully accounted for in current analyses. There is a pressing lack of knowledge on the boundaries that will impact a sustainable energy system. A more integrated view of energy sustainability is necessary to ensure the well-being of current and future generations. This chapter proposes a set of measures related to sustainability within the context of selected energy scenarios and develops a methodology to define and measure relevant quantities and important links to other resource areas.

  17. Azimuthal asymmetry in transverse energy flow in nuclear collisions at high energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Leonidov; Dmitry Ostrovsky

    2000-05-01

    The azimuthal pattern of transverse energy flow in nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is considered. We show that the probability distribution of the event-by-event azimuthal disbalance in transverse energy flow is essentially sensitive to the presence of the semihard minijet component.

  18. IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60% W + 40% He vs SHIELDING Nicholas Souchlas, PBL (10/18/2011) 1 #12;IDS120h with shielding vessels. # Different cases ENERGY CUTOFF >SHIELDING: 60% W + 40% He , 80% W + 20% He, 88% W + 12% He ( WITH W VESSELS) >4 MW proton

  19. Power flow analysis for amplifier design and energy harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindner, Douglas K.

    . In order to improve the efficiency of an active isolation system we analyze different feedback control energy on a active vibration isolation system it is important to understand the influence of the existingPower flow analysis for amplifier design and energy harvesting Nikola Vujica, Donald J. Leoa

  20. Energy Flow: A Multimodal `Ready' Indication For Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]. The limited range of EVs implicates a new importance of information about stored energy, estimated rangeEnergy Flow: A Multimodal `Ready' Indication For Electric Vehicles Abstract The lack of sound compared to a conventional car with a combustion engine. Most EVs provide a visual feedback about

  1. Energy momentum flows for the massive vector field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Horton; Chris Dewdney

    2006-09-26

    We present a causal trajectory interpretation for the massive vector field, based on the flows of rest energy and a conserved density defined using the time-like eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress-energy-momentum tensor. This work extends our previous work which used a similar procedure for the scalar field. The massive, spin-one, complex vector field is discussed in detail and solutions are classified using the Pauli-Lubanski spin vector. The flows of energy-momentum are illustrated in a simple example of standing waves in a plane.

  2. Collective flow in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Lukasik; W. Trautmann

    2007-08-21

    We present results of a flow analysis for the set of reactions of 124,129Xe projectiles and 112,124Sn targets at incident energies 100 and 150 A MeV studied with the INDRA detector at GSI. The dependence on centrality and on p_t of the directed and elliptic flow are determined for isotopically selected reaction products with Z \\le 3. The flow parameters v_1 and v_2, in general, follow expected trends but isotopic effects are small.

  3. Systematic Study of Directed Flow at RHIC Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alice C. Mignerey; for the Phobos Collaboration

    2005-10-10

    Directed flow, v1, of charged hardons has been measured in Au-Au collisions at RHIC for center-of-mass energies sqrt(sNN) = 19.6, 130, 62.4, and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector. The large acceptance of PHOBOS for charged particles allows measurements over the full range of pseudorapidity |eta| energies. Comparison is made to a mixed harmonic method for the highest energy, and compared to similar results from the STAR collaboration.

  4. U.S. energy flow, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses energy consumption in the United States which rose slightly in 1992, reflecting partial recovery from the economic recession that prevailed during the previous year. Increases were registered in all major end use sectors with the largest occurring in the industrial sector. Energy consumed for transportation, which reflects improved passenger fleet efficiencies and a growing population as well as economic activity, returned to 1989--1990 levels. The United States depended on petroleum for 41 % of its energy supply. Imports of crude oil and petroleum products increased to compensate for decline in domestic production. Imports rose to 44% of supply. Because domestic production of natural gas was close to 1991`s, increased demand was accommodated by larger (16%) imports from Canada. Coal production was virtually unchanged from 1991 and thus well below 1990 production. Nonetheless coal supplied about one quarter of US energy needs, primarily for electrical generation. For the third year electricity transmitted by utilities departed from historic growth trends; it remained at 1991 levels. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 was signed into law in October. Among its many provisions, this act encourages independent power producers to compete with the utilities in wholesale production of electricity, streamlines the licensing of nuclear power plants, promotes the development of renewable energy sources through tax incentives, imposes efficiency standards on many manufacturing items, requires federal and private fleets to buy vehicles that run on alternative fuels, and requires the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan to decrease oil consumption, increase the use of renewable energy, improve conversion efficiencies, and limit the emission of greenhouse gases.

  5. Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator Optimized for the Conditions of Current Energy Conversion Free Flow Energy...

  6. Sankey Diagram of Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sankey Diagram of Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing The U.S. Manufacturing Sector Sankey diagram below shows the amount of total primary energy in...

  7. Sankey Diagram of Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sector Sankey Diagram of Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sector The Nonprocess Energy Sankey diagram below shows inputs of...

  8. SUR LES CASCADES D'ENERGIE EN ECOULEMENTS TURBULENTS CASCADE OF ENERGY IN TURBULENT FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosa, Ricardo M. S.

    SUR LES CASCADES D'´ENERGIE EN ´ECOULEMENTS TURBULENTS CASCADE OF ENERGY IN TURBULENT FLOWS CIPRIAN energy is transferred from low wave number modes to high wave number modes (L. Onsager (1945)). Such a transfer of energy occurs in a spectral range beyond that of injection of energy, and it underlies the so

  9. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  10. Grid Applications for Energy Storage Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storage #12;Competitive Electric Market Structure Power Generation Distributed Generation Grid Management Power Mkts. & Reliability Micro-Grids Power Quality Grid Reliability Competitive State Regulated FERCGrid Applications for Energy Storage Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Washington DC 7

  11. Zero Energy Rotating Accretion Flows near a Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongsu Ryu; Sandip K. Chakrabarti; Diego Molteni

    1996-07-11

    We characterize the nature of thin, axisymmetric, inviscid, accretion flows of cold adiabatic gas with zero specific energy in the vicinity of a black hole by the specific angular momentum. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in cylindrical geometry, we present various regimes in which the accretion flows behave distinctly differently. When the flow has a small angular momentum $(\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_b)$, most of the material is accreted into the black hole forming a quasi-spherical flow or a simple disk-like structure around it. When the flow has a large angular momentum (typically, larger than the marginally bound value, $\\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_{mb}$), almost no accretion into the black hole occurs. Instead, the flow produces a stable standing shock with one or more vortices behind it and is deflected away at the shock as a conical outgoing wind of higher entropy. If the flow has an angular momentum somewhat smaller than $\\lambda_{mb}$ $(\\lambda_{u}\\lsim\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_{mb})$, a fraction (typically, $5-10$\\%) of the incoming material is accreted into the black hole, but the the flow structure formed is similar to that as for $\\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_{mb}$. Some of the deflected material is accreted back into the black hole, while the rest is blown away as an outgoing wind. These two cases with $\\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_u$ correspond those studied in the previous works by Molteni, Lanzafame, \\& Chakrabarti (1994) and Ryu \\etal (1995). However, the flow with an angular momentum close to the marginally stable value $(\\lambda_{ms})$ is found to be unstable. More specifically, if $\\lambda_b\\lsim\\lambda\\sim\\lambda_{ms}\\lsim\\lambda_u$, the flow displays a distinct periodicity in the sense that the inner part of the disk is built and

  12. Complex Flow Workshop Report | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)Day-June 22,FresnoSky Energy ofA discussion on the

  13. Zero energy rotating accretion flows near a black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, D; Molteni, D; Ryu, Dongsu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Molteni, Diego

    1996-01-01

    We characterize the nature of thin, axisymmetric, inviscid, accretion flows of cold adiabatic gas with zero specific energy in the vicinity of a black hole by the specific angular momentum. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in cylindrical geometry, we present various regimes in which the accretion flows behave distinctly differently. When the flow has a small angular momentum (\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_b), most of the material is accreted into the black hole forming a quasi-spherical flow or a simple disk-like structure around it. When the flow has a large angular momentum (typically, larger than the marginally bound value, \\lambda\\gsim\\lambda_{mb}), almost no accretion into the black hole occurs. Instead, the flow produces a stable standing shock with one or more vortices behind it and is deflected away at the shock as a conical outgoing wind of higher entropy. If the flow has an angular momentum somewhat smaller than \\lambda_{mb} (\\lambda_{u}\\lsim\\lambda\\lsim\\lambda_{mb}), a fraction (typically, 5-10...

  14. Elliptic flow and system size dependence of transition energies at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yingxun Zhang; Zhuxia Li

    2006-06-02

    The elliptic flow for $Z\\le2$ particles in heavy ion collisions at energies from several tens to several hundreds MeV per nucleon is investigated by means of transport model,i.e. a new version of the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (ImQMD05). In this model, a complete Skyrme potential energy density functional is employed. The influence of different effective interactions and medium corrections of nucleon-nucleon cross sections on the elliptic flow are studied. Our results show that a soft nuclear equation of state and incident energy dependent in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections are required for describing the excitation function of the elliptic flow at intermediate energies. The size dependence of transition energies for the elliptic flow at intermediate energies is also studied. The system size dependence of transition energies fits a power of system size with a exponent of 0.223.

  15. NUCLEAR FLUID DYNAMICS VERSUS INTRANUCLEAR CASCADE--POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR COLLECTIVE FLOW IN CENTRAL HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01

    Flow in Central High Energy Nuclear Collisions H. Stockera,under Contract High energy nuclear collisions offer a uniquesidewards flow·in high-energy nuclear collisions. The

  16. Precision Flow Table | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)Energy Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name:

  17. Precision Flow Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)Energy Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name:Technologies

  18. Instream Flow Project | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENT OFBarriersInstitutional change integratesshow

  19. Category:Flow Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy014771°,NorthCLEANElkins, WVFOAFFlow Test

  20. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shumlak, U. Golingo, R. P. Nelson, B. A. Bowers, C. A. Doty, S. A. Forbes, E. G. Hughes, M. C. Kim, B. Knecht, S. D. Lambert, K. K. Lowrie, W. Ross, M. P. Weed, J. R.

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and scaling analyses will be presented. In addition to studying fundamental plasma science and high energy density physics, the ZaP and ZaP-HD experiments can be applied to laboratory astrophysics.

  1. Large-scale cosmic flows and moving dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Beltran Jimenez; Antonio L. Maroto

    2009-02-24

    Large-scale matter bulk flows with respect to the cosmic microwave background have very recently been detected on scales 100 Mpc/h and 300 Mpc/h by using two different techniques showing an excellent agreement in the motion direction. However, the unexpectedly large measured amplitudes are difficult to understand within the context of standard LCDM cosmology. In this work we show that the existence of such a flow could be signaling the presence of moving dark energy at the time when photons decoupled from matter. We also comment on the relation between the direction of the CMB dipole and the preferred axis observed in the quadrupole in this scenario.

  2. Bottlenecks to vibrational energy flow in OCS: Structures and mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paškauskas, R; Uzer, T

    2008-01-01

    Finding the causes for the nonstatistical vibrational energy relaxation in the planar carbonyl sulfide (OCS) molecule is a longstanding problem in chemical physics: Not only is the relaxation incomplete long past the predicted statistical relaxation time, but it also consists of a sequence of abrupt transitions between long-lived regions of localized energy modes. We report on the phase space bottlenecks responsible for this slow and uneven vibrational energy flow in this Hamiltonian system with three degrees of freedom. They belong to a particular class of two-dimensional invariant tori which are organized around elliptic periodic orbits. We relate the trapping and transition mechanisms with the linear stability of these structures.

  3. Bottlenecks to vibrational energy flow in OCS: Structures and mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Paškauskas; C. Chandre; T. Uzer

    2008-11-27

    Finding the causes for the nonstatistical vibrational energy relaxation in the planar carbonyl sulfide (OCS) molecule is a longstanding problem in chemical physics: Not only is the relaxation incomplete long past the predicted statistical relaxation time, but it also consists of a sequence of abrupt transitions between long-lived regions of localized energy modes. We report on the phase space bottlenecks responsible for this slow and uneven vibrational energy flow in this Hamiltonian system with three degrees of freedom. They belong to a particular class of two-dimensional invariant tori which are organized around elliptic periodic orbits. We relate the trapping and transition mechanisms with the linear stability of these structures.

  4. U.S. energy flow -- 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-12-01

    Energy consumption in 1994 increased for the fourth year in a row, reaching an all-time high. It was associated with a robust economy, low inflation, and low unemployment rates. Of the populous states, California lagged substantially behind the national recovery. Consumption in all major end-use sectors reached historic highs. Transmission of electrical power by the utilities increased almost 3%. However, this understates the increase of the total amount of electricity used in the nation because the amount of electricity used ``in-house`` by a growing number of self-generators is unrecorded. Imports of both fossil fuels and electricity increased. About half of the total oil consumed was imported, with Saudi Arabia being the principal supplier. Domestic oil production continued to decline; however, the sharp decline in Alaskan production was slowed. The increase in the demand for natural gas was met by both a modest increase in domestic production and imports from Canada, which comprised 10% of supply. The residential/commercial sector is the largest single consumer of natural gas; however, use by electric generators has increased annually for the past decade. The regulated utilities increased their consumption 11% in 1994. The year was noteworthy for the US nuclear power industry. Work was halted on the last nuclear power plant under construction in the country. Because of the retirement of aged and poorly performing nuclear plants and because of improved efficiencies, the capacity factor for the remaining 109 operable plants reached a record 74%.

  5. Density dependence of symmetry energy and collective transverse in-plane flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri; J. Aichelin

    2011-12-13

    We study the sensitivity of the collective transverse in-plane flow to the symmetry energy and its density dependence at Fermi energies and higher incident energies. We find that collective transverse in-plane flow is sensitive to the symmetry energy and its density dependence at Fermi energies whereas it shows insensitivity at higher incident energies.

  6. Stresses, energy flow and energy density of gravitational nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Loinger

    2001-05-03

    Two arguments which show the validity of the concept of gravitational energy put forward by Lorentz and Levi-Civita.

  7. The propagation of kinetic energy across scales in turbulent flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardesa, José I; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A temporal study of energy transfer across length scales is performed in 3D numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow and isotropic turbulence, at Reynolds numbers in the range $Re_{\\lambda}=107-384$. The average time taken by perturbations in the energy flux to travel between scales is measured and shown to be additive, as inferred from the agreement between the total travel time from a given scale to the smallest dissipative motions, and the time estimated from successive jumps through intermediate scales. Our data suggests that the propagation of disturbances in the energy flux is independent of the forcing and that it defines a `velocity' that determines the energy flux itself. These results support that the cascade is, on average, a scale-local process where energy is continuously transmitted from one scale to the next in order of decreasing size.

  8. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  9. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  10. Energy minimization for the flow in ducts and networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to demonstrate how the energy minimization principle may be considered as a governing rule for the physical equilibrium that determines the flow fields in tubes and networks. We previously investigated this issue using a numerical stochastic method, specifically simulated annealing, where we demonstrated the problem by some illuminating examples and concluded that energy minimization principle can be a valid hypothesis. The investigation in this paper is more general as it is based to a certain extent on an analytical approach.

  11. Wave turbulence revisited: Where does the energy flow?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. V. Abdurakhimov; I. A. Remizov; A. A. Levchenko; G. V. Kolmakov; Y. V. Lvov

    2014-04-03

    Turbulence in a system of nonlinearly interacting waves is referred to as wave turbulence. It has been known since seminal work by Kolmogorov, that turbulent dynamics is controlled by a directional energy flux through the wavelength scales. We demonstrate that an energy cascade in wave turbulence can be bi-directional, that is, can simultaneously flow towards large and small wavelength scales from the pumping scales at which it is injected. This observation is in sharp contrast to existing experiments and wave turbulence theory where the energy flux only flows in one direction. We demonstrate that the bi-directional energy cascade changes the energy budget in the system and leads to formation of large-scale, large-amplitude waves similar to oceanic rogue waves. To study surface wave turbulence, we took advantage of capillary waves on a free, weakly charged surface of superfluid helium He-II at temperature 1.7K. Although He-II demonstrates non-classical thermomechanical effects and quantized vorticity, waves on its surface are identical to those on a classical Newtonian fluid with extremely low viscosity. The possibility of directly driving a charged surface by an oscillating electric field and the low viscosity of He-II have allowed us to isolate the surface dynamics and study nonlinear surface waves in a range of frequencies much wider than in experiments with classical fluids.

  12. Energy dissipation in oscillating flow through straight and coiled pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-10-01

    The energy dissipation is reported for oscillating flow in U-shaped pipes with 180{degree}, 540{degree}, and 900{degree} curves at the base of the U. Analysis permits separation of the dissipation in the straight and curved portions of the pipe. Using water, water/glycerine mixtures, liquid nitrogen, and helium gas, the dissipation was measured for fluid flow regimes (Reynolds number, quality factor, and pipe curvature) which have not previously been reported. Measured loss in the straight portion is compared to numerical solutions using a turbulent quasisteady representation of the wall shear stress. Measured loss in the curved portion is compared to simple theory. The results are applicable to thermoacoustic devices. {copyright} {ital 1996 Acoustical Society of America.}

  13. Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPPFixedFloridaBatteries: AOverview

  14. Tracing the Evolution of Temperature in Near Fermi Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Wang; R. Wada; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; Y. G. Ma; M. Murray; L. Qin; A. Botvina; S. Kowalski; T. Materna; J. B. Natowitz; R. Alfarro; J. Cibor; M. Cinausero; Y. El Masri; D. Fabris; E. Fioretto; A. Keksis; M. Lunardon; A. Makeev; N. Marie; E. Martin; Z. Majka; A. Martinez-Davalos; A. Menchaca-Rocha; G. Nebbia; G. Prete; V. Rizzi; A. Ruangma; D. V. Shetty; G. Souliotis; P. Staszel; M. Veselsky; G. Viesti; E. M. Winchester; S. J. Yennello; W. Zipper; A. Ono

    2005-01-19

    The kinetic energy variation of emitted light clusters has been employed as a clock to explore the time evolution of the temperature for thermalizing composite systems produced in the reactions of 26A, 35A and 47A MeV $^{64}$Zn with $^{58}$Ni, $^{92}$Mo and $^{197}$Au. For each system investigated, the double isotope ratio temperature curve exhibits a high maximum apparent temperature, in the range of 10-25 MeV, at high ejectile velocity. These maximum values increase with increasing projectile energy and decrease with increasing target mass. The time at which the maximum in the temperature curve is reached ranges from 80 to 130 fm/c after contact. For each different target, the subsequent cooling curves for all three projectile energies are quite similar. Temperatures comparable to those of limiting temperature systematics are reached 30 to 40 fm/c after the times corresponding to the maxima, at a time when AMD-V transport model calculations predict entry into the final evaporative or fragmentation stage of de-excitation of the hot composite systems. Evidence for the establishment of thermal and chemical equilibrium is discussed.

