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1

The NPE gas tracer test and the development of on-site inspection techniques  

SciTech Connect

Tracer gases emplaced in or near the detonation cavity of the 1-kiloton NonProliferation Event required 1.5 and 13.5 months for sulfur hexaflouride and helium-3, respectively, to reach the surface of Rainier Mesa from an emplacement depth of 400 meters. The sites that first produced tracer gases are those located in known faults and fractures. Numerical modeling suggests that transport to the surface is accomplished within this time frame through atmospheric pumping along high permeability pathways such as fractures. The difference in travel time between the two tracers is due to differences in gas diffusivity and can also be explained by our numerical modeling.

Carrigan, C.; Heinle, R.; Zucca, J.J.

1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

2

Gas tracer composition and method  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides a method for tagging methane by adding thereto one or more of the tracer compounds sulfur hexafluoride and chloropentafluoroethane. The methane being tagged is normally being stored in underground storage fields to provide identity and proof of ownership of the gas. The two tracer compounds are readily detectable at very low concentrations by electron capture gas chromatography apparatus which can be made portable and thus suitable for use in the field.

Malcosky, N. D.; Koziar, G.

1985-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

3

Meteorological Tracer Techniques for Parameterizing Atmospheric Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although tracer materials have been used in atmospheric dispersion studies for decades, basic information about meteorological tracer techniques is scattered among a number of different sources. This paper attempts to pull together this ...

Warren B. Johnson

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Multiple-tracer gas analyzer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-gas tracer system has been designed, built, and used on an explosively fractured oil shale rubble bed. This paper deals exclusively with the hardware, software, and overall operation of the tracer system. This system is a field portable, self-contained unit, which utilizes a mass spectrometer for gas analysis. The unit has a 20 channel sample port capability and is controlled by a desk top computer. The system is configured to provide a dynamic sensitivity range of up to six orders of magnitude. A roots blower is manifolded to the unit to provide continuous flow in all sample lines. The continuous flow process allows representative samples as well as decreasing the time between each measurement. Typical multiplex cycle time to evaluate four unique gases is approximately 12 seconds.

Uhl, J.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes Title Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to...

6

Gas Bubbles as Oceanographic Tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air bubbles can be used as oceanographic tracers that indicate the strength of a downwelling current by which they are subducted. In a tidal front in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, Canada, vertical currents of up to 0.70 m s?1 subduct ...

Burkard Baschek; David M. Farmer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Geologic flow characterization using tracer techniques  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new tracer flow-test system has been developed for in situ characterization of geologic formations. This report describes two sets of test equipment: one portable and one for testing in deep formations. Equations are derived for in situ detector calibration, raw data reduction, and flow logging. Data analysis techniques are presented for computing porosity and permeability in unconfined isotropic media, and porosity, permeability and fracture characteristics in media with confined or unconfined two-dimensional flow. The effects of tracer pulse spreading due to divergence, dispersion, and porous formations are also included.

Klett, R. D.; Tyner, C. E.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes Melissa Lunden, David Faulkner, Elizabeth Heredia, Sebastian Cohn, Darryl Dickerhoff, Federico Noris, Jennifer Logue, Toshifumi Hotchi, Brett Singer and Max H. Sherman Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-5984E 2 Disclaimer: This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

9

Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1-3% in landfill gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yazdani, Ramin [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Yolo County, 44090 County Rd. 28H, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T., E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFD Predictions Title Tracer Gas Transport under Mixed Convection Conditions in an Experimental Atrium: Comparison Between Experiments and CFD Predictions Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Jayaraman, Buvaneswari, Elizabeth U. Finlayson, Michael D. Sohn, Tracy L. Thatcher, Phillip N. Price, Emily E. Wood, Richard G. Sextro, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5236-5250 Keywords airflow and pollutant transport group, atria, indoor airflow and pollutant transport, indoor environment department, indoor pollutant dispersion, mixed convection, turbulence model

11

Field and numerical studies of tracer gas transport and surface gas tranfer in laterally uniform, partially stratified estuaries  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for determination of reaeration rates in natural waterbodies are reviewed. The tracer gas technique for reaeration rate determination offers many advantages over other existing methods and is widely used in rivers and streams. The tracer gas method seems to be the most promising of available techniques for estuarine reaeration rate determination. The two-dimensional late-rally averaged equations describing flow and transport in estuaries are derived and discussed. A laterally averaged numerical model of estaurine hydrodynamics and transport is modified so that tracer gas releases may be simulated. Field studies conducted as a part of the study are described. Two dye releases were made in the upper Houston Ship Channel; two dye tracer gas releases were later made in the same region. The data from these studies are presented and analyzed. Mechanical mixing by shipping traffic proved to be the predominant mixing mechanism and a hindrance to further studies at that site. An intensive field study was conducted in the Colorado River estuary. Field data included velocities, salinity profiles, water surface elevations, and dye concentration data from three dye releases. The data from this study are used to calibrate and test the numerical model of estuarine tracer gas transport.

Bales, J.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Rapid measurements and mapping of tracer gas concentrations in a large indoor space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of tracer gas dispersion are useful as a meansvisualization measurements of gas dispersion in large indoorcharacteristics of the gas dispersion. Figure 4 shows the

Fischer, M.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Final report, October 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three year research project on the use of tracers for reservoir characterization. The objective of this research was to develop advanced, innovative techniques for the description of reservoir characteristics using both single-well backflow and interwell tracer tests. (1) The authors implemented and validated tracer modeling features in a compositional simulator (UTCOMP). (2) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir heterogeneity. (3) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir wettability in-situ. (4) They developed a new, simple and efficient method to analyze two well tracer tests based upon type curve matching and illustrated its use with actual field tracer data. (5) They developed a new method for deriving an integrated reservoir description based upon combinatorial optimization schemes. (6) They developed a new, interwell tracer test for reservoir heterogeneity called vertical tracer profiling (VTP) and demonstrated its advantages over conventional interwell tracer testing. (7) They developed a simple and easy analytical method to estimate swept pore volume from interwell tracer data and showed both the theoretical basis for this method and its practical utility. (8) They made numerous enhancements to our compositional reservoir simulator such as including the full permeability tensor, adding faster solvers, improving its speed and robustness and making it easier to use (better I/0) for tracer simulation problems. (9) They applied the enhanced version of UTCOMP to the analysis of interwell tracer data using perfluorocarbons at Elks Hill Naval Petroleum Reserve. All of these accomplishments taken together have significantly improved the state of reservoir tracer technology and have demonstrated that it is a far more powerful and useful tool for quantitative reservoir characterization than previously realized or practiced by the industry.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Delshad, M.; Ferreira, L.; Gupta, A.; Maroongroge, V.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Development of a Set of Inherent Particulate and Gas Tracers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of results to the number and quality of tracer elements and if new (interfering) sources are detected. * Determine primary and secondary PM 2.5 contributions from power...

15

High-Resolution Stratospheric Tracer Fields Reconstructed with Lagrangian Techniques: A Comparative Analysis of Predictive Skill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical experiments and statistical analyses are conducted to determine the skill of different Lagrangian techniques for the construction of tracer distributions. High-resolution potential vorticity (PV) maps are calculated from simulations of ...

R. Dragani; G. Redaelli; G. Visconti; A. Mariotti; V. Rudakov; A. R. MacKenzie; L. Stefanutti

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2004 Authors Kristoffersen, Astrid H., Ashok J. Gadgil, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms - RoomVent 2004, Pagination pp 6 Date Published September 5-8, 2 Conference Location Coimbra, Portugal Abstract Tracer gas measurements are commonly used to estimate the fresh air exchange rate in a room or building. Published tracer decay methods account for fresh air supply, infiltration, and leaks in ductwork. However, the time delay associated with a ventilation system recirculating tracer back to the room also affects the decay rate. We present an analytical study of tracer gas decay in a well-mixed, mechanically-ventilated room with recirculation. The analysis shows that failing to account for delays can lead to under- or over-estimates of the fresh air supply, depending on whether the decay rate calculation includes the duct volume

17

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Lorenzetti, David M., Astrid H. Kristoffersen, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Indoor Air Pagination 7 Keywords recirculating ventilation, tracer decay rate Abstract Tracer gas measurements are used to estimate the flow rate of fresh air into a room or building. These methods commonly account for the decay of tracer gas concentration as the result of ventilation air supply and infiltration, using a well-mixed model of the space. Some researchers also have considered the effect of leakage in the ventilation ductwork. This paper considers the effect of recirculation through ventilation ducts on the calculated fresh air supply rate. Transport delay in the ducts can significantly alter the time evolution of tracer concentration, and hence alter the estimated air change rate.

18

Motorola's Exhaust Optimization Program: Tracer Gas Application for Gas Panel Enclosures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Motorola Exhaust Optimization Program strives toward identifying the optimum exhaust requirements for gas panel enclosures to help conserve energy and provide future exhaust capacity for new tools. Various Motorola studies have shown that at least 20% of total fab electrical usage is attributed to make-up air fans, exhaust fans, and chilled water systems for recirculation and make-up air. This is equivalent to over 35 million kWh per a year for a typical Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector (SPS) fab. These obtained studies have prompted Motorola to focus on a broad range of energy conservation projects. This paper will focus on exhaust optimization through tracer gas testing. Testing has resulted in exhaust and make-up air reductions of as high as 70% of manufacturer's specifications per gas enclosure. This approach leads to energy conservation and infrastructure cost avoidance for new exhaust fans, ductwork, abatement equipment, and make-up air systems.

Myart, H. R.; Camacho, R.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal production by Tracer dilution techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique has been developed for the measurement of steam mass flowrate, water mass flowrate and total enthalpy of two-phase fluids produced from geothermal wells. The method involves precisely metered injection of liquid and vapor phase tracers into the two-phase production pipeline and concurrent sampling of each phase downstream of the injection point. Subsequent chemical analysis of the steam and water samples for tracer content enables the calculation of mass flowrate for each phase given the known mass injection rates of tracer. This technique has now been used extensively at the Coso geothermal project, owned and operated by California Energy Company. Initial validation of the method was performed at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal project on wells producing to individual production separators equipped with orificeplate flowmeters for each phase.

Hirtz, Paul; Lovekin, Jim; Copp, John; Buck, Cliff; Adams, Mike

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

20

Tracer Applications of Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Geosciences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Water in Alberta With Special Focus on the Oil and Gas Industry (Education Paper) Seyyed Ghaderi......................................................................................................................................14 5. Water and Unconventional Energy Resources in Alberta? ................................................................................17 What is Unconventional about CBM Production

Kemner, Ken

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: > Precise and reliable measurements of emissions from landfills are needed. > A tracer technique involving simultaneous release of two tracers was proven successful. > Measurements to be performed at times with low changing trends in barometric pressure. - Abstract: A double tracer technique was used successfully to quantify whole-site methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from Fakse Landfill. Emissions from different sections of the landfill were quantified by using two different tracers. A scaled-down version of the tracer technique measuring close-by to localized sources having limited areal extent was also used to quantify emissions from on-site sources at the landfill facility, including a composting area and a sewage sludge storage pit. Three field campaigns were performed. At all three field campaigns an overall leak search showed that the CH{sub 4} emissions from the old landfill section were localized to the leachate collection wells and slope areas. The average CH{sub 4} emissions from the old landfill section were quantified to be 32.6 {+-} 7.4 kg CH{sub 4} h{sup -1}, whereas the source at the new section was quantified to be 10.3 {+-} 5.3 kg CH{sub 4} h{sup -1}. The CH{sub 4} emission from the compost area was 0.5 {+-} 0.25 kg CH{sub 4} h{sup -1}, whereas the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux was quantified to be in the order of 332 {+-} 166 kg CO{sub 2} h{sup -1} and 0.06 {+-} 0.03 kg N{sub 2}O h{sup -1}, respectively. The sludge pit located west of the compost material was quantified to have an emission of 2.4 {+-} 0.63 kg h{sup -1} CH{sub 4}, and 0.03 {+-} 0.01 kg h{sup -1} N{sub 2}O.

Scheutz, C., E-mail: chs@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, J., E-mail: jerker.samuelsson@fluxsense.se [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Fredenslund, A.M., E-mail: amf@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Kjeldsen, P., E-mail: pk@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljovej, Building 113, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Geometric Offsets Across Spiral Arms in M51: Nature of Gas and Star Formation Tracers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report measurements of geometric offsets between gas spiral arms and associated star forming regions in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51. These offsets are a suggested measure of the star formation timescale after the compression of gas at spiral arm entry. A surprising discrepancy, by an order of magnitude, has been reported in recent offset measurements in nearby spiral galaxies. Measurements using CO and H-alpha emission find large and ordered offsets in M51. On the contrary, small or non-ordered offsets have been found using the HI 21cm and 24 micron emissions, possible evidence against gas flow through spiral arms, and thus against the conventional density-wave theory with a stationary spiral pattern. The goal of this paper is to understand the cause of this discrepancy. We investigate potential causes by repeating those previous measurements using equivalent data, methods, and parameters. We find offsets consistent with the previous measurements and conclude that the difference of gas tracers, i.e....

Louie, M; Egusa, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Tracer Testing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Testing Tracer Testing Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Tracer Testing Details Activities (9) Areas (5) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Fracture zones and formation permeability Hydrological: Flow rates, flow direction, hydrologic connections, storativity Thermal: Dictionary.png Tracer Testing: A method based on injecting chemical tracers into the reservoir and monitoring how long it takes and where those tracers travel. The purpose is to model subsurface hydrothermal flow characteristics.

24

Environmental assessment of the use of radionuclides as tracers in the enhanced recovery of oil and gas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An environmental assessment of the use of radioisotopes as interwell tracers in field flooding for the enhanced recovery of oil and natural gas was performed. A typical operation using radioisotopes for interwell tracing was analyzed from the standpoint of three stages of operation: aboveground, subsurface, and recovery and disposal. Doses to workers who handle radioactive tracers and to members of the public were estimated for normal and accidental exposure scenarios. On the basis of estimates of the total quantity of tracer radionuclides injected in a year, the annual number of projects, the average number of injections per project, and assumed values of accident frequency, the collective dose equivalent is estimated to be 1.1 man-rem/y to workers and 15 man-rem/y to members of the public. The national radiological impact of the use of radioisotopes as interwell tracers in EOR projects is estimated to be a total collective dose equivalent of <16 man-rem/y. Accidential exposures are estimated to contribute relatively little to the total. 47 references, 8 figures, 43 tables.

Ng, Y.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Anspaugh, L.R.

1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Wear Measurement of Highly Cross-linked UHMWPE using a 7Be Tracer Implantation Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The very low wear rates achieved with the current highly cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) used in joint prostheses have proven to be difficult to measure accurately by gravimetry. Tracer methods are there- fore being explored. The purpose of this study was to perform a proof-of-concept experiment on the use of the radioactive tracer beryllium-7 (7Be) for the determination of in vitro wear in a highly cross-linked orthopedic UHMWPE. Three cross-linked and four conventional UHMWPE pins made from compression- molded GUR 1050, were activated with 109 to 1010 7Be nuclei using a new implantation setup that produced a homogenous distribution of implanted nuclei up to 8.5 lm below the surface. The pins were tested for wear in a six-station pin-on-flat appara- tus for up to 7.1 million cycles (178 km). A Germanium gamma detector was employed to determine activity loss of the UHMWPE pins at preset intervals during the wear test. The wear of the cross-linked UHMWPE pins was readily detected and esti- mated to be 17 6 3 lg per million cycles. The conventional-to- cross-linked ratio of the wear rates was 13.1 6 0.8, in the expected range for these materials. Oxidative degradation dam- age from implantation was negligible; however, a weak depend- ence of wear on implantation dose was observed limiting the number of radioactive tracer atoms that can be introduced. Future applications of this tracer technology may include the analysis of location-specific wear, such as loss of material in the post or backside of a tibial insert.

Wimmer, Markus A. [Rush Uniiv. Medical Center; Laurent, Michael P. [Rush Univ. Medical Center; Dwivedi, Yasha [Rush Univ. Medical Center; Gallardo, Luis A. [Rush Univ. Medical Center; Chipps, K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Blackmon, Jeffery C [Louisiana State University; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Erikson, Luke [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Patel, Nidhi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Rehm, Karl E. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ahmad, Irshad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Greene, John P. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Greife, Uwe [Colorado School of Mines, Golden

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Gas tracer composition and method. [Process to determine whether any porous underground methane storage site is in fluid communication with a gas producing well  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for determining whether any porous underground gaseous methane storage sites is in fluid communication with a gas producing well, and if there is fluid communication, determining which site is in the fluid communication comprising injecting a different gaseous tracer mixture into each of the sites at some location in each of the site in an amount such that the presence of the tracer mixture will be detectable in the gaseous methane stored therein, each of the mixture having the properties of (1) not occurring in natural supplies of methane, (2) diffusing through any underground methane storage site in a manner very similar in rate to methane, and (3) being substantially insoluble in petroleum distillates, after a period of time sufficient for each of the tracer mixtures to diffuse through the underground site from its injection location to the well, withdrawing a sample gaseous product from the well, testing the sample gaseous product for the presence of each of the tracer mixtures.

Malcosky, N.D.; Koziar, G.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Retention of Tracer Gas from Instantaneous Releases of SF6 in an Urban Environment  

SciTech Connect

Data from a series of instantaneous releases of SF6 tracer during the Joint Urban 2003 study in Oklahoma City have been analyzed to determine characteristic retention times for puffs in an urban environment. Results from nine real-time tracer detectors with a time response of 0.5 seconds were used in the analysis. Distances from the source ranged from less than 200 m to over 1 km. For each individual intensive operating period (IOP), the detector locations were adjusted so that, given the expected wind directions during the releases, the detectors would lie generally downwind of the release point. As a result, building characteristics upwind of the detectors varied from one IOP to the next. Animations of the tracer concentrations show clear evidence of channeling along street canyons approximately parallel to the prevailing wind directions, trapping in street canyons perpendicular to the flow, and other complex circulation patterns. Retention times for individual puffs ranged from a few minutes to over 20 minutes, with a strong mode in the distribution around 11 minutes. There was surprisingly little correlation with wind speed or direction. Comparisons with simple puff models are presented.

Doran, J. C.; Allwine, K Jerry; Clawson, Kirk L.; Carter, Roger G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Contour Advection with Surgery: A Technique for Investigating Finescale Structure in Tracer Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a trajectory technique, contour advection with surgery (CAS), for tracing the evolution of material contours in a specified (including observed) evolving flow. CAS uses the algorithms developed by Dritschel for contour dynamics/surgery ...

Darryn W. Waugh; R. Alan Plumb

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Applications of Ensemble-based Data Assimilation Techniques for Aquifer Characterization using Tracer Data at Hanford 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface aquifer characterization often involves high parameter dimensionality and requires tremendous computational resources if employing a full Bayesian approach. Ensemble-based data assimilation techniques, including filtering and smoothing, are computationally efficient alternatives. Despite the increasing number of applications of ensemble-based methods in assimilating flow and transport related data for subsurface aquifer charaterization, most are limited to either synthetic studies or two-dimensional problems. In this study, we applied ensemble-based techniques for assimilating field tracer experimental data obtained from the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site at the Hanford 300 Area. The forward problem was simulated using the massively-parallel three-dimensional flow and transport code PFLOTRAN to effectively deal with the highly transient flow boundary conditions at the site and to meet the computational demands of ensemble-based methods. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of ensemble-based methods for characterizing a heterogeneous aquifer by sequentially assimilating multiple types of data. The necessity of employing high performance computing is shown to enable increasingly mechanistic non-linear forward simulations to be performed within the data assimilation framework for a complex system with reasonable turnaround time.

Chen, Xingyuan; Hammond, Glenn E.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Zachara, John M.

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Optimization Techniques for the Brazilian Natural Gas Network ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 4, 2013 ... Optimization Techniques for the Brazilian Natural Gas Network Planning Problem . Leonardo A.M. Moraes(leonardo.moraes ***at*** ...

31

Microsoft PowerPoint - Tracer plume detection-LANL(Fessenden...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificially introduced or naturally present All tracers will partition into liquid and gas phases -T,P, Depth Dependent Information Gathered from Tracers (1)Reservoir volume...

32

Tracers and Tracer Interpretation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracers and Tracer Interpretation Tracers and Tracer Interpretation Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Tracers and Tracer Interpretation 2 Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Tracers and Tracer Interpretation Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Tracers and Tracer Interpretation Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

33

Solving Natural Gas Loadflow Problems Using Electric Loadflow Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — Methods to solve natural gas loadflow problems using electric loadflow techniques are presented. The motivation is to integrate a natural gas network with an electric power transmission network so that the network analysis for a combined natural gas and electric power distribution network can be performed in a consistent manner. The issues arising from solving gas loadflow problems are discussed for the sake of electrical engineers. The application method and related issues are demonstrated through a case study on a gas network with compressors. I.

Qing Li

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas and vapor. However, current application of infrared imaging techniques for gas measurements are still limited due to several uncertainties in their performance parameters. The aim of this research work was to determine the key factors in the application of infrared imaging technology for gas visualization and a non-contact temperature measurement. Furthermore, the concentration profile and emission rate of the gas are predicted by combining the application of the infrared imaging method with gas dispersion modeling. In this research, infrared cameras have been used to visualize liquefied natural gas (LNG) plumes from LNG spills on water. The analyses of the thermograms showed that the apparent temperatures were different from the thermocouple measurement which occurred due to the assumption of that the object emissivity was always equal to unity. The emissivity for pure methane gas and a mixture of methane and atmospheric gases were then evaluated in order to obtain the actual temperature distribution of the gas cloud. The results showed that by including the emissivity value of the gas, the temperature profile of the dispersed gas obtained from a thermal imaging measurement was in good agreement with the measurement using the thermocouples. Furthermore, the temperature distribution of the gas was compared to the concentration of a dispersed LNG vapor cloud to obtain a correlation between the temperature and the concentration of the cloud. Other application of infrared imaging technique was also conducted for leak detection of natural gas from a pipeline. The capability of an infrared camera to detect a fugitive gas leak was combined with the simulation of vapor discharge and dispersion in order to obtain a correlation between the emission rates and the sizes of the gas plume to the minimum detectable concentration. The relationship of the methane gas cloud size to the gas emission rate was highly dependent to the prevailing atmospheric condition. The results showed that the correlation were best to predict the emission rate less than 0.2 kg/s. At higher emission rate, the increase in gas release rate did not change the size of the cloud significantly.

Safitri, Anisa

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

Wang, Duo (Albany, CA)

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

36

Application of a Signal Technique to the Source–Receptor Relationship in Three-Dimensional Tracer Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Identifying pollutant sources that contribute to downstream locations is important for policy making and air-quality control. In this study, a computationally economic signal technique was implemented into a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic ...

Zhan Zhao; Shu-Hua Chen

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Harris, B.R. Jr. (USDOE Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, Tupman, CA (United States)); DeRose, W.E. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); Ottaviani, W.L. (Chevron U.S.A., Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

DENSE GAS TRACERS IN PERSEUS: RELATING THE N{sub 2}H{sup +}, NH{sub 3}, AND DUST CONTINUUM PROPERTIES OF PRE- AND PROTOSTELLAR CORES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate 35 prestellar cores and 36 protostellar cores in the Perseus molecular cloud. We find a very tight correlation between the physical parameters describing the N{sub 2}H{sup +} and NH{sub 3} gas. Both the velocity centroids and the line widths of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and NH{sub 3} correlate much better than either species correlates with CO, as expected if the nitrogen-bearing species are probing primarily the dense core gas where the CO has been depleted. We also find a tight correlation in the inferred abundance ratio between N{sub 2}H{sup +} and para-NH{sub 3} across all cores, with N(p-NH{sub 3})/N(N{sub 2}H{sup +}) = 22 +- 10. We find a mild correlation between NH{sub 3} (and N{sub 2}H{sup +}) column density and the (sub)millimeter dust continuum derived H{sub 2} column density for prestellar cores, N(p-NH{sub 3})/N(H{sub 2}) {approx}10{sup -8}, but do not find a fixed ratio for protostellar cores. The observations suggest that in the Perseus molecular cloud the formation and destruction mechanisms for the two nitrogen-bearing species are similar, regardless of the physical conditions in the dense core gas. While the equivalence of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and NH{sub 3} as powerful tracers of dense gas is validated, the lack of correspondence between these species and the (sub)millimeter dust continuum observations for protostellar cores is disconcerting and presently unexplained.

Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Helen [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Tafalla, Mario, E-mail: doug.johnstone@nrc-cnrc.gc.c [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Flame-capturing technique. 1: Adaptation to gas expansion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various flame tracking techniques are often used in hydrodynamic simulations. Their use is indispensable when resolving actual scale of the flame is impossible. We show that parameters defining "artificial flame" propagation found from model systems may yield flame velocities several times distinct from the required ones, due to matter expansion being ignored in the models. Integral effect of material expansion due to burning is incorporated into flame capturing technique (FCT) [Khokhlov(1995)]. Interpolation formula is proposed for the parameters governing flame propagation yielding 0.2% accurate speed and width for any expansion (and at least 0.01% accurate for expansions typical in type Ia supernova explosions.) Several models with simple burning rates are studied with gas expansion included. Plausible performance of the technique in simulations is discussed. Its modification ensuring finite flame width is found. Implementation suggestions are summarized, main criterion being the scheme performance being insensitive to expansion parameter (thus absence of systematic errors when the burning progresses from inner to outer layers); in this direction promising realizations are found, leading to flame structure not changing while flame evolves through the whole range of densities in the white dwarf.

Andrey V. Zhiglo

2005-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

40

TRIDENT flyer plate Impact technique: comparison to gas gun plate impact technique  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the details of a series of plate impact experiments that were conducted on a gas gun in an effort to validate a new technique for plate impact using the TRIDENT laser to launch thin flyers. The diagnostics fielded were VISAR and identical samples and impactors were used on both platforms. All experimenters agree that the VISAR results should have agreed between the two experimental platforms. The VISAR results did not agree across the platforms and experimenters offer explanations and implications for this outcome.

Darcie D. Koller; George T. Gray III; Sheng-Nian Luo

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

Kocabas, I.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Optimization Techniques for the Brazilian Natural Gas Network ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 4, 2013 ... This chain starts with exploration and production activities that, together with importation activity, correspond to gas acquisi- tion. Gas is shipped ...

43

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a method by which microseismic events can be discriminated/detected that correspond to only the portion of the hydraulic fracture that contains the proppant material and can be expected to be conductive to the flow of oil and gas. July 3, 2013 Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Figure 1: A graph of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature for the anti-perovskite Li3OCl. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Applications: Oil and gas production Geophysical exploration Benefits: Tracks the disposition of material in a hydraulic fracturing

44

Advanced Laser Machining Techniques for Cooling Holes in Gas...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that will improve the predictability and repeatability of cooling hole performance in gas turbine blades while meeting manufacturing cost objectives. The water guided laser...

45

Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF{sub 6} by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF{sub 6}, indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour.

Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Energy Research Group Department of Electrical the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Abstract and the differences between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a graphical technique

Hughes, Larry

47

Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Tracer Testing Activity Date 2006 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To characterize the flow patterns of fluid injected into well 68-20RD. Notes A conservative liquid phase tracer, 2-naphthalene sulfonate, and a two-phase tracer, ethanol, were injected into well 68-20RD. Surrounding production wells were sampled over the subsequent 125 days and analyzed for the two tracers. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the simultaneous use of liquid-phase and two-phase tracers in fluid-depleted geothermal

48

Biological tracer method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Biological tracer method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

Strong-Gunderson, Janet M. (Ten Mile, TN); Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Gas injection techniques for condensate recovery and remediation of liquid banking in gas-condensate reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In gas-condensate reservoirs, gas productivity declines due to the increasing accumulation of liquids in the near wellbore region as the bottom-hole pressure declines below the… (more)

Hwang, Jongsoo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Numerical Simulations of Airflows and Tracer Transport in the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Project MOHAVE (Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects) produced a unique set of tracer data over the southwestern United States. During the summer of 1992, a perfluorocarbon tracer gas was released from the Mohave Power Project (MPP), a large ...

Tetsuji Yamada

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Using Thermally Degrading, Partitioning and Nonreactive Tracers...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Type Topic 2 Tracers and Tracer Interpretation Project Description The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this...

53

New particle-control techniques for gas-insulated apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The feasibilities of two new methods of controlling contaminating particles in gas-insulated apparatus have been experimentally investigated. The first method is to coat the particles with an insulating layer: for the first time it was found that (1) coatings can render harmless particles that would otherwise lower the withstand voltage by factors of 2 to 5 and (2) coatings can be formed on particles residing in the system. The second method, trapping particles in an insulating material, was found effective also, and suitable materials were compounded for different temperature ranges.

Pace, M.O.; Adcock, J.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Diagnosis of Subtropical Humidity Dynamics Using Tracers of Last Saturation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for diagnosing the mechanisms that control the humidity in a general circulation model (GCM) or observationally derived meteorological analysis dataset is presented. The technique involves defining a large number of tracers, each of ...

Joseph Galewsky; Adam Sobel; Isaac Held

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A toolkit for groundwater mean residence time interpretation with gaseous tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical Excel-based toolkit called Gas-Tracer-Interpretation (GTI) was developed for determining mean residence time (MRT) of groundwater samples and for validating conceptual model assumptions. This novel data interpretation toolkit improves data ... Keywords: Environmental tracer, Environmental tracers concentrations in water, Groundwater dating, Lumped-parameter modeling, Water age

Pablo Fernando Dávila, Christoph Külls, Markus Weiler

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (1993) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (1993) Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (1993) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Tracer Testing Activity Date 1993 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To determine the steam and water mass flow rate Notes The method involves precisely metered injection of liquid and vapor phase tracers into the two-phase production pipeline and concurrent sampling of each phase downstream of the injection point. Subsequent chemical analysis of the steam and water samples for tracer content enables the calculation of mass flowrate for each phase given the known mass injection rates of

57

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: · Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. · Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

58

Please cite this article in press as: Gilfillan, S.M.V., et al., He and Ne as tracers of natural CO2 migration up a fault from a deep reservoir. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2011.08.008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Greenhouse Gas Control journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijggc He and Ne as tracers of natural CO22 Noble gases Carbon isotopes Geological storage of CO2 Natural analogues a b s t r a c t Capture that could arise from a diffuse leakage of CO2 from a storage site. This is because there are many natural

59

Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement  

SciTech Connect

A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Tracer Verification of Trajectory Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perfluorocarbon tracer data collected during the Cross Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX '83) are used to determine the accuracy of three trajectory models: an isentropic, an isobaric, and a dimensional sigma model. The root-mean-square ...

Philip L. Haagenson; Ying-Hwa Kuo; Marina Syumanich; Nelson L. Seaman

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Obtaining Velocities from Tracer Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple advective-diffusive system with uniform, horizontal flow in a channel and fixed boundary concentrations of two tracers is analyzed for the tracer concentrations in the interior. The deduced concentrations are then treated as given ...

Manuel E. Fiadeiro; George Veronis

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Tracer Advection Using Dynamic Grid Adaptation and MM5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic grid adaptation (DGA) technique is used to numerically simulate tracer transport at meso- and regional scales. A gridpoint redistribution scheme is designed to maximize heuristic characteristics of a “good” grid. The advective solver ...

John P. Iselin; William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Some new techniques in tritium gas handling as applied to metal hydride synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art tritium Hydride Synthesis System (HSS) was designed and built to replace the existing system within the Tritium Salt Facility (TSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This new hydriding system utilized unique fast-cycling 5.63 mole uranium beds (50.9 g to T/sub 2/ at 100% loading) and novel gas circulating hydriding furnaces. Tritium system components discussed include fast-cycling uranium beds, circulating gas hydriding furnaces, valves, storage volumes, manifolds, gas transfer pumps, and graphic display and control consoles. Many of the tritium handling and processing techniques incorporated into this system are directly applicable to today's fusion fuel loops.

Nasise, J.E.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Some new techniques in tritium gas handling as applied to metal hydride synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art tritium Hydriding Synthesis System (HSS) was designed and built to replace the existing system within the Tritium Salt Facility (TSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This new hydriding system utilizes unique fast-cycling 7.9 mole uranium beds (47.5g of T at 100% loading) and novel gas circulating hydriding furnaces. Tritium system components discussed include fast-cycling uranium beds, circulating gas hydriding furnaces, valves, storage volumes, manifolds, gas transfer pumps, and graphic display and control consoles. Many of the tritium handling and processing techniques incorporated into this system are directly applicable to today's fusion fuel loops. 12 refs., 7 figs.

Nasise, J.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique April 2, 2012 - 3:11pm Addthis The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. What does this mean for me? You can save 5%-30% on your energy bill by making upgrades following a home energy assessment. A professional energy auditor may use the PFT air infiltration measurement technique to find out where your home has air leaks, though a blower door test is more commonly used.

66

A Partial Oxidation Technique for Fuel-Cell Anode Exhaust-Gas Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the performance of a gas generator used to synthesize the exhaust gas from the anode of a molten-carbonate fuel cell. The composition of this gas is estimated to be that of equilibrium at 1,250 ° F and 1 atm: 48% CO2 , 39% H2O, 5% CO, and 8% H2, with an energy content of approximately 39 Btu/scf (higher heating value). To synthesize a range of gas compositions around this point, the gas generator partially oxidizes a mixture of CH4 , O2 , and CO2 to generate energy densities between 20 and 60 Btu/scf at temperatures between 1,198 and 1,350 ° F. Results show that the technique provides a relatively high ratio of CO to H2 concentrations compared with the target composition (CO:H2 of 2, versus 0.71). A detailed chemical model shows that the likely cause is quenching of the CO and H2 chemistry below 2,000 ° F.

Edward H. Robey, Jr.; Randall S. Gemmen

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

67

Tracer Testing At East Mesa Geothermal Area (1983) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Testing At East Mesa Geothermal Area (1983) Tracer Testing At East Mesa Geothermal Area (1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Tracer Testing At East Mesa Geothermal Area (1983) Exploration Activity Details Location East Mesa Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Tracer Testing Activity Date 1983 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Two field experiments were conducted to develop chemical tracer procedures for use with injection-backflow testing, one on the fracture-permeability Raft River reservoir and the other on the matrix-permeability East Mesa reservoir. Results from tests conducted with incremental increases in the injection volume at both East Mesa and Raft River suggests that, for both reservoirs, permeability remained uniform with increasing distance from the

68

Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods  

SciTech Connect

Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Geologic Flow Characterization Using Tracer Techniques Robert...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can be used in liquids, including methanol and ethyl alcohols, acetone, MEK, formic acid, acetic acid, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, sugar, sodium, 11 12 potassium, lithium, phenols,...

71

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: This report describes the sampling and analytical techniques used for tracer analysis in the Raft River and East Mesa field tests. The collection procedures and sample preservation techniques, analytical methods and possible sources of contamination or error are discussed in detail. Author(s): Kroneman, R. L.; Yorgason, K. R.; Moore, J. N. Published: DOE Information Bridge, 12/1/1984 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: 10.2172/5121460

72

Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Tracer Diffusion Databases for ICME  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of a large repository of stable isotopes that can be utilized for tracer diffusion .... Lattice Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Lithium Battery Materials LiMPO4 ...

74

BNL | Tracer Technology Group | BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracer Technology Group Tracer Technology Group Tracer Technology Image The Tracer Technology Group (TTG) developed the use of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) as tools for studying long range atmospheric transport and dispersion in the early 1980s.We are world leaders in the use of PFTs for solving diverse research and engineering problems in the atmospheric sciences, the energy production and utility industries, and building characterization. The unique capabilities of the TTG are derived from our analytical expertise, infrastructure, and experience. We have developed PFT analytical methods that have detection limits at the femtogram level. We can measure global background levels of PFTS at the parts per quadrillion levels. Our scientists and technical staff have extensive experience in

75

Definition: Tracer Testing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Tracer Testing A method based on injecting chemical tracers into the reservoir and monitoring how long it takes and where those tracers...

76

Investigation of the eigenfrequencies of two interacting gas bubbles using the direct-numerical-simulation technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recent theory regarding the eigenfrequencies of two mutually interacting gas bubbles in an acoustic field is verified numerically. The theory given by Ida [e-Print physics/0111133; (submitted)] predicts the existence of three eigenfrequencies per bubble, which make the phase difference between a bubble's pulsation and an external sound be $\\pi / 2$, while readymade theories predict only two natural frequencies. The direct-numerical-simulation technique, in which the compressible Navier-Stokes equation is selected as the governing equation, is employed for numerical experiments. We investigate the eigenfrequencies by observing the direction of the secondary Bjerknes force acting between pulsating bubbles, which changes as the driving frequency varies. The numerical results show that the theoretical prediction is valid at least in a qualitative sense.

Ida, M

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Development of MELCOR Input Techniques for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) can provide clean electricity,as well as process heat that can be used to produce hydrogen for transportation and other sectors. A prototypic HTGR, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP),will be built at Idaho National Laboratory.The need for HTGR analysis tools and methods has led to the addition of gas-cooled reactor (GCR) capabilities to the light water reactor code MELCOR. MELCOR will be used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the NGNP and other HTGRs. In the present study, new input techniques have been developed for MELCOR HTGR analysis. These new techniques include methods for modeling radiation heat transfer between solid surfaces in an HTGR, calculating fuel and cladding geometric parameters for pebble bed and prismatic block-type HTGRs, and selecting appropriate input parameters for the reflector component in MELCOR. The above methods have been applied to input decks for a water-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS); the 400 MW Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), the input for which is based on a code-to-code benchmark activity; and the High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF), which is currently in the design phase at Oregon State University. RCCS results show that MELCOR accurately predicts radiation heat transfer rates from the vessel but may overpredict convective heat transfer rates and RCCS coolant flow rates. PBMR results show that thermal striping from hot jets in the lower plenum during steady-state operations, and in the upper plenum during a pressurized loss of forced cooling accident, may be a major design concern. Hot jets could potentially melt control rod drive mechanisms or cause thermal stresses in plenum structures. For the HTTF, results will provide data to validate MELCOR for HTGR analyses. Validation will be accomplished by comparing results from the MELCOR representation of the HTTF to experimental results from the facility. The validation process can be automated using a modular code written in Python, which is described here.

Corson, James

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Tracer dating and ocean ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on dif•cult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. We use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. We define an idealized "ventilation age tracer " that is conservative with respect to mixing, and we explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters. 1.

G. Thiele; J. L. Sarmiento

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

HYDROGEL TRACER BEADS: THE DEVELOPMENT, MODIFICATION, AND TESTING OF AN INNOVATIVE TRACER FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING LNAPL TRANSPORT IN KARST AQUIFERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this specific research task is to develop proxy tracers that mimic contaminant movement to better understand and predict contaminant fate and transport in karst aquifers. Hydrogel tracer beads are transported as a separate phase than water and can used as a proxy tracer to mimic the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). They can be constructed with different densities, sizes & chemical attributes. This poster describes the creation and optimization of the beads and the field testing of buoyant beads, including sampling, tracer analysis, and quantitative analysis. The buoyant beads are transported ahead of the dissolved solutes, suggesting that light NAPL (LNAPL) transport in karst may occur faster than predicted from traditional tracing techniques. The hydrogel beads were successful in illustrating this enhanced transport.

Amanda Laskoskie, Harry M. Edenborn, and Dorothy J. Vesper

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE.  

SciTech Connect

Testing of perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PFT) on a subsurface barrier with known flaws was conducted at the Waldo Test Site operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA). The tests involved the use of five unique PFTs with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls, and one flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated. Simultaneous with the PFT tests, SEA conducted tests with another gas tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}).

SULLIVAN,T.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Microsoft PowerPoint - Tracer plume detection-LANL(Fessenden).ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracer Testing of Plume Movement Tracer Testing of Plume Movement Julianna Fessenden and Paul Reimus, Los Alamos National Laboratory Plume modeling (atmosphere, reservoir, groundwater) Purpose of Tracing Plumes Monitor species of interest within reservoir Monitor species of interest outside reservoir Monitor Flow paths Capture zones Monitor Breaches Extent of movement Desirable Tracer Characteristics (1) Inexpensive (measurement, analytical) (2) Low detection limits, no analytical interferences (3) Quick, easy to sample and measure (4) Non toxic, readily permitted (5) Both sorbing/non-sorbing tracer use Perflorocarbon Tracer deployment NETL facilities Classes of Tracers (1) Gas Phase (2) Liquid Phase (3) Organic, inorganic, aqueous (4) Conservative/nonreacting (5) Reactive with mineral surfaces or soluble in non-carrier phase

82

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A tracer test was conducted at the Coso geothermal field in order to characterize the flow patterns of fluid injected into well 68-20RD. A conservative liquid phase tracer, 2-naphthalene sulfonate, and a two-phase tracer, ethanol, were injected into well 68-20RD. Surrounding production wells were sampled over the subsequent 125 days and analyzed for the two tracers. The liquid-phase tracer showed negligible returns, whereas the

83

Review of air flow measurement techniques  

SciTech Connect

Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

McWilliams, Jennifer

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Rupp, John A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Comparison of Various Deterministic Forecasting Techniques in Shale Gas Reservoirs with Emphasis on the Duong Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a huge demand in the industry to forecast production in shale gas reservoirs accurately. There are many methods including volumetric, Decline Curve Analysis (DCA), analytical simulation and numerical simulation. Each one of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages, but only the DCA technique can use readily available production data to forecast rapidly and to an extent accurately. The DCA methods in use in the industry such as the Arps method had originally been developed for Boundary dominated flow (BDF) wells but it has been observed in shale reservoirs the predominant flow regime is transient flow. Therefore it was imperative to develop newer models to match and forecast transient flow regimes. The SEDM/SEPD, the Duong model and the Arps with a minimum decline rate are models that have the ability to match and forecast wells with transient flow followed by boundary flow. I have revised the Duong model to forecast better than the original model. I have also observed a certain variation of the Duong model proves to be a robust model for most of the well cases and flow regimes. The modified Duong has been shown to work best compared to other deterministic models in most cases. For grouped datasets the SPED & Duong models forecast accurately while the Modified Arps does a poor job.