  15. Keeping the Nation's Energy Flowing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) SoldDepartment of Energy

  16. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arp, Trevor B; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a two-channel quantum heat engine photocell, thus enabling the efficient conversion of varying incident solar spectrum at Earth's surface. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum is avoided, as it provides no inherent regulatory benefit. Our findings illuminate a quantum structural origin of regulation, provide a novel optoelectronic design strategy, and may elucidate the link between photoprotection in photosynthesis and the predominance of green plants on Earth.

  17. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevor B. Arp; Yafis Barlas; Vivek Aji; Nathaniel M. Gabor

    2015-08-26

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a two-channel quantum heat engine photocell, thus enabling the efficient conversion of varying incident solar spectrum at Earth's surface. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum is avoided, as it provides no inherent regulatory benefit. Our findings illuminate a quantum structural origin of regulation, provide a novel optoelectronic design strategy, and may elucidate the link between photoprotection in photosynthesis and the predominance of green plants on Earth.

  18. Implementation of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of flow batteries for energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yaliang

    2009-01-01

    For large-scale energy storage application, flow battery has the advantages of decoupled power and energy management, extended life cycles and relatively low cost of unit energy output ($/kWh). In this thesis, an overview ...

  19. Energy and helicity preserving schemes for hydro-and magnetohydro-dynamics flows with symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    Energy and helicity preserving schemes for hydro- and magnetohydro-dynamics flows with symmetry, the scheme preserves both energy and he- licity identities numerically. This is achieved by recasting singularity for axisymmetric flows. The exact conservation of energy and helicity has effectively eliminated

  20. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

  1. Study of Participant-Spectator Matter at the Energy of Vanishing Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri

    2010-04-04

    We aim to study the participant-spectator matter over a wide range of energies of vanishing flow and masses. For this, we employed different model parameters at central and semi-central colliding geometries. Remarkably, a nearly mass independent nature of the participant matter was obtained at the energy of vanishing flow. This makes it a very strong alternative candidate to study the energy of vanishing flow. We also show that the participant matter can also act as an indicator to study the degree of thermalization. The degree of thermalization reached in central collisions is nearly the same for different colliding nuclei at the energy of vanishing flow.

  2. 1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy PASI_2012_Flowing_Target_Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy PASI_2012_Flowing, stress / shock #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy PASI_2012_Flowing;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy PASI_2012_Flowing_Target_Challenges Flowing

  3. The material and energy flow through the abrasive waterjet machining and recycling processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurd, Michael Omar, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the material and energy flow through the abrasive waterjet machine and the WARD recycling machine. The goal was to track all of the material, water, abrasive, energy, air, and ...

  4. Optical Flow Estimation using Laplacian Mesh Energy Wenbin Li Darren Cosker Matthew Brown Rui Tang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Optical Flow Estimation using Laplacian Mesh Energy Wenbin Li Darren Cosker Matthew Brown Rui Tang.p.cosker,m.brown,r.tang}@bath.ac.uk Abstract In this paper we present a novel non-rigid optical flow algorithm for dense image correspondence and non-rigid registration. The algorithm uses a unique Laplacian Mesh Energy term to encourage local

  5. Online Speed Scaling Based on Active Job Count to Minimize Flow plus Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Prudence W.H.

    algorithms that aim at minimizing the total flow time plus energy usage. The results are divided into two and energy Energy usage has become a major issue in the design of microprocessors, especially for battery- operated devices. Many modern processors support dynamic speed scaling to reduce energy usage. Recent

  6. Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of energy that is released by sea and river water mixing at global estuaries.1-4 The CapMix energy consumption) or mixing (energy generation) processes occur intermittently.6 This intermittency occurs becauseUsing Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from

  7. Heat flow into spheres for a class of energies Norbert Hungerbuhler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hungerbühler, Norbert

    Heat flow into spheres for a class of energies Norbert Hungerb¨uhler Department of Mathematics Riemannian manifolds without boundaries. Then, for a map u : M N, we consider a class of energies which includes the popular Dirichlet energy and the more general p-energy. Geometric or physical questions

  8. Investigation of Turbulent transition in plane Couette flows Using Energy Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua-Shu Dou; Boo Cheong Khoo

    2010-06-07

    The energy gradient method has been proposed with the aim of better understanding the mechanism of flow transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow. In this method, it is demonstrated that the transition to turbulence depends on the relative magnitudes of the transverse gradient of the total mechanical energy which amplifies the disturbance and the energy loss from viscous friction which damps the disturbance, for given imposed disturbance. For a given flow geometry and fluid properties, when the maximum of the function K (a function standing for the ratio of the gradient of total mechanical energy in the transverse direction to the rate of energy loss due to viscous friction in the streamwise direction) in the flow field is larger than a certain critical value, it is expected that instability would occur for some initial disturbances. In this paper, using the energy gradient analysis, the equation for calculating the energy gradient function K for plane Couette flow is derived. The result indicates that K reaches the maximum at the moving walls. Thus, the fluid layer near the moving wall is the most dangerous position to generate initial oscillation at sufficient high Re for given same level of normalized perturbation in the domain. The critical value of K at turbulent transition, which is observed from experiments, is about 370 for plane Couette flow when two walls move in opposite directions (anti-symmetry). This value is about the same as that for plane Poiseuille flow and pipe Poiseuille flow (385-389). Therefore, it is concluded that the critical value of K at turbulent transition is about 370-389 for wall-bounded parallel shear flows which include both pressure (symmetrical case) and shear driven flows (anti-symmetrical case).

  9. Sandia Energy - Magnetically Stimulated Flow Patterns Offer Strategy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetically Stimulated Flow Patterns Offer Strategy for Heat-Transfer Problems Home Office of Science Capabilities News News & Events Research & Capabilities Materials Science...

  10. Energy of eigen-modes in magnetohydrodynamic flows of ideal fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. V. Khalzov; A. I. Smolyakov; V. I. Ilgisonis

    2007-12-11

    Analytical expression for energy of eigen-modes in magnetohydrodynamic flows of ideal fluids is obtained. It is shown that the energy of unstable modes is zero, while the energy of stable oscillatory modes (waves) can assume both positive and negative values. Negative energy waves always correspond to non-symmetric eigen-modes -- modes that have a component of wave-vector along the equilibrium velocity. These results suggest that all non-symmetric instabilities in ideal MHD systems with flows are associated with coupling of positive and negative energy waves. As an example the energy of eigen-modes is calculated for incompressible conducting fluid rotating in axial magnetic field.

  11. The energy dependence of flow in Ni induced collisions from 400 to 1970A MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerry Chance; the EOS-Collaboration

    1996-07-23

    We study the energy dependence of collective (hydrodynamic-like) nuclear matter flow in 400-1970 A MeV Ni+Au and 1000-1970 A MeV Ni+Cu reactions. The flow increases with energy, reaches a maximum, and then gradually decreases at higher energies. A way of comparing the energy dependence of flow values for different projectile-target mass combinations is introduced, which demonstrates a common scaling behaviour among flow values from different systems.

  12. Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim* and Nina MahootcheianAsl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim. The harvested Li metal could then be an energy source for Li-Liquid flow batteries by using water as the cathode in a Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) flow battery that can be used in a stationary energy storage application. Li

  13. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: One-dimensional soil thaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport Freezing and thawing a b s t r a c t Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have of powerful simulators of cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport have emerged in recent years

  14. Steam Tracing...New Technologies for the 21st Century 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitzer, R. K.; Barth, R. E.; Bonorden, C.

    1999-01-01

    For decades, steam tracing has been an accepted practice in the heating of piping, vessels, and equipment. This paper presents recent product innovations such as "burn-safe" and "energy efficient" steam tracing products. For the many applications...

  15. Energy-Conserving Simulation of Incompressible Electro-Osmotic and Pressure-Driven Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman,John C.

    Energy-Conserving Simulation of Incompressible Electro-Osmotic and Pressure-Driven Flow Jahrul Alam in Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics) Abstract. A numerical model for electro-osmotic flow asymmetric concentration profile that arises when an external pressure drop is imposed on electro-osmotic

  16. Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Trade Study Part I : Energy Consumption and Aerodynamic Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zha, Gecheng

    Co-Flow Jet Airfoil Trade Study Part I : Energy Consumption and Aerodynamic Efficiency Alexis airfoils. A trade study is performed for a series of CFJ airfoils based on the NACA 23121 airfoil Static pressure Air density m Mass flow M Mach number Pitching Moment P Pumping power Free stream

  17. An energy preserving formulation for the simulation of multiphase turbulent flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuster, Daniel

    scheme for the simulation of turbulent mul- tiphase flows. The method is based on the discretizationAn energy preserving formulation for the simulation of multiphase turbulent flows. Abstract formulation reduces the numerical diffusion with respect to previous formulations dealing with multiple phases

  18. Characterization of mean velocity and flow structures in rivers and tidal flow is crucial for the annual energy production estimation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    · Characterization of mean velocity and flow structures in rivers and tidal flow is crucial for the annual energy production estimation and structural design of MHK devices. · ADCP moving vessel. FV data This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. 5

  19. Photon Maps Photon Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lischinski, Dani

    Photon Maps Photon Tracing Simulating light propagation by shooting photons from the light sources. Photon Tracing Storing the incidences of photon's path. Implementing surface properties statistically. Russian Roulette. Photon Tracing Photon maps keep: Incidence point (in 3D). The normal at that point

  20. Groundwater flow with energy transport and waterice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Groundwater flow with energy transport and water­ice phase change: Numerical simulations saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes propor for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other

  1. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock Department important aspect to consider when attempting to improve the energy efficiency of most process heating. Infiltration air enters the system through openings in the system shell. For energy- efficient process heating

  2. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  3. Global energy conversion rate from geostrophic flows into internal lee waves in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikurashin, Maxim

    A global estimate of the energy conversion rate from geostrophic flows into internal lee waves in the ocean is presented. The estimate is based on a linear theory applied to bottom topography at O(1–10) km scales obtained ...

  4. Simulation and visualization of fields and energy flows in electric circuits with idealized geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohannessian, Mesrob I., 1981-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a method to simulate and visualize the fields and energy flows in electric circuits, using a simplified physical model based on an idealized geometry. The physical models combine and extend previously ...

  5. A Phase Diagram Unifies Energy Dissipation, Kinetics, and Rheology in Inertial Granular Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. DeGiuli; J. N. McElwaine; M. Wyart

    2015-09-11

    Flows of hard granular materials depend strongly on the interparticle friction coefficient $\\mu_p$ and on the inertial number ${\\cal I}$, which characterizes proximity to the jamming transition where flow stops. Guided by numerical simulations, we derive the phase diagram of dense inertial flow of spherical particles, finding three regimes for $10^{-4} \\lesssim {\\cal I} \\lesssim 0.1$: frictionless, frictional sliding, and rolling. These are distinguished by the dominant means of energy dissipation, changing from collisional to sliding friction, and back to collisional, as $\\mu_p$ increases from zero at constant ${\\cal I}$. The three regimes differ in their kinetics and rheology; in particular, the velocity fluctuations and the stress anisotropy both display non-monotonic behavior with $\\mu_p$, corresponding to transitions between the three regimes of flow. We characterize the scaling properties of these regimes, show that energy balance yields scaling relations for each of them, and explain why friction qualitatively affects flow.

  6. Persistent energy flow for a stochastic wave equation model in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence E. Thomas

    2012-04-29

    We consider a one-dimensional partial differential equation system modeling heat flow around a ring. The system includes a Klein-Gordon wave equation for a field satisfying spatial periodic boundary conditions, as well as Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic differential equations with finite rank dissipation and stochastic driving terms modeling heat baths. There is an energy flow around the ring. In the case of a linear field with different (fixed) bath temperatures, the energy flow can persist even when the interaction with the baths is turned off. A simple example is given.

  7. Effect of flow oscillations on axial energy transport in a porous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, R. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1987-02-01

    It has been shown analytically and experimentally that flow oscillations of a fluid within a channel can enhance the axial transfer of energy. The transport arises from an axial gradient in fluid temperature resulting from having reservoirs at different temperatures at either end of the channel. The present analysis develops relations for axial energy diffusion in a porous medium with oscillating flow. In some devices, such as the Sterling engine, there are regenerators with oscillating flow. Axial transport in the regenerator provides an energy loss; hence it is desirable to determine what factors can limit this diffusion. A regenerator in the form of a porous medium is difficult to model since the flow is continually disrupted by the irregularities of the porous structure. The formulation here will employ an internal heat transfer coefficient that couples the fluid and solid temperatures. The final result shows how the diffusion depends on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient and the maximum fluid displacement.

  8. Portable Liquid Flow Metering for Energy Conservation Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    requirements: 1. The pipe must be full of liquid. Cavitating pumps will, in effect, cause air pockets within the pipe. High SoniC Velocity Beam Angle Flow Profile Low Sonic Velocity Beam Angle Controlotron 480 Wide Beam Beam covers receive Iransd...

  9. Energy flow in a hadronic cascade: Application to hadron calorimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groom, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    contribution by nuclear gamma rays is included here. Again, most of vis the ionization is by low-energy

  10. Scalable Communication Trace Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2010-05-17

    Characterizing the communication behavior of parallel programs through tracing can help understand an application’s characteristics, model its performance, and predict behavior on future systems. However, lossless communication traces can get prohibitively large, causing programmers to resort to variety of other techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to lossless communication trace compression. We augment the sequitur compression algorithm to employ it in communication trace compression of parallel programs. We present optimizations to reduce the memory overhead, reduce size of the trace files generated, and enable compression across multiple processes in a parallel program. The evaluation shows improved compression and reduced overhead over other approaches, with up to 3 orders of magnitude improvement for the NAS MG benchmark. We also observe that, unlike existing schemes, the trace files sizes and the memory overhead incurred are less sensitive to, if not independent of, the problem size for the NAS benchmarks.

  11. Energy-Efficient Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling in 3D Stacked Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    in comparison to air. Our focus in this work is developing energy- and performance-efficient thermal management1 Energy-Efficient Variable-Flow Liquid Cooling in 3D Stacked Architectures Ayse K. Coskun , David. In this work, we first propose a framework for detailed thermal modeling of the microchannels embedded between

  12. Membraneless Hydrogen Bromine Laminar Flow Battery for Large-Scale Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poonen, Bjorn

    Membraneless Hydrogen Bromine Laminar Flow Battery for Large-Scale Energy Storage by William Allan and examined for its potential to provide low cost energy storage using the rapid reaction kinetics of hydrogen by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David E. Hardt Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses #12;2 #12;Membraneless Hydrogen Bromine

  13. CTR SHEET Sheet 1 of 1 TITLE: Logistic flow DISCIPLINE: Renewable Marine Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of any Renewable Marine Energy (RME) Project installation phase, like any other offshore projectCTR CTR04 CTR SHEET Sheet 1 of 1 TITLE: Logistic flow DISCIPLINE: Renewable Marine Energy ­ Shiping foundations. From a selected project, the student will have to develop an in house tool dedicated to logistic

  14. Scaling of flow in heavy ion collisions and the low-energy frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrieri, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The common interpretation of elliptic flow $v_2$ in heavy ion collisions is that it is produced by hydrodynamic flow at low transverse momentum and by parton energy loss at high transverse momentum. Here, we discuss this interpretation in view of the dependence of $v_2$ with energy, rapidity and system size, and show that it is far from clear how the relevant properties necessary for this interpretation, low viscosity and high opacity, turn on. A low energy collider such as NICA is essential for this interpretation to be verified, understood and related to the fundamental properties of hadronic matter

  15. Non-invasive energy meter for fixed and variable flow systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menicucci, David F.; Black, Billy D.

    2005-11-01

    An energy metering method and apparatus for liquid flow systems comprising first and second segments of one or more conduits through which a liquid flows, comprising: attaching a first temperature sensor for connection to an outside of the first conduit segment; attaching a second temperature sensor for connection to an outside of the second conduit segment; via a programmable control unit, receiving data from the sensors and calculating energy data therefrom; and communicating energy data from the meter; whereby the method and apparatus operate without need to temporarily disconnect or alter the first or second conduit segments. The invention operates with both variable and fixed flow systems, and is especially useful for both active and passive solar energy systems.

  16. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  17. Modeling environmental effects on the size-structured energy flow through marine ecosystems. Part 1: The model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    Modeling environmental effects on the size-structured energy flow through marine ecosystems. Part 1 size-structured mathematical model of the energy flow through marine ecosystems, based on established the dynamic size-spectrum of marine ecosystems in term of energy con- tent per weight class as well as many

  18. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  19. Property:Geothermal/FlowGpm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 Jump to: navigation, search This is aAnnualGenGwhYr JumpContactFlowGpm

  20. The International Heat Flow Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/Wind Resources <forGermanInternational Heat Flow

  1. MHK Technologies/Cross Flow Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSloughAquantis < MHKAS 400Flow Turbine

  2. MHK Technologies/Uppsala Cross flow Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar <OMIS DTocardo <Cross flow Turbine <

  3. UNDERSTANDING FLOW OF ENERGY IN BUILDINGS USING MODAL ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Gardner; Kevin Heglund; Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg; Craig Rieger

    2013-07-01

    It is widely understood that energy storage is the key to integrating variable generators into the grid. It has been proposed that the thermal mass of buildings could be used as a distributed energy storage solution and several researchers are making headway in this problem. However, the inability to easily determine the magnitude of the building’s effective thermal mass, and how the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system exchanges thermal energy with it, is a significant challenge to designing systems which utilize this storage mechanism. In this paper we adapt modal analysis methods used in mechanical structures to identify the primary modes of energy transfer among thermal masses in a building. The paper describes the technique using data from an idealized building model. The approach is successfully applied to actual temperature data from a commercial building in downtown Boise, Idaho.

  4. Mapping Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 |Department of Energy MA3TMaking|Chicagoof

  5. Renormalisation of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar field theory using the Wilson flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Capponi; Luigi Del Debbio; Susanne Ehret; Roberto Pellegrini; Antonio Rago

    2015-12-09

    A non-perturbative renormalisation prescription for the energy-momentum tensor, based on space-time symmetries along the Wilson flow, has been proposed recently in the context of 4-dimensional gauge theories. We extend this construction to the case of a scalar field theory, and investigate its numerical feasibility by studying Ward identities in 3-dimensional scalar field theory. After introducing the Wilson flow for the scalar field theory we discuss its renormalisation properties and the determination of the renormalisation constants for the energy-momentum tensor.

  6. Renormalization constants of the lattice energy momentum tensor using the gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Capponi; Luigi Del Debbio; Agostino Patella; Antonio Rago

    2015-12-14

    We employ a new strategy for a non perturbative determination of the renormalized energy momentum tensor. The strategy is based on the definition of suitable lattice Ward identities probed by observables computed along the gradient flow. The new set of identities exhibits many interesting qualities, arising from the UV finiteness of flowed composite operators. In this paper we show how this method can be used to non perturbatively renormalize the energy momentum tensor for a SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, and report our numerical results.