Joshi, Krunal Jaykant

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Inert and Reacting Tracers for Reservoir Sizing in Fractured, Hot Dry Rock Systems  

SciTech Connect

Flow characterization and volumetric sizing techniques using tracers in fractured hot dry rock reservoirs are discussed. Statistical methods for analyzing the residence time distribution (RTD) are presented. Tracer modal volumes and RTD shape are correlated with reservoir performance parameters such as active heat transfer area and dispersion levels. Chemically reactive tracers are proposed for mapping advance rates of cooled regions in HDR reservoirs, providing early warning of thermal drawdown. Important reaction rate parameters are identified for screening potential tracers. Current laboratory research and field work is reviewed.

Tester, J.W.; Robinson, B.A.; Ferguson, J.H.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

88

Development of Modeling Techniques for A Generation IV Gas Fast Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Worldwide, multiple countries are investing a great deal of time and energy towards developing a new class of technologically advanced nuclear reactors. These new reactors have come to be known as the Generation IV (Gen IV) class of nuclear reactors. Similarly to the other designs, the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) has many advantages, such as electricity production at high efficiency, hydrogen production, minor actinide burning capabilities, etc. However, there are currently no immediate plans to build a GFR due to uncertainties regarding safety issues. The study conducted herein contains input techniques for the development of new neutronic and thermal hydraulic input decks for the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) GFR design. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) and MELCOR codes are used to model neutronic and thermal hydraulic characteristics, respectively. These codes are used with the intention of gaining further insight into GFR design and steady state operating characteristics of the US DOE GFR. Descriptions of inputs for all input decks, along with the results of the execution of both input decks can be found in this thesis. Although many alterations are made to original design specifications, results found in this thesis support the design modifications that have been made. Results suggest that steady-state operation of the GFR is a plausible possibility, given the right conditions. The lack of design criteria for both the reflector and borated shield regions imposes a necessity of invention upon all those who seek to clarify design criteria for the US DOE GFR. Furthermore, resulting temperature profiles for the fuel, cladding and coolant give rise to the possibility of the design of a system, based on thermionic principles, that converts core thermal energy directly to electricity. Such a system is envisioned to provide electricity to a decay heat removal system and possibly increase plant efficiency.

Dercher, Andrew Steven

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Direct Experimental Evaluation of the Grain Boundaries Gas Content in PWR fuels: New Insight and Perspective of the ADAGIO Technique  

SciTech Connect

Over the last decades, many analytical experiments (in-pile and out-of-pile) have underlined the active role of the inter-granular gases on the global fuel transient behavior under accidental conditions such as RIA and/or LOCA. In parallel, the improvement of fission gas release modeling in nuclear fuel performance codes needs direct experimental determination/validation regarding the local gas distribution inside the fuel sample. In this context, an experimental program, called 'ADAGIO' (French acronym for Discriminating Analysis of Accumulation of Inter-granular and Occluded Gas), has been initiated through a joint action of CEA, EDF and AREVA NP in order to develop a new device/technique for quantitative and direct measurement of local fission gas distribution within an irradiated fuel pellet. ADAGIO technique is based on the fact that fission gas inventory (intra and inter-granular parts) can be distinguished by controlled fuel oxidation, since grain boundaries oxidize faster than the bulk. The purpose of the current paper is to present both the methodology and the associated results of the ADAGIO program performed at CEA. It has been divided into two main parts: (i) feasibility (UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels), (ii) application on high burn up UO{sub 2} fuel. (authors)

Pontillon, Y.; Noirot, J.; Caillot, L. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DEN/DEC/SA3C, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, BP1, 13108 Saint Paul Les Durance (France); Muller, E. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DEN/DEC/SESC, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, BP1, 13108 Saint Paul Les Durance (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Modeling of CBM production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer movement at a field CO{sub 2} sequestration site  

SciTech Connect

Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical predictions of the tracer arrival times were compared with the measured field data. Results show that tracer modeling is useful in investigating movement of injected CO{sub 2} into the coal seam at the field site. Also, such new modeling techniques can be utilized to determine potential leakage pathways, and to investigate reservoir anisotropy and heterogeneity.

Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Tracer Testing At Raft River Geothermal Area (1983) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3) 3) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Tracer Testing Activity Date 1983 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To develop chemical tracing procedures for geothermal areas. Notes Two field experiments were conducted to develop chemical tracer procedures for use with injection-backflow testing, one on the fracture-permeability Raft River reservoir and the other on the matrix-permeability East Mesa reservoir. Results from tests conducted with incremental increases in the injection volume at both East Mesa and Raft River suggests that, for both reservoirs, permeability remained uniform with increasing distance from the well bore. Increased mixing during quiescent periods, between injection and

92

A Technical and Economic Study of Completion Techniques In Five Emerging U.S. Gas Shale Plays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane and other higher order hydrocarbons, through C4, with interest in further developing reactions important to methane- and ethane-related chemistry. With the increased demand for energy and the declining conventional hydrocarbons worldwide, energy companies, both majors and independents, are turning to unconventional resources to produce the hydrocarbons required to meet market demand. From coalbed methane to low permeability (tight) gas reservoirs and gas shales, energy companies are making substantial progress in developing the technologies required to bring these unconventional reserves to the market. A common misconception is that there are not enough domestic oil and gas reserves to fuel our economy. The United States imports most of the oil used for transportation fuel and several TCF of natural gas annually. However, there is a very large resource of natural gas in unconventional reservoirs, with over 2,200 TCF of gas in place in just the gas shale formations that have been identified in the energy arena (Navigant Study 2008). There are still major gas shale plays and basins that have not been explored and are waiting to be evaluated and developed. The natural gas in shales and other unconventional reservoirs can be used to generate electricity, or it can be turned into liquids and used by the transportation industry. It is also misconstrued that gas shales are relatively new in our industry and something of the future. The first commercially viable gas shale well was drilled in the early 1920s in Pennsylvania, before the famous oil well drilled by Colonel Drake. The objectives of this study are to (1) complete literature review to establish which geologic parameters affect completion techniques in five emerging gas shales: the Antrium, the Barnett, the Haynesville, the Marcellus, and the Woodford; (2) identify the different completion methods; (3) create an economic model for the completion techniques discussed; (4) develop a sensitivity analysis on various economic parameters to determine optimal completion strategy; and (5) create completion flowcharts. Based on the literature review I have done for several gas shale basins, I have identified seven pertinent geologic parameters that influence completion practices. These are depositional environment, total organic content (TOC), average gas content, shale mineralogy, shale thickness, and reservoir pressure. Next, I identified different completion and simulation trends in the industry for the different shale plays. The results from this study show that although there are some stark differences between depths (i.e. the Antrim Shale and the Haynesville Shale), shale plays are very similar in all other geologic properties. Interestingly, even with a large range for the different geological parameters, the completion methods did not drastically differ indicating that even if the properties do not fall within the range presented in this paper does not automatically rule them out for further evaluation in other plays. In addition to the evaluation of geologic properties, this study looked at drilling cost and the production profile for each play. Due to the volatility of the energy industry, economic sensitivity was completed on the price, capital, and operating cost to see what affect it would have on the play. From the analysis done, it is concluded that horizontal drilling in almost any economic environment is economic except for one scenario for the Woodford Shale. Therefore, gas shales plays should still be invested in even in lower price environments and companies should try to take advantage of the lower cost environments that occur during these times. With continual development of new drilling and completion techniques, these plays will become more competitive and can light the path for exploration of new shale plays worldwide.

Agrawal, Archna

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A hypercube Ray-tracer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a hypercube ray-tracing program for rendering computer graphics. For small models, which fit in the memory of a single processor, the ray-tracer uses a scattered decomposition of pixels to balance the load, and achieves a very high efficiency. ...

J. Salmon; J. Goldsmith

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Tracer dispersion in the turbulent convective layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results for passive tracer dispersion in the turbulent surface layer under convective conditions are presented. In this case, the dispersion of tracer particles is determined by the interplay of two mechanisms: buoyancy and advection. ...

Alex Skvortsov; Milan Jamriska; Timothy C. DuBois

95

Propagation of Tracer Signals in Boundary Currents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The propagation of a range of tracer signals in a simple model of the deep western boundary current is examined. Analytical expressions are derived in certain limits for the transit-time distributions and the propagation times (tracer ages) of ...

Darryn W. Waugh; Timothy M. Hall

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Can Paleoceanographic Tracers Constrain Meridional Circulation Rates?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of paleoceanographic tracers to constrain rates of transport is examined using an inverse method to combine idealized observations with a geostrophic model. Considered are the spatial distribution, accuracy, and types of tracers ...

Peter Huybers; Geoffrey Gebbie; Olivier Marchal

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Application of Laser Techniques in Combustion Environments of Relevance for Gas Turbine Studies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the work presented in this thesis, different laser-based techniques were employed for measurements in different combustion devices. Laser-based techniques enable non-intrusive and in-situ measurements… (more)

Lantz, Andreas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 °C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20°C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned for stranded gas reserves. The recent experiments and their results from the testing within NETL's 15-Liter Hydrate Cell Facility exhibit promising results. Introduction of water at the desired temperature and pressure through an NETL designed nozzle into a temperature controlled methane environment within the 15-Liter Hydrate Cell allowed for instantaneous formation of methane hydrates. The instantaneous and continuous hydrate formation process was repeated over several days while varying the flow rate of water, its' temperature, and the overall temperature of the methane environment. These results clearly indicated that hydrates formed immediately after the methane and water left the nozzle at temperatures above the freezing point of water throughout the range of operating conditions. [1] Oil and Gas Journal Vol. 160.48, Dec 22, 2008. [2] http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/chapter3.html and http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/natgas/pdf/tbl7.pdf [3] U.S. Geological Survey, “Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle,” May 2008.

Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Collection of Water Samples from an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Tracer Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact water sampler rated to full ocean depth has been deployed from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to enable oceanographic tracer measurements. Techniques developed to allow the instrument to collect up to 49 samples of sufficient ...

Paul A. Dodd; Martin R. Price; Karen J. Heywood; Miles Pebody

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Application of Condition-Based Monitoring Techniques for Remote Monitoring of a Simulated Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents research into the adaptation of monitoring techniques from maintainability and reliability (M&R) engineering for remote unattended monitoring of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) for international safeguards. Two categories of techniques are discussed: the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for diagnostic monitoring, and sequential Monte Carlo (SMC or, more commonly, particle filtering ) for prognostic monitoring. Development and testing of the application of condition-based monitoring (CBM) techniques was performed on the Oak Ridge Mock Feed and Withdrawal (F&W) facility as a proof of principle. CBM techniques have been extensively developed for M&R assessment of physical processes, such as manufacturing and power plants. These techniques are normally used to locate and diagnose the effects of mechanical degradation of equipment to aid in planning of maintenance and repair cycles. In a safeguards environment, however, the goal is not to identify mechanical deterioration, but to detect and diagnose (and potentially predict) attempts to circumvent normal, declared facility operations, such as through protracted diversion of enriched material. The CBM techniques are first explained from the traditional perspective of maintenance and reliability engineering. The adaptation of CBM techniques to inspector monitoring is then discussed, focusing on the unique challenges of decision-based effects rather than equipment degradation effects. These techniques are then applied to the Oak Ridge Mock F&W facility a water-based physical simulation of a material feed and withdrawal process used at enrichment plants that is used to develop and test online monitoring techniques for fully information-driven safeguards of GCEPs. Advantages and limitations of the CBM approach to online monitoring are discussed, as well as the potential challenges of adapting CBM concepts to safeguards applications.

Hooper, David A [ORNL; Henkel, James J [ORNL; Whitaker, Michael [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

New techniques and products solve industry problems. [New technology available for the natural gas pipeline industry  

SciTech Connect

Recently introduced technology advances in data handling, manipulation and delivery; new gas and storage marketing products; a nonintrusive pipe-crack arrester; and responsive pipe-coating mill construction show promise for cutting industry costs by increasing efficiency in pipe line construction, repair, rehabilitation, and operations. The products, services and methods described in this new technology survey include: a PC-compatible dataserver that requires no user programming; flexible, responsive gas transportation scheme; evaluation of possible further uses on brittle transmission lines for fiberglass-reinforced resin composite; new multilayer epoxy PE coating mill in Corinth, Greece, near areas where large pipe line construction and rehabilitation projects are contemplated.

Bullion, L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Review of air flow measurement techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive perfluorocarbon tracer technique for determining air infiltration rates into houses

McWilliams, Jennifer

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

SF6-3He Tracer Release Experiment: A New Method of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Gas Transfer Velocities. In addition to the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, gas transferSF6-3He Tracer Release Experiment: A New Method of Determining Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficients, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 Longitudinal dispersion coefficients have been determined

Clark, Jordan

105

Advanced Oxidation Techniques for Soils Containing Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) Hydrocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a bench-scale experimental study using a combination of chemical oxidation and electrotreatment of PAH contaminated soils from former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites. Electroosmotic movement of water and movement of charged surfactant micelles due to the electro-gradient were used to introduce persulfate oxidant into the contaminated soil matrix. Results showed that greater than 80% removal of the PAHs were obtained in 20 days of treatment time. Experiments with aqu...

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

106

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 13 Use of Cellular Fatty Acids to Identify Food-Borne Pathogens by Infrared Spectroscopy & Capillary GasChromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 13 Use of Cellular Fatty Acids to Identify Food-Borne Pathogens by Infrared Spectroscopy & Capillary GasChromatography Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Bo

107

A Gas Dynamics Method Based on The Spectral Deferred Corrections (SDC) Time Integration Technique and The Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM)  

SciTech Connect

We present a computational gas dynamics method based on the Spectral Deferred Corrections (SDC) time integration technique and the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) finite volume method. The PPM framework is used to define edge averaged quantities which are then used to evaluate numerical flux functions. The SDC technique is used to integrate solution in time. This kind of approach was first taken by Anita et al in [17]. However, [17] is problematic when it is implemented to certain shock problems. Here we propose significant improvements to [17]. The method is fourth order (both in space and time) for smooth flows, and provides highly resolved discontinuous solutions. We tested the method by solving variety of problems. Results indicate that the fourth order of accuracy in both space and time has been achieved when the flow is smooth. Results also demonstrate the shock capturing ability of the method.

Samet Y. Kadioglu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Doublet Tracer Testing in Klamath Falls, Oregon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tracer test was carried out in a geothermal doublet system to study the injection behavior of a developed reservoir known to be fractured. The doublet produces about 320 gpm of 160 F water that is used for space heating and then injected; the wells are spaced 250 ft apart. Tracer breakthrough was observed in 2 hours and 45 minutes in the production well, indicating fracture flow. However, the tracer concentrations were low and indicated porous media flow; the tracers mixed with a reservoir volume much larger than a fracture.

Gudmundsson, J.S.; Johnson, S.E.; Horne, R.N.; Jackson, P.B.; Culver, G.G.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

An SF6 Tracer Study of the Flow Dynamics in the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel: Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by determining the net velocity, the dispersion coefficient, and gas exchange rates from changes in tracer is the dispersion coefficient, and l is the first order loss rate for processes such as gas exchange. In order to all loses such as advection, dispersion, and gas exchange (Fig. 9). This translated into a PRT of 7

Ho, David

110

Pros, cons of techniques used to calculate oil, gas finding costs  

SciTech Connect

A major problem facing the U.S. petroleum industry is the higher average finding costs that now exist within the U.S. compared with the average finding costs outside the U.S. It has been argued that federal lands and offshore areas need to be open for drilling in order to reduce average finding costs in the U.S. This article analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of conventional techniques for determining finding costs. Our goal is a finding costs measure that is a reliable indicator of future profitability.

Gaddis, D.; Brock, H.; Boynton, C. (Inst. of Petroleum Accounting, Denton, TX (US))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR THE EVALUATION OF OVERLAY AND THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS ON GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is currently no satisfactory method for the non-destructive examination (NDE) of coatings on gas turbine parts and determination of coating thickness, for example, has to be carried out by sectioning of the component and subsequent metallographic analysis. This method, which is both time-consuming and expensive, has nevertheless been used extensively for aero-engine parts to monitor coating quality and to gather statistical information for process control. For large components from utility size gas turbines costs are high and compared with aero-engines, only a limited number of parts can be examined so that the destructive method becomes less attractive both as an inspection technique and for obtaining process control data to measure part to part variations in coating thickness, for example. During engine service protective coatings slowly degrade and this degradation process effectively controls the life of the part, particularly in situations where a thermal barrier coating (TBC) is used to protect against excessive metal temperatures. In this case growth of the oxide at the interface between the bond coat and the TBC leads to a build-up of stress in the TBC which can be relieved by a spalling of the ceramic layer and loss of the protection from the thermal barrier. In situations where the integrity of the TBC system is critical to the survival of the part, some non-destructive method of determining the degradation condition of the bond coat would clearly be advantageous. In this report the results are described of recent progress in a program to develop non-destructive methods to measure coating quality and to monitor the condition of coatings in service. The work which has formed part of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Project funded by DOE, has involved the use of eddy-current (ET) and ultrasonic (US) methods developed by SouthWest Research Institute (SwRI) who have been responsible for development of the technique.

Michael Cybulsky

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

113

Predictive value of tracer studies for /sup 131/I treatment in hyperthyroid cats  

SciTech Connect

In 76 cats with hyperthyroidism, peak thyroidal radioiodine (/sup 131/I) uptakes and effective half-lives were determined after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I. In 6 additional hyperthyroid cats, only peak thyroidal uptakes after administration of tracer and therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I were determined. Good correlation was found between peak thyroidal uptakes of tracer and therapeutic /sup 131/I; however, only fair correlation was observed between effective half-lives. In 79% of the cats, the effective half-life for therapeutic /sup 131/I was longer than that for tracer /sup 131/I. After administration of therapeutic activity of /sup 131/I, monoexponential and biphasic decay curves were observed in 51 and 16 cats, respectively. Using therapeutic kinetic data, radiation doses to the thyroid gland were calculated retrospectively on the basis of 2 methods for determining the activity of /sup 131/I administered: (1) actual administration of tracer-compensated activity and (2) hypothetic administration of uniform activity (3 mCi). Because of the good predictive ability of tracer kinetic data for the therapeutic kinetic data, the tracer-compensated radiation doses came significantly (P = 0.008) closer to the therapeutic goal than did the uniform-activity doses. In addition, the use of tracer kinetic information reduced the extent of the tendency for consistently high uniform-activity doses. A manual method for acquiring tracer kinetic data was developed and was an acceptable alternative to computerized techniques. Adoption of this method gives individuals and institutions with limited finances the opportunity to characterize the iodine kinetics in cats before proceeding with administration of therapeutic activities of /sup 131/I.

Broome, M.R.; Turrel, J.M.; Hays, M.T.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Three-Dimensional Bayesian Geostatistical Aquifer Characterization at the Hanford 300 Area using Tracer Test Data  

SciTech Connect

Tracer testing under natural or forced gradient flow holds the potential to provide useful information for characterizing subsurface properties, through monitoring, modeling and interpretation of the tracer plume migration in an aquifer. Non-reactive tracer experiments were conducted at the Hanford 300 Area, along with constant-rate injection tests and electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) profiling. A Bayesian data assimilation technique, the method of anchored distributions (MAD) [Rubin et al., 2010], was applied to assimilate the experimental tracer test data with the other types of data and to infer the three-dimensional heterogeneous structure of the hydraulic conductivity in the saturated zone of the Hanford formation. In this study, the Bayesian prior information on the underlying random hydraulic conductivity field was obtained from previous field characterization efforts using the constant-rate injection tests and the EBF data. The posterior distribution of the conductivity field was obtained by further conditioning the field on the temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves at various observation wells. MAD was implemented with the massively-parallel three-dimensional flow and transport code PFLOTRAN to cope with the highly transient flow boundary conditions at the site and to meet the computational demands of MAD. A synthetic study proved that the proposed method could effectively invert tracer test data to capture the essential spatial heterogeneity of the three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field. Application of MAD to actual field data shows that the hydrogeological model, when conditioned on the tracer test data, can reproduce the tracer transport behavior better than the field characterized without the tracer test data. This study successfully demonstrates that MAD can sequentially assimilate multi-scale multi-type field data through a consistent Bayesian framework.

Chen, Xingyuan; Murakami, Haruko; Hahn, Melanie S.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Zachara, John M.; Rubin, Yoram

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the sampling and analytical techniques used for tracer analysis in the Raft River and East Mesa field tests. The collection procedures and sample preservation techniques, analytical methods and possible sources of contamination or error are discussed in detail. 6 refs.

Kroneman, R.L.; Yorgason, K.R.; Moore, J.N.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN  

SciTech Connect

The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can be used by operators to guide treatment selection in wells with significant non-darcy damage component. In addition, the effectiveness of the remediation treatment designed to reduce damage caused by the inorganic precipitate siderite was measured, and the benefits of this work are extrapolated to the entire U.S. storage industry. Similarly the potential benefits realized from more effective identification and treatment of wells with significant nondarcy damage component are also presented, and these benefits are also extrapolated to the entire U.S. storage industry.

J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Experimental Determination of Tracer Dispersivity in Fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reinjection of waste hot water is commonly practiced in most geothermal fields, primarily as a means of disposal. Surface discharge of these waste waters is usually unacceptable due to the resulting thermal and chemical pollution. Although reinjection can help to main reservoir pressure and fluid volume, in some cases a decrease in reservoir productivity has been observed. This is caused by rapid flow of the reinjected water through fractures connecting the injector and producers. As a result, the water is not sufficiently heated by the reservoir rock, and a reduction in enthalpy of the produced fluids is seen. Tracer tests have proven to be valuable to reservoir engineers for the design of a successful reinjection program. By injecting a slug of tracer and studying the discharge of surrounding producing wells, an understanding of the fracture network within a reservoir can be provided. In order to quantify the results of a tracer test, a model that accurately describes the mechanisms of tracer transport is necessary. One such mechanism, dispersion, is like a smearing out of a tracer concentration due to the velocity gradients over the cross section of flow. If a dispersion coefficient can be determined from tracer test data, the fracture width can be estimated. The purpose of this project was to design and construct an apparatus to study the dispersion of a chemical tracer in flow through a fracture.

Gilardi, J.; Horns, R.N.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

118

NETL: Methane Hydrates - 2012 Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate field...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fluid, by flowmeters in the Low-flow Gas Measurement Skid. Compositional analysis of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and tracers pumped during injection are being monitored...

119

Tracer Developments: Results of Experimental Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tracers can be used to monitor the movement of groundwaters and geothermal fluids and they can be used as a reference to quantify changes in fluid chemistry as a result of injection. Despite their potential importance to the geothermal operator, very few tracers are presently available and of those that are, little is known about their stability or behavior at the elevated temperatures that typify resources capable of electric power generation. During the past two years the University of Utah Research Institute has been involved in tracer research and testing, largely through the DOE Injection Research Program. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of these laboratory and field investigations.

Adams, M.C.; Ahn, J.H.; Bentley, H.; Moore, J.N.; Veggeberg, S.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

120

Tracer Leakage from Modeled Agulhas Rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a numerical, isopycnal, ocean model the mixing is investigated with the environment of two idealized Agulhas rings, one that splits, and one that remains coherent. The evolution of a passive tracer, initially contained within the rings, shows ...

L. de Steur; P. J. van Leeuwen; S. S. Drijfhout

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Tracers and Potential Vorticities in Ocean Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ertel potential vorticity theorem for stratified viscous fluids in a rotating system is analyzed herein. A set of “tracers,” that is, materially conserved scalar quantities, and the corresponding Ertel potential vorticities are used to obtain ...

Michael V. Kurgansky; Giorgio Budillon; Ettore Salusti

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Determining Velocities and Mixing Coefficients from Tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effort to determine oceanic velocities from tracer distributions relies on a knowledge of the effects of mixing. However, the macroscopic diffusion coefficient, K, is generally not known and must be calculated along with the velocity. The ...

Jae Hak Lee; George Veronis

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

When Are Eddy Tracer Fluxes Directed Downgradient?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms controlling the direction of eddy tracer fluxes are examined using eddy-resolving isopycnic experiments for a cyclic zonal channel. Eddy fluxes are directed downgradient on average when either (i) there is a Lagrangian increase in ...

Chris Wilson; Richard G. Williams

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Combined Use of Three Techniques for Studying Transport and Dispersion in Cumuli  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results from three methods for studying transport and dispersion in cumuli are compared. These three methods include two tracer techniques and a numerical simulation. The tracers, SF6 and radar chaff, were simultaneously released below the ...

Jefrey Stith; John Scala; Roger Reinking; Brooks Martner

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Section B (NIMB) Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternativeinjection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use

Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Tracer test analysis of the Klamath Falls geothermal resource: a comparison of models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two tracer tests on doublet systems in a fractured geothermal system were carried out in Klamath Falls, Oregon. The purpose of the tests were to obtain data which would lead to information about the reservoir and to test the applicability of current tracer flow models. The results show rapid breakthrough times and indicate fracture flow with vigorous mixing of injector fluid before production of same. This leads to the idea that thermal breakthrough is not directly related to tracer breakthrough in the Klamath Union doublet system. There has been no long-term enthalpy loss from exploiting the resource for 40 years. In order to reduce the data, models were developed to analyze the results. Along with a porous media flow model two mathematical models developed to analyze fractured geothermal systems are used to help decipher the various tracer return curves. The flow of tracers in doublet systems was investigated. A mathematical description is used for tracer flow through fractures as a function of time and various nonlinear parameters which can be found using a curve fitting technique. This allows the reservoir to be qualitatively defined. These models fit the data well, but point to the fact that future improvement needs to be considered for a clearer and more quantitative understanding of fractured geothermal systems. 22 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

Johnson, S.E.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Advanced techniques for safety analysis applied to the gas turbine control system of ICARO co-generative plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper describes two complementary and integrable approaches, a probabilistic one and a deterministic one, based on classic and advanced modelling techniques for safety analysis of complex computer based systems. The probabilistic approach is based on classical and innovative probabilistic analysis methods. The deterministic approach is based on formal verification methods. Such approaches are applied to the gas turbine control system of ICARO co generative plant, in operation at ENEA CR Casaccia. The main difference between the two approaches, behind the underlining different theories, is that the probabilistic one addresses the control system by itself, as the set of sensors, processing units and actuators, while the deterministic one also includes the behaviour of the equipment under control which interacts with the control system. The final aim of the research, documented in this paper, is to explore an innovative method which put the probabilistic and deterministic approaches in a strong relation to overcome the drawbacks of their isolated, selective and fragmented use which can lead to inconsistencies in the evaluation results. 1.

Ro Bologna; Ester Ciancamerla; Piero Incalcaterra; Michele Minichino; Andrea Bobbio; Università Del Piemonte Orientale; Enrico Tronci

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Measurement of ''closing volume'' as affected by lung volume at tracer bolus inspiration, breath holding, and expiratory flow rate  

SciTech Connect

From international symposium on regional lung function and closing volumes; Malmo, Sweden (14 Sep 1973). The measurement of closing volume is of great interest in the early detection of diseases of the small airways, especially if this technique can be used for mass screening with mobile equipment. The basis undenlying the closing volume measurement involves either the inspiration of a tracer gas bolus, such as radioactive /sup 133/Xe or /sup 13/N or stable argon or helium, followed by measurement of the tracer concentration in the expirate, or analysis of the expirate for nitrogen, following a vital capacity (VC) inspiration of pure oxygen. The point (expired volume) at which the alveolar gas concentration changes discretely from the alveolar plateau, Phase III, to Phase IV is denoted as the closing volume, and is believed to represent the onset of closure of the dependent airways. The mechanisms involved were studied in four healthy young human volunteers following the inhalation of a 1-ml bolus of helium. (CH)

Susskind, H.; Richards, P.; Atkins, H.L.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers  

SciTech Connect

The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO sub 2 catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

Krishna, K.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Isotopic tracer studies of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a process in which CO and H{sub 2} react to give predominantly liquid hydrocarbons. The reaction can be considered a special type of polymerization in which the monomer is produced in situ, and chain growth occurs by a sequence of independently repeated additions of the monomer to the growing chain. A investigation has been conducted to study the CO hydrogenation reaction in order to better understand catalyst deactivation and the elementary surface processes involved in chain growth. Isotopic tracers are used in conjunction with transient-response techniques in this study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Ru/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. Experiments are conducted at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere, reaction temperatures of 453--498 K and D{sub 2}/CO (or H{sub 2}/CO) ratios of 2--5. Synthesis products are analyzed by gas chromatography or isotope-ratio gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rate constants for chain initiation, propagation and termination are evaluated under steady-state reaction conditions by using transients in isotopic composition. The activation energy for chain termination is much higher than that for propagation, accounting for the observed decrease in the chain growth parameter are also estimated. Coverages by reaction intermediates are also estimated. When small amounts of {sup 12}C-labelled ethylene are added to {sup 13}CO/H{sub 2} synthesis gas, ethylene acts as the sole chain initiator. Ethylene-derived carbon also accounts for 45% of the C{sub 1} monomer pool. 102 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

Krishna, K.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

An Evaluation of Calibration Techniques for In Situ Carbon Dioxide Measurements Using a Programmable Portable Trace-Gas Measuring System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction and deployment of a portable trace-gas measurement system (TGaMS) is described. The air-collection system (dubbed HYDRA) collects air samples from 18 different locations and was connected to either one or two LI-COR LI-7000 gas ...

Sean P. Burns; Anthony C. Delany; Jielun Sun; Britton B. Stephens; Steven P. Oncley; Gordon D. Maclean; Steven R. Semmer; Joel Schröter; Johannes Ruppert

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A 3-D hydrodynamic dispersion model for modeling tracer transport in Geothermal Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diffusion of a tracer or a radionuclide. This new module ofsimulate processes of tracer/radionuclide transport using ana) a tracer or a radionuclide is present and transported

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Tracer Test Interpretation Methods for Reservior Properties  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop tools that can be used to interpret tracer tests and obtain estimates of reservoir and operational parameters. These tools (mostly in the form of spreadsheet applications) can be used to optimize geothermal resource management.

Shook, George Michael

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Eulerian Simulation of Tracer Distribution during CAPTEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compared observed and model-simulated surface concentration on a spatial wale of 1100 km and a temporal scale of 36 h. The Eulerian tracer model calculated advection by the mean winds and gradient transport for subgrid-scale turbulent ...

Richard A. Brost; Philip L. Haagenson; Ying-Hwa Kuo

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A Method of Evaluating Atmospheric Models Using Tracer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed a method that uses tracer measurements as the basis for comparing and evaluating wind fields. An important advantage of the method is that the wind fields are evaluated from the tracer measurements without introducing ...

Darko Kora?in; James Frye; Vlad Isakov

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Constraining North Atlantic circulation with transient tracer observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The capability of transient tracers to constrain the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic is explored. Study of an idealized tracer shows that inferences of circulation properties from transient state distributions are ...

Li, Xingwen, 1968-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, amorphous silicon films by hot filament technique using ``safe`` silicon source gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate by flowing a stream of safe (diluted to less than 1%) silane gas past a heated filament. 7 figs.

Mahan, A.H.; Molenbroek, E.C.; Nelson, B.P.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

139

A Continuous Fast-Response Dual-Tracer Analyzer for Halogenated Atmospheric Tracer Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for the simultaneous measurement of two tracers, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and a perfluorocarbon compound, is introduced. The new instrument is a modification of a commercially available fast-response, continuous analyzer for single ...

James P. Rydock; Brian K. Lamb

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Thin Films for Gas Sensing at Extreme Temperatures and in Harsh ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion of Mild Steel in Extreme Oil and Gas Environments · Corrosion ... Fluorescent Nanoparticle Tracers for Oil Exploration and Production · Formation of ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Measurement of two-dimensional concentration fields of a glycol-based tracer aerosol using laser light sheet illumination and microcomputer video image acquisition and processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of a tracer aerosol with a bulk density close to that of air is a convenient way to study the dispersal of pollutants in ambient room air flow. Conventional point measurement techniques do not permit the rapid and ...

Revi, Frank

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Available Technologies: TRAMS: A New Tracer Gas Airflow ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Balancing of airflows in heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial buildings;

143

TRAMS: A New Tracer Gas Airflow Measurement System - Energy ...  

Traditional measurement systems use Pitot-static tubes or hot-wire or other anemometers to measure velocities ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, ...

144

Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using Pyrene Tetrasulfonate Amino  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using Pyrene Tetrasulfonate Amino Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using Pyrene Tetrasulfonate Amino G, and Fluorescein Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using Pyrene Tetrasulfonate Amino G, and Fluorescein Abstract A series of four tracer tests was recently conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir in order to determine fluid-flow processes and to evaluate candidate tracers for use in hydrothermal systems. These tests have resulted in the first successful use of the compounds amino G and pyrenetetrasulfonate as tracers in a geothermal reservoir. The tracer candidates were subjected to simulated hydrothermal conditions in laboratory reactors at temperatures as high as 300°C in order to determine

145

Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (2004) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coso Geothermal Area (2004) Coso Geothermal Area (2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Tracer Testing Activity Date 2004 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To determine the EGS potential of the Coso Geothermal Field Notes A dramatic decrease in the ratio of chloride to boron was observed in the liquid discharge of a well proposed for EGS development. The decrease appears to be related to the transformation of some feed zones in the well from liquid-dominated to vapor-dominated. High concentrations of boron are transported to the wellbore in the steam, where it fractionates to the liquid phase flowing in from liquid-dominated feed zones. The high-boron steam is created when the reservoir liquid in some of the feed zones boils

146

Production-management techniques for water-drive gas reservoirs. Annual report, August 1, 1990-July 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The research work, during the period of the report, can be divided into three main categories, the first category being the NE Hitchcock reservoir characterization review task. NE Hitchcock field production and log data were acquired. Well by well review of production was performed and cross-correlated with geologic interpretations. The second category is the reservoir selection task. In the process of selecting two water-drive gas reservoir candidates, over 150 fields located in the Rockies, New Mexico, West Texas, Mid Continent, Michigan and offshore Louisiana were searched. The reservoir selection criteria is: water-drive gas reservoir, location near a geologic outcrop (if possible), field size of 5-40 wells, and availability of core and modern well logs. Accordingly, the Vermejo/Moore-Hooper Fusselman and the Grand Isle PD sand fields were selected to be studied. The third category is the laboratory investigations. The task includes rock mechanical properties, phase behavior and sand control portions. In the rock mechanical properties segment, laboratory measurements were made on several Berea Core plugs. The equation of state and an empirical approach are being used to predict initial reservoir gas composition from current production data for the phase behavior part. The sand control part was completed with conclusions regarding the ability to predict the existence of plastic failure region of an unconsolidated sand near a wellbore. The project is continuing to accomplish its goals to evaluate different production management strategies on the two chosen water-drive gas reservoirs through reservoir engineering, geologic interpretation, experimental work and reservoir simulation studies.

Crafton, J.W.; Davis, D.; Graves, R.; Poettmann, F.; Thompson, R.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Adsorption of methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide on high silica pentasil zeolites and zeolite like materials using gas chromatography pulse technique  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in H-ZSM-5, Na-ZSM-5, H-ZSM-8, Na-ZSM-8, Silicalite, and ALPO-5 at 303-473 K has been investigated using a gas chromatography pulse technique. The zeolites have been compared for the heat of adsorption of the adsorbates at near zero adsorbate loading and also for the specific retention volume (or thermodynamic adsorption equilibrium constant) of ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide relative to that of methane. Among the zeolites, ALPO-5 has a high potential for the separation of methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide from their mixture. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Choudhary, V.R.; Mayadevi, S. (National Chemical Lab., Pune (India))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

STRATEGIES FOR QUANTIFYING PET IMAGING DATA FROM TRACER STUDIES OF BRAIN RECEPTORS AND ENZYMES.  

SciTech Connect

A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

Logan, J.

2001-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique  

SciTech Connect

A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto 2600, Santa Fe (Argentina); Artana, G. [Laboratorio de Fluidodinamica, Departamento Ing. Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria (UBA), Paseo Colon 850, C1063ACV, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto 2600, Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA), Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle cave |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle cave Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle cave Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle cave Author Andreas Kucha Published Publisher Not Provided, 2012 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle cave Citation Andreas Kucha. Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle cave [Internet]. 2012. [cited 2013/10/17]. Available from: http://www.agw.kit.edu/english/blauhoele_cave.php Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Hydrogeology_of_the_Blautopf_spring_-_Tracer_tests_in_Blauhohle_cave&oldid=688895"

151

Tracer populations in the local group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, in good agreement with previous work. I go on to develop a set of tracer mass estimators that build on previous work which make use of actual (and not projected) distance and proper motion data, reflecting the amount and quality of data now available to us... ages range from 1-10 Gyr; the scale height of the population increases with age from 200 kpc to around 700 kpc and the metallicity decreases with age to around 20% solar. The typical content of this disk population are A stars, planetary nebulae...

Watkins, Laura Louise

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

152

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report:...

153

Tracer Testing At Raft River Geothermal Area (1984) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

L.; Yorgason, K. R.; Moore, J. N. (1 December 1984) Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Retrieved from...

154

Tracer Testing At East Mesa Geothermal Area (1984) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

L.; Yorgason, K. R.; Moore, J. N. (1 December 1984) Preferred methods of analysis for chemical tracers in moderate- and high-temperature geothermal environments Retrieved from...

155

Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

History Facebook icon Twitter icon Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project...

156

Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2012 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Hydrogeology of the Blautopf spring - Tracer tests in Blauhohle cave...

157

TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR CORPORATE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT SECURITY 3463 MAGIC DRIVE, SUITE T-19 SAN ANTONIO, TX 78229 March 29, 2009 Office of the...

158

Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Two-tracer spectroscopy diagnostics of temperature profile in the conduction layer of a laser-ablated plastic foil  

SciTech Connect

A technique that combines the diagnostics of electron temperature history and the measurements of ablation velocity with two-tracer x-ray spectroscopy has been developed for diagnosing the temperature profiles in the thermal conduction layers of laser-ablated plastic foils. The electron temperature in the plastic ablator was diagnosed using the isoelectronic line ratios of Al Ly{alpha} line to Mg Ly{alpha} line, emitted from a tracer layer of Al/Mg mixture buried under the ablator. The ablation velocity was inferred from the time delay between the onset time of x-ray line emissions from Al and Mg tracer layers buried at two depths in the ablator, respectively. From the measured electron temperatures and ablation velocity, the electron temperature profile in the conduction layer was inferred. The measured temperature profile was compared with the simulated one and reasonable agreement was found.

Zhang Jiyan; Yang Guohong; Hu Xin; Yang Jiamin; Ding Yaonan; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian [Research Center of Laser Fusion, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu Yan; Yan Jun; Pei Wenbin [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Analysis of Passive Tracer Transport as Modeled by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tracers without feedback on the atmosphere are used to probe tropospheric transport. Such passive tracers are considered for two important anthropogenic sources, Europe and eastern North America. The linearity of passive tracer continuity allows ...

Mark Holzer

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

Schafer, R.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

162

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Complements existing methods Summary: The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the...

163

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture stimulation of...

164

Tracer Testing At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Testing At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Tracer Testing At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP)...

165

Some design considerations for the proposed Dixie Valley tracer test  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tracer test for the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal resource is planned for the summer of 1988, in order to study the fluid flow paths that will develop under typical operating conditions. During the test six production wells will provide the power plant with steam sufficient for generation of 60 MWe, requiring fluid production at a rate of approximately 600 kg/sec. Up to 75% by mass of the extracted fluid will be reinjected into the reservoir, using four injection wells. Tracer will be added to the injected fluid for a twenty-minute period, and subsequently the produced fluid will be monitored for the tracer. 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Doughty, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Predicting Forage Nutritive Value Using an In Vitro Gas Production Technique and Dry Matter Intake of Grazing Animals Using n-Alkanes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the first experiment, forage samples (n = 39) were collected during 4 years (2006 ? 2009) from pastures grazed by Santa Gertrudis cattle at the King Ranch, TX. The in vitro gas production technique (IVGP) was performed to understand the pattern of fermentation parameters of the forage and obtain fractional digestion rate (kd) values to predict total digestible nutrients (TDN). The best nonlinear model to describe the IVGP values of the forages was the two-pool logistic equation. The passage rate (kp) of 4%/h was used.. The kp predicted by the Large Nutrient Ruminant System (LNRS) model was 3.66%/h. The average TDN was 55.9% compared to 53.8% using a theoretical equation. In the second experiment, Brahman bulls (n = 16) grazed Coastal bermudagrass pastures [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and stocked at a moderate to low grazing pressure. Three periods of fecal collections were made within each period. Bulls were individually fed at 0700 and 1900 h of 400 g of corn gluten pellets containing C32 n-alkanes. Each period was divided in 2 sub periods in which fecal samples were collected 4 times a day (0700, 1100, 1500 and 1900 h). N-alkanes in the forage and feces were determined using gas chromatography. In the third experiment, four methods were used to estimate dry matter intake (DMI): C31 or C33 with or without adjustment for forage C32 (C31_0 and C33_0, respectively). There was a difference between morning (0700 and 1100 h) and afternoon fecal collections (1500 and 1900 h) on the predicted DMI using C31 (P = 0.0010), C33 (P = 0.0001), C31_0 (P = 0.0010), or C33_0 (P efficiency under confinement conditions does not guarantee (P < 0.0001) similar ranking under grazing conditions when using the alkane technique to determine forage DMI. In order to estimate DMI at least 5 d of fecal collection and 2 times a day of collection (0700 and 1500h) are needed to decrease the variability.