  7. Energy Balance in the Solar Transition Region. IV. Hydrogen and Helium Mass Flows With Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Fontenla; E. H. Avrett; R. Loeser

    2001-09-24

    In this paper we have extended our previous modeling of energy balance in the chromosphere-corona transition region to cases with particle and mass flows. The cases considered here are quasi-steady, and satisfy the momentum and energy balance equations in the transition region. We include in all equations the flow velocity terms and neglect the partial derivatives with respect to time. We present a complete and physically consistent formulation and method for solving the non-LTE and energy balance equations in these situations, including both particle diffusion and flows of H and He. Our results show quantitatively how mass flows affect the ionization and radiative losses of H and He, thereby affecting the structure and extent of the transition region. Also, our computations show that the H and He line profiles are greatly affected by flows. We find that line shifts are much less important than the changes in line intensity and central reversal due to the effects of flows. In this paper we use fixed conditions at the base of the transition region and in the chromosphere because our intent is to show the physical effects of flows and not to match any particular observations. However, we note that the profiles we compute can explain the range of observed high spectral and spatial resolution Lyman alpha profiles from the quiet Sun. We suggest that dedicated modeling of specific sequences of observations based on physically consistent methods like those presented here will substantially improve our understanding of the energy balance in the chromosphere and corona.

  8. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore »electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  9. Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin, NewArkansas: Energy ResourcesVecarius JumpInformation and

  10. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  11. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtoni...

  12. Transient unidirectional energy flow and diode-like phenomenon induced by non-Markovian environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Jing; Dvira Segal; Baowen Li; Lian-Ao Wu

    2015-07-03

    Relying on an exact time evolution scheme, we identify a novel transient energy transfer phe- nomenon in an exactly-solvable quantum microscopic model consisting of a three-level system coupled to two non-Markovian zero-temperature bosonic baths through two separable quantum channels. The dynamics of this model can be solved exactly using the quantum-state-diffusion equation formalism, demonstrating finite intervals of unidirectional energy flow across the system, typically, from the non-Markovian environment towards the more Markovian bath. Furthermore, when introducing a spatial asymmetry into the system, an analogue of the rectification effect is realized. In the long time limit, the dynamics arrives at a stationary state and the effects recede. Understanding temporal characteristics of directional energy flow will aid in designing microscopic energy transfer devices.

  13. Reducing pumping energy by using different flow rates of high and low concentration solutions in reverse electrodialysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reducing pumping energy by using different flow rates of high and low concentration solutions Keywords: Salinity gradient energy RED Renewable energy production a b s t r a c t Energy use for pumping to reduce the energy needed for pumping, electrical performance and hydrodynamic power losses in a RED stack

  14. Financing Program Implementation Process Flow | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,Energy 9,UNIVERSITYDepartment

  15. Flow Batteries: A Historical Perspective | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPPFixedFloridaBatteries: A

  16. Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Summary Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPPFixedFloridaBatteries:

  17. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget | DepartmentLogistical Challenges |Progress in Grid

  18. Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Geothermal Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services »Information ResourcesHeatGenericExploration

  19. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavides, Pahola T.; Dai, Qiang; Sullivan, John L.; Kelly, Jarod C.; Dunn, Jennifer B.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  20. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  1. Energy flow in light-coupling masks for lensless optical lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Energy flow in light-coupling masks for lensless optical lithography Olivier J. F. Martin@zurich.ibm.com Abstract: We illustrate the propagation of light in a new type of coupling mask for lensless optical. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin and N.B. Piller, "Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless

  2. IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS CONTINUED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS CONTINUED SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60% W with shielding vessels. # Different cases of shielding material. # N = 100,000 AND N = 500,000 events simulations CUTOFF >SHIELDING: 60% W + 40% He , 80% W + 20% He, 88% W + 12% He ( WITH W VESSELS) >4 MW proton beam

  3. Out-of-equilibrium energy flow and steady state configurations in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megias, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    We study out-of-equilibrium energy flow in a strongly coupled system by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we describe the appearance of a steady state connecting two asymptotic equilibrium systems. We obtain results within the linear response regime.

  4. The Role of Water Vapour in Earth's Energy Flows Richard P. Allan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    energy flows in Earth's climate system through transfer of latent heat by evaporation and condensation on (1) the powerful thermodynamic constraint of the Clausius Cla- peyron equation, (2) dynamical for changes in the atmospheric hydrological cycle. Keywords Water vapour Á Hydrological cycle Á Radiative

  5. Study of nuclear dynamics of neutron-rich colliding pair at energy of vanishing flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam

    2011-07-28

    We study nuclear dynamics at the energy of vanishing flow of neutron-rich systems having N/Z ratio 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0 throughout the mass range at semi central colliding geometry. In particular we study the behavior of average and maximum density with N/Z dependence of the system.

  6. Simulating Vibrational Energy Flow in Proteins: Relaxation Rate and Mechanism for Heme Cooling in Cytochrome c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straub, John E.

    Simulating Vibrational Energy Flow in Proteins: Relaxation Rate and Mechanism for Heme Cooling 02215 ReceiVed: April 30, 2003; In Final Form: July 24, 2003 The rate and mechanism of the kinetic was found to proceed via a spatially anisotropic "funneling" mechanism as a single-exponential process

  7. Global vs local energy dissipation: the energy cycle of the turbulent Von K\\'arm\\'an flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzzay, Denis; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relations between global and local energy transfers in a turbulent Von K\\'arm\\'an flow. The goal is to understand how and where energy is dissipated in such a flow and to reconstruct the energy cycle in an experimental device where local as well as global quantities can be measured. We use PIV measurements and we model the Reynolds stress tensor to take subgrid scales into account. This procedure involves a free parameter that is calibrated using angular momentum balance. We then estimate the local and global mean injected and dissipated power for several types of impellers, for various Reynolds numbers and for various flow topologies. These PIV-estimates are then compared with direct injected power estimates provided by torque measurements at the impellers. The agreement between PIV-estimates and direct measurements depends on the flow topology. In symmetric situations, we are able to capture up to 90% of the actual global energy dissipation rate. However, our results become...

  8. Energy flux fluctuations in a finite volume of turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh Bandi; Walter Goldburg; John Cressman Jr.; Alain Pumir

    2006-07-19

    The flux of turbulent kinetic energy from large to small spatial scales is measured in a small domain B of varying size R. The probability distribution function of the flux is obtained using a time-local version of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. The measurements, made at a moderate Reynolds number, show frequent events where the flux is backscattered from small to large scales, their frequency increasing as R is decreased. The observations are corroborated by a numerical simulation based on the motion of many particles and on an explicit form of the eddy damping.

  9. Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent|Corn ProductsAt Standard

  10. File:0 - Overall Flow (Solar).pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbHFarinello GeothermalFideris IncFile FTP Document UploadEnergyFile Edit

  11. File:0 - Overall Flow - Transmission.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbHFarinello GeothermalFideris IncFile FTP Document UploadEnergyFile Edit

  12. File:0 - OverallFlow-1.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbHFarinello GeothermalFideris IncFile FTP Document UploadEnergyFile Edit

  13. Interpretive geothermal heat flow map of Colorado | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13Renewable Power JumpForestWoodFuels LLC Jump

  14. Radial Flow Bearing Heat Exchanger | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011REMSViewEnergy RTP Green Fuel:Race1

  15. Flow Test At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flatsInformation 7thFlorin, California: EnergyAlum Area

  16. Flow Test At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flatsInformationFlint Geothermal AreaOpen EnergyMaui

  17. DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING ENERGY FLOWS TOOL (2010, UNITS: TRILLION BTU) |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOEAnalysis,Department of U.S.DURA URBAN HOUSEDepartment of

  18. Smoothing the Flow of Renewable Solar Energy in California's Central

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley | Department of Energy

  19. Microfluidic Flow Assay for Measuring Hemostatic Phenotypes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matterEnergyPublicatonsSubstances |MicrobialStartupInnovation

  20. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E. Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J.

    2014-04-15

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  1. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  2. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used to measure the inferential variables, which can then be applied (through the data correlations) to convert existing flow meters (ultrasonic, orifice, turbine, rotary, Coriolis, diaphragm, etc.) for on-line energy measurement. The practical issues for field development were evaluated using two transducers extracted from a $100 ultrasonic domestic gas meter, and a $400 infrared sensor.

  3. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  4. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  5. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Huang, L.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-8-4 Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis1 Chenghu Zhang Ronghua Wu Guitao Li Xin Li Lei Huang Dexing Sun Doctor Master...) By the numeric calculation and the simplification, the power function form, can be obtained, which is used in the engineering easily. It is 0.30 0.0235 w d? = (2) The result of (2) is slight bigger than that of (1), but the errors are within 3...

  6. Trace Holdings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: TownVentures

  7. The Flow of Excitation Energy in LHCII Monomers: Implications for the Structural Model of the Major Plant Antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    the ability to convert solar energy into chemical energy (stored in the form of ATP and NADPH), whichThe Flow of Excitation Energy in LHCII Monomers: Implications for the Structural Model of the Major Plant Antenna Claudiu C. Gradinaru,* Sevgi O¨ zdemir,# Demet Gu¨ len,# Ivo H.M. van Stokkum,* Rienk van

  8. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Energy Transfer and Flow in the Solar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Østgaard, Nikolai

    data. We employ what we consider to be the best es-6 timates for energy sinks, and relate of the solar wind.23 Our energy coupling functions is compared with the parameter [Akasofu24 and Perreault;TENFJORD AND ØSTGAARD: ENERGY TRANSFER AND FLOW X - 3 1. Introduction The solar wind is the ultimate source

  9. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-08-01

    Energy; and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under. Grant No. ... conversations, news articles, online social networks, or Web blogs, though the ... or transition probabilities of each user between locations. Chow et al. .... is reasonable if the objective of the adversary is to identify as many trace ...

  10. Energy flow and ecosystem dynamics and wood energy in forest ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    source is the Sun which supplies the energy continuously for the Earth. All times some part of the Earth energy reaches the Earth is very small compared to the total energy emission from the Sun. The reason known as primary consumers consume the plants for their energy requirements. These primary consumers

  11. Disk Accretion Flow Driven by Large-Scale Magnetic Fields: Solutions with Constant Specific Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li-Xin Li

    2003-05-29

    (Abridged) We study the dynamical evolution of a stationary, axisymmetric, and perfectly conducting cold accretion disk containing a large-scale magnetic field around a Kerr black hole, trying to understand the relation between accretion and the transportation of angular momentum and energy. We solve the radial momentum equation for solutions corresponding to an accretion flow that starts from a subsonic state at infinity, smoothly passes the fast critical point, then supersonically falls into the horizon of the black hole. The solutions always have the following features: 1) The specific energy of fluid particles remains constant but the specific angular momentum is effectively removed by the magnetic field. 2) At large radii, where the disk motion is dominantly rotational, the energy density of the magnetic field is equipartitioned with the rotational energy density of the disk. 3) Inside the fast critical point, where radial motion becomes important, the ratio of the electromagnetic energy density to the kinetic energy density drops quickly. The results indicate that: 1) Disk accretion does not necessarily imply energy dissipation since magnetic fields do not have to transport or dissipate a lot of energy as they effectively transport angular momentum. 2) When resistivity is small, the large-scale magnetic field is amplified by the shearing rotation of the disk until the magnetic energy density is equipartitioned with the rotational energy density, ending up with a geometrically thick disk. This is in contrast with the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields where if the resistivity is nonzero the magnetic energy density is likely to be equipartitioned with the kinetic energy density associated with local random motions (e.g., turbulence), making a thin Keplerian disk possible.

  12. Common Patterns of Energy Flow and Biomass Distribution on Weighted Food Webs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Weights of edges and nodes on food webs which are available from the empirical data hide much information about energy flows and biomass distributions in ecosystem. We define a set of variables related to weights for each species $i$, including the throughflow $T_i$, the total biomass $X_i$, and the dissipated flow $D_i$ (output to the environment) to uncover the following common patterns in 19 empirical weighted food webs: (1) DGBD distributions (Discrete version of a Generalized Beta Distribution), a kind of deformed Zipf's law, of energy flow and storage biomass; (2) The allometric scaling law $T_i\\propto X_i^{\\alpha}$, which can be viewed as the counterpart of the Kleiber's 3/4 law at the population level; (3) The dissipation law $D_i\\propto T_i^{\\beta}$; and (4) The gravity law, including univariate version $f_{ij}\\propto (T_iT_j)^{\\gamma}$ and bivariate approvement $f_{ij}\\propto T_i^{\\gamma_1}T_j^{\\gamma_2}$. These patterns are very common and significant in all collected webs, as a result, some remark...

  13. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ltd." . Http://Plurionsystems.Com/Tech_Flow_Advantages.Html.plurionsystems.com/tech_flow_advantages.html [71] P. Leung,High Energy Density Redox Flow Device," ed: WO Patent

  14. Effect of Electro-Osmotic Flow on Energy Conversion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Gowrishankar

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that superhydrophobic surfaces, due to the presence of a no-shear zone, can greatly enhance transport of surface charges, leading to a considerable increase in the streaming potential. This could find potential use in micro-energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we show using analytical and numerical methods, that when a streaming potential is generated in such superhydrophobic geometries, the reverse electro-osmotic flow and hence current generated by this, is significant. A decrease in streaming potential compared to what was earlier predicted is expected. We also show that, due to the electro-osmotic streaming-current, a saturation in both the power extracted and efficiency of energy conversion is achieved in such systems for large values of the free surface charge densities. Nevertheless, under realistic conditions, such microstructured devices with superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to even reach energy conversion efficiencies only achieved in nanostructured devices so ...

  15. Dynamo dominated accretion and energy flow: The mechanism of active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, S.A.; Li, H.

    1998-12-31

    An explanation of the magnetic fields of the universe, the central mass concentration of galaxies, the massive black hole of every galaxy, and the AGN phenomena has been an elusive goal. The authors suggest here the outlines of such a theoretical understanding and point out where the physical understanding is missing. They believe there is an imperative to the sequence of mass flow and hence energy flow in the collapse of a galactic mass starting from the first non-linearity appearing in structure formation following decoupling. This first non-linearity of a two to one density fluctuation, the Lyman-{alpha} clouds, ultimately leads to the emission spectra of the phenomenon of AGN, quasars, blazars, etc. The over-arching physical principle is the various mechanisms for the transport of angular momentum. They believe they have now understood the new physics of two of these mechanisms that have previously been illusive and as a consequence they impose strong constraints on the initial conditions of the mechanisms for the subsequent emission of the gravitational binding energy. The new phenomena described are: (1) the Rossby vortex mechanism of the accretion disk {alpha}-viscosity, and (2) the mechanism of the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo in the accretion disk. The Rossby vortex mechanism leads to a prediction of the black hole mass and rate of energy release and the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo leads to the generation of the magnetic flux of the galaxy (and the far greater magnetic flux of clusters) and separately explains the primary flux of energy emission as force-free magnetic energy density. This magnetic flux and magnetic energy density separately are the necessary consequence of the saturation of a dynamo created by the accretion disk with a gain greater than unity.

  16. Energy-Enstrophy Stability of beta-plane Kolmogorov Flow with Drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue-Kin Tsang; William R. Young

    2008-03-04

    We develop a new nonlinear stability method, the Energy-Enstrophy (EZ) method, that is specialized to two-dimensional hydrodynamics; the method is applied to a beta-plane flow driven by a sinusoidal body force, and retarded by drag with damping time-scale mu^{-1}. The standard energy method (Fukuta and Murakami, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 64, 1995, pp 3725) shows that the laminar solution is monotonically and globally stable in a certain portion of the (mu,beta)-parameter space. The EZ method proves nonlinear stability in a larger portion of the (mu,beta)-parameter space. And by penalizing high wavenumbers, the EZ method identifies a most strongly amplifying disturbance that is more physically realistic than that delivered by the energy method. Linear instability calculations are used to determine the region of the (mu,beta)-parameter space where the flow is unstable to infinitesimal perturbations. There is only a small gap between the linearly unstable region and the nonlinearly stable region, and full numerical solutions show only small transient amplification in that gap.

  17. Energy flow between two hydrodynamically coupled particles kept at different effective temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine Bérut; Artyom Petrosyan; Sergio Ciliberto

    2015-05-26

    We measure the energy exchanged between two hydrodynamically coupled micron-sized Brownian particles trapped in water by two optical tweezers. The system is driven out of equilibrium by random forcing the position of one of the two particles. The forced particle behaves as it has an "effective temperature" higher than that of the other bead. This driving modifies the equilibrium variances and cross-correlation functions of the bead positions: we measure an energy flow between the particles and an instantaneous cross-correlation, proportional to the effective temperature difference between the two particles. A model of the interaction which is based on classical hydrodynamic coupling tensors is proposed. The theoretical and experimental results are in excellent agreement.

  18. Technique for identifying, tracing, or tracking objects in image data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rothganger, Fredrick (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-08-28

    A technique for computer vision uses a polygon contour to trace an object. The technique includes rendering a polygon contour superimposed over a first frame of image data. The polygon contour is iteratively refined to more accurately trace the object within the first frame after each iteration. The refinement includes computing image energies along lengths of contour lines of the polygon contour and adjusting positions of the contour lines based at least in part on the image energies.

  19. From GPS Traces to a Routable Road Map Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumm, John

    pulls together traces that belong on the same road in response to simulated potential energy wellsFrom GPS Traces to a Routable Road Map Lili Cao Department of Computer Science University presents a method for automatically converting raw GPS traces from everyday vehicles into a routable road

  20. Trace Partitioning in Abstract Interpretation Based Static Analyzers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauborgne, Laurent

    designing a tractable static analysis, one usually needs to approximate the trace semantics. This paper information about the execution order and the concrete flow paths is lost. However, this reachable states or -1 at the end of this piece of code; in par* *ticular sgn cannot be equal to 0. As a consequence

  1. Flow regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liles, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2013-04-29

    Preliminary Analysis of Grande Ronde Basalt Formation Flow Top Transmissivity as it Relates to Assessment and Site Selection Applications for Fluid/Energy Storage and Sequestration Projects

  4. Magnetic Energy Flows during the Current Quench and Termination of Disruptions with Runaway Current Plateau Formation in JET and Implications for ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnetic Energy Flows during the Current Quench and Termination of Disruptions with Runaway Current Plateau Formation in JET and Implications for ITER

  5. Collaborative Research: Barotropic Radiation Experiment (BARX) The question of how energy flows through the oceans, especially how energy is lost from the currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dushaw, Brian

    flows through the oceans, especially how energy is lost from the currents comprising the general and vorticity. Intellectual Merit. A fundamental process by which ocean currents lose the energy acquired from will provide a benchmark on a phenomenon that is important to the dynamics of ocean currents but is difficult

  6. A Convective-like Energy-Stable Open Boundary Condition for Simulations of Incompressible Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Suchuan

    2015-01-01

    We present a new energy-stable open boundary condition, and an associated numerical algorithm, for simulating incompressible flows with outflow/open boundaries. This open boundary condition ensures the energy stability of the system, even when strong vortices or backflows occur at the outflow boundary. Under certain situations it can be reduced to a form that can be analogized to the usual convective boundary condition. One prominent feature of this boundary condition is that it provides a control over the velocity on the outflow/open boundary. This is not available with the other energy-stable open boundary conditions from previous works. Our numerical algorithm treats the proposed open boundary condition based on a rotational velocity-correction type strategy. It gives rise to a Robin-type condition for the discrete pressure and a Robin-type condition for the discrete velocity on the outflow/open boundary, respectively at the pressure and the velocity sub-steps. We present extensive numerical experiments on...