Aguiar, Andre D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Development of X-ray Tracer Diagnostics for Radiatively-Driven Copper-Doped Beryllium Ablators. NLUF FY1999 Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the fiscal year 1999 portion of our ongoing project to develop tracer spectral diagnostics of ablator conditions in the hohlraum radiation environment. The overall goal of the experimental campaign is to measure the turn-on times of K{sub a} absorption features from tracers buried in planar witness plates. The tracers are thin and at a specific, known depth in the witness plates so that the turn-on times are indicators of the arrival of the Marshak wave at the specified depths. Ultimately, we intend to compare the delay in the turn-on times of the tracer signals between doped and undoped ablator materials, and thus study the effect of ablator dopants on the Marshak wave velocity. During FY 1999, our primary goal was to simply measure an absorption signal, matching tracer depth to drive temperature and testing the overall feasibility of our experimental scheme. In indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy is deposited rapidly on the outside of a spherical capsule, ablating the outer layers of the capsule and compressing the interior. If this process is carefully controlled, then hydrogen fuel at the center of the capsule can be compressed and heated such that fusion reactions may proceed. The efficiency of the compression depends crucially on the time-dependent energy deposition onto the ablator material on the outside of the capsule. The nature of this coupling can be controlled through the use of ablator dopants, which modify the density and opacity of the ablator layer. Clearly, it is crucial to the success of indirect-drive ICF to have a means for testing the effects of ablator dopants, and more generally for having a diagnostic that is capable of determining time-dependent ablator properties. To this end, we are adapting tracer spectroscopy techniques to make time-dependent measurements of the ionization state of planar ablator materials mounted on the sides of hohlraums. Specifically, we are doing backlighter point-projection spectroscopy of K{sub a} features from tracers placed in the interiors of planar witness plates made of ablator materials. As the radiation wave, or Marshak wave, diffuses into the ablator material it drives a shock ahead of it. When the shock arrives at a given point in the witness plate it heats the tracer to roughly 20 eV. Soon after, the radiation wave arrives, heating the tracer to well above 100 eV nearly instantaneously. Thus, the ''turn-on'' of tracer absorption from high ionization states is an indicator that the radiation wave has arrived at the tracer. Furthermore, the time-dependent ionization balance in the tracer is, our simulations show, indicative of the efficiency with which the radiation field couples to the ablator material. Note that this technique holds out the possibility of making a determination of the instantaneous impact of the radiation field on the ablator physics, as opposed to something like a shock breakout measurement, in which the observed signal reflects the integrated time-history of the impact of the radiation field on the ablator.

Cohen, David H.; MacFarlane, Joseph J.; Wang, Ping; Jaanimagi, Paul A.; Oertel, John; Magelssen, Glenn; Landen, Otto L.; Back, Christina A.; Olson, Richard E.; Bailey, James E.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Geographic Information Systems- Tools For Geotherm Exploration, Tracers  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Systems- Tools For Geotherm Exploration, Tracers Systems- Tools For Geotherm Exploration, Tracers Data Analysis, And Enhanced Data Distribution, Visualization, And Management Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Geographic Information Systems- Tools For Geotherm Exploration, Tracers Data Analysis, And Enhanced Data Distribution, Visualization, And Management Details Activities (4) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Geographic information systems (GIS) are an underused resource that can help the geothermal industry in exploration, tracer analysis, infrastructure management, and the general distribution and use of data. GIS systems are highly customizable to specific user needs and can use entire corporate data sets through a visual interface. This paper briefly documents the use of GIS in specific examples of geothermal research at the

170

Quantitative interpretation of tracer test data | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Quantitative interpretation of tracer test data Quantitative interpretation of tracer test data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Quantitative interpretation of tracer test data Abstract Geothermal reinjection is an important part of sustainable management of geothermal resources. Reinjection started out as a method of waste-water disposal, but is now also being used to counteract pressure draw-down and to extract more thermal energy from reservoir rocks. The possible cooling of production wells, or thermal breakthrough, is one of the main disadvantages associated with injection. To minimize this danger while maintaining the benefit from reinjection requires careful testing and research. Tracer testing, which is used to study flow-paths and quantify fluid-flow in hydrological systems, is probably the most important tool for

171

A Study of Tracer Distribution Parameter Estimation from Sparse Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How do design parameters such as the spacing of sampling stations affect the quality of information obtained from atmospheric dispersion experiments? In large-scale experiments such as the Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX) and the ...

J. Z. Holland

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Morning Transition Tracer Experiments in a Deep Narrow Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three sulfur hexafluoride atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted during the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period in the deep, narrow Brush Creek Valley of Colorado. Experiments were conducted under clear, undisturbed weather ...

C. David Whiteman

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Lagrangian Transport Calculations Using UARS Data. Part I. Passive Tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of passive tracers observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is simulated using computed three-dimensional trajectories of ? 100 000 air parcels initialized on a stratosphere grid, with horizontal winds provided by the ...

G.L. Manney; R.W. Zurek; W.A. Lahoz; R.S. Harwood; J.C. Gille; J.B. Kumer; J.L. Mergenthaler; A.E. Roche; A. O'Neill; R. Swinbank; J.W. Waters

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Ventilation Rates Estimated from Tracers in the Presence of Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intimate relationship among ventilation, transit-time distributions, and transient tracer budgets is analyzed. To characterize the advective–diffusive transport from the mixed layer to the interior ocean in terms of flux we employ a ...

Timothy M. Hall; Thomas W. N. Haine; Darryn W. Waugh; Mark Holzer; Francesca Terenzi; Deborah A. LeBel

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The Dispersion of Atmospheric Tracers in Nocturnal Drainage Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the results of a series of perfluorocarbon tracer experiments that were carried out in the Brush Creek Valley in western Colorado under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. The results ...

Paul H. Gudiksen; Donald L. Shearer

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Atmospheric Dispersion and Tracer Ventilation in a Deep Mountain Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During September and October 1984, a major meteorological and tracer study was conducted in Colorado's Brush Creek valley. The characteristics of atmospheric dispersion during the nighttime and morning transition periods are discussed in this ...

K. Jerry Allwine

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

An Automated Sequential Syringe Sampler for Atmospheric Tracer Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of an improved sampler for the automatic collection of air samples during atmospheric halogenated tracer experiments is described. In this approach, each sample is collected in a small volume (20 to 150 ml) syringe using a rack and ...

Joseph P. Krasnec; David E. Demaray; Brian Lamb; Richard Benner

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Can a Tracer Field Be Inverted for Velocity?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determining flow fields and mixing rates from chemical tracer distributions is a challenging and important oceanographic problem. Thus the conclusion, that solutions obtained for underdetermined systems were “devoid of physical content”, drawn by ...

Carl Wunsch

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with ...

Elizabeth M. Stone; William J. Randel; John L. Stanford

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Results of Repeat Tracer Tests at Ohaaki, NZ  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During 20 years of tracer testing at Ohaaki a number of wells have been used more than once as tracer injection sites. In studying the various responses obtained it has been necessary to consider variations in the experimental test conditions before making comparisons which relate to field conditions. Some very significant changes have occurred in the field hydrology in recent years and water flow speeds as high as those encountered at Wairakei have been demonstrated.

McCabe, W.J.; Clotworthy, A.W.; Morris, C.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Gas Geothermometry | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Geothermometry Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Gas Geothermometry Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0)...

182

Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LETTERS Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields Stuart M removal in nine natural gas fields in North America, China and Europe, using noble gas and carbon isotope tracers. The natural gas fields investigated in our study are dominated by a CO2 phase and provide

Haszeldine, Stuart

183

TRACER: an EXCEL workbook to calculate mean residence time in groundwater by use of tracers CFC-11, CFC-12 and tritium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An EXCEL workbook is presented for calculating the mean residence time of groundwater based on the environmental tracers, tritium, CFC-11 and CFC-12. The program TRACER is written in Visual Basic for Application language and uses piston, exponential, ... Keywords: environmental tracer, exit-age distribution, exponential model, piston flow, turnover time

Serdar Bayari

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Memory characteristics of MOSFET with silicon nanoclusters formed using a pulse-type gas-feeding technique in the LPCVD system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The digital gas-feeding method was used in this study, with Si"2H"6 as the source gas, in a low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition system, to grow Si nanoclusters with high densities and uniform sizes. The densities of the Si nanoclusters rose to 7x10^1^1cm^-^2, ... Keywords: Digital gas-feeding, Flash memory, Nanocrystal floating-gate memory, Nonvolatile memory, Si nanocluster

Eunkyeom Kim; Kyoungmin Kim; Daeho Son; Jeongho Kim; Sunghwan Won; Wan-Shick Hong; Junghyun Sok; Kyoungwan Park

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Optimizing C{sup 4+} and C{sup 5+} beams of the Kei2 electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a special gas-mixing technique  

SciTech Connect

With the prototype electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the next carbon therapy facility in Japan a series of measurements has been performed in order (a) to find the best condition for producing high beam currents of C{sup 4+} ions, and (b) to study the effect of 'special' gas mixing by using a chemical compound as a feed gas. The effect would then appear as an increase in high charge state production in this case of C{sup 5+} ions. In 'regular' gas-mixing experiments it is well known that an isotopic phenomenon occurs: a heavier isotope of the mixing gas is increasing the production of high charge states of the beam gas ions. A similar isotopic effect has been found in the present experiment: with deuterated methane (CD{sub 4} gas) the C{sup 5+} beam currents are about 10% higher than with regular methane (CH{sub 4} gas). The 'mixing-gas' ratio D (or H) to C can be decreased by choosing, e.g., butane gas; in this case the isotopic effect for C{sup 5+} production is even stronger (>15%). For production of C{sup 4+} ions the isotopic effect appears to be absent. Clearly this is related to the much easier production. It turns out that the relative amount of carbon is much more important: butane gives about 10% higher C{sup 4+}-ion currents than methane.

Drentje, A.G.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [K.V.I., University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Geochemical Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geochemical Techniques Geochemical Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Geochemical Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geochemical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: None Parent Exploration Technique: Exploration Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Geochemical Techniques: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Related Techniques Geochemical Techniques Geochemical Data Analysis Geothermometry Gas Geothermometry Isotope Geothermometry Liquid Geothermometry Cation Geothermometers Multicomponent Geothermometers Silica Geothermometers Thermal Ion Dispersion

188

Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Sampling Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Gas Sampling Details Activities (7) Areas (7) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Field Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: High flux can be indicative of conduits for fluid flow. Hydrological: Gas composition and source of fluids. Thermal: Anomalous flux is associated with active hydrothermal activity. Distinguish magmatic/mantle heat inputs. Can be used to estimate reservoir fluid temperatures. Dictionary.png Gas Sampling: Gas sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, and hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface hydrothermal system.

189

Thermal stabilities of aromatic acids as geothermal tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that thirty-nine aromatic acids were tested for their suitability as geothermal tracers. The parameters of the experiments included temperatures up to 300[degrees]C for periods of up to one month in fluids of various salinities, the presence of absence of rocks, and atmospheric levels of molecular oxygen. Of the compounds tested, at least 24 are suitable as tracers in a moderate-temperature geothermal environment while 5 may be used at temperatures as high as 300[degrees]C. The compounds displayed no adsorption on the rocks used in the tests. Some of the compounds were used successfully in a major tracer test at the Dixie Valley, Nevada geothermal system.

Adams, M.C.; Moore, J.N.; Fabry, L.G.; Ahn, J.H. (Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Prognostic Prediction of Tracer Dispersion for the Diablo Canyon Experiments on August 31, September 2, and September 4, 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

COAMPS/LODI simulations of the tracer experiments at Diablo Canyon on August 31, September 2, and September 4, 1986 had mixed results. Simulated tracer concentrations on August 31 differed significantly from the measured concentrations. The model transported SF{sub 6} too far south and did not predict transport of SF{sub 6} north along highway 101 or into See Canyon. Early in the day the model rapidly transported SF{sub 6} away from the release point while observations suggested the tracer stayed close to Diablo Canyon for 1-2 hours. For September 2, simulations agreed very well with the measurements. The model accurately predicted the change of wind direction from north northwest to east northeast at the release point. It also predicted the advection of tracer over Mot-r-0 Bay and through the Los Osos Valley toward San Luis Obispo in excellent agreement with the observations. On September 4, the calculated transport of SF{sub 6} from Diablo Canyon had defects similar to those on August 31, a trajectory too far south and limited intrusion of tracer north along highway 101. Conversely, simulations of the Freon release from Los Osos Cemetery on September 4 corresponded well with observations. Since the simulations used only global meteorological data and no local winds for input, even the limited success of COAMPS/LODI is a favorable result. COAMPS's inability to generate southerly winds through the highway 101 corridor on August 31 and September 4 is a symptom of its underestimate of the sea breeze. The weak sea breeze correlates with a small diurnal range of air temperature possibly associated with underestimates of surface solar heating and/or overestimates of surface wetness. Improvement of COAMPS/LODI simulations requires development of new data assimilation techniques to use the local surface and low altitude wind and temperature measurements. Also, quantitative methods are needed to assess the accuracy of the models.

Molenkamp, C.R.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

191

Interwell tracer analyses of a hydraulically fractured granitic geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field experiments using fluorescent dye and radioactive tracers (Br{sup 82} and I{sup 131}) have been employed to characterize a hot, low-matrix permeability, hydraulically-fractured granitic reservoir at depths of 2440 to 2960 m (8000 to 9700 ft). Tracer profiles and residence time distributions have been used to delineate changes in the fracture system, particularly in diagnosing pathological flow patterns and in identifying new injection and production zones. The effectiveness of one- and two-dimensional theoretical dispersion models utilizing single and multiple porous, fractured zones with velocity and formation dependent effects are discussed with respect to actual field data.

Tester, J.W.; Potter, R.M.; Bivins, R.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Use of a Maximum Entropy Method as a Regularization Technique during the Retrieval of Trace Gas Profiles from Limb Sounding Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The retrieval of trace gas profiles from radiance measurements of limb sounding instruments represents an inverse problem: vertical profiles of mixing ratios have to be extracted from sequences of horizontally measured radiances recorded by a ...

J. Steinwagner; G. Schwarz; S. Hilgers

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2-  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Tracers and Tracer Interpretation Project Description The concepts and theory behind the use of heat-sensitive tracers to study the thermal evolution of geothermal reservoirs was developed in the late 1980's under the Hot Dry Rock Project. Those studies described-conceptually and mathematically-the application of reactive tracers to tracking thermal fronts and to reservoir sizing. Later mathematical treatments focused on application of a single reactive tracer test to recover the temperature profile of a single streamtube. Previous tracer work has mainly focused on identifying conservative tracers. In these studies, chemicals that degraded at reservoir temperatures were discarded. Benzoic acids and dicarboxylic acids, which were found by Adams to degrade, may be useful as reactive tracers. Organic esters and amide tracers that undergo hydrolysis have been investigated and their use as reactive tracers appears feasible over a temperature range of 100ºC to 275ºC. However their reaction rates are pH dependent and sorption reactions have not been evaluated. While reactive tracer parameters have been measured in the lab, reactive tracers have not been extensively tested in the field. Thus, while reactive tracers appear to be a promising means of monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir, the concept has yet to be tested at the scale necessary for successful implementation, and tools for analyzing results of such tracer tests under the non-ideal conditions of an actual geothermal system have yet to be developed.

195

Lethbridge Research Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada Reducing Greenhouse Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time constant 14-18 min #12;26 Wind C (g/m3) Modeling the gas plume dispersion Dispersion model relatesLethbridge Research Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada Reducing Greenhouse Gas Contribution from;17 Types of Emission Measurements Chambers Tracers Dispersion (methane and ammonia) pen Farm / Feedlot

196

Tracer testing at Soultz-sous-Forts (France) using naphthalene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: · EPS1 fully cored exploration · GPK-1 preliminary injection tests · GPK-3 injection well · GPK-2 and future GPK-4 production wells 3.6 km continuous logs: Caliper, Spectral GR, UBI (5100m) #12;EHDRA-2 (July 2000) > Water injection · 26,800 m3 of fresh water and 1,000 m3 of heavy brine > Tracer

197

Using a combination of two models in tracer simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a combination of two models, a Lagrangian meso-scale model and a long-range transport Eulerian model, in a model for studying the air pollution caused by a single but strong emission source is discussed. It is explained why it is worthwhile ... Keywords: Accidental releases, Advection, Animation, Chernobyl, Diffusion, ETEX, Tracer models, Visualization

J. Brandt; T. Mikkelsen; S. Thykier-Nielsen; Z. Zlatev

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Diagnostic Implications of the Reactivity of Fluorescence Tracers  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of fuel concentration distributions with planar laser induced fluorescence of tracer molecules that are added to a base fuel are commonly used in combustion research and development. It usually is assumed that the tracer concentration follows the parent fuel concentration if physical properties such as those determining evaporation are matched. As an example to address this general issue a computational study of combustion of biacetyl/iso-octane mixtures was performed to investigate how well the concentration of biacetyl represents the concentration of iso-octane. For premixed mixture conditions with flame propagation the spatial concentration profiles of the two species in the flame front are separated by 110 {micro}m at 1 bar and by 11 {micro}m at 10 bar. For practical applications this spatial separation is insignificantly small. However, for conditions that mimic ignition and combustion in diesel and HCCI-like operation the differences in tracer and fuel concentration can be significant, exceeding hundreds of percent. At low initial temperature biacetyl was found to be more stable whereas at higher temperature (>1000K) iso-octane is more stable. Similar findings were obtained for a multi-component fuel comprised of iso-octane, n-heptane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene. It may be assumed that similar differences can exist for other tracer/fuel combinations. Caution has therefore to be applied when interpreting PLIF measurements in homogeneous reaction conditions such as in HCCI engine studies.

Sick, V; Westbrook, C

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

199

Dispersion of Perfluorocarbon Tracers within the Salt Lake Valley during VTMX 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six perfluorocarbon tracer experiments were conducted in Salt Lake City, Utah, during October 2000 as part of the Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) field campaign. Four tracers were released at different sites to obtain information on ...

Jerome D. Fast; K. Jerry Allwine; Russell N. Dietz; Kirk L. Clawson; Joel C. Torcolini

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Relationships between Tracer Ages and Potential Vorticity in Unsteady Wind-Driven Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationships between different tracer ages and between tracer age and potential vorticity are examined by simulating barotropic double-gyre circulations. The unsteady model flow crudely represents aspects of the midlatitude, middepth ocean ...

Hong Zhang; Thomas W. N. Haine; Darryn W. Waugh

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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201

Effective Eddy Diffusivities Inferred from a Point Release Tracer in an Eddy-Resolving Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses tracer experiments in a global eddy-resolving ocean model to examine two diagnostic methods for inferring effective eddy isopycnic diffusivity from point release tracers. The first method is based on the growth rate of the area ...

Mei-Man Lee; A. J. George Nurser; Andrew C. Coward; Beverly A. de Cuevas

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Roles of Langmuir Circulations in the Dispersion of Surface Tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hierarchy of theoretical and numerical models for the dispersion of discrete floating tracers on lakes and oceans is presented. Central to these models is the role of Langmuir circulations, which concentrate tracers into narrow windrows this ...

Alan J. Faller; Stephen J. Auer

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Solving Underdetermined Tracer Inverse Problems by Spatial Smoothing and Cross Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tracer conservation equations may be inverted to determine the flow field and macroscopic diffusion coefficients from known tracer distributions. An underdetermined system leads to an infinite number of possible solutions. The solution that is ...

Peter C. McIntosh; George Veronis

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Chemical tracer test at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada. Geothermal Reservoir Technology research program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the injection test described, chemical tracers established the fluid flow between one injection well and one production well. Measured tracer concentrations, calculated flow rates, sampling schedules, and the daily events of the tracer test are documented. This experiment was designed to test the application of organic tracers, to further refine the predictive capability of the reservoir model, and to improve the effectiveness of Oxbow`s injection strategy.

Adams, M.C.; Moore, J.N. [Utah Univ. Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Benoit, W.R. [Oxbow Geothermal Corp., Reno, NV (United States); Doughty, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gas Flux Sampling Gas Flux Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Gas Flux Sampling Details Activities (26) Areas (20) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Gas Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: High flux can be indicative of conduits for fluid flow. Hydrological: Thermal: Anomalous flux is associated with active hydrothermal activity. Dictionary.png Gas Flux Sampling: Gas flux sampling measures the flow of volatile gas emissions from a specific location and compares it to average background emissions. Anomalously high gas flux can be an indication of hydrothermal activity.

206

High-pressure/high-temperature gas-solubility study in hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems using static and chromatographic techniques  

SciTech Connect

The design and discovery of sources for alternative energy such as coal liquefaction has become of major importance over the past two decades. One of the major problems in such design in the lack of available data, particularly, for gas solubility in polycyclic aromatics at high temperature and pressure. Static and gas-liquid partition chromatographic methods were used for the study of hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems. The static data for these two binaries were taken along 398.2, 423.2, 448.2, and 473.2 K isotherms up to 25.23 MPa. Gas-liquid partition chromatography was used to study the infinite dilution behavior of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the hydrogen-phenanthrene system as well as hydrogen, ethane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the methane-phenanthrene binary. The principle objective was to examine the role of the elution gas. Temperatures were along the same isotherms as the static data and up to 20.77 MPa. With the exception of carbon dioxide, Henry's constants were calculated for all systems. Expressions for the heat of solution as a function of pressure were derived for both binary and chromatographic data. Estimates of delta H/sub i/sup sol/ at high pressure were presented.

Malone, P.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Water-Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water-Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Water-Gas Sampling edit Details Activities (21) Areas (18) Regions (1)...

208

Surface Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Gas Sampling Surface Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Surface Gas Sampling Details Activities (12) Areas (10) Regions (1) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Gas Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Gas composition and source of fluids. Thermal: Distinguish magmatic/mantle heat inputs. Can be used to estimate reservoir fluid temperatures. Dictionary.png Surface Gas Sampling: Gas sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface hydrothermal system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction

209

Estimating the Amount of Coal Tar Weathering in Sediments by Two-Dimensional Automated-Sequential Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-GC/MS) and Comprehensive Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC/MS) Techniques — Phase III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is intended to inform scientists and engineers concerned with assessing and remediating former manufactured gas plants and other coal tar-contaminated sites. Although the report focuses on coal tar in sediment, the results are equally applicable to studies investigating and remediating coal tar, crude oil, and their by-products in the vadose zone or in ground or pore waters, as well as marine animals. The data provided in this report should allow more accurate analyses to better direct remedi...

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

210

The Post-Shock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy left in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of pre-shock, shocked, and post-shock gas; and (2) a Monte-Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km s^-1 are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas-phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or ``H2O legacy'', in the post-shock gas is 4 - 7 x 10^5 years. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O is a sensitive function of the frequency of shocks. Thus we predict that the abundance of H2O and other known outflow tracers can be used to trace the history of shock activity in molecular gas. For gas-grain models we find that the abundance of water-ice on grain surfaces can be quite large and is comparable to that observed in molecular clouds. This offers a possible alternative method to create water mantles without resorting to grain surface chemistry: gas heating and chemical modification due to a C-type shock and subsequent depletion of the gas-phase species onto grain mantles.

Edwin A. Bergin; Gary J. Melnick; David A. Neufeld

1998-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers  

SciTech Connect

We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling and analysis partitioning interwell tracer tests in heterogeneous and fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. We compare the streamline-based history matching techniques developed during the first two years of the project with the industry standard assisted history matching. We enhance the widely used assisted history matching in two important aspects that can significantly improve its efficiency and effectiveness. First, we utilize streamline-derived analytic sensitivities to relate the changes in reservoir properties to the production response. These sensitivities can be computed analytically and contain much more information than that used in the assisted history matching. Second, we utilize the sensitivities in an optimization procedure to determine the spatial distribution and magnitude of the changes in reservoir parameters needed to improve the history-match. By intervening at each iteration during the optimization process, we can retain control over the history matching process as in assisted history matching. This allows us to accept, reject, or modify changes during the automatic history matching process. We demonstrate the power of our method using two field examples with model sizes ranging from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} grid blocks and with over one hundred wells. We have also extended the streamline-based production data integration technique to naturally fractured reservoirs using the dual porosity approach. The principal features of our method are the extension of streamline-derived analytic sensitivities to account for matrix-fracture interactions and the use of our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion for history matching. Our proposed workflow has been demonstrated by using both a dual porosity streamline simulator and a commercial finite difference simulator. Our approach is computationally efficient and well suited for large scale field applications in naturally fractured reservoirs with changing field conditions. This considerably broadens the applicability of the streamline-based analysis of tracer data and field production history for characterization of heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs.

Akhil Datta-Gupta

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Microfluidic Investigation of Tracer Dye Diffusion in Alumina Nanofluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanofluids, a new class of fluids engineered by suspending nanometer-sized particles in a host liquid, are offered as a new strategy in order to improve heat and mass transfer efficiency. My research was motivated by previous exciting studies on enhanced mass diffusion and the possibility of tailoring mass transport by direct manipulation of molecular diffusion. Therefore, a microfluidic approach capable of directly probing tracer diffusion between nanoparticle-laden fluid streams was developed. Under conditions matching previously reported studies, strong complexation interactions between the dye and nanoparticles at the interface between fluid streams was observed. When the tracer dye and surfactant were carefully chosen to minimize the collective effects of the interactions, no significant change in tracer dye diffusivity was observed in the presence of nanoparticles. Next, adapting tracer dyes for studies involving colloidal nanomaterials was explored. Addition of these charged tracers poses a myriad of challenges because of their propensity to disrupt the delicate balance among physicochemical interactions governing suspension stability. Here it was shown how important it is to select the compatible combinations of dye, nanoparticle, and stabilizing surfactant to overcome these limitations in low volume fraction (< 1 vol%) aqueous suspensions of Al2O3 nanoparticles. A microfluidic system was applied as a stability probe that unexpectedly revealed how rapid aggregation could be readily triggered in the presence of local chemical gradients. Suspension stability was also assessed in conjunction with coordinated measurements of zeta potential, steady shear viscosity and bulk thermal conductivity. These studies also guided our efforts to prepare new refrigerant formulations containing dispersed nanomaterials, including graphene nanosheets, carbon nanotubes and metal oxide and nitride. The influence of key parameters such as particle type, size and volume fraction on the suspension's thermal conductivity was investigated using a standard protocol. Our findings showed that thermal conductivity values of carbon nanotube and graphene nanosheet suspensions were higher than TiO2 nanoparticles, despite some nanoparticles with large particle sizes provided noticeable thermal conductivity enhancements. Significantly, the graphene containing suspensions uniquely matched the thermal conductivity enhancements attained in nanotube suspensions without accompanying viscosity, thus making them an attractive new coolant for demanding applications such as electronics and reactor cooling.

Ozturk, Serdar 1979-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Development of a conceptual model for ash dump system using hydraulic and tracer test techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Coal provides for 77% of South Africa&rsquo s primary energy needs and is therefore a major resource that supports the socio-economic needs of South… (more)

October, Adolf Gerswin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Tracer Recovery and Mixing from Two Geothermal Injection-Backflow Studies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Recovery and Mixing from Two Geothermal Injection-Backflow Studies Tracer Recovery and Mixing from Two Geothermal Injection-Backflow Studies Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Tracer Recovery and Mixing from Two Geothermal Injection-Backflow Studies Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Injection-backflow tracer testing on a single well is not a commonly used procedure for geothermal reservoir evaluation, and, consequently, there is little published information on the character or interpretation of tracer recovery curves. Two field experiments were conducted to develop chemical tracer procedures for use with injection-backflow testing, one on the fracture-permeability Raft River reservoir and the other on the matrix-permeability East Mesa reservoir. Results from tests conducted with incremental increases in the injection

216

COMPARISON OF THREE TRACER TESTS AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SITE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three conservative tracer tests have been conducted through the Bridge Fault fracture zone at the Raft River Geothermal (RRG) site. All three tests were conducted between injection well RRG-5 and production wells RRG-1 (790 m distance) and RRG-4 (740 m distance). The injection well is used during the summer months to provide pressure support to the production wells. The first test was conducted in 2008 using 136 kg of fluorescein tracer. Two additional tracers were injected in 2010. The first 2010 tracer injected was 100 kg fluorescein disodium hydrate salt on June, 21. The second tracer (100 kg 2,6-naphthalene disulfonic acid sodium salt) was injected one month later on July 21. Sampling of the two productions wells is still being performed to obtain the tail end of the second 2010 tracer test. Tracer concentrations were measured using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. Results for the 2008 test, suggest 80% tracer recover at the two production wells. Of the tracer recovered, 85% of tracer mass was recovered in well RRG-4 indicating a greater flow pathway connection between injection well and RRG-4 than RRG-1. Fluorescein tracer results appear to be similar between the 2008 and 2010 tests for well RRG-4 with peak concentrations arriving approximately 20 days after injection despite the differences between the injection rates for the two tests (~950 gpm to 475 gpm) between the 2008 and 2010. The two 2010 tracer tests will be compared to determine if the results support the hypothesis that rock contraction along the flow pathway due to the 55 oC cooler water injection alters the flow through the ~140 oC reservoir.

Earl D Mattson; Mitchell Plummer; Carl Palmer; Larry Hull; Samantha Miller; Randy Nye

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Soil Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soil Gas Sampling Soil Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Soil Gas Sampling Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Gas Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Identify concealed faults that act as conduits for hydrothermal fluids. Hydrological: Identify hydrothermal gases of magmatic origin. Thermal: Differentiate between amagmatic or magmatic sources heat. Dictionary.png Soil Gas Sampling: Soil gas sampling is sometimes used in exploration for blind geothermal resources to detect anomalously high concentrations of hydrothermal gases

218

AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

Akhil Datta-Gupta

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE COSO EGS PROJECT Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: USE...

220

Fluorescent Nanoparticle Tracers for Oil Exploration and Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Advanced Materials and Reservoir Engineering for Extreme Oil & Gas ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q. (Ponca City, OK); Baldwin, Jr., David E. (Ponca City, OK)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Estimation of tracer diffusion coefficients of ions in aqueous solution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Equations are given for estimating tracer diffusion coefficients D/sub i//sup 0/ of ions at infinite dilution in terms of limiting ionic conductances ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/. Also given are generalized Nernst-Hartley equations for binary and multicomponent diffusion coefficients D/sup 0/ and D/sub ij//sup 0/, respectively, at infinite dilution. Data, estimates, and correlations for ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/ at 25/sup 0/C and other temperatures are discussed. Estimated values of ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/ are tabulated from 0-300/sup 0/C for ions of waste isolation interest and for ions of economic interest in geothermal brines. Estimates of their tracer diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution are tabulated. A rule of thumb, good to a factor of 2, is presented. Very limited data (available only at 25/sup 0/C) indicate that D/sub i//D/sub i//sup 0/ generally declines as the concentration of salt or supporting electrolyte increases. 6 figures, 2 tables.

Miller, D.G.

1982-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Distributed measurements of tracer response on packed bed flows using a fiberoptic probe array. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scale-up of packed bed processes, particularly those involving chromatographic separations, is made difficult by a seemingly inevitable increase in dispersion due to packing nonuniformity. To provide a suitable characterization, the authors measured the spatial distribution of dispersion and mixing in packed beds of uniform impervious spherical glass particles by a tracer impulse technique. The key feature in this work is the use of a fiberoptic array at the exit plane to obtain a time-resolved spatially distributed response. All experiments were in the creeping flow regime. The authors used a fluorescent dye with laser excitation through the fiber terminations in the bed. The fluoresced radiation was collected through the same fibers. They analyzed the data by the use of indices of the extent of micromixing based on Danckwerts`s original degree of segregation and an additional index of structural uniformity. The computations involve a moment analysis of the individual and average probe responses. A simple model gives expressions for the indices in terms of the Peclet number and is shown to provide a useful limiting case. The computed indices are also shown to be very sensitive to adsorption of dye on the surface of the glass. However, for some of the experiments with the largest spheres using Pyrex glass, the effects of adsorption are indiscernible. This technique successfully separates the contribution of micromixed fluid to overall bed dispersion from the contribution due to the transverse variation of the flow residence time.

Jones, M.C.; Nassimbene, R.; Wolfe, J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Lab.; Frederick, N. [Rocky Mountain Electron Video, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

High-power I-V curve tracer employing a capacitive load  

SciTech Connect

A portable, photovoltaic voltage versus current curve tracer is discussed. The curve tracer employs a capacitive load to provide automatic sweeping of the array voltage. The unit is capable of measuring arrays up to 10 kW, but is similar and lighter than a conventional 2.5-kW dissipative load.

Warner, T.H.; Cox, C.H. III

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Saline tracer visualized with three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography: Field-scale spatial moment analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) was used to monitor the migration of a saline tracer in a two-well pumping-injection experiment conducted of the bulk media changes as the tracer migrates from the pumping to the injection well. The local Figure 2 as in (c) a photograph of the site (not aligned to schematics). ERT wells are labeled A-D. Injection

Singha, Kamini

226

High-performance high-resolution semi-Lagrangian tracer transport on a sphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current climate models have a limited ability to increase spatial resolution because numerical stability requires the time step to decrease. We describe a semi-Lagrangian method for tracer transport that is stable for arbitrary Courant numbers, and we ... Keywords: Cubed sphere, High resolution, High-performance computing, Semi-Lagrangian, Spherical geometry, Tracer transport

J. B. White, III; J. J. Dongarra

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Baroclinic Flow and Transient-Tracer Fields in the Canary–Cape Verde Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated transient-tracer distributions (tritium, 3H3, freons) on the isopycnal horizons ?0=26.5 and 26.8 kg m?3 are presented for the East Atlantic, 10° ?40°N. Tracer transport is modeled by employing a baroclinic flow field based on empirical ...

Gerhard Thiele; Wolfgang Roether; Peter Schlosser; Reinhard Kuntz; Gerold Siedler; Lothar Stramma

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Feasibility of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in atmospheric source-receptor experiments  

SciTech Connect

A brief description of the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) system, which includes the tracers and the release equipment, the air samplers and the analyzers, is presented along with details on the research needs to provide a viable system for MATEX-scenario experiments. The present family of 2 viable PFTs needs to be increased to 5 to 6. Given the present precision of the analysis system, a one year long tracer experiment consisting of 4 hour releases every 60 hours from 5 different sites would require nearly 150 metric tons of PFTs at a cost of $15,000,000. Shortcomings in the programmable sampler include the pump, the sampling sequence control flexibility, data storage and retrieval, and the lack of remote communication capability; sampler adsorbent studies are also needed. The analytical system, including the catalyst processing bed, the chromatography column resolution, and the linearity of the detector, is in need of significant improvement. A higher resolution analysis system could significantly reduce analysis time but, more importantly, reduce tracer requirements more than 10-fold, for a cost savings potential of more than $13,000,000. A model is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of tracer material balances. Assessment of earlier long-range tracer experiments indicates the need for possibly 400 ground sampling sites requiring $8 to $14 million worth of samplers for a one-year tracer experiment. As many as six aircraft would be needed to conduct airborne model validation and material balance studies for each tracer plume.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Advection of High-Resolution Tracers by Low-Resolution Winds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The usefulness of any simulation of atmospheric tracers using low-resolution winds relies on both the dominance of large spatial scales in the strain and time dependence that results in a cascade in tracer scales. Here, a quantitative study on ...

John Methven; Brian Hoskins

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Rates and Mechanisms of Water Mass Transformation in the Labrador Sea as Inferred from Tracer Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series of hydrographic and transient tracer (3H and 3He) observations from the central Labrador Sea collected between 1991 and 1996 are presented to document the complex changes in the tracer fields as a result of variations in convective ...

Samar Khatiwala; Peter Schlosser; Martin Visbeck

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Highly enriched multiply-labeled stable isotopic compounds as atmospheric tracers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compounds multiply-labeled with stable isotopes and highly enriched in these isotopes are readily capable of detection in tracer experiments involving high dilutions. Thus, for example, /sup 13/C/sup 18/O/sub 2/ provides a useful tracer for following atmospheric pol lution produced as a result of fossil fuel burning. (Official Gazette)

Goldblatt, M.; McInteer, B.B.

1974-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

232

Photovoltaic I-V curve measurement techniques  

SciTech Connect

Performance evaluation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays under actual field conditions provides important feedback to the module design process. One of the principal methods for assessing an array's performance is to plot its current, I, versus voltage, V, curve. Following a brief review of techniques for measuring the I-V curve, a new, capacitive-based approach is presented. It uses a rapid sweep of the I-V curve that substantially reduces the average power transfer between array and load, and in turn, substantially reduces the size and weight of the curve tracer. Both theoretical and practical aspects of the approach are presented for a 10-kW unit. Performance is verified by comparison with I-V curves obtained by using a conventional load. The agreement is found to be excellent. Approximately an order of magnitude reduction in size, weight and power consumption over conventional units was realized with the experimental I-V curve tracer.

Cox, C.H.; Warner, T.H.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing Phase 2 work comprises the development and field-testing of a real-time reservoir stimulation diagnostic system. Phase 3 work commenced in June 2001, and involved conducting research, development and field-testing of real-time enhanced dual-fluid stimulation processes. Experimental field-testing to date includes three well tests. Application of these real-time stimulation processes and diagnostic technologies has been technically successful with commercial production from the ''marginal'' reservoirs in the first two well tests. The third well test proved downhole-mixing is an efficient process for acid stimulation of a carbonate reservoir that produced oil and gas with 2200 psi bottomhole reservoir pressure, however, subsequent shut-in pressure testing indicated the reservoir was characterized by low-permeability. Realtimezone continues to seek patent protection in foreign markets to the benefit of both RTZ and NETL. Realtimezone and the NETL have licensed the United States patented to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Ongoing Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-testing continues to confirm applications of both real-time technologies, from well testing conducted over the last 12-month work period and including well test scheduled for year-end of 2002. Technical data transfer to industry is ongoing via Internet tech-transfer, public presentations and industry publications. Final Phase 3 test work will be focused on further field-testing the innovational process of blending stimulation fluids downhole. This system provides a number of advantages in comparison to older industry fracturing techniques and allows the operator to control reservoir fracture propagation and concentrations of proppant placed in the reservoir, in real-time. Another observed advantage is that lower friction pressures result, which results in lower pump treating pressures and safer reservoir hydraulic fracturing jobs.

George Scott III

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate and Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate and 2,7-Naphthalene Disulfonate Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate and 2,7-Naphthalene Disulfonate Abstract The decay kinetics of the candidate tracers 2-naphthalene sulfonate and 2,7-naphthalenedisulfonate was studied under laboratory conditionsthat simulate a hydrothermal environment, withneither compound exhibiting any decay after oneweek at 330�C. These data indicate that thesecompounds are more thermally stable than any of thepreviously studied polyaromatic sulfonates. Both ofthe tracer candidates were successfully tested in afield study at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermalreservoir. In addition to

235

Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the use of alternative fuels and combustion regimes is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO{sub 2} emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, and higher noise. Noise and PM have traditionally been the obstacles toward consumer acceptance of Diesel passenger cars in North America, while NOx (a key component in photochemical smog) has been more of an engineering challenge. Diesels are lean burning (combustion with excess oxygen) and reducing NOx to N2 in an oxygen rich environment is difficult. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions, but relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K prevents NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to validate combustion modeling.

Mack, J H; Flowers, D L; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

236

Single Well Injection Withdrawl Tracer Tests for Proppant ...  

A large question preventing optimal natural gas production from "hydrofracked" shales is how far proppants, injected to keep shale fractures open, ...

237

Odorization techniques  

SciTech Connect

Reynolds Equipment Co. briefly describes some of the odorizers employed in natural-gas systems. Odorizers operate on absorption, injection, or titration mechanisms that vary widely in complexity and accuracy from a simple wick type to completed automated systems that accurately proportion the odorant to the gas flow.

Reynolds, L.E.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Moving mesh cosmology: tracing cosmological gas accretion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the nature of gas accretion onto haloes and galaxies at z=2 using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations run with the moving mesh code AREPO. Implementing a Monte Carlo tracer particle scheme to determine the origin and thermodynamic history of accreting gas, we make quantitative comparisons to an otherwise identical simulation run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3. Contrasting these two numerical approaches, we find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas in haloes above 10^10.5 solar masses. In agreement with previous work, GADGET simulations show a cold fraction near unity for galaxies forming in massive haloes, implying that only a small percentage of accreted gas heats to an appreciable fraction of the virial temperature during accretion. The same galaxies in AREPO show a much lower cold fraction, gas accretion rate which, at this same halo mass, is an order o...

Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Keres, Dusan; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Numerical simulation of turbulent airflow, tracer gas diffusion, and particle dispersion in a mockup aircraft cabin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In order to study the capability of computational methods in investigating the mechanisms associated with disease and contaminants transmission in aircraft cabins, the Computational Fluid… (more)

Khosrow, Ebrahimi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Rapid measurements and mapping of tracer gas concentrations in a large indoor space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Office of Non-proliferation and National Security,Chemical and Biological Non-proliferation Program of the US

Fischer, M.L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Estimation of fracture porosity in an unsaturated fractured welded tuff using gas tracer testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are .pres or .pres_cal for pressure data files and .rtdor .rtd_cal for temperature data files. The files withC. Subroutines PRESSUREDATA and RTD are called upon next to

Freifeld, Barry

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Use of the CAPTEX Data for Evaluations of a Long-Range Transport Numerical Model with a Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A “four-dimensional data assimilation” technique is employed in a time-dependent, three-dimensional mesoscale model to simulate long-range pollutant transport and diffusion in the eastern United States using the 1983 Cross-Appalachian Tracer ...