  7. Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

  8. Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

  9. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: One-dimensional soil thaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freezing and thawing a b s t r a c t Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have. Simulated and/or observed climate change impacts in cryogenic soils include permafrost degradation, active that include the dynamic freeze­thaw process have been tested against analytical solutions, such as the Neumann

  10. Thermal design requirements of a 50-kW zinc/redox flow battery for solar electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selman, J.R.; Wu, H.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The conceptual engineering design of a large-scale zinc/redox battery for solar electrical energy storage involves the management of considerable heat flows. This is due to the large heat-of-crystallization of sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate produced during discharge, as well as the usual reversible and irreversible cell-reaction heat effects. A discussion of practical design implications is presented.

  11. Thermal design requirements of a 50-kW zinc/redox flow battery for solar electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selman, J.R.; Wu, H.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1984-09-01

    The conceptual engineering design of a large-scale zinc/redox battery for solar electrical energy storage involves the management of considerable heat flows. This is due to the large heat-of-crystallization of sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate produced during discharge as well as the usual reversible and irreversible cell-reaction heat effects. A discussion of practical design implications is presented.

  12. FLOWS OF MASS, MOMENTUM AND ENERGY IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE A SOHOORIENTED VIEW OF COLD LOOPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    siphon flow loop models leads to the conclusion that such loop cannot be in steady state; in particular

  13. Epidemic Contact Tracing via Communication Traces Katayoun Farrahi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. Citation: Farrahi K, Emonet R, Cebrian M

  14. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  15. Energy Dependence of Directed Flow in Au+Au Collisions from a Multi-phase Transport Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Y. Chen; J. X. Zuo; X. Z. Cai; F. Liu; Y. G. Ma; A. H. Tang

    2009-12-09

    The directed flow of charged hadron and identified particles has been studied in the framework of a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model, for $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$200, 130, 62.4, 39, 17.2 and 9.2 GeV. The rapidity, centrality and energy dependence of directed flow for charged particles over a wide rapidity range are presented. AMPT model gives the correct $v_1(y)$ slope, as well as its trend as a function of energy, while it underestimates the magnitude. Within the AMPT model, the proton $v_1$ slope is found to change its sign when the energy increases to 130 GeV - a feature that is consistent with ``anti-flow''. Hadronic re-scattering is found having little effect on $v_1$ at top RHIC energies. These studies can help us to understand the collective dynamics at early times in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and they can also be served as references for the RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  16. Gravitational collapse of a spherical star with heat flow as a possible energy mechanism of gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhe Chang; Cheng-Bo Guan; Chao-Guang Huang; Xin Li

    2008-03-26

    We investigate the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous star, which is described by a perfect fluid with heat flow and satisfies the equation of state $p=\\rho/3$ at its center. In the process of the gravitational collapsing, the energy of the whole star is emitted into space. And the remaining spacetime is a Minkowski one without a remnant at the end of the process. For a star with a solar mass and solar radius, the total energy emitted is at the order of $10^{54}$ {\\rm erg}, and the time-scale of the process is about $8s$. These are in the typical values for a gamma-ray burst. Thus, we suggest the gravitational collapse of a spherical star with heat flow as a possible energy mechanism of gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Energy dependence of directed flow over a wide range of pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back; for the PHOBOS Collaboration

    2006-07-08

    We report on measurements of directed flow as a function of pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at energies of $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}} =$ 19.6, 62.4, 130 and 200 GeV as measured by the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These results are particularly valuable because of the extensive, continuous pseudorapidity coverage of the PHOBOS detector. There is no significant indication of structure near midrapidity and the data surprisingly exhibit extended longitudinal scaling similar to that seen for elliptic flow and charged particle pseudorapidity density.

  18. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Shao, Yuyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Engelhard, Mark H [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Congmin [ORNL; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); YANG, ZHENGUO [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lin, Yuehe [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an excellent performance of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (N-MPC) for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MPC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MPC in NH{sub 3}. N-MPC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is significantly enhanced on N-MPC electrode compared with MPC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is greatly improved on N-MPC (0.61 for N-MPC vs. 0.34 for graphite), which is expected to increase the energystorage efficiency of redoxflowbatteries. Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. N-MPC is a promising material for redoxflowbatteries. This also opens up new and wider applications of nitrogen-doped carbon.

  19. Momentum and Energy Transport by Gravity Waves in Stochastically Driven Stratified Flows. Part II: Radiation of Gravity Waves from a Gaussian Jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Brian F.

    Momentum and Energy Transport by Gravity Waves in Stochastically Driven Stratified Flows. Part II structures that dominate wave momentum and energy transport. When the interior of a typical midlatitude jet and energy at jet interior critical levels. Longer waves transport momentum and energy away from the jet

  20. 28.1.2015bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/54 Solar energy (thermal, PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Turku 2/54 2b.1 Solar energy #12;28.1.2015Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 3/54 Potential Solar energy could within one hour provide the energy that is used in all surface temperature Solar energy irradiation can be used to estimate planet surface temperature T

  1. Bi-Annual Report 2010-2011: Shaping pulse flows to meet environmental and energy objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    This report describes a bioenergetic model developed to allocate seasonal pulse flows to benefit salmon growth. The model links flow with floodplain inundation and production of invertebrate prey eaten by juvenile Chinook salmon. A unique quantile modeling approach is used to describe temporal variation among juvenile salmon spawned at different times. Preliminary model outputs are presented and future plans to optimize flows both to maximize salmon growth and hydropower production are outlined.

  2. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Adam London

    2008-06-20

    The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

  3. Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    signal, optimal power flow and economic dispatch The proposed method stabilized the power grid, reduced the marginal cost of electricity, and increased the marginal cost of...

  4. Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.

  5. Two-stage acceleration of interstellar ions due to the interaction of high-energy lepton plasma flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yun-Qian; Lu, Quan-Ming; Li, Yu-Tong; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We present the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results of the interaction of a high-energy lepton plasma flow with background electron-proton plasma and focus on the acceleration processes of the protons. It is found that the acceleration follows a two-stage processes. In the first stage, protons are accelerated transversely (perpendicular to the lepton flow) by the turbulent magnetic field "islands" generated via the strong Weibel-type instabilities. The accelerated protons shows a perfect inverse-power energy spectrum. As the interaction continues, a shockwave structure forms and the protons in front of the shockwave are reflected at twice of the shock speed, resulting in a quasi-monoenergetic peak located near 200MeV under the simulation parameters.

  6. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigeranttheir superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerantfew studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, manyThe movement towards net zero energy buildings brings

  8. (2+1)-flavor QCD Thermodynamics from the Gradient Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itou, Etsuko; Taniguchi, Yusuke; Umeda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a novel method to define and calculate the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) in lattice gauge theory on the basis of the Yang-Mills gradient flow [1]. In this proceedings, we summarize the basic idea and technical steps to obtain the bulk thermodynamic quantities in lattice gauge theory using this method for the quenched and $(2+1)$-flavor QCD. The revised results of integration measure (trace anomaly) and entropy density of the quenched QCD with corrected coefficients are shown. Furthermore, we also show the flow time dependence of the parts of EMT including the dynamical fermions. This work is based on a joint-collaboration between FlowQCD and WHOT QCD.

  9. Elliptic Flow and Shear Viscosity within a Transport Approach from RHIC to LHC Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Plumari; V. Greco

    2011-10-11

    We have investigated the build up of anisotropic flows within a parton cascade approach at fixed shear viscosity to entropy density \\eta/s to study the generation of collective flows in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We present a study of the impact of a temperature dependent \\eta/s(T) on the generation of the elliptic flow at both RHIC and LHC. Finally we show that the transport approach, thanks to its wide validity range, is able to describe naturally the rise - fall and saturation of the v_2(p_T) observed at LHC.

  10. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, M.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    We will present a novel design lithium-organic non-aqueous redox flow battery based on a TEMPO catholyte. This RFB produced desired electrochemical performance exceeding most of the currently reported nonaqueous RFB systems.

  11. Trace Estimates for Stable Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... In this paper we study the behaviour in time of the trace (the partition function) ... cess with independent and stationary increments and characteristic function. E0ei?Xt = e?t|?|? ... theory of heat semigroups as described in [14]. In fact, it follows ..... For bounded. C1,1 domains it is known that Ex(?D) ? c(D, ?)?.

  12. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRFGSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRVintended to be as energy efficient as required by current

  13. Membraneless hydrogen bromine laminar flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braff, William Allan

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical energy storage systems have been considered for a range of potential large-scale energy storage applications. These applications vary widely, both in the order of magnitude of energy storage that is required ...

  14. Effect of Microbial Activity on Trace Element Release from Sewage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 The microbial role performed using thiosulfate as the sole energy source revealed the presence of both known and putative S-effective management alternative. Unfor- tunately, sewage sludge also contains potentially toxic trace elements

  15. BNL-65897-AB NEW DETECTABILITY IN ATMOSPHERIC PERFLUOROCARBON TRACING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BNL-65897-AB NEW DETECTABILITY IN ATMOSPHERIC PERFLUOROCARBON TRACING Russell N. Dietz, Gunnar I-source releases initially impacted the coast over a 5- to 40-mile extent; the next day, in some cases.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. #12;

  16. Disaggregating regional energy supply/demand and flow data to 173 BEAs in support of export coal analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    This report documents the procedures and results of a study sponsored jointly by the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy. The study was conducted to provide, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)-level production/consumption data for energy materials for 1985 and 1990 in support of an analysis of transportation requirements for export coal. Base data for energy forecasts at the regional level were obtained from the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. The forecasts selected for this study are described in DOE/EIA's 1980 Annual Report to Congress, and are: 1985 Series, B, medium oil import price ($37.00/barrel); and 1990 Series B, medium oil import price ($41.00/barrel). Each forecast period is extensively described by approximately forty-three statistical tables prepared by EIA and made available to TERA for this study. This report provides sufficient information to enable the transportation analyst to appreciate the procedures employed by TERA to produce the BEA-level energy production/consumption data. The report presents the results of the procedures, abstracts of data tabulations, and various assumptions used for the preparation of the BEA-level data. The end-product of this effort was the BEA to BEA energy commodity flow data by more which serve as direct input to DOT's transportation network model being used for a detailed analysis of export coal transportation.

  17. Minnesota's Computer Industry: History, Legacies, Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobelman, Gerald E.

    : payroll, taxes, suburban development History | Legacies | Traces #12;Control Data at Minnesota state fair | Legacies | Traces A. Univac West 7th (1956) 2750 Shepard Road, Saint Paul B. ERA plant #1 (1946) Midway

  18. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  19. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  20. Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirzba, Andreas - Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (HISKP)

    1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich · · Andreas Wirzba Casimir effect and trace formula Copenhagen, 17 May 2006 #12;1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich 1. Introduction to the Casimir

  1. Energy- and flux-budget turbulence closure model for stably stratified flows. Part II: the role of internal gravity waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Zilitinkevich; T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii

    2009-08-18

    We advance our prior energy- and flux-budget turbulence closure model (Zilitinkevich et al., 2007, 2008) for the stably stratified atmospheric flows and extend it accounting for additional vertical flux of momentum and additional productions of turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent potential energy (TPE) and turbulent flux of potential temperature due to large-scale internal gravity waves (IGW). Main effects of IGW are following: the maximal value of the flux Richardson number (universal constant 0.2-0.25 in the no-IGW regime) becomes strongly variable. In the vertically homogeneous stratification, it increases with increasing wave energy and can even exceed 1. In the heterogeneous stratification, when IGW propagate towards stronger stratification, the maximal flux Richardson number decreases with increasing wave energy, reaches zero and then becomes negative. In other words, the vertical flux of potential temperature becomes counter-gradient. IGW also reduce anisotropy of turbulence and increase the share of TPE in the turbulent total energy. Depending on the direction (downward or upward), IGW either strengthen or weaken the total vertical flux of momentum. Predictions from the proposed model are consistent with available data from atmospheric and laboratory experiments, direct numerical simulations and large-eddy simulations.

  2. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  3. Power Flow Management in a High Penetration Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System with Short-Term Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouilhet, S. M.

    1999-07-29

    This paper is intended as an introduction to some of the control challenges faced by developers of high penetration wind-diesel systems, with a focus on the management of power flows in order to achieve precise regulation of frequency and voltage in the face of rapidly varying wind power input and load conditions. The control algorithms presented herein are being implemented in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) high penetration wind-diesel system controller that will be installed in the village of Wales, Alaska, in early 2000.

  4. Preliminary analysis of the possibility of making use of part of the energy flow of zero-point radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Alvargonzalez; L. S. Soto

    2008-03-07

    The energy flow of zero-point radiation is very great, but difficult to put to use. However, the observations made by Sparnaay in 1958 and by Lamoureux in 1997 reveal the possibility of making use of a very small fraction of that immense amount. This possibility is big enough for such a minute fraction to have significant importance, but such a possibility requires miniaturisation to a degree which may be unattainable. It is worth trying to achieve it, since it would open the way to interstellar travel.

  5. Many of the key technological problems associated with alternative energies (e.g., thermoelectrics, ad-vanced batteries, hydrogen storage, etc.) may be traced back to the lack of suitable materials. Both the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilian, Kristopher A.

    , ad- vanced batteries, hydrogen storage, etc.) may be traced back to the lack of suitable materials Motor Company, where he was group leader for the Hydrogen Storage and Nanoscale Modeling Group. He

  6. Characterization of the Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreutzer, Haley Maren

    2012-05-31

    A low-cost and efficient electrical energy storage system is needed to implement intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar and wind while maintaining grid reliability, and could also reduce the use of inefficient peak-load electrical...

  7. ESPC Overview: Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  8. ESPC Overview. Cash Flows, Scenarios, and Associated Diagrams for Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetreault, T.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    This document is meant to inform state and local decision makers about the process of energy savings performance contracts, and how projected savings and allocated energy-related budgets can be impacted by changes in utility prices.

  9. Elliptic flow in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt s$ = 14 TeV as a signature of deconfinement and quantum energy density fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Ortona; G. S. Denicol; Ph. Mota; T. Kodama

    2009-11-26

    At LHC extreme values of energy density will be reached even for proton-proton collisions. Such values of energy density may be large enough to generate a collective motion in the products of the collision, therefore generating effects such as elliptic flow. Using ideal 3+1D hydrodynamical simulations, we show that elliptic flow can occur at least for top multiplicities p-p events at LHC and that the intensity of such effect is strongly related to quantum fluctuations in the initial proton energy distribution.

  10. Energy and materials flows in the production of olefins and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.; Shen, S.Y.

    1980-08-01

    Production of olefins and their derivatives uses almost 3.5% of the oil and gas consumed annually in the United States. It is estimated that their production requires an input energy of 2 Q, which is 50% of the energy used in the production of all petrochemicals. Substantial amounts of this energy could be recovered through recycling. For example, recycling of a single plastic product, polyester soft drink bottles, could have recovered about 0.014 Q in 1979. (About 1.4 Q is used to produce plastic derivatives of olefins). Petrochemical processes use fuels as feedstocks, as well as for process energy, and a portion of this energy is not foregone and can be recovered through combustion of the products. The energy foregone in the production of ethylene is estimated to be 7800 Btu/lb. The energy foregone in plastics production ranges from 12,100 Btu/lb for the new linear low-density polyethylene to 77,200 Btu/lb for nylon 66, which is about 60% of the total energy input for that product. Further investigation of the following areas could yield both material and energy savings in the olefins industry: (1) recycling of petrochemical products to recover energy in addition to that recoverable through combustion, (2) impact of feedstock substitution on utilization of available national resources, and (3) effective use of the heat embodied in process steam. This steam accounts for a major fraction of the industry's energy input.

  11. Evidence for radial flow of thermal dileptons in high-energy nuclear collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NA60 Collaboration; R. Arnaldi

    2007-11-12

    The NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS has studied low-mass dimuon production in 158 AGeV In-In collisions. An excess of pairs above the known meson decays has been reported before. We now present precision results on the associated transverse momentum spectra. The slope parameter Teff extracted from the spectra rises with dimuon mass up to the rho, followed by a sudden decline above. While the initial rise is consistent with the expectations for radial flow of a hadronic decay source, the decline signals a transition to an emission source with much smaller flow. This may well represent the first direct evidence for thermal radiation of partonic origin in nuclear collisions.

  12. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Xiqing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Dai, Sheng; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-03-22

    We demonstrate a novel electrode material?nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NMC)?for vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MC in NH3. NMC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of VO2+/VO2+ is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is significantly enhanced on NMC electrode compared with MC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is greatly improved on NMC (0.61 for NMC vs. 0.34 for graphite). Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on the electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. NMC is a promising electrode material for redox flow batteries.

  13. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.9

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.9 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  14. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.7

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.7 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  15. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.8

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.8 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  16. Energy Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved Air Flow Control in Residential Retrofit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Gas Technology Institute—Des Plaines, IL Partners: -- University of Illinois, Urbana IL -- Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Chicago IL

  17. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    dual compressor available on the market Compared with the selected building, a more energy efficient building will have lower space cooling and heating

  18. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  19. Downloaded 16 Dec 2009 to 128.83.61.179. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://pop.aip.org/pop/copyright.jsp Wave energy flow conservation for propagation in inhomogeneous Vlasov-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Philip J.,

    http://pop.aip.org/pop/copyright.jsp Wave energy flow conservation for propagation in inhomogeneous are thereby obtained. I. INTRODUCTION In the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, wave energy conserva- tion is commonly to examine the conservation of wave energy flow for Hermitian opera- tors. Such operators satisfy relations

  20. Methodology for Flow Information Management in the Commissioning of Low Energy Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hannachi, N. K.; Jandon, M.; Nejad, H. V.

    2005-01-01

    few in number, these low-energy buildings represent a variety of building types and sizes built across the country, supported by a wide mix of owners and design teams. The barriers to the widespread design and construction of low-energy buildings do...

  1. Flow Distances on Open Flow Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Liangzhu; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks, are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. Flow distances (first-passage or total) between any given two nodes $i$ and $j$ are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from $i$ to $j$ under some conditions. They apparently deviate from the conventional random walk distance on a closed directed graph because they consider the openness of the flow network. Flow distances are explicitly expressed by underlying Markov matrix of a flow system in this paper. With this novel theoretical conception, we can visualize open flow networks, calculating centrality of each node, and clustering nodes into groups. We apply fl...

  2. Numerical and Physical Modelling of Bubbly Flow Phenomena - Final Report to the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrea Prosperetti

    2004-12-21

    This report describes the main features of the results obtained in the course of this project. A new approach to the systematic development of closure relations for the averaged equations of disperse multiphase flow is outlined. The focus of the project is on spatially non-uniform systems and several aspects in which such systems differ from uniform ones are described. Then, the procedure used in deriving the closure relations is given and some explicit results shown. The report also contains a list of publications supported by this grant and a list of the persons involved in the work.