Chih-Yue Jim Kao; Tetsuji Yamada

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The non-proliferation experiment and gas sampling as an on-site inspection activity: A progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Non-proliferation Experiment (NPE) is contributing to the development of gas sampling methods and models that may be incorporated into future on-site inspection (OSI) activities. Surface gas sampling and analysis, motivated by nuclear test containment studies, have already demonstrated the tendency for the gaseous products of an underground nuclear test to flow hundreds of meters to the surface over periods ranging from days to months. Even in the presence of a uniform sinusoidal pressure variation, there will be a net flow of cavity gas toward the surface. To test this barometric pumping effect at Rainier Mesa, gas bottles containing sulfur hexaflouride and {sup 3}He were added to the pre-detonation cavity for the 1 kt chemical explosives test. Pre-detonation measurements of the background levels of both gases were obtained at selected sites on top of the mesa. The background levels of both tracers were found to be at or below mass spectrographic/gas chromatographic sensitivity thresholds in the parts-per-trillion range. Post-detonation, gas chromatographic analyses of samples taken during barometric pressure lows from the sampling sites on the mesa indicate the presence of significant levels (300--600 ppt) of sulfur hexaflouride. However, mass spectrographic analyses of gas samples taken to date do not show the presence of {sup 3}He. To explain these observations, several possibilities are being explored through additional sampling/analysis and numerical modeling. For the NPE, the detonation point was approximately 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa and the event did not produce significant fracturing or subsidence on the surface of the mesa. Thus, the NPE may ultimately represent an extreme, but useful example for the application and tuning of cavity gas detection techniques.

Carrigan, C.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Analysis of an interwell tracer test in a depleted heavy oilreservoir  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents field data and analyses of an interwell tracer test conducted in the Niitsu oil field which is a fully depleted heavy oil reservoir of unconsolidated sand formation. The purpose of the tracer test is to diagnose reservoir heterogeneity at a location where a micellar/ polymer field test is planned. Water containing a chemical tracer was injected at a constant rate into an injector surrounded by three production wells. Effluent analyses showed very early breakthrough of injected water at two of the producing wells, no tracer, however, was detected at the third producer thoughout the test period. In addition, tracer production profiles at two wells after breakthrough differed much from each other. These test results suggest a strong areal heterogeneity of the tested formation. An appropriate analytical model was used to obtain a preliminary interpretation of the results. A modified three-dimensional black oil model developed to simulate polymer flood process was then utilized for analyzing the data in more detail. The model treats tracer solution as a fourth component, and can also account for adsorption of tracer.

Ohno, K.; Horne, R.N.; Nanba, T.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

THE NEW YORK CITY URBAN DISPERSION PROGRAM MARCH 2005 FIELD STUDY: TRACER METHODS AND RESULTS.  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program March 2005 Field Study tracer releases, sampling, and analytical methods are described in detail. There were two days where tracer releases and sampling were conducted. A total of 16.0 g of six tracers were released during the first test day or Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 1 and 15.7 g during IOP 2. Three types of sampling instruments were used in this study. Sequential air samplers, or SAS, collected six-minute samples, while Brookhaven atmospheric tracer samplers (BATS) and personal air samplers (PAS) collected thirty-minute samples. There were a total of 1300 samples resulting from the two IOPs. Confidence limits in the sampling and analysis method were 20% as determined from 100 duplicate samples. The sample recovery rate was 84%. The integrally averaged 6-minute samples were compared to the 30-minute samples. The agreement was found to be good in most cases. The validity of using a background tracer to calculate sample volumes was examined and also found to have a confidence level of 20%. Methods for improving sampling and analysis are discussed. The data described in this report are available as Excel files. An additional Excel file of quality assured tracer data for use in model validation efforts is also available. The file consists of extensively quality assured BATS tracer data with background concentrations subtracted.

WATSON, T.B.; HEISER, J.; KALB, P.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; WIESER, R.; VIGNATO, G.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Greatly Enhanced Detectability of Geothermal Tracers Through Laser-Induced Fluorescence  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

WE have successfully completed a four-year R and D project to greatly reduce the detection limit of fluorescent tracers through the use of emerging laser-excitation, optical fiber, and CCD-spectroscopy technologies. Whereas the efforts over the first two years were directed at demonstrating a reduction in the detection limit of fluorescent compounds by a factor of 100 and at identifying several new fluorescein-derived tracer candidates, our recent efforts were focused primarily on the field demonstration of new tracers having detection limits in the low parts-per-quadrillion range. During the summer of 2001, we initiated field tests at the Dixie Valley, Nevada and at the Beowawe, Nevada geothermal fields using very small quantities of the fluorescein-derivative 6-carboxyfluorescein. Subsequently, we succeeded in measuring sub-part-per-trillion quantities of that candidate tracer at both the Beowawe and Dixie Valley geothermal reservoirs-using approximately 530 g of tracer at each setting. Our studies indicate that we could have observed a breakthrough using only 0.53 g of 6-carboxyfluorescein. This represents a reduction by a factor of 170,000 below the mass of tracer used in a previous tracer test at Beowawe.

Peter Rose; Joel Harris; Phaedra Kilbourn; James Kleimeyer; Troy Carter

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

247

Novel Application of Single-Well Tracer Tests to Evaluate Hydraulic Stimulation Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a graphical method by which one can identify the number of fractures and their permeability distribution in the near-well region from single-well tracer tests. The method is an extension of tracer analysis methods developed previously to estimate flow geometry and relies on caluclating the relative fluid velocity from F-__ plots. A number of numerical examples show that high flow zones (fractures) are readily identified from the derivatives of an F-___ curve. The method can be used in evaluating well stimulation efforts by conducting a tracer test before and after the stimulation and comparing the velocity distributions.

G. M. Shook; Gopi Nalla

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Enhanced Gas Recovery Using Pressure and Displacement Management.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work contained in this thesis combines two previous enhanced gas recovery techniques; coproduction of water and gas from water-drive reservoirs and waterflooding of low… (more)

Walker, Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A new chemodynamical tool to study the evolution of galaxies in the local Universe: a quick and accurate numerical technique to compute gas cooling rate for any chemical composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a quick and accurate numerical tool to compute gas cooling whichever its chemical composition.

Nicolas Champavert; Hervé Wozniak

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

250

GASEOUS CO ABUNDANCE-AN EVOLUTIONARY TRACER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of the Planck satellite with the molecular data of {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 0.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 1.7 and 0.9, respectively. The median value of X{sub CO-to-H{sub 2}} for the whole sample is 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} K{sup -1} km{sup -1} s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor, and CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor are strongly (anti-)correlated to other physical parameters (e.g., dust temperature, dust emissivity spectral index, column density, volume density, and luminosity-to-mass ratio). To conclude, the gaseous CO abundance can be used as an evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds.

Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

251

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study; Progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is in two parts one for the fluorinated benzoic acids and one for the fluorinated aliphatic acids. The assumptions made in the report regarding the amount of tracer that will be used, dilution of the tracer during the test and the length of exposure (if any) to individuals drinking the water were made by the authors. These assumptions must really come from the USGS hydrologists in charge of the c-well tracer testing program. Accurate estimates of dilution of the tracer during the test are also important because of solubility limitations of some of the tracers. Three of the difluorobenzoic acids have relatively low solubilities and may not be usable if the dilution estimates are large. The toxicologist that reviewed the document agreed with our conclusion that the fluorinated benzoic and toluic acids do not represent a health hazard if used under the conditions as outlined in the report. We are currently testing 15 of these compounds, and if even if three difluorobenzoic acids cannot be used because of solubility limitations we will still have 12 tracers. The toxicologist felt that the aliphatic fluorinated acids potentially present more of a health risk than the aromatic. This assessment was based on the fact of a known allergic response to halothane anesthetic. This risk, although minimal, is known and he felt that was enough reason to recommend against their use. The authors feel that the toxicologists interpretation of this risk was overly conservative, however, we will not go against his recommendation at this time for the following reasons. First, without the aliphatic compounds we still have 12 to 15 fluorinated aromatic acids which, should be enough for the c-well tests. Second, to get a permit to use aliphatic compounds would undoubtedly require a hearing which could be quite lengthy.

Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Modified Tracer Selection and Tracking Procedure to Derive Winds Using Water Vapor Imagers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remotely sensed upper-tropospheric water vapor wind information has been of increasing interest for operational meteorology. A new tracer selection based on a local image anomaly and tracking procedure, itself based on Nash–Sutcliffe model ...

S. K. Deb; C. M. Kishtawal; P. K. Pal; P. C. Joshi

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Evaluation of Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models with Measurements from Controlled Tracer Releases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three widely used Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models (LPDMs), HYSPLIT, STILT and FLEXPART are evaluated with measurements from the controlled tracer release experiments CAPTEX and ANATEX. The LPDMs are run forward in time driven by identical ...

Jennifer Hegarty; Roland R. Draxler; Ariel F. Stein; Jerome Brioude; Marikate Mountain; Janusz Eluszkiewicz; Thomas Nehrkorn; Fong Ngan; Arlyn Andrews

255

The Bolus Velocity in the Stochastic Theory of Ocean Turbulent Tracer Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stochastic theory of tracer transport in compressible turbulence has recently been developed and then applied to the ocean case because stratified flow in isopycnal coordinates is analogous to compressible flow with the isopycnal layer ...

John K. Dukowicz; Richard J. Greatbatch

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Atmospheric Dispersion from Elevated Sources in an Urban Area: Comparison between Tracer Experiments and Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric dispersion experiments were carried out in the Copenhagen area under neutral and unstable conditions. The tracer sulphurhexafluoride was released without buoyancy from a tower at a height of 115 m and then collected at ground-level ...

Sven-Erik Gryning; Erik Lyck

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Adjoint-Based Estimation of Eddy-Induced Tracer Mixing Parameters in the Global Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the German Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (GECCO) synthesis framework, four separate eddy tracer mixing coefficients are adjusted jointly with external forcing fields, such as to reduce a global misfit between the model ...

Chuanyu Liu; Armin Köhl; Detlef Stammer

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Sensitivity of the Global Ocean Circulation to Parameterizations of Mesoscale Tracer Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The isopycnal transport parameterization of Gent and Mc Williams has been implemented in the GFDL ocean general circulation model, replacing the physically unjustifiable horizontal mixing of tracers. The effects of this parameterization are ...

Gokhan Danabasoglu; James C. Mc Williams

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Influence of Eddies on Tracer Transport in the Abyssal Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tracer transport mechanisms in a deep western boundary current (DWBC) are explored using a three-layer, eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic model. The model is forced with a steady, sinusoidal wind stress. The effects of the wind stress, coupled with ...

Carol Ladd; Lu Anne Thompson

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Transport of a Power Plant Tracer Plume over Grand Canyon National Park  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meteorological and air-quality data, as well as surface tracer concentration values, were collected during 1990 to assess the impacts of Navajo Generating Station (NGS) emissions on Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) air quality. These data have ...

Jun Chen; Robert Bornstein; Charles G. Lindsey

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Interpretation of Measured Tracer Concentration Fluctuations Using a Sinusoidal Meandering Plume Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous instantaneous concentration and wind velocity fluctuations were measured 100 to 752 m downwind of a point source release of SF6 tracer during two field studies conducted amid rolling wheat fields and at a flat desert site in eastern ...

Holly Peterson; Brian Lamb; David Stock

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Truncation Effects on Estimated Parameters of Tracer Distributions Sampled on Finite Domains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented and demonstrated for compensating for the apparent effect of truncation of the sampled crosswind distribution of a tracer, at either or both boundaries of a surface sampling grid downwind from the point of release. Errors ...

J. Z. Holland

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The use of tracers to analyze the effects of reinjection into fractured geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the use of tracers as a reservoir engineering tool in fractured geothermal reservoirs. The principle concern in injecting cooler spent fluids into a fractured reservoir is that the fluids may move through high permeability channels and return to the production wells after contacting a relatively small volume of rock. As a consequence of this rapid transport, the fluids will be only partially reheated and after a short period time will effectively mine the heat from the limited volume of rock. The production wells will then experience a rapid and premature reduction in thermal output. Tracers can be used to infer the existence of high mobility conduits between injection and production wells and to monitor chemical changes of an injected fluid. Since tracer arrival precedes thermal breakthrough, tracer tests are a very useful forecasting tool.

Horne, R.N.; Johns, R.A.; Adams, M.C.; Moore, J.N.; Stiger, S.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Use of a Large Crane for Wind and Tracer Profiles in an Urban Setting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although measured vertical profiles of wind, turbulence, and tracer concentrations are critical for understanding the urban boundary layer, it is problematic to field a sounding system or a tall structure to support anemometers in a densely ...

Frank J. Gouveia; Martin J. Leach; Joseph H. Shinn; William E. Ralph

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Eddy Resolution versus Eddy Diffusion in a Double Gyre GCM. Part II: Mixing of Passive Tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parameterization of the effect of the unresolved scales of motion on a passive tracer field in large-scale numerical ocean models is analyzed through a combination of Lagrangian and Eulerian velocities. The primitive equation isopycnal model ...

Horacio A. Figueroa

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Dispersion of a Passive Tracer in Buoyancy- and Shear-Driven Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By means of finescale modeling [large-eddy simulation (LES)], the combined effect of thermal and mechanical forcing on the dispersion of a plume in a convective boundary layer is investigated. Dispersion of a passive tracer is studied in various ...

Alessandro Dosio; Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano; Albert A. M. Holtslag; Peter J. H. Builtjes

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

The Advection–Diffusion Problem for Stratospheric Flow. Part II: Probability Distribution Function of Tracer Gradients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is a continuation of the study of the advection–diffusion problem for stratospheric flow, and deals with the probability distribution function (PDF) of gradients of a freely decaying passive tracer. Theoretical arguments are reviewed ...

Yongyun Hu; Raymond T. Pierrehumbert

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Design and Validation of an Offline Oceanic Tracer Transport Model for a Carbon Cycle Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An offline passive tracer transport model with self-operating diagnostic-mode vertical mixing and horizontal diffusion parameterizations is used with assimilated ocean currents to find the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) cycle in oceans. This model ...

Vinu Valsala; Shamil Maksyutov; Ikeda Motoyoshi

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Sensitivity of the Ventilation Process in the North Pacific to Eddy-Induced Tracer Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coarse-resolution isopycnal model coupled with a bulk mixed layer model is used to examine the effect of isopycnal thickness diffusion, which parameterizes the subgrid-scale eddy-induced tracer transport, on ventilation of the North Pacific ...

Takahiro Endoh; Yanli Jia; Kelvin J. Richards

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

On Ocean Transport Diagnostics: The Idealized Age Tracer and the Age Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The idealized age tracer is commonly used to diagnose transport in ocean models and to help interpret ocean measurements. In most studies only the steady-state distribution, the result of many centuries of model integration, has been presented ...

Timothy M. Hall; Thomas W. N. Haine

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Graphical Analysis of PET Data Applied to Reversible and Irreversible Tracers  

SciTech Connect

Graphical analysis refers to the transformation of multiple time measurements of plasma and tissue uptake data into a linear plot, the slope of which is related to the number of available tracer binding sites. This type of analysis allows easy comparisons among experiments. No particular model structure is assumed, however it is assumed that the tracer is given by bolus injection and that both tissue uptake and the plasma concentration of unchanged tracer are monitored following tracer injection. The requirement of plasma measurements can be eliminated in some cases when a reference region is available. There are two categories of graphical methods which apply to two general types of ligands--those which bind reversibly during the scanning procedure and those which are irreversible or trapped during the time of the scanning procedure.

Logan, Jean

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Tracer-Contour Inverse Method for Estimating Ocean Circulation and Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is developed for estimating the along-isopycnal and vertical mixing coefficients (K and D) and the absolute velocity from time-averaged hydrographic data. The method focuses directly on transports down tracer gradients on isopycnals. ...

Jan D. Zika; Trevor J. McDougall; Bernadette M. Sloyan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Simulation of Tracer Concentration Data in the Brush Creek Drainage Flow Using an Integrated Puff Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 1984 ASCOT field study in Brush Creek Valley, two perfluorocarbon tracers were released into the nocturnal drainage flow at two different heights. The resulting surface concentrations were sampled at 90 sites, and vertical ...

K. Shankar Rao; Richard M. Eckman; Rayford P. Hosker Jr.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Adjoint of the Semi-Lagrangian Treatment of the Passive Tracer Equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A semi-Lagrangian treatment of the 1D passive tracer equation using prescribed piecewise-continuous interpolating functions is considered. Whether the process of localizing the upstream position affects the adjoint counterpart of the associated ...

M. Tanguay; S. Polavarapu

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Tracer Transport in Deep Convective Updrafts: Plume Ensemble versus Bulk Formulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two widely used approaches for parameterizing tracer transport based on convective mass fluxes are the plume ensemble formulation (PEF) and the bulk formulation (BF). Here the behavior of these two is contrasted for the specific case in which the ...

Mark G. Lawrence; Philip J. Rasch

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Analysis of Tracer Data Collected during the SCCCAMP 1985 Intensive Measurement Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper contains an analysis of data obtained from measurements of the concentration of tracer gases released during the four intensive measurement periods of the 1985 South-Central Coast Cooperative Air Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP). These ...

David G. Strimaitis; Gary E. Moore; Sharon G. Douglas

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Lagrangian Particle Simulation of Tracer Dispersion in the Lee of a Schematic Two-Dimensional Hill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spray, a 3D Lagrangian particle model for the simulation of complex flow dispersion, is presented. Its performance is tested against the Environmental Protection Agency wind tunnel concentration distribution of passive tracer released from ...

G. Tinarelli; D. Anfossi; G. Brusasca; E. Ferrero; U. Giostra; M. G. Morselli; J. Moussafir; F. Trombetti; F. Tampieri

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Vertical Tracer Concentration Profiles Measured during the Joint Urban 2003 Dispersion Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An atmospheric tracer dispersion study known as Joint Urban 2003 was conducted in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, during July of 2003. As part of this field program, vertical concentration profiles were measured at approximately 1 km from the downtown ...

Julia E. Flaherty; Brian Lamb; K. Jerry Allwine; Eugene Allwine

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Wintertime Dispersion in a Mountainous Basin at Roanoke, Virginia: Tracer Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During January 1989, five nighttime SF6 tracer experiments were conducted in Roanoke, Virginia. The experiments were designed to help identify and understand the dispersion characteristics of a basin atmosphere during winter stagnation ...

K. Jerry Allwine; Brian K. Lamb; Robert Eskridge

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrological parameter estimations from a conservative tracer test with variable-density effects at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site  

SciTech Connect

Reliable predictions of groundwater flow and solute transport require an estimation of the detailed distribution of the parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity) controlling these processes. However, such parameters are difficult to estimate because of the inaccessibility and complexity of the subsurface. In this regard, developments in parameter estimation techniques and investigations of field experiments are still challenging and necessary to improve our understanding and the prediction of hydrological processes. Here we analyze a conservative tracer test conducted at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site in 2001 in a heterogeneous unconfined fluvial aquifer. Some relevant characteristics of this test include: variable-density (sinking) effects because of the injection concentration of the bromide tracer, the relatively small size of the experiment, and the availability of various sources of geophysical and hydrological information. The information contained in this experiment is evaluated through several parameter estimation approaches, including a grid-search-based strategy, stochastic simulation of hydrological property distributions, and deterministic inversion using regularization and pilot-point techniques. Doing this allows us to investigate hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity distributions and to compare the effects of assumptions from several methods and parameterizations. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of variabledensity transport processes and the hydrological relevance of incorporating various sources of information in parameter estimation approaches. Among others, the variable-density effect and the effective porosity distribution, as well as their coupling with the hydraulic conductivity structure, are seen to be significant in the transport process. The results also show that assumed prior information can strongly influence the estimated distributions of hydrological properties.

Dafflon, Baptisite; Barrash, Warren; Cardiff, Michael A.; Johnson, Timothy C.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Generalized chloride mass balance: Forward and inverse solutions for one-dimensional tracer convection under transient flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forward and inverse solutions are provided for analysis of inert tracer profiles resulting from one-dimensional convective transport under fluxes which vary with time and space separately. The developments are displayed as an extension of conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) techniques to account for transient as well as space-dependent water fluxes. The conventional chloride mass balance has been used over two decades to estimate recharge over large time scales in arid environments. In this mass balance approach, the chloride concentration in the pore water, originating from atmospheric fallout, is inversely proportional to the flux of water through the sediments. The CMB method is especially applicable to arid and semi-arid regions where evapotranspirative enrichment of the pore water produces a distinct chloride profile in the unsaturated zone. The solutions presented allow incorporation of transient fluxes and boundary conditions in CMB analysis, and allow analysis of tracer profile data which is not constant with depth below extraction zone in terms of a rational water transport model. A closed-form inverse solution is derived which shows uniqueness of model parameter and boundary condition (including paleoprecipitation) estimation, for the specified flow model. Recent expressions of the conventional chloride mass balance technique are derived from the general model presented here; the conventional CMB is shown to be fully compatible with this transient flow model and it requires the steady-state assumption on chloride mass deposition only (and not on water fluxes or boundary conditions). The solutions and results are demonstrated on chloride profile data from west central New Mexico.

Ginn, T.R.; Murphy, E.M.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Analytic solutions of tracer transport in fractured rock associated with precipitation-dissolution reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Precipitation-dissolution reactions are important for a number of applications such as isotopic tracer transport in the subsurface. Analytical solutions have been developed for tracer transport in both single-fracture and multiple-fracture systems associated with these reactions under transient and steady-state transport conditions. These solutions also take into account advective transport in fractures and molecular diffusion in the rock matrix. For studying distributions of disturbed tracer concentration (the difference between actual concentration and its equilibrium value), effects of precipitation-dissolution reactions are mathematically equivalent to a 'decay' process with a decay constant proportional to the corresponding bulk reaction rate. This important feature significantly simplifies the derivation procedure by taking advantage of the existence of analytical solutions for tracer transport associated with radioactive decay in fractured rock. It is also useful for interpreting tracer breakthrough curves, because the impact of a decay process is relatively easy to analyze. Several illustrative examples are presented, which show that the results are sensitive to fracture spacing, matrix diffusion coefficient (fracture surface area), and bulk reaction rate (or 'decay' constant), indicating that the relevant flow and transport parameters may be estimated by analyzing tracer signals.

Liu, H.H.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Spycher, N.; Kennedy, B.

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Analysis of an interwell tracer test in a depleted heavy-oil reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents field data and analyses of an interwell tracer test conducted in the Niitsu oil field, which is a fully depleted heavy-oil reservoir of unconsolidated sand formation. Water containing a chemical tracer was injected at a constant rate into an injector surrounded by three production wells. Effluent analyses showed very early breakthrough of injected water at two of the producing wells. The test results suggest a strong areal heterogeneity of the tested formation. An appropriate analytic model was used to obtain a preliminary interpretation of the results. A modified three-dimensional (3D) black-oil model developed to simulate th polymer flood process was then used for analyzing the data in more detail. The model treats tracer solution as a fourth component and can also account for adsorption of tracer. Simulation efforts were concentrated on matching the breakthrough times and tracer profiles after breakthrough. Through both the analytic and the simulation work, the reservoir is characterized by a highly heterogeneous distribution of horizontal permeability, a thin layer of high permeability, and a natural waterdrive that cause a preferential flow trend in a direction toward one producer. The authors conclude that the interwell tracer test is an effective tool for evaluating reservoir heterogeneities and a quantitative analysis of test data is done with the polymer option of a black-oil simulator.

Ohno, K.; Nanba, T.; Horne, R.N.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Lévy Fluctuations and Tracer Diffusion in Dilute Suspensions of Algae and Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Swimming microorganisms rely on effective mixing strategies to achieve efficient nutrient influx. Recent experiments, probing the mixing capability of unicellular biflagellates, revealed that passive tracer particles exhibit anomalous non-Gaussian diffusion when immersed in a dilute suspension of self-motile Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae. Qualitatively, this observation can be explained by the fact that the algae induce a fluid flow that may occasionally accelerate the colloidal tracers to relatively large velocities. A satisfactory quantitative theory of enhanced mixing in dilute active suspensions, however, is lacking at present. In particular, it is unclear how non-Gaussian signatures in the tracers' position distribution are linked to the self-propulsion mechanism of a microorganism. Here, we develop a systematic theoretical description of anomalous tracer diffusion in active suspensions, based on a simplified tracer-swimmer interaction model that captures the typical distance scaling of a microswimmer's flow field. We show that the experimentally observed non-Gaussian tails are generic and arise due to a combination of truncated L\\'evy statistics for the velocity field and algebraically decaying time correlations in the fluid. Our analytical considerations are illustrated through extensive simulations, implemented on graphics processing units to achieve the large sample sizes required for analyzing the tails of the tracer distributions.

Irwin M. Zaid; Jörn Dunkel; Julia M. Yeomans

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low ( 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Utility of Bromide and Heat Tracers for Aquifer Characterization Affected by Highly Transient Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained “noise” caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew J.

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

288

Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

289

Ruslands Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to… (more)

Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal  

A unique gas diffusion electrode technique resulting in little to no leftover methanol, therefore increasing the overall effectiveness and performance ...

291

Oil and Gas Supply Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

States, acquire natural gas from foreign producers for resale States, acquire natural gas from foreign producers for resale in the United States, or sell U.S. gas to foreign consumers. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes unconventional gas recovery from low permeability formations of sandstone and shale, and coalbeds. Foreign gas transactions may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico) or transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Energy Information Administration/Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 89 Figure 7. Oil and Gas Supply Model Regions Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Report #:DOE/EIA-0554(2006) Release date: March 2006

292

Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6{Delta}-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 and 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor attempted in July, 2006, to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Application of surfactant in the length of the horizontal hole, and acid over the fracture zone at 10,236 was also planned. This attempt was not successful in that the clean out tools became stuck and had to be abandoned.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6.-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently investigating the costs and operational viability of re-entering the well and conducting an FMI (fracture detection) log and/or an acid stimulation. No final decision or detailed plans have been made regarding these potential interventions at this time.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6 1/8-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently planning to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Depending on the results of these logs, an acidizing or re-drill program will be planned.

George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

295

Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

296

Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

Sheely, Clyde Q. (Ponca City, OK)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Heat as a Tracer to Examine Hydraulic Conductance Near the Russian River Bank Filtration Facility, Sonoma County, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to examine streambed hydraulic conductance near the Russianas a tracer to determine the hydraulic conductance of themodel requires that key hydraulic parameters be identified,

Constantz, Jim; Su, Grace; Hatch, Christine

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Harsh Environment Electronics Packaging for Downhole Oil & Gas Exploration DE-FC26-06NT42950 Goal The goal is to develop new packaging techniques for downhole electronics that will...

299

U. S. landfill gas research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper surveys US landfill gas RandD programs and presents some technical details of work being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois) through the support of the US Department of Energy. The two projects at Argonne include (1) a study of bidirectional gas movement through landfill cover materials and (2) development of standardized techniques to assay gas production from landfilled refuse (including qualitative microbiology of refuse assays).

Bogner, J.; Vogt, M.; Piorkowski, R.; Rose, C.; Hsu, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE COSO EGS PROJECT Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE COSO EGS PROJECT Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A dramatic decrease in the ratio of chloride to boron was observed in the liquid discharge of a well proposed for EGS development in the Coso geothermal field. The decrease appears to be related to the transformation of some feed zones in the well from liquid-dominated to vapor-dominated. High concentrations of boron are transported to the wellbore in the steam, where it fractionates to the liquid phase flowing in from liquid-dominated feed zones. The high-boron steam is created when the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Kinetics of fluorescein decay and its application as a geothermal tracer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on fluorescent which is a dye used to trace the path of injected fluids through geothermal reservoirs. The authors have measured its thermal stability at temperatures up to 300{degrees} C in hydrothermal autoclaves at various fluid compositions, pHs, and oxygen concentrations. The results of these experiments indicate that fluorescein will decay less than 10% during a one month tracer test in geothermal reservoirs with temperatures below 210{degrees} C. For tracer test involving longer times and/or higher temperatures, the activation parameters presented in this study can be used to correct for thermal decay. These parameters were applied to a tracer test conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada geothermal system to correct for the thermal decay of fluorescein and to deduce the effective temperature of the injection-production flow path.

Adams, M.C.; Davis, J. (Univ. of Utah Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Single-well tracer methods for hydrogeologic evaluation of target aquifers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Designing an efficient well field for an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project requires measuring local groundwater flow parameters as well as estimating horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity. Effective porosity determines the volume of aquifer needed to store a given volume of heated or chilled water. Ground-water flow velocity governs the migration of the thermal plume, and dispersion and heat exchange along the flow path reduces the thermal intensity of the recovered plume. Stratigraphic variations in the aquifer will affect plume dispersion, may bias the apparent rate of migration of the plume, and can prevent efficient hydraulic communication between wells. Single-well tracer methods using a conservative flow tracer such as bromide, along with pumping tests and water-level measurements, provide a rapid and cost-effective means for estimating flow parameters. A drift-and-pumpback tracer test yields effective porosity and flow velocity. Point-dilution tracer testing, using new instrumentation for downhole tracer measurement and a new method for calibrating the point-dilution test itself, yields depth-discrete hydraulic conductivity as it is affected by stratigraphy, and can be used to estimate well transmissivity. Experience in conducting both drift-and-pumpback and point-dilution tests at three different test sites has yielded important information that highlights both the power and the limitations of the single-well tracer methods. These sites are the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center (UASRC) ATES well field and the VA Medical Center (VA) ATES well field, both located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and the Hanford bioremediation test site north of Richland, Washington.

Hall, S.H.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site  

SciTech Connect

This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers  

SciTech Connect

We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects. The approach is very fast and avoids much of the subjective judgments and time-consuming trial-and-errors associated with manual history matching. We demonstrate the power and utility of our approach using a synthetic example and two field examples. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, we discuss several alternative ways of using partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITTs) in oil fields for the calculation of oil saturation, swept pore volume and sweep efficiency, and assess the accuracy of such tests under a variety of reservoir conditions.

Akhil Datta-Gupta

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Optical techniques for fluid flow and heat transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review is presented of optical measuring techniques employed in momentum heat and mass transfer studies. A classification is given of those techniques that are nowadays widely employed in studies to advance the understanding of transport phenomena in fluids. Techniques that employ effects caused by fluid molecules are briefly treated, and examples of measurements are given to demonstrate the kind of information that can be obtained by these techniques. Optical techniques using tracers to obtain transport information are summarized, and laser-Doppler anemometry and its application to fluid flow studies are emphasized. Applications of this technique in single-phase and two-phase flows are given that demonstrate its potential in experimental fluid mechanics and convective heat transfer studies. 63 refs.

Durst, F. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas having a high carbon dioxide content is contacted with sea water in an absorber at or near the bottom of the ocean to produce a purified natural gas.

Cook, C.F.; Hays, G.E.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Under the baseline winter weather scenario, EIA expects end-of-October working gas inventories will total 3,830 billion cubic feet (Bcf) and end March ...

309

Gas Week  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presented by: Guy F. Caruso, EIA AdministratorPresented to: Gas WeekHouston, TexasSeptember 24, 2003

Information Center

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

310

Metastable Helium Molecules as Tracers in Superfluid {sup 4}He  

SciTech Connect

Metastable helium molecules generated in a discharge near a sharp tungsten tip immersed in superfluid {sup 4}He are imaged using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. By pulsing the tip, a small cloud of He{sub 2}* molecules is produced. We can determine the normal-fluid velocity in a heat-induced counterflow by tracing the position of a single molecule cloud. As we run the tip in continuous field-emission mode, a normal-fluid jet from the tip is generated and molecules are entrained in the jet. A focused 910 nm pump laser pulse is used to drive a small group of molecules to the first excited vibrational level of the triplet ground state. Subsequent imaging of the tagged molecules with an expanded 925 nm probe laser pulse allows us to measure the flow velocity of the jet. The techniques we developed provide new tools in quantitatively studying the normal fluid flow in superfluid helium.

Guo, W.; Wright, J. D.; Cahn, S. B.; Nikkel, J. A.; McKinsey, D. N. [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06515 (United States)

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Dispersion of Tracer Plumes in Mountainous Regions in Central Arizona: Comparisons between Observations and Modeling Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, time-dependent, nested-grid model is used to calculate the targeting of tracer or Seeding material over complex terrain in northern Arizona. Good agreement with measurements of SF6 tracer is reported in three case studies. ...

Roelof T. Bruintjes; Terry L. Clark; William D. Hall

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Southeast Geyers Cooperative Tracer Evaluation and Testing Program for the Purpose of Estimating The Efficiency of Injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Southeast Geysers Cooperative Tracer Evaluation Program has been a joint project located in the SE part of the Geysers geothermal field, in Lake and Sonoma Counties, California. A new generation of environmentally benign vapor-phase tracers has been used to estimate the varying degrees to which injectate is being recovered following the significant increase of injected volumes within the Southeast Geysers.

J.L. (Bill) Smith

2001-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

313

Tracer Conservation for Three-Dimensional, Finite-Element, Free-Surface, Ocean Modeling on Moving Prismatic Meshes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale free-surface ocean models designed to run over climatic time scales are required to globally conserve the volume and any tracer up to machine precision. In addition, local consistency is critical and requires that the discrete tracer ...

Laurent White; Vincent Legat; Eric Deleersnijder

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

315

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

316

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

317

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

318

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

319

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

320

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

322

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

323

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

324

ADVANCING REACTIVE TRACER METHODS FOR MONITORING THERMAL DRAWDOWN IN GEOTHERMAL ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive tracers have long been considered a possible means of measuring thermal drawdown in a geothermal system, before significant cooling occurs at the extraction well. Here, we examine the sensitivity of the proposed method to evaluate reservoir cooling and demonstrate that while the sensitivity of the method as generally proposed is low, it may be practical under certain conditions.

Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; George D. Redden; Laurence C. Hull

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Assimilation of Stratospheric Chemical Tracer Observations Using a Kalman Filter. Part I: Formulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first part of this two-part article describes the formulation of a Kalman filter system for assimilating limb-sounding observations of stratospheric chemical constituents into a tracer transport model. The system is based on a two-dimensional ...

Richard Ménard; Stephen E. Cohn; Lang-Ping Chang; Peter M. Lyster

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A Wavelet-Based Reduced Rank Kalman Filter for Assimilation of Stratospheric Chemical Tracer Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A suboptimal Kalman filter system that evolves error covariances in terms of a truncated set of wavelet coefficients has been developed for the assimilation of chemical tracer observations of CH4. The truncation is carried out in such a way that ...

Ludovic Auger; Andrew V. Tangborn

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Three-Dimensional Tracer Structure and Behavior as Simulated in Two Ozone Precursor Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GFDL 11-level general circulation/tracer model is used for two experiments designed to prepare the way for a self-consistent model of atmospheric ozone. The first experiment invokes a very simple condition at the top model level, an ...

J. D. Mahlman; H. Levy; W. J. Moxim

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

The Obduction of Equatorial 13°C Water in the Pacific Identified by a Simulated Passive Tracer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The obduction of equatorial 13°C Water in the Pacific is investigated using a simulated passive tracer of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The result shows that the 13°C Water initialized in the ...

Tangdong Qu; Shan Gao; Ichiro Fukumori; Rana A. Fine; Eric J. Lindstrom

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Use of Passive Tracers as a Diagnostic Tool in Coupled Model Simulations—Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on the uptake of a passive idealized tracer in the Northern Hemisphere oceans from two coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations: a standard horizontal diffusion case and the second case including the Gent and McWilliams (GM) eddy ...

Siobhan P. O'Farrell

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Quantification of the Lateral Boundary Forcing of a Regional Climate Model Using an Aging Tracer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work introduces a new and useful tool to quantify the lateral boundary forcing of a regional climate model (RCM). This tool, an aging tracer, computes the time the air parcels spend inside the limited-area domain of an RCM. The aging ...

Philippe Lucas-Picher; Daniel Caya; Sébastien Biner; René Laprise

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data, Water Resour. Res., 48, W06535, doi:10.1029/2011WR011203. 1. However, the calibration of distributed ground- water models based on limited measurements is generally or smoothing in the property of interest, to make underdetermined inverse problems well posed [Yeh, 1986

Hubbard, Susan

332

Hydrogeophysical tracking of three-dimensional tracer migration: The concept and application of apparent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity and water content [e.g., Binley et al., 2002; Yeh et al., 2002], and has been successfully used, Water Resour. Res., 42, W06422, doi:10.1029/2005WR004568. 1. Introduction [2] We use cross the geophysical parameter values measured in the field to properties such as water content or tracer concentration

Singha, Kamini

333

Using chemical tracers in hillslope soils to estimate the importance of chemical denudation under  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using chemical tracers in hillslope soils to estimate the importance of chemical denudation under mass. The model includes both sediment transport and chemical denudation. A simplified two-phase model is developed; the two phases are a chemically immobile phase, which has far lower solubility than the bulk soil

334

Lagrangian and Tracer Evolution in the Vicinity of an Unstable Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of Lagrangian particles and tracers in the vicinity of a baroclinically unstable zonal jet are investigated in a simple two-layer model with an initially quiescent lower layer. The presence of a growing wave induces a particle drift ...

Emmanuel Boss; Lu Anne Thompson

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel tracers that would improve method sensitivity, (3) development of a software tool for design and interpretation of reactive tracer tests and (4) field testing of the reactive tracer temperature monitoring concept.

Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Gas, Mister, not gasoline  

SciTech Connect

A prototype rechargeable CNG commuter car with an LP-gas standby reserve avoids the need for area fueling stations while providing an emergency range-extending technique through its LPG system. Operating on a household power line, the charging compressor fills each tank to 1000 psig at an electric cost of less than 7 cents/100 CF of compressed gas. The four fuel tanks weigh only 120 lb and give the small Opel GT car a range of 75 miles. A 10-gal LPG tank adds 300 miles to this range.

Axworthy, R.T.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called ``hi-pot`` (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven`s Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the ``double source`` method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called hi-pot'' (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the double source'' method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A semi-analytical model for heat and mass transfer in geothermal reservoirs to estimate fracture surface-are-to-volume ratios and thermal breakthrough using thermally-decaying and diffusing tracers  

SciTech Connect

A semi-analytical model was developed to conduct rapid scoping calculations of responses of thermally degrading and diffusing tracers in multi-well tracer tests in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The model is based on an existing Laplace transform inversion model for solute transport in dual-porosity media. The heat- and mass-transfer calculations are decoupled and conducted sequentially, taking advantage of the fact that heat transfer between fractures and the rock matrix is much more rapid than mass transfer and therefore mass transfer will effectively occur in a locally isothermal system (although the system will be nonisothermal along fracture flow pathways, which is accounted for by discretizing the flow pathways into multiple segments that have different temperature histories). The model takes advantage of the analogies between heat and mass transfer, solving the same governing equations with k{sub m}/({rho}C{sub p}){sub w} being substituted for {phi}D{sub m} in the equation for fracture transport and k{sub m}/({rho}C{sub p}){sub m} being subsituted for D{sub m} in the equation for matrix transport; where k = thermal conductivity (cal/cm-s-K), {rho} = density (g/cm{sup 3}), C{sub p} = heat capacity (at constant pressure) (cal/g-K), {phi} = matrix porosity, and D = tracer diffusion coefficient (cm{sup 2}/s), with the subscripts w and m referring to water and matrix, respectively. A significant advantage of the model is that it executes in a fraction of second on a single-CPU personal computer, making it very amenable for parameter estimation algorithms that involve repeated runs to find global minima. The combined thermal-mass transport model was used to evaluate the ability to estimate when thermal breakthrough would occur in a multi-well EGS configuration using thermally degrading tracers. Calculations were conducted to evaluate the range of values of Arrhenius parameters, A and E{sub {alpha}} (pre-exponential factor, 1/s, and activation energy, cal/mol) required to obtain interpretable responses of thermally-degrading tracers that decay according to the rate constant k{sub d} = Ae{sup -E{sub {alpha}}/RT}, where k{sub d} = decay rate constant (1/s), R = ideal gas constant (1.987 cal/mol-K), and T = absolute temperature (K). It is shown that there are relatively narrow ranges of A and E{sub {alpha}} that will result in readily interpretable tracer responses for any given combination of ambient reservoir temperature and working fluid residence time in a reservoir. The combined model was also used to simulate the responses of conservative tracers with different diffusion coefficients as a way of estimating fracture surface-area-to-volume ratios (SA/V) in multi-well EGS systems. This method takes advantage of the fact that the differences in breakthrough curves of tracers with different matrix diffusion coefficients are a function of SA/V. The model accounts for differences in diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature so that tracer responses obtained at different times can be used to obtain consistent estimates of SA/V as the reservoir cools down. Some single-well applications of this approach are simulated with a numerical model to demonstrate the potential to evaluate the effectiveness of EGS stimulations before a second well is drilled.

Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

CO depletion --- An evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of Planck satellite with the molecular data of $^{12}$CO/$^{13}$CO (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 14 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion and CO-to-H$_{2}$ conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores (ECC) sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 6.2$\\times10^{-5}$ and 9.1$\\times10^{-5}$, respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 2.8 and 1.4, respectively. The median value of $X_{CO-to-H_{2}}$ for the whole sample is $3.3\\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$K$^{-1}$km$^{-1}$ s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor and CO-to-H$_{2}$ conversion factor seems to be strongly correlated to other physical parameters (e.g. dust temperature, dust emissivity spectra index and column density). CO gas severely freeze out in colde...

Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Application of Tritium Tracer Technique to Determination of Hydrogen Diffusion Coefficients and Permeation Rate near Room Temperature for Tungsten  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interaction with Materials / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology (Part 2)

T. Ikeda; T. Otsuka; T. Tanabe

342

FINAL REPORT: EDDY-COVARIANCE FLUX TOWER AND