  3. Flow-through Z-pinch study for radiation generation and fusion energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Moir, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Shumlak, U. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

    1994-06-20

    We discuss a high-density fusion reactor which utilizes a flow-through Z pinch magnetic confinement configuration. Assessment of this reactor system is motivated by simplicity and small unit size (few hundred MWe) and immunity to plasma contamination made possible at high density. The type reactor discussed here would employ a liquid Li vortex as the first wall/blanket to capture fusion neutrons with minimum induced radioactivity and to achieve high wall loading and a power density of 200 w/cm{sup 3}.

  4. An Energy-Flow Model for Self-Powered Routers and its Application for Energy-Aware Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M.

    of electrical energy. Depen- dence on renewable energy sources and variable power consump- tion make harvesting equipment hardware specifi- cations; high resolution, time-varying weather information settings, rural wireless deploy- ments often have to face the lack of reliable grid power infrastruc- ture

  5. Anisotropic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Voloshin

    2002-11-20

    Recent experimental results on directed and elliptic flow, theoretical developments, and new techniques for anisotropic flow analysis are reviewed.

  6. Application Study of the Pump Water Flow Station for Building Energy Consumption Monitoring and Control Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Liu, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new building energy monitoring and pump speed control method. The pump speed is controlled to maintain the system resistance at an optimized value to approach the best pump efficiency and save pump power. The system resistance...

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero energy

  8. Science for Energy Flow | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    that coat thin-film solar cells boost light-harvesting efficiency. DOE Energy Innovation Hub for Solar Fuels With a multidisciplinary team of nearly 200 top scientists and...

  9. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darling, Robert M.

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission ...

  10. Traces on Module Categories over Fusion Categories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregor Schaumann

    2015-01-27

    We consider traces on module categories over pivotal fusion categories which are compatible with the module structure. It is shown that such module traces characterise the Morita classes of special haploid symmetric Frobenius algebras. Moreover, they are unique up to a scale factor and they equip the dual category with a pivotal structure. This implies that for each pivotal structure on a fusion category over the complex numbers there exists a conjugate pivotal structure defined by the canonical module trace.

  11. Title 10 Chapter 41 Regulation of Stream Flow | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)Open EnergyTinox Jump to: navigation,TirSection 2809159Title41

  12. Stress Tensors from Trace Anomalies in Conformal Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher P. Herzog; Kuo-Wei Huang

    2013-04-08

    Using trace anomalies, we determine the vacuum stress tensors of arbitrary even dimensional conformal field theories in Weyl flat backgrounds. We demonstrate a simple relation between the Casimir energy on the real line times a sphere and the type A anomaly coefficient. This relation generalizes earlier results in two and four dimensions. These field theory results for the Casimir are shown to be consistent with holographic predictions in two, four, and six dimensions.

  13. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Conrad, Frank James (Russellville, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow.

  14. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  15. Study of Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and grid power flow control Part B: boost converter with energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogelio, Garcia Retegui; Gustavo, Uicich; Mario, Benedetti; Gilles, Le Godec; Konstantinos, Papastergiou

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of a Transfer line (TT2) Consolidation Programme, a number of studies on Energy cycling have been commissioned. Part of this work involves the study of dierent power electronic system topologies for magnet energy recovery. In this report, the use of a boost front-end converter supplying DC link of a 4-quadrant magnet supply is analysed. The key objective of the study is to find control strategies that result in the control of the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks with controlled voltage fluctuation. The study comprises the modelling of the system by means of the method of state averaging and the development of regulation strategies to energy management. The proposed control strategies can be divided in two groups: in the first group, the magnet current is used to define the reference for the control system, while in the second group this current is unknown and some strategies are devised to limit the power drawn from the el...

  16. Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Towards Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tretiak, Sergei

    Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (Received 4 June 2002; published 14 October 2002-energy chromophore. The Fo¨rster ET rate, ÿet 2= hJ2, depends critically on the spectral overlap integral between's refraction index. In NQD ensembles, where photo- luminescence (PL) broadening arises from polydisperse dot

  17. Acceleration of the Retinal Vascular Tracing Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kepner, Jeremy

    Acceleration of the Retinal Vascular Tracing Algorithm using FPGAs Direction Filter Design FPGA along with image processing results at frame rate with low latency Results MEMORY 2 Results MEMORY 3 Memory Switching Design #12;Retinal Vascular Tracing Application Goal: Detection and enhancement

  18. Prospects of Forward Energy Flow and Low-x Physics at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Hamilton

    2007-10-09

    The LHC will soon provide proton-proton collisions at the unprecedented center of mass energy, $\\sqrt{s}=$14 TeV. This not only allows us to probe new regions of high-$p_T$ physics, but also low-$x$ and forward physics. A selection of potential measurements are described to outline the prospects for low-$x$ and forward physics in the ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCf experiments.

  19. Terrestrial Heat Flow In The North Island Of New Zealand | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) | Opensource HistoryTerraWatt Power

  20. Heat flow in the northern Basin and Range province | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea, California | Open Energy

  1. 6th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xi'an, China, 11-15 July 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    from a variety of sources including fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, LPG, gasoline, diesel, methane in the process. Use of natural gas or naphtha as a raw material is an industrial process. Typical reactions6th International Symposium on Multiphase Flow, Heat Mass Transfer and Energy Conversion Xi

  2. Forced Granular Orifice Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng Peng; Hepeng Zheng; Yimin Jiang

    2009-09-06

    The flow of granular material through an orifice is studied experimentally as a function of force $F$ pushing the flow. It is found that the flow rate increases linearly with $F$ -- a new, unexpected result that is in contrast to the usual view that $F$, completely screened by an arch formed around the orifice, has no way of altering the rate. Employing energy balance, we show that this behavior results mainly from dissipation in the granular material.

  3. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cary, Robert B.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  4. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

  5. Optimizing the Mass Flow and Temperature Difference in a Cooling System for Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, M. N.; Bond, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    for specifying the mass rate and temperature difference for given heat loads to minimize energy consumption. I INTRODUCTION Conventional wisdom has suggested to most Operational parameters of heat exchangers a~e building operators that raising the chilled...-STORY OFFICE BUILDINGS 8uildi ng A 8ui1ding 8 8ullding C Lighting 28 31 33 Chiller 29 25 29 Auxill aries {fans & pumps l 37 39 34 Hi sce 11 aneous 6 5 4 rota1 square footage 104,000 95,000 91,000 Total No. of Floors 4 4 In Figure 3 the fan power...

  6. Flow Test At Chena Area (Benoit, Et Al., 2007) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flatsInformation 7thFlorin, California: EnergyAlumChena

  7. Flow Test At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flatsInformationFlint Geothermal AreaOpen|4)EnergyRye

  8. Complex Flow Workshop Assesses Future R&D Needs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment ofCommercial GradeDepartmentcomplete streetsEIS

  9. Energy Flow Diagram | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thIWalter H. Zinn,Christopher FeckoJamesScience for Energy

  10. Easy system call tracing for Plan 9.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnich, Ronald G.

    2010-09-01

    Tracing system calls makes debugging easy and fast. On Plan 9, traditionally, system call tracing has been implemented with acid. New systems do not always implement all the capabilities needed for Acid, particularly the ability to rewrite the process code space to insert breakpoints. Architecture support libraries are not always available for Acid, or may not work even on a supported architecture. The requirement that Acid's libraries be available can be a problem on systems with a very small memory footprint, such as High Performance Computing systems where every Kbyte counts. Finally, Acid tracing is inconvenient in the presence of forks, which means tracing shell pipelines is particularly troublesome. The strace program available on most Unix systems is far more convenient to use and more capable than Acid for system call tracing. A similar system on Plan 9 can simplify troubleshooting. We have built a system calling tracing capability into the Plan 9 kernel. It has proven to be more convenient than strace in programming effort. One can write a shell script to implement tracing, and the C code to implement an strace equivalent is several orders of magnitude smaller.

  11. EIT and TRACE responses to flare plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Tripathi; G. Del Zanna; H. E. Mason; C. Chifor

    2008-02-26

    Aims: To understand the contribution of active region and flare plasmas to the $\\lambda$195 channels of SOHO/EIT (Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope) and TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer). Methods: We have analysed an M8 flare simultaneously observed by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS), EIT, TRACE and RHESSI. We obtained synthetic spectra for the flaring region and an outer region using the differential emission measures (DEM) of emitting plasma based on CDS and RHESSI observations and the CHIANTI atomic database. We then predicted the EIT and TRACE count rates. Results: For the flaring region, both EIT and TRACE images taken through the $\\lambda$195 filter are dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ (formed at about 20 MK). However, in the outer region, the emission was primarily due to the Fe${\\rm XII}$, with substantial contributions from other lines. The average count rate for the outer region was within 25% the observed value for EIT, while for TRACE it was a factor of two higher. For the flare region, the predicted count rate was a factor of two (in case of EIT) and a factor of three (in case of TRACE) higher than the actual count rate. Conclusions: During a solar flare, both TRACE and EIT $\\lambda$195 channels are found to be dominated by Fe ${\\rm XXIV}$ emission. Reasonable agreement between predictions and observations is found, however some discrepancies need to be further investigated.

  12. A conductivity relationship for steady-state unsaturated flow processes under optimal flow conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2011-01-01

    gradient because water flux, energy gradient, and K areis equal to the energy carried by the water flowing into thevolume minus the energy carried by the water flowing out of

  13. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbar, Emin Caglan

    2015-11-05

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  14. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  15. Mathematical Model Analysis for Hg Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Mathematical Model Analysis for Hg Flow Yan Zhan SUNYSB April 20th, 2010 #12;Outline · Introduction ­ Mechanism of Jet Breakup & Atomization ­ Dynamic Problems in Hg Target Flow · Mathematical Model for Hg Flow ­ Parameters ­ Incompressible Flow (No MHD) ­ Incompressible Flow (MHD) ­ Proton Beam Energy Conversion

  16. Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

    2013-09-30

    The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

  17. Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Trace Element...

  18. Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Trace...

  19. Optimization and Analysis of High-Power Hydrogen/Bromine-Flow Batteries for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, KT; Albertus, P; Battaglia, V; Kojic, A; Srinivasan, V; Weber, AZ

    2013-10-07

    For storage of grid-scale electrical energy, redox-flow batteries (RFBs) are considered promising technologies. This paper explores the influence of electrolyte composition and ion transport on cell performance by using an integrated approach of experiments and cost modeling. In particular, the impact of the area-specific resistance on system capability is elucidated for the hydrogen/bromine RFB. The experimental data demonstrate very good performance with 1.46 W cm(-2) peak power and 4 A cm(-2) limiting current density at ambient conditions for an optimal cell design and reactant concentrations. The data and cost model results show that higher concentrations of RFB reactants do not necessarily result in lower capital cost as there is a tradeoff between cell performance and storage (tank) requirements. In addition, the discharge time and overall efficiency demonstrate nonlinear effects on system cost, with a 3 to 4 hour minimum discharge time showing a key transition to a plateau in terms of cost for typical RFB systems. The presented results are applicable to many different RFB chemistries and technologies and highlight the importance of ohmic effects and associated area-specific resistance on RFB viability.

  20. Extracting kinetic freeze-out temperature and radial flow velocity from transverse momentum spectra in high energy collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Lacey, Roy A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of the transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavour particles produced in gold-gold (Au-Au), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), proton-lead (p-Pb), and proton-proton (p-p) collisions at various energies, measured by the PHENIX, STAR, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations, are described by the Tsallis-standard (Tsallis form of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein) distribution, Tsallis distribution, and two- or three-component standard distribution, in the framework of a multisource thermal model. The effective temperatures and real temperatures (kinetic freeze-out temperatures) of interacting system at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, and the radial flow velocities of final-state particles are successively extracted from the transverse momentum spectra by the three distributions which can be in fact regarded as three types of "thermometers" and "speedometers". The dependences of effective temperatures on particle mass and centrality, and the dependences of kinetic freeze-out temperatur...

  1. Dynamical Energy Analysis - determining wave energy distributions in complex vibro-acoustical structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregor Tanner

    2008-03-12

    We propose a new approach towards determining the distribution of mechanical and acoustic wave energy in complex built-up structures. The technique interpolates between standard Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and full ray tracing containing both these methods as limiting case. By writing the flow of ray trajectories in terms of linear phase space operators, it is suggested here to reformulate ray-tracing algorithms in terms of boundary operators containing only short ray segments. SEA can now be identified as a low resolution ray tracing algorithm and typical SEA assumptions can be quantified in terms of the properties of the ray dynamics. The new technique presented here enhances the range of applicability of standard SEA considerably by systematically incorporating dynamical correlations wherever necessary. Some of the inefficiencies inherent in typical ray tracing methods can be avoided using only a limited amount of the geometrical ray information. The new dynamical theory - Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) - thus provides a universal approach towards determining wave energy distributions in complex structures.

  2. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  3. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  4. Traces on finite W-algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etingof, Pavel I.

    We compute the space of Poisson traces on a classical W-algebra, i.e., linear functionals invariant under Hamiltonian derivations. Modulo any central character, this space identifies with the top cohomology of the corresponding ...

  5. CP-violating CFT and trace anomaly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Nakayama

    2012-01-26

    It is logically possible that the trace anomaly in four dimension includes the Hirzebruch-Pontryagin density in CP violating theories. Although the term vanishes at free conformal fixed points, we realize such a possibility in the holographic renormalization group and show that it is indeed possible. The Hirzebruch-Pontryagin term in the trace anomaly may serve as a barometer to understand how much CP is violated in conformal field theories.

  6. LCTES'04, pages 95 --106, 2004 A Trace-based Binary Compilation Framework for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Jingling

    the effects of individual optimisations on power and energy usage. There has been relatively little workLCTES'04, pages 95 -- 106, 2004 A Trace-based Binary Compilation Framework for Energy-Aware Computing Lian Li and Jingling Xue Compiler Research Group School of Computer Science and Engineering

  7. The trace formula The Langevin process in R

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Samuel

    The trace formula The Langevin process in R Symmetric spaces and the Malliavin calculus and the trace formula Jean-Michel Bismut Universit´e Paris-Sud, Orsay `A la m´emoire de Paul Malliavin Jean-Michel Bismut The Malliavin calculus and the trace formula #12;The trace formula The Langevin process in R

  8. Foundations of the Trace Assertion Method of Module Interface Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekerinski, Emil

    states and the behaviors observed are fully described by traces built from access program invocations

  9. A thermodynamic hypothesis regarding optimality principles for flow processes in geosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2015-01-01

    basin has larger energy than the downstream water. Thus, thea way that the energy expenditure rate for water flow shouldhypothesis. The energy expenditure rate, EE, for water flow

  10. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  11. Observation of an energy-dependent difference in elliptic flow between particles and anti-particles in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; A. Aparin; D. Arkhipkin; E. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; J. Balewski; A. Banerjee; Z. Barnovska; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; M. J. Betancourt; R. R. Betts; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; Bhattarai; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; E. Bruna; S. Bültmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; J. Y. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; P. Chung; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; R. Corliss; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; B. di Ruzza; L. Didenko; Dilks; F. Ding; A. Dion; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; M. Elnimr; J. Engelage; K. S. Engle; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; R. G. Fersch; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; C. E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; S. Gliske; O. G. Grebenyuk; D. Grosnick; Y. Guo; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; O. Hajkova; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; R. Haque; J. W. Harris; J. P. Hays-Wehle; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; C. Jena; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; K. Kang; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; D. P. Kikola; J. Kiryluk; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; W. Korsch; L. Kotchenda; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; S. LaPointe; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; W. Leight; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; L. M. Lima; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; R. S. Longacre; X. Luo; A. Luszczak; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. M. M. D. Madagodagettige Don; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; S. Mioduszewski; M. K. Mitrovski; Y. Mohammed; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; M. G. Munhoz; M. K. Mustafa; M. Naglis; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; L. V. Nogach; J. Novak; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; R. A. N. Oliveira; D. Olson; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; D. Plyku; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; C. B. Powell; C. Pruneau; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; A. Roy; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; A. Sandacz; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; T. R. Schuster; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; M. Shao; B. Sharma; M. Sharma; W. Q. Shen; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; U. G. deSouza; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; A. A. P. Suaide; M. C. Suarez; M. Sumbera; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; A. Szanto de Toledo; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; L. H. Tarini; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; R. Vertesi; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; S. A. Voloshin; A. Vossen; M. Wada; M. Walker; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; W. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; Yan; C. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; Y. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zha; J. B. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

    2013-01-10

    Elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) values for identified particles at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions, measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7--62.4 GeV, are presented. A beam-energy dependent difference of the values of $v_{2}$ between particles and corresponding anti-particles was observed. The difference increases with decreasing beam energy and is larger for baryons compared to mesons. This implies that, at lower energies, particles and anti-particles are not consistent with the universal number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling of $v_{2}$ that was observed at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV.

  12. A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional scattering distribution functions for complex fenestration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    on prismatic glazing. Solar Energy 74 (2003), 157–173.to ray-tracing calculations. Solar Energy 78 Andersen M, deA new method for predicting the solar heat gain of complex

  13. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn?O?). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn?O? as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  14. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  15. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1993-11-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  16. Study of nonlinear energy transfer between drift wave turbulence and spontaneously generated sheared flows in a laboratory plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Min

    2010-01-01

    come from a variety of free energy sources. When there isis the dominant source of free energy in the system and is

  17. NUCLEAR FLUID DYNAMICS VERSUS INTRANUCLEAR CASCADE--POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR COLLECTIVE FLOW IN CENTRAL HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01

    und Bonn, Germany, and by the Director, Office of Energy ofD5300 Bonn, Germany, and by the Director, Office of Energy

  18. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries IMRE GYUK, PROGRAM MANAGER ENERGY STORAGE RESEARCH, DOE Flow 2011Year #12;Flow Battery Research at PNNL and Sandia #12; Iron-containing "MetIL" Redox Couples for Flow Batteries, Sandia Sandia has developed

  19. A numerical method for the quasi-incompressible Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes equations for variable density flows with a discrete energy law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhenlin Guo; Ping Lin; John S. Lowengrub

    2014-02-19

    In this paper, we investigate numerically a diffuse interface model for the Navier-Stokes equation with fluid-fluid interface when the fluids have different densities \\cite{Lowengrub1998}. Under minor reformulation of the system, we show that there is a continuous energy law underlying the system, assuming that all variables have reasonable regularities. It is shown in the literature that an energy law preserving method will perform better for multiphase problems. Thus for the reformulated system, we design a $C^0$ finite element method and a special temporal scheme where the energy law is preserved at the discrete level. Such a discrete energy law (almost the same as the continuous energy law) for this variable density two-phase flow model has never been established before with $C^0$ finite element. A Newton's method is introduced to linearise the highly non-linear system of our discretization scheme. Some numerical experiments are carried out using the adaptive mesh to investigate the scenario of coalescing and rising drops with differing density ratio. The snapshots for the evolution of the interface together with the adaptive mesh at different times are presented to show that the evolution, including the break-up/pinch-off of the drop, can be handled smoothly by our numerical scheme. The discrete energy functional for the system is examined to show that the energy law at the discrete level is preserved by our scheme.

  20. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  1. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  2. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-07-07

    Sep 20, 2010 ... a function of the nodal mobility (captured in both real and synthetic traces), the ... Systems; K.6.5 [Management of Computing and Infor- mation Systems]: Security and ..... We first describe them for case A1: (1) MLE Approach ...

  3. Turbulence transmission in parallel modified shocks using ray tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joni Tammi; Rami Vainio

    2006-09-14

    We apply a semi-classical approach of handling waves as quasiparticle gas in a slowly varying flow -- analogous to ray tracing -- to calculate the Alfven wave transmission parameters, the resulting cross-helicity of the waves and the scattering-centre compression ratio, for cases where the shock thickness is large enough for the turbulent waves in the plasma to see the transition of the background flow parameters as smooth and slowly varying. For nonrelativistic shocks the wave transmission produces similar effects on the downstream turbulence and the scattering-centre compression ratio as does the transmission through a step shock: the downstream Alfven waves propagate predominantly towards the shock in the local plasma frame and, thus, the scattering-centre compression ratio is larger than the gas compression ratio. For thick relativistic shocks, however, we find qualitative differences with respect to the step-shock case: for low-Alfvenic-Mach-number shocks the downstream waves propagate predominantly away from the shock, and the scattering-centre compression ratio is lower than that of the gas. Thus, when taken into account, the Alfven wave transmission can decrease the efficiency of the first-order Fermi acceleration in a thick relativistic shock.

  4. Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2013-01-01

    Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  5. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  6. Geological flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Bratkov

    2008-11-19

    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  7. Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18 O, D: Noble gases Strontium isotopes Helium isotopes Geothermal energy Los Azufres Araró Mexico Isotopes of noble gases, CO2, H2O and Sr were measured in 10 geothermal wells and 8 hot springs, fumaroles and mud

  8. 12.479 Trace-Element Geochemistry, Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Frederick

    The emphasis of this course is to use Trace Element Geochemistry to understand the origin and evolution of igneous rocks. The approach is to discuss the parameters that control partitioning of trace elements between phases ...

  9. Computational fluid dynamics assessment: Volume 1, Computer simulations of the METC (Morgantown Energy Technology Center) entrained-flow gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

    1988-07-01

    An assessment of the theoretical and numerical aspects of the computer code, PCGC-2, is made; and the results of the application of this code to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) advanced gasification facility entrained-flow reactor, ''the gasifier,'' are presented. PCGC-2 is a code suitable for simulating pulverized coal combustion or gasification under axisymmetric (two-dimensional) flow conditions. The governing equations for the gas and particulate phase have been reviewed. The numerical procedure and the related programming difficulties have been elucidated. A single-particle model similar to the one used in PCGC-2 has been developed, programmed, and applied to some simple situations in order to gain insight to the physics of coal particle heat-up, devolatilization, and char oxidation processes. PCGC-2 was applied to the METC entrained-flow gasifier to study numerically the flash pyrolysis of coal, and gasification of coal with steam or carbon dioxide. The results from the simulations are compared with measurements. The gas and particle residence times, particle temperature, and mass component history were also calculated and the results were analyzed. The results provide useful information for understanding the fundamentals of coal gasification and for assessment of experimental results performed using the reactor considered. 69 refs., 35 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Energy Literacy Essential Principle #3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-02

    Energy Literacy Essential Principle #3: Biological processes depend on energy flow through the Earth system.

  11. Trace Anomaly and Dimension Two Gluon Condensate Above the Phase Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megias,E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Salcedo, L.L.

    2008-02-04

    The dimension two gluon condensate has been used previously within a simple phenomenological model to describe power corrections from available lattice data for the renormalized Polyakov loop and the heavy quark-antiquark free energy in the deconfined phase of QCD. The QCD trace anomaly of gluodynamics also shows unequivocal inverse temperature power corrections which may be encoded as dimension two gluon condensate. We analyze lattice data of the trace anomaly and compare with other determinations of the condensate from previous references, yielding roughly similar numerical values.

  12. A Simple Optimal Power Flow Model with Energy Storage K. Mani Chandy, Steven H. Low, Ufuk Topcu and Huan Xu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, K. Mani

    time periods. The model is motivated by the intensifying trend to deploy renewable energy such as wind and Huan Xu Abstract-- The integration of renewable energy, such as wind power, into the electric grid from wind projects in the Tehachapi area in California [9]. Not only is renewable energy more

  13. A Simple Optimal Power Flow Model with Energy Storage K. Mani Chandy, Steven H. Low, Ufuk Topcu and Huan Xu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huan

    is motivated by the intensifying trend to deploy renewable energy such as wind or solar power. In the state and Huan Xu Abstract-- The integration of renewable energy generation, such as wind power in the Tehachapi area in California [10]. Not only is renewable energy more environmentally friendly, but its

  14. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  15. TRACE Model for Simulation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram in a BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng L. Y.; Baek J.; Cuadra,A.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    A TRACE model has been developed for using theTRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] to simulate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The model represents a BWR/5 housed in a Mark II containment. The reactor and the balance of plant systems are modeled in sufficient detail to enable the evaluation of plant responses and theeffectiveness of automatic and operator actions tomitigate this beyond design basis accident.The TRACE model implements features thatfacilitate the simulation of ATWS events initiated by turbine trip and closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIV). It also incorporates control logic to initiate actions to mitigate the ATWS events, such as water levelcontrol, emergency depressurization, and injection of boron via the standby liquid control system (SLCS). Two different approaches have been used to model boron mixing in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel: modulate coolant flow in the lower plenum by a flow valve, and use control logic to modular.

  16. Trace element concentrations in melanotic swine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, R.M.; Parkinson, T.F.; Veit, H.P.

    1983-10-01

    A number of investigations have been made on the role of certain trace elements in oncogenesis. In prior work, it was found that manganese and zinc concentrations in human skin cancers differed markedly from the values in normal tissue./sub 1/ The purpose of the present research was to determine trace element concentrations in skin and other tissues of normal and melanotic miniature swine. In-vivo determinations of skin tissue were carried out using x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) while tissue biopsies were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). If significant differences between normal and cancerous skin tissues can be established, the former method should prove valuable as a rapid noninvasive diagnostic method.

  17. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  18. Trace anomaly of the conformal gauge field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sladkowski, J

    1993-01-01

    The proposed by Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen new method of calculations of trace anomalies is applied in the conformal gauge field case. The result is then reproduced by the heat equation method. An error in previous calculation is corrected. It is pointed out that the introducing gauge symmetries into a given system by a field-enlarging transformation can result in unexpected quantum effects even for trivial configurations.

  19. Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2014-12-15

    We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.

  20. Control of Flow Separation in S-ducts via Flow Injection and Suction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debiasi, Marco

    Control of Flow Separation in S-ducts via Flow Injection and Suction Marco Debiasi1 , Marco Robert as a mean to control the separation of flow in S-duct inlets. The overall goal is to reduce the distortion of the S-duct outlet flow and to improve its pressure recovery by using the least expenditure of energy. We

  1. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  2. Network Flow Optimization under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    , production, generation, transportation, trade, storage injections and withdrawals of coal, gas?) xij is flow along arc (i, j), from node i to node j cij is cost per unit of flow along (i, j Network model in words Minimize the cost of satisfying demands for electric energy By: imports, exports

  3. Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    ratio 2 Electricity Storage Heat Storage Flow BatteryEnergy Flow Battery Power Absorption Chiller Abs.

  4. A boundary integral formalism for stochastic ray tracing in billiards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David J. Chappell; Gregor Tanner

    2014-11-06

    Determining the flow of rays or particles driven by a force or velocity field is fundamental to modelling many physical processes, including weather forecasting and the simulation of molecular dynamics. High frequency wave energy distributions can also be approximated using flow or transport equations. Applications arise in underwater and room acoustics, vibro-acoustics, seismology, electromagnetics, quantum mechanics and in producing computer generated imagery. In many practical applications, the driving field is not known exactly and the dynamics are determined only up to a degree of uncertainty. This paper presents a boundary integral framework for propagating flows including uncertainties, which is shown to systematically interpolate between a deterministic and a completely random description of the trajectory propagation. A simple but efficient discretisation approach is applied to model uncertain billiard dynamics in an integrable rectangular domain.

  5. Flow assurance and multiphase pumping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikhar, Hemant G.

    2009-05-15

    ????????????????????????????????????????. xvii NOMENCLATURE???????????????????????????????????????. xviii 1. INTRODUCTION??????????????????????????????????????? 1 2. LITERATURE REVIEW???????????????????????????????????.. 5 Deepwater Oilfields???????????????????????????????????.. 7 Flow...????????????????????????????????.. 71 Limited Energy Reservoirs and Deep Waters???????????????????? 71 5. SOLIDS FORMATION AND DEPOSITION??????????????????????????. 72 Gas Hydrates??????????????????????????????????????? 72 Field Problems??????????????????????????????????????. 74...

  6. Information flow, non-Markovianity, and geometric phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S. L.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, X. L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Geometric phases and information flows of a two-level system coupled to its environment are calculated and analyzed. The information flow is defined as a cumulant of changes in trace distance between two quantum states, which is similar to the measure for non-Markovianity given by Breuer. We obtain an analytic relation between the geometric phase and the information flow for pure initial states, and a numerical result for mixed initial states. The geometric phase behaves differently depending on whether there are information flows back to the two-level system from its environment.

  7. 1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any of the sources [CPS90,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any (91h:11042) [Jac05] Herv´e Jacquet, A guide to the relative trace formula, Automorphic representations2192826 (2006g:11100) [Lap10] Erez M. Lapid, Some applications of the trace formula and the relative trace

  8. Thermal Energy Measurement with Tangential Paddlewheel Flow Meters: Summary of Experimental Results and in-situ Diagnostics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Watt, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recently third-party financing has become a popular mechanism for funding energy conservation retrofits in commercial/institutional buildings. Although many successful projects have been heralded by the press quite a few ...

  9. Piezoelectric Artificial Kelp: Experimentally Validated Parameter Optimization of a Quasi-Static, Flow-Driven Energy Harvester 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pankonien, Alexander Morgan

    2011-10-21

    to verify and extend the analytic solutions to large deflections. An energy harvester was built using off-the-shelf piezoelectric elements and tested in a wave tank facility to validate experimentally the voltage and average power predicted...

  10. Constraints on RG Flow for Four Dimensional Quantum Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Jack; H. Osborn

    2015-02-09

    The response of four dimensional quantum field theories to a Weyl rescaling of the metric in the presence of local couplings and which involve $a$, the coefficient of the Euler density in the energy momentum tensor trace on curved space, is reconsidered. Previous consistency conditions for the anomalous terms, which implicitly define a metric $G$ on the space of couplings and give rise to gradient flow like equations for $a$, are derived taking into account the role of lower dimension operators. The results for infinitesimal Weyl rescaling are integrated to finite rescalings $e^{2\\sigma}$ to a form which involves running couplings $g_\\sigma$ and which interpolates between IR and UV fixed points. The results are also restricted to flat space where they give rise to broken conformal Ward identities. Expressions for the three loop Yukawa $\\beta$-functions for a general scalar/fermion theory are obtained and the three loop contribution to the metric $G$ for this theory are also calculated. These results are used to check the gradient flow equations to higher order than previously. It is shown that these are only valid when $\\beta \\to B$, a modified $\\beta$-function, and that the equations provide strong constraints on the detailed form of the three loop Yukawa $\\beta$-function. ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric Wess-Zumino theories are also considered as a special case. It is shown that the metric for the complex couplings in such theories may be restricted to a hermitian form.

  11. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  12. POWER FLOW ANALYSIS OF ELECTROSTRICTIVE ACTUATORS DRIVEN BYSWITCHMODE AMPLIFIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindner, Douglas K.

    of that energy. We adopt this view in this paper. The analysis in this paper is motivated by the smart skin being Consider the flow of energy through this smart skin. Electrical energy is supplied to the smart skin from energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy then flows from the smart skin into the surrounding

  13. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2010-12-15

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

  14. A computational study of ultrasonic film thickness measurements in annular two-phase flows under microgravity conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pautz, Shawn Daniel

    1995-01-01

    An ultrasonic system has previously been proposed to measure interfacial characteristics of annular two-phase flows in reduced acceleration environments. A computational model based on ray tracing is developed to predict ...

  15. Beam-Energy Dependence of Directed Flow of Protons, Antiprotons and Pions in Au+Au Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STAR Collaboration; L. Adamczyk; J. K. Adkins; G. Agakishiev; M. M. Aggarwal; Z. Ahammed; I. Alekseev; J. Alford; C. D. Anson; A. Aparin; D. Arkhipkin; E. C. Aschenauer; G. S. Averichev; A. Banerjee; D. R. Beavis; R. Bellwied; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; P. Bhattarai; H. Bichsel; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; L. C. Bland; I. G. Bordyuzhin; W. Borowski; J. Bouchet; A. V. Brandin; S. G. Brovko; S. Bültmann; I. Bunzarov; T. P. Burton; J. Butterworth; H. Caines; M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez; D. Cebra; R. Cendejas; M. C. Cervantes; P. Chaloupka; Z. Chang; S. Chattopadhyay; H. F. Chen; J. H. Chen; L. Chen; J. Cheng; M. Cherney; A. Chikanian; W. Christie; J. Chwastowski; M. J. M. Codrington; G. Contin; J. G. Cramer; H. J. Crawford; X. Cui; S. Das; A. Davila Leyva; L. C. De Silva; R. R. Debbe; T. G. Dedovich; J. Deng; A. A. Derevschikov; R. Derradi de Souza; S. Dhamija; B. di Ruzza; L. Didenko; C. Dilks; F. Ding; P. Djawotho; X. Dong; J. L. Drachenberg; J. E. Draper; C. M. Du; L. E. Dunkelberger; J. C. Dunlop; L. G. Efimov; J. Engelage; K. S. Engle; G. Eppley; L. Eun; O. Evdokimov; O. Eyser; R. Fatemi; S. Fazio; J. Fedorisin; P. Filip; E. Finch; Y. Fisyak; C. E. Flores; C. A. Gagliardi; D. R. Gangadharan; D. Garand; F. Geurts; A. Gibson; M. Girard; S. Gliske; L. Greiner; D. Grosnick; D. S. Gunarathne; Y. Guo; A. Gupta; S. Gupta; W. Guryn; B. Haag; A. Hamed; L-X. Han; R. Haque; J. W. Harris; S. Heppelmann; A. Hirsch; G. W. Hoffmann; D. J. Hofman; S. Horvat; B. Huang; H. Z. Huang; X. Huang; P. Huck; T. J. Humanic; G. Igo; W. W. Jacobs; H. Jang; E. G. Judd; S. Kabana; D. Kalinkin; K. Kang; K. Kauder; H. W. Ke; D. Keane; A. Kechechyan; A. Kesich; Z. H. Khan; D. P. Kikola; I. Kisel; A. Kisiel; D. D. Koetke; T. Kollegger; J. Konzer; I. Koralt; L. Kotchenda; A. F. Kraishan; P. Kravtsov; K. Krueger; I. Kulakov; L. Kumar; R. A. Kycia; M. A. C. Lamont; J. M. Landgraf; K. D. Landry; J. Lauret; A. Lebedev; R. Lednicky; J. H. Lee; M. J. LeVine; C. Li; W. Li; X. Li; X. Li; Y. Li; Z. M. Li; M. A. Lisa; F. Liu; T. Ljubicic; W. J. Llope; M. Lomnitz; R. S. Longacre; X. Luo; G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; D. M. M. D. Madagodagettige Don; D. P. Mahapatra; R. Majka; S. Margetis; C. Markert; H. Masui; H. S. Matis; D. McDonald; T. S. McShane; N. G. Minaev; S. Mioduszewski; B. Mohanty; M. M. Mondal; D. A. Morozov; M. K. Mustafa; B. K. Nandi; Md. Nasim; T. K. Nayak; J. M. Nelson; G. Nigmatkulov; L. V. Nogach; S. Y. Noh; J. Novak; S. B. Nurushev; G. Odyniec; A. Ogawa; K. Oh; A. Ohlson; V. Okorokov; E. W. Oldag; D. L. Olvitt Jr.; M. Pachr; B. S. Page; S. K. Pal; Y. X. Pan; Y. Pandit; Y. Panebratsev; T. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; H. Pei; C. Perkins; W. Peryt; P. Pile; M. Planinic; J. Pluta; N. Poljak; J. Porter; A. M. Poskanzer; N. K. Pruthi; M. Przybycien; P. R. Pujahari; J. Putschke; H. Qiu; A. Quintero; S. Ramachandran; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. L. Ray; C. K. Riley; H. G. Ritter; J. B. Roberts; O. V. Rogachevskiy; J. L. Romero; J. F. Ross; A. Roy; L. Ruan; J. Rusnak; O. Rusnakova; N. R. Sahoo; P. K. Sahu; I. Sakrejda; S. Salur; J. Sandweiss; E. Sangaline; A. Sarkar; J. Schambach; R. P. Scharenberg; A. M. Schmah; W. B. Schmidke; N. Schmitz; J. Seger; P. Seyboth; N. Shah; E. Shahaliev; P. V. Shanmuganathan; M. Shao; B. Sharma; W. Q. Shen; S. S. Shi; Q. Y. Shou; E. P. Sichtermann; R. N. Singaraju; M. J. Skoby; D. Smirnov; N. Smirnov; D. Solanki; P. Sorensen; H. M. Spinka; B. Srivastava; T. D. S. Stanislaus; J. R. Stevens; R. Stock; M. Strikhanov; B. Stringfellow; M. Sumbera; X. Sun; X. M. Sun; Y. Sun; Z. Sun; B. Surrow; D. N. Svirida; T. J. M. Symons; M. A. Szelezniak; J. Takahashi; A. H. Tang; Z. Tang; T. Tarnowsky; J. H. Thomas; A. R. Timmins; D. Tlusty; M. Tokarev; S. Trentalange; R. E. Tribble; P. Tribedy; B. A. Trzeciak; O. D. Tsai; J. Turnau; T. Ullrich; D. G. Underwood; G. Van Buren; G. van Nieuwenhuizen; M. Vandenbroucke; J. A. Vanfossen, Jr.; R. Varma; G. M. S. Vasconcelos; A. N. Vasiliev; R. Vertesi; F. Videbæk; Y. P. Viyogi; S. Vokal; A. Vossen; M. Wada; F. Wang; G. Wang; H. Wang; J. S. Wang; X. L. Wang; Y. Wang; Y. Wang; G. Webb; J. C. Webb; G. D. Westfall; H. Wieman; S. W. Wissink; R. Witt; Y. F. Wu; Z. Xiao; W. Xie; K. Xin; H. Xu; J. Xu; N. Xu; Q. H. Xu; Y. Xu; Z. Xu; W. Yan; C. Yang; Y. Yang; Y. Yang; Z. Ye; P. Yepes; L. Yi; K. Yip; I-K. Yoo; N. Yu; Y. Zawisza; H. Zbroszczyk; W. Zha; J. B. Zhang; J. L. Zhang; S. Zhang; X. P. Zhang; Y. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; F. Zhao; J. Zhao; C. Zhong; X. Zhu; Y. H. Zhu; Y. Zoulkarneeva; M. Zyzak

    2014-04-04

    Rapidity-odd directed flow($v_1$) measurements for charged pions, protons and antiprotons near mid-rapidity ($y=0$) are reported in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV Au + Au collisions as recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). At intermediate impact parameters, the proton and net-proton slope parameter $dv_1/dy|_{y=0}$ shows a minimum between 11.5 and 19.6 GeV. In addition, the net-proton $dv_1/dy|_{y=0}$ changes sign twice between 7.7 and 39 GeV. The proton and net-proton results qualitatively resemble predictions of a hydrodynamic model with a first-order phase transition from hadronic matter to deconfined matter, and differ from hadronic transport calculations.

  16. Forward energy flow, central charged-particle multiplicities, and pseudorapidity gaps in W and Z boson events from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= 7$ TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-01-01

    A study of forward energy flow and central charged-particle multiplicity in events with W and Z bosons decaying into leptons is presented. The analysis uses a sample of 7 TeV pp collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The observed forward energy depositions, their correlations, and the central charged-particle multiplicities are not well described by the available non-diffractive soft-hadron production models. A study of about 300 events with no significant energy deposited in one of the forward calorimeters, corresponding to a pseudorapidity gap of at least 1.9 units, is also presented. An indication for a diffractive component in these events comes from the observation that the majority of the charged leptons from the (W/Z) decays are found in the hemisphere opposite to the gap. When fitting the signed lepton pseudorapidity distribution of these events with predicted distributions from an admixture of diffractive (POMPYT) and non-diffractive (PYTHIA) Monte Carlo simulations, the diffractive component is determined to be (50.0 +/- 9.3 (stat.) +/- 5.2 (syst.))%.

  17. STOCHASTIC FLOW SEQUENCE GENERATION AND ASPINALL UNIT OPERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    traces which are eventually used as inputs to a Decision Support System (DSS) model of the Gunnison Basin flows throughout the basin at a monthly timestep. Last, a DSS model is developed and employed not have been possible without the help of many individuals. First, I would like to thank my advisor, Dr

  18. Centrality and Pseudorapidity of the Transverse Energy Flow in pPb Collisions at Center of Mass Energy 5.02 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruner, Christopher

    2015-08-31

    The almost hermitic coverage of CMS is used to measure the distribution of transverse energy as a function of pseudorapidity for pPb collisions at center of mass energy of 5:02 TeV. For minimum bias collisions (1/N) dET/d? reaches 25 GeV which...

  19. Ancient groundwater flow in the Valles Marineris on Mars inferred from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    LETTERS Ancient groundwater flow in the Valles Marineris on Mars inferred from fault trace ridges e-mail: treiman@lpi.usra.edu Published online: XX Month XXXX; doi:10.1038/ngeoXXXX Groundwater of bedrock3­6 .2 Understanding groundwater flow is also important for assessing3 the possibility of past

  20. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  1. Workshop on L-functions and Trace Formula - Department of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $author.value

    A working workshop, aimed at reporting the latest progress on the subject. ... of spectral terms in what I called the stabilization of the (hypothetical) r-trace formula

  2. TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND SODIUM IN NEUTRAL BEAM RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, L.

    2010-01-01

    TRACE IDENTIFICATION OF CESIUM AND Lawrence Ruby LawrenceBerkeley, California 94720 Cesium and sodium in vapor formthe extent to which the cesium and sodium migrate in the

  3. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional...

  4. Tracing Technologies: Prisoners' Views in the Era of CSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, SA

    2013-01-01

    Tracing Technologies: Prisoners’ Views in the Era of CSI.Studies, they argue that prisoners have ‘professionalinterview study of Austrian prisoners. The study design was

  5. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the gasification of Illinois coals. Duplicate determinations of 34 elements in coal and ash samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential trace element emissions...

  6. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic...

  7. TRACE/PARCS Core Modeling of a BWR/5 for Accident Analysis of ATWS Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuadra A.; Baek J.; Cheng, L.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    The TRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] isdesigned to be applicable to the analysis of light water reactor operational transients and accidents where the coupling between the neutron kinetics (PARCS) and the thermal-hydraulics and thermal-mechanics (TRACE) is important. TRACE/PARCS has been assessed for itsapplicability to anticipated transients without scram(ATWS) [3]. The challenge, addressed in this study, is to develop a sufficiently rigorous input model that would be acceptable for use in ATWS analysis. Two types of ATWS events were of interest, a turbine trip and a closure of main steam isolation valves (MSIVs). In the first type, initiated by turbine trip, the concern is that the core will become unstable and large power oscillations will occur. In the second type,initiated by MSIV closure,, the concern is the amount of energy being placed into containment and the resulting emergency depressurization. Two separate TRACE/PARCS models of a BWR/5 were developed to analyze these ATWS events at MELLLA+ (maximum extended load line limit plus)operating conditions. One model [4] was used for analysis of ATWS events leading to instability (ATWS-I);the other [5] for ATWS events leading to emergency depressurization (ATWS-ED). Both models included a large portion of the nuclear steam supply system and controls, and a detailed core model, presented henceforth.

  8. Assessment of technical strengths and information flow of energy conservation research in Japan. Volume 2. Background document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.; Lewis, P.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Rubinger, B.; Willis, A.

    1985-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to explore the status of R and D in Japan and the ability of US researchers to keep abreast of Japanese technical advances. US researchers familiar with R and D activities in Japan were interviewed in ten fields that are relevant to the more efficient use of energy: amorphous metals, biotechnology, ceramics, combustion, electrochemical energy storage, heat engines, heat transfer, high-temperature sensors, thermal and chemical energy storage, and tribology. The researchers were questioned about their perceptions of the strengths of R and D in Japan, comparative aspects of US work, and the quality of available information sources describing R and D in Japan. Of the ten related fields, the researchers expressed a strong perception that significant R and D is under way in amorphous metals, biotechnology, and ceramics, and that the US competitive position in these technologies will be significantly challenged. Researchers also identified alternative emphases in Japanese R and D programs in these areas that provide Japan with stronger technical capabilities. For example, in biotechnology, researchers noted the significant Japanese emphasis on industrial-scale bioprocess engineering, which contrasts with a more meager effort in the US. In tribology, researchers also noted the strength of the chemical tribology research in Japan and commented on the effective mix of chemical and mechanical tribology research. This approach contrasts with the emphasis on mechanical tribology in the US.

  9. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  10. Can the trace formula describe weak localisation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney; Igor V. Lerner; Robert A. Smith

    1999-02-24

    We attempt to systematically derive perturbative quantum corrections to the Berry diagonal approximation of the two-level correlation function (TLCF) for chaotic systems. To this end, we develop a ``weak diagonal approximation'' based on a recent description of the first weak localisation correction to conductance in terms of the Gutzwiller trace formula. This semiclassical method is tested by using it to derive the weak localisation corrections to the TLCF for a semiclassically disordered system. Unfortunately the method is unable to correctly reproduce the ``Hikami boxes'' (the relatively small regions where classical paths are glued together by quantum processes). This results in the method failing to reproduce the well known weak localisation expansion. It so happens that for the first order correction it merely produces the wrong prefactor. However for the second order correction, it is unable to reproduce certain contributions, and leads to a result which is of a different form to the standard one.

  11. Holographic Trace Anomaly and Local Renormalization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  12. Holographic Trace Anomaly and Local Renormalization Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivatsan Rajagopal; Andreas Stergiou; Yechao Zhu

    2015-08-19

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  13. A Fluid Dynamics Approach to Multi-Robot Chemical Plume Tracing Dimitri Zarzhitsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    computational fluid dy- namics (CFD) grid for calculating derivatives of flow-field variables, such as wind the conservation of mass, New- ton's Second Law, and conservation of energy [1]. For real- istic flows of interest. Our algorithm takes advantage of the lattice formations formed by our robotic agents to simulate

  14. CWRU awarded grant to build battery for smart grid, renewables New design for iron flow battery would enhance energy and economic security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    CWRU awarded grant to build battery for smart grid, renewables New design for iron flow battery year, the Cleveland-based researchers have been investigating ways to build a flow battery primarily using water and iron, hence the name. A flow battery is essentially an unwrapped battery that can

  15. Stratified Shear Flow: Instability and Wave Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    then go on to pair or to break down turbulently through three­dimensional e#ects. As a result of mixing in that the mean flow kinetic energy that feeds their growth is partially siphoned­o# as potential energy. Thus where they are generated and they accelerate the mean flow at levels where they break. Most

  16. Stratified Shear Flow: Instability and Wave Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    then go on to pair or to break down turbulently through three-dimensional effects. As a result of mixing in that the mean flow kinetic energy that feeds their growth is partially siphoned-off as potential energy. Thus where they are generated and they accelerate the mean flow at levels where they break. Most

  17. Understanding order flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, MDD; Lyons, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Order Flow October 2005 Martin D. D. Evans 1Rate Fundamentals and Order Flow, typescript, Georgetown2005), Customer Order Flow and Exchange Rate Movements: Is

  18. HANKEL OPERATORS AND THE DIXMIER TRACE ON STRICTLY PSEUDOCONVEX DOMAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Genkai

    = [Tf2 , Tf1 ] . . . [Tf2n , Tf2n-1 ] is never trace-class if n > 1. 1991 Mathematics Subject research plan no. MSM4781305904, and the Swedish Research Council (VR). Typeset by AMS-TEX 1 #12;2 M) to the unit ball Bn , n > 1, in a different direction -- using the Dixmier trace. This may be notable

  19. Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN 1,*, MAKIKO SATO 1 , PUSHKER KHARECHA 1 , GARY climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures and the global environment. Keywords: climate change; trace gases; climate feedbacks; black carbon; sea level

  20. Coherent Ray Tracing for Complex Light Transport Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    soft shadows from area light sources, large ray packets for real-time Whitted ray tracing, and adaptive lighting, depth of field, motion blur, and diffuse inter-reflections. This is an adaptive Monte CarloCoherent Ray Tracing for Complex Light Transport Effects Ryan S. Overbeck Advised by: Ravi

  1. ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant are those of the author and not necessarily the sponsor." #12;ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY major economic damages in the cattle industry. One of the strategies to mitigate potential outbreak

  2. Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paschou, Peristera

    Tracing Cattle Breeds with Principal Components Analysis Ancestry Informative SNPs Jamey Lewis1 that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic

  3. Following the flow: tracer particles in astrophysical fluid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genel, Shy; Nelson, Dylan; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We present two independent numerical schemes for passive tracer particles in the hydrodynamical moving-mesh code Arepo, and compare their performance for various problems, from simple tests to cosmological simulations. The purpose of tracer particles is to allow the flow to be followed in a Lagrangian way, reliably tracing the evolution of the fluid. Such tracer particles can subsequently measure any local instantaneous fluid property, thereby recording the thermodynamical history of individual fluid parcels. We begin by discussing "velocity field tracers", which are advected according to the local velocity field of the fluid, and which have been commonly used in the literature. We find that such tracers do not in general follow the mass flow correctly, particularly in complex flows, and explain why this is the case. This weakness of the method can result in orders-of-magnitude biases in simulations of driven turbulence and in cosmological simulations of structure formation, rendering the velocity field trace...

  4. Elliptic flow from color strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Braun; C. Pajares

    2010-08-02

    It is shown that the elliptic flow can be successfully described in the color string picture with fusion and percolation provided anisotropy of particle emission from the fused string is taken into account. Two possible sources of this anisotropy are considered, propagation of the string in the transverse plane and quenching of produced particles in the strong color field of the string. Calculations show that the second source gives an overwhelming contribution to the flow at accessible energies.

  5. BPS dyons and Hesse flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dieter Van den Bleeken

    2012-02-03

    We revisit BPS solutions to classical N=2 low energy effective gauge theories. It is shown that the BPS equations can be solved in full generality by the introduction of a Hesse potential, a symplectic analog of the holomorphic prepotential. We explain how for non-spherically symmetric, non-mutually local solutions, the notion of attractor flow generalizes to gradient flow with respect to the Hesse potential. Furthermore we show that in general there is a non-trivial magnetic complement to this flow equation that is sourced by the momentum current in the solution.

  6. Study of Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and grid power flow control. Part A: 2-quadrant converter with energy storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maestri, S; Uicich, G; Benedetti, M; Le Godec, G; Papastergiou, K

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of a Transfer line (TT2) Consolidation Programme, a number of studies on Energy cycling have been commissioned. Part of this work involves the study of different power electronic system topologies for magnet energy recovery [1{5]. In this report, the use of a two-quadrant (2Q) regulator connected to the DC link of a 4-quadrant magnet supply is analysed. The key objective of the study is to find control strategies that result in the control of the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks with controlled voltage fluctuation. The study comprises the modelling of the system by means of the method of state averaging and the development of regulation strategies to energy management. The proposed control strategies can be divided in two groups: in the first group, the magnet current is used to dene the reference for the control system, while in the second group this current is considered as a perturbation and some strategies are devised ...

  7. Breaking of the number-of-constituent-quark scaling for identified-particle elliptic flow as a signal of phase change in low-energy data taken at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Tian; J. H. Chen; Y. G. Ma; X. Z. Cai; F. Jin; G. L. Ma; S. Zhang; C. Zhong

    2009-06-29

    We argue that measurements of identified-particle elliptic flow in a wide energy range could shed light on the possible phase change in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). When the hadronization process is dominated by quark coalescence, the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling for the identified-particle elliptic flow can serve as a probe for studying the strong interacting partonic matter. In the upcoming RHIC low-energy runs, the NCQ scaling behavior may be broken because of the change of the effective degrees of freedom of the hot dense matter, which corresponds to the transition from the dominant partonic phase to the dominant hadronic phase. A multiphase transport model is used to present the dependence of NCQ scaling behavior on the different hadronization mechanisms.

  8. Renaissance in Flow-Cell Technologies Recent Advancements and Future Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrodes Thick = High Energy Thin = High Power 4 #12;uper or s y UTC Proprietary Flow Batteries cells Flow Battery SystemFlow Battery System Electrolyte flow Ion exchange membrane Cell stack (power System Architectures Proton Exchange Membrane Flow Batteries: Energy stored in solutions

  9. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  10. Heat-Traced Fluid Transfer Lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    or chemical), to maintain uniform fluid viscosity independent of ambient temperature, to establish uniform temperature above the dew point, and to maintain uniform temperature and prevent component dropout. water freeze protection is needed when a steam... of the parameters. A change in viscosity prJVides false readings and therefore results in unre iable process control. Viscosity control also helps provide uni form flow rates over a wide ran e of ambient temperatures, and in addition, pumps need not be oversized...

  11. Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

    2010-04-22

    A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

  12. Performance mapping studies in Redox flow cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoberecht, M.A.; Thaller, L.H.

    1981-09-01

    Pumping power requirements in any flow battery system constitute a direct parasitic energy loss. It is therefore useful to determine the practical lower limit for reactant flow rates. Through the use of a theoretical framework based on electrochemical first principles, two different experimental flow mapping techniques are developed to evaluate and compare electrodes as a function of flow rate. For the carbon felt electrodes presently used in NASA-Lewis Redox cells, a flow rate 1.5 times greater than the stoichiometric rate seems to be the required minimum.

  13. Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, James W.

    Trace metal composition of suspended particulate matter in the water column of the Black Sea Ouz Keywords: Black Sea Geochemistry Biogeochemistry Biogeochemical cycle Trace metals Trace elements Tracers Particulates Suspended particulate matter Biogenic matter Biogenic material Plankton Planktonic metal

  14. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with accompanying nonaqueous compatible membranes and flow cell designs for higher energy density redox flow batteries targeted to support increasing demands for stationary...

  15. Development of a three-dimensional particle image velocimetry algorithm and analysis of synthetic and experimental flows in three-dimensions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costes, Sylvain Vincent

    1994-01-01

    This study concerns with the development of a simple three-dimensional technique to determine the velocity of fluid by tracing the motion of seeded particles in a flow in three-dimensions. A correction for light refraction ...

  16. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  17. Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Lucas; Rich Kerswell

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2{\\pi}]2 torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously (Chandler & Kerswell 2013) and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimick the statistics of the spatially-localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the striking finding of Kawahara & Kida (2001) in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.

  18. Energy Efficient Steam Trapping of Trace Heating Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    required to achieve economic tracer lengths; 3. Maximum allowable trapping distance for specific applications 4.Data important to determine condensate loads; 5. Trap selection, sizing, good installation practices, and proper maintenance. Using...

  19. Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Solar Concentrator Efficiency - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience(TechnicalForStorm CloselyDOE

  20. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Energy Sector (76) Achieving Higher Energy Density in Flow Batteries at Lower Cost with MetILs (481) Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS Developments (1772)...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy to help engage students in energy. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Solar Cell Simulation Students model the flow of energy...

  2. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, KRM; Chien, CT; Post, AF; Saito, MA; Paytan, A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic,” in Trace Metals in Seawater, NATO Conferencesolubility of trace metals from natural and anthropogenicresponses to atmospheric metal deposi- tion in the coastal

  3. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  4. Conservative regularization of compressible flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnaswami, Govind S; Thyagaraja, Anantanarayanan

    2015-01-01

    Ideal Eulerian flow may develop singularities in vorticity w. Navier-Stokes viscosity provides a dissipative regularization. We find a local, conservative regularization - lambda^2 w times curl(w) of compressible flow and compressible MHD: a three dimensional analogue of the KdV regularization of the one dimensional kinematic wave equation. The regulator lambda is a field subject to the constitutive relation lambda^2 rho = constant. Lambda is like a position-dependent mean-free path. Our regularization preserves Galilean, parity and time-reversal symmetries. We identify locally conserved energy, helicity, linear and angular momenta and boundary conditions ensuring their global conservation. Enstrophy is shown to remain bounded. A swirl velocity field is identified, which transports w/rho and B/rho generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfven theorems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is given. The regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, channel flow, plane flow, a plane vortex ...

  5. Project Based Energy Conservation vs. Management Based Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judy, K.; O'Brien, S.

    2009-01-01

    Basic American Foods (BAF) is the largest potato dehydrator worldwide. This paper will trace the shift from a Project Based to Management Based energy conservation program. Second only to raw material, energy is one of the highest expenses at BAF...

  6. L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-11

    L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule. May 11 – May 13, 2015 at Purdue University. Monday, May 11. 9:15 am – 9:30 am: Casselman/Shahidi:.

  7. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: TRACE Version 6.3.2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that the TRACE version 6.3.2 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D (c)(1) and (d) Regulations Notice 2006-52, Section 6 requirements as amplified by Notice 2008-40, Section 4 requirements.

  8. Trace formulas for fourth order operators on unit interval, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey Badanin; Evgeny Korotyaev

    2014-12-16

    We consider self-adjoint fourth order operators on the unit interval with the Dirichlet type boundary conditions. For such operators we determine few trace formulas, similar to the case of Gelfand--Levitan formulas for second order operators.

  9. Ichnotaxonomic assessment of Mazon Creek area trace fossils, Illinois, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LoBue, David J.

    2010-08-12

    The Francis Creek Shale Member (FCSM) of the Mid-Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation along Mazon Creek in northern Illinois is known for soft-bodied organisms preserved within siderite concretions. Trace fossils, though ...

  10. Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

    2005-01-01

    Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

  11. TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  12. Vascular flora and gradient analysis of the Natchez Trace Parkway 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Nena Mae Monique

    2009-06-02

    Vascular plant collections were made on the Natchez Trace Parkway over a 15 month period beginning in August 2004. These collections along with previous work done by the National Park Service (NPS) produced a flora of 750 ...

  13. Understanding reservoir mechanisms using phase and component streamline tracing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sarwesh

    2009-05-15

    Conventionally streamlines are traced using total flux across the grid cell faces. The visualization of total flux streamlines shows the movement of flood, injector-producer relationship, swept area and movement of tracer. ...

  14. Energy Literacy Essential Principle #2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-02

    Energy Literacy Essential Principle #2: Physical processes on Earth are the result of energy flow through the Earth system.

  15. Modeling of bubbly and slug flow behavior under microgravity conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longeot, Matthieu Jean-Sebastien

    1995-01-01

    Two-phase flow systems for space applications have advantages over single-phase flow systems. Due to increased heat transfer coefficients, they can achieve the same energy management as single-phase systems with lower mass, size and pumping...

  16. Trace determination of lead by helium-4 activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bernal, Maria E.

    1984-01-01

    TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Approved as to style and format by: Emile A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gerald A. Sc...

  17. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  18. Flow injection trace gas analysis method for on-site determination of organoarsenicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldstadt, J.H. III

    1997-06-24

    A method is described for real-time determination of the concentration of Lewisite in the ambient atmosphere, the method includes separating and collecting a Lewisite sample from the atmosphere in a collection chamber, converting the collected Lewisite to an arsenite ion solution sample, pumping the arsenite ion containing sample to an electrochemical detector connected to the collection chamber, and electrochemically detecting the converted arsenite ions in the sample, whereby the concentration of arsenite ions detected is proportional to the concentration of Lewisite in the atmosphere. 2 figs.

  19. Linkages of DOE's Energy Storage R&D to Batteries and Ultracapacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    traces the connections between DOE energy storage research and downstream energy storage systems used in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and fully electric vehicles....

  20. Propeller Flow Meter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Santistevan, Dean; Hla, Aung K.

    2007-10-01

    Propeller flow meters are commonly used to measure water flow rate. They can also be used to estimate irrigation water use. This publication explains how to select, install, read and maintain propeller flow meters....

  1. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  2. Dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, Graydon L.

    1980-01-01

    Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...

  3. Arthur-Selberg trace formula CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapid, Erez

    #12;#12;Arthur-Selberg trace formula Erez Lapid CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009 #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime Geodesic Theorem #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime

  4. FLOW-THROUGH POROUS ELECTRODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trainham, III, James Arthur

    2011-01-01

    configurations for flow redox battery applications: (i) theporous electrodes A flow-redox battery using flow-by poroustrue in battery applications, Flow..through porous

  5. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  6. Membrane-less hydrogen bromine flow battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braff, William

    In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for ...

  7. Modelling Inter-Industry Material Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CIEEDAC Modelling Inter-Industry Material Flows: A review of methodologies For Natural Resources Canada By Maggie Tisdale CIEEDAC Energy and Materials Research Group School of Resource and Environmental .................................................................................................. 2 2.2. INDIRECT EFFECTS

  8. Laser ray tracing in a parallel arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian adaptive mesh refi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and- Energy InnovationLaserLaser ray tracing

  9. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pumping applications with variable flow rate requirements, adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are an efficient control alternative to throttling or bypass methods. ASDs save energy by...

  10. Some questions regarding the understanding and prediction of turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinz, Stefan

    generation by thermal power, passenger and cargo service by automobiles, airplanes, or ships, manufacturing more com- petitive industrial processes involving fluid flows. Internal combustion engine, energy

  11. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  12. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  13. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  14. Diagnosing collisions of magnetized, high energy density plasma flows using a combination of collective Thomson scattering, Faraday rotation, and interferometry (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swadling, G. F., E-mail: swadling@imperial.ac.uk; Lebedev, S. V.; Hall, G. N.; Patankar, S.; Stewart, N. H.; Smith, R. A.; Burdiak, G. C.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S. N.; Kwek, K. H.; Pickworth, L.; Bennett, M.; Hare, J. D. [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College, London SW6 7LZ (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Yuan, J. [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAE, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-11-15

    A suite of laser based diagnostics is used to study interactions of magnetised, supersonic, radiatively cooled plasma flows produced using the Magpie pulse power generator (1.4 MA, 240 ns rise time). Collective optical Thomson scattering measures the time-resolved local flow velocity and temperature across 7–14 spatial positions. The scattering spectrum is recorded from multiple directions, allowing more accurate reconstruction of the flow velocity vectors. The areal electron density is measured using 2D interferometry; optimisation and analysis are discussed. The Faraday rotation diagnostic, operating at 1053 nm, measures the magnetic field distribution in the plasma. Measurements obtained simultaneously by these diagnostics are used to constrain analysis, increasing the accuracy of interpretation.

  15. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  16. Trace metal mapping by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, Jozef [ORNL; Novotny, Dr. Karel [Masaryk University; Hrdlicka, A [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Malina, R [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Hartl, M [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Kizek, R [Mendel University of Brno; Adam, V [Mendel University of Brno

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a sensitive optical technique capable of fast multi-elemental analysis of solid, gaseous and liquid samples. The potential applications of lasers for spectrochemical analysis were developed shortly after its invention; however the massive development of LIBS is connected with the availability of powerful pulsed laser sources. Since the late 80s of 20th century LIBS dominated the analytical atomic spectroscopy scene and its application are developed continuously. Here we review the utilization of LIBS for trace elements mapping in different matrices. The main emphasis is on trace metal mapping in biological samples.

  17. Flow instabilities of magnetic flux tubes II. Longitudinal flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Holzwarth; D. Schmitt; M. Schuessler

    2007-04-27

    Flow-induced instabilities are relevant for the storage and dynamics of magnetic fields in stellar convection zones and possibly also in other astrophysical contexts. We continue the study started in the first paper of this series by considering the stability properties of longitudinal flows along magnetic flux tubes. A linear stability analysis was carried out to determine criteria for the onset of instability in the framework of the approximation of thin magnetic flux tubes. In the non-dissipative case, we find Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for flow velocities exceeding a critical speed that depends on the Alfv{\\'e}n speed and on the ratio of the internal and external densities. Inclusion of a friction term proportional to the relative transverse velocity leads to a friction-driven instability connected with backward (or negative energy) waves. We discuss the physical nature of this instability. In the case of a stratified external medium, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the friction-driven instability can set in for flow speeds significantly lower than the Alfv{\\'e}n speed. Dissipative effects can excite flow-driven instability below the thresholds for the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the undulatory (Parker-type) instabilities. This may be important for magnetic flux storage in stellar convection zones and for the stability of astrophysical jets.

  18. Performance of Particle Flow Calorimetry at CLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. S. Marshall; A. Münnich; M. A. Thomson

    2012-09-18

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry can provide unprecedented jet energy resolution at a future high energy collider, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC). However, the use of particle flow calorimetry at the proposed multi-TeV Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) poses a number of significant new challenges. At higher jet energies, detector occupancies increase, and it becomes increasingly difficult to resolve energy deposits from individual particles. The experimental conditions at CLIC are also significantly more challenging than those at previous electron-positron colliders, with increased levels of beam-induced backgrounds combined with a bunch spacing of only 0.5 ns. This paper describes the modifications made to the PandoraPFA particle flow algorithm to improve the jet energy reconstruction for jet energies above 250 GeV. It then introduces a combination of timing and p_T cuts that can be applied to reconstructed particles in order to significantly reduce the background. A systematic study is performed to understand the dependence of the jet energy resolution on the jet energy and angle, and the physics performance is assessed via a study of the energy and mass resolution of W and Z particles in the presence of background at CLIC. Finally, the missing transverse momentum resolution is presented, and the fake missing momentum is quantified. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that high granularity particle flow calorimetry leads to a robust and high resolution reconstruction of jet energies and di-jet masses at CLIC.

  19. Air Flow North America Corp. – FE Dkt. No. 14-53-LNG (Re-export)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an application filed on March 25, 2014, by Air Flow North America Corp. (AIR FLOW) requesting short...

  20. Flow Measurement with Tangential Paddlewheel Flow Meters: Analysis of Experimental Results and in-situ Diagnostics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, J. B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    or generate a totalized signal that can be recorded by data acquisition system. The accuracy of totalized flow and energy measurements is directly effected by the quality of thermal and flow measurement devices. In a closed-loop system a thermal energy meter... possible solution is to use a frequency to voltage converter between the magnetic paddlewheel flow meter and thermal energy meter to transform the sine wave to a square wave much like the signal generated by the non-magnetic-type meter (Doeblin 1990...

  1. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  2. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  3. Energy 101: Hydropower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  4. Energy 101: Hydropower

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-24

    Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  5. TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL, SOLAR AND OTHER APPLICATIONS Prepared For REPORT (FAR) TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL, SOLAR AND OTHER APPLICATIONS EISG://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Two-Phase Flow Turbine For Cogeneration, Geothermal, Solar And Other Applications EISG

  6. Parameter space study of magnetohydrodynamic flows around magnetized compact objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santabrata Das; Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    2007-06-20

    We solve the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations governing axisymmetric flows around neutron stars and black holes and found all possible solution topologies for adiabatic accretion. We divide the parameter space spanned by the conserved energy and angular momentum of the flow in terms of the flow topologies. We also study the possibility of the formation of the MHD shock waves.

  7. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveerevideosenergy-101-wind-turbines-2014-update Video Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Solar Cell Simulation Students model the flow of energy from the sun as it enters a...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in energy. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Solar Cell Simulation Students model the flow of energy from the sun as it enters a...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy.goveerevideosenergy-101-wind-turbines-2014-update Video Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in 2007. http:energy.goveerevideosre-building-greensburg Video Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveerevideosenergy-101-fuel-cell-technology Video Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it...

  14. Object-Oriented Modelling and Simulation of Air Flow in Data Centres Based on a Quasi-3D Approach for Energy Optimisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Como, Giacomo

    Object-Oriented Modelling and Simulation of Air Flow in Data Centres Based on a Quasi-3D Approach. To this end, different solutions were proposed. On one side, researchers have focused on how to adapt is much faster and more economical than building an actual layout. However, a CFD simulation can last 24

  15. Numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachimori, M.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical simulation model for vertical flow in geothermal wells is presented. The model consists of equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, for thermodynamic state of water, for friction losses, for slip velocity relations, and of the criteria for various flow regimes. A new set of correlations and criteria is presented for two-phase flow to improve the accuracy of predictions; bubbly flow - Griffith and Wallis correlation, slug flow - Nicklin et al. one, annular-mist flow - Inoue and Aoki and modified by the author. The simulation method was verified by data from actual wells.

  16. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  17. Reconstructing Critical Paths from Execution Traces Martijn Hendriks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaandrager, Frits

    Reconstructing Critical Paths from Execution Traces Martijn Hendriks Embedded Systems Institute of constructing critical paths from incomplete information. In general, a directed acyclic graph of tasks with their execution times (i.e., a task graph) is necessary to extract critical paths. We assume, however, that only

  18. Accurate Critical Path Analysis via Random Trace Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilles, Craig

    Accurate Critical Path Analysis via Random Trace Construction Pierre Salverda Charles Tucker Craig to their profiled behavior. We demonstrate our technique in the context of critical path analysis, showing it can achieve the same accuracy as a hardware critical path predictor, but with lower hardware requirements. Key

  19. Reflected and Transmitted Irradiance from Area Sources using Vertex Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Reflected and Transmitted Irradiance from Area Sources using Vertex Tracing Michael M. Stark irradiance analytically from polygonal luminaires in polygonal environments has proven effective for direct- ally used edge-based solutions to the irradiance integral; our previous work pre- sented a vertex

  20. Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing in a Global Earth Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genaud, Stéphane

    from the hypocenter (source) to one station. The #28;nal objective of the seismic tomography process1 Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing in a Global Earth Model Marc Grunberg * , Stéphane Genaud of the Earth interior, and seismic tomogra- phy is a means to improve knowledge in this #28;eld. In order

  1. Optimal Suspicion Functions for Tardos Traitor Tracing Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Descriptors E.4 [Data]: Coding and Information Theory; G.1 [Mathematics of Computing]: Numerical Analysis; G.1 functions for Tardos traitor tracing schemes. In the simple decoder approach (computation of a score.6 [Numerical Analysis]: Optimization--Constrained optimization, Stochastic programming General Terms Design

  2. LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    LANDFILL UNDERGROUND POLLUTION DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION USING INORGANIC TRACES M. O. LOOSER1 received 1 January 1998; accepted in revised form 1 January 1999) AbstractÐSince water is the main contamination arrow in the underground, it is necessary to get good indicators to be able to detect pollution

  3. Trace extensions, determinant bundles, and gauge group cocycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Arnlind; Jouko Mickelsson

    2002-09-04

    We study the geometry of determinant line bundles associated to Dirac operators on compact odd dimensional manifolds. Physically, these arise as (local) vacuum line bundles in quantum gauge theory. We give a simplified derivation of the commutator anomaly formula using a construction based on noncyclic trace extensions and associated multiplicative renormalized determinants.

  4. Trace Elements Greg Mullins, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist, Virginia Tech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    the plants. Manganese (Mn) Manganese deficiency has been found on soybeans and peanuts grown in VirginiaTrace Elements Greg Mullins, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist, Virginia Tech Steve Heckendorn, Soil Test Laboratory Manager, Virginia Tech Soil Test Note #4 Introduction Your Soil Test Report

  5. Realistic Performance Analysis of WSN Protocols Through Trace Based Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Qi "Chee"

    Realistic Performance Analysis of WSN Protocols Through Trace Based Simulation Alan Marchiori, Lin It is a difficult endeavor to realistically evaluate the perfor- mance of wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols. Generic network simulators are often used, but they tend to rely on synthetic models. Because WSN

  6. TRACE FORMULAS AND BORGTYPE THEOREMS FOR MATRIXVALUED JACOBI AND DIRAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TRACE FORMULAS AND BORG­TYPE THEOREMS FOR MATRIX­VALUED JACOBI AND DIRAC FINITE DIFFERENCE­valued Jacobi opera­ tors H and supersymmetric Dirac di#erence operators D are proved. More precisely, assuming reflectionless matrix coe#cients A, B in the self­adjoint Jacobi operator H = AS + + A - S - + B (with

  7. Towards understanding heterogeneous clouds at scale: Google trace analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , their distribution, and the actual resource utilization. Unlike previous scheduler traces we are aware of, this one comparison of actual resource utilization with the user-supplied resource estimates available to the cluster, Ericsson, Facebook, Fusion-IO, General Electric, Hewlett Packard, Hitachi, Huawei, IBM, Intel, Mark

  8. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr Tobias Preis1 *, Helen Susannah Moat1 social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during

  9. Tracing gas motions in the Centaurus Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Graham; A. C. Fabian; J. S. Sanders; R. G. Morris

    2006-02-21

    We apply the stochastic model of iron transport developed by Rebusco et. al. (2005) to the Centaurus cluster. Using this model, we find that an effective diffusion coefficient D in the range 2x10^28 - 4x10^28 cm^2 s^-1 can approximately reproduce the observed abundance distribution. Reproducing the flat central profile and sharp drop around 30-70 kpc, however, requires a diffusion coefficient that drops rapidly with radius so that D > 4x10^28 cm^2 s^-1 only inside about 25 kpc. Assuming that all transport is due to fully-developed turbulence, which is also responsible for offsetting cooling in the cluster core, we calculate the length and velocity scales of energy injection. These length scales are found to be up to a factor of ~ 10 larger than expected if the turbulence is due to the inflation and rising of a bubble. We also calculate the turbulent thermal conductivity and find it is unlikely to be significant in preventing cooling.

  10. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  11. Analysis of a flapping foil system for energy harvesting at low Reynolds number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Hunkee

    2011-01-01

    a stationary inviscid stream tube around a energy-extractionwith the free stream flow at ? : (a) energy extractionwith the free stream flow at ? : (a) energy extraction

  12. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 ..mu..g/g, 49 ..mu..g/g, and 272 ..mu..g/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel.

  13. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  14. AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report...

  15. Developmental long trace profiler using optimally aligned mirror based pentaprism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Berlin für Materialien und Energie, ElektronenspeicherringBerlin für Materialien und Energie, ElektronenspeicherringBerlin für Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring

  16. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Trace elements and alkaliTrace elements and alkali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    mg/m³STPSTP @ 11 % O22, dry Power plant Finland (1990+) MSW incinerator Finland (1994) MSW incinerator EU * (2000) Power plant Germany (1999) MSW incinerator Germany (1999) Waste incinerator USA (1995 UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Gas turbine inlet specifications for trace elementsGas turbine inlet

  17. Flow Field Flow Fractionation Method Development for Applied Bioanalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schachermeyer, Samantha Lynn

    2013-01-01

    E. ; Caldwell, K. , Field-Flow Fractionation Handbook. JohnJ. P. , Sedimentation field-flow-fractionation: emergence ofby sedimentation field-flow fractionation. Am. Lab. (

  18. This Issue: Forest Carbon Stocks and Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy Framework Managing Forests because Carbon Matters: Integrating Energy, Products, and Land's Note M.T. Goergen Jr. SAF TASK FORCE REPORT Managing Forests because Carbon Matters: Integrating EnergyThis Issue: Forest Carbon Stocks and Flows Climate­Forest Interactions Biomass Use and Feedstock

  19. Point flow sensor study for electronic gas energy metering. Phase 1. Thermophysical and fluid-dynamic data. Final report, March 15, 1994-July 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonne, U.; Vesovic, V.; Wakeham, W.A.

    1996-07-15

    The set published properties of gases constituting natural gas, at pressures up to 300 basr (4500 psi) ad for -40 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 250 deg C, is not accurate or consistent enough for members of hte gas industry, research groups, NGV-automotive engineers, and meter manufacturers to nondestructively calibrate existing, affordable, combustionless, on-line and in situ microsensors for their applications. Therefore, this study was set up to (1) establish a consistent set of thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, and isobaric heat capacity) of pure and mixed gas constituents of natural gases and (2) prove the validity and limitations of using one or more point sensors in suitable flow channels for the determination of total fluid flow.

  20. Kelkar, S. 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SYSTEMS; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; HEAT TRANSFER; MASS TRANSFER; MULTIPHASE FLOW; POROUS MATERIALS; COMPUTER CODES; ENERGY SYSTEMS; ENERGY TRANSFER; FLUID FLOW; GEOTHERMAL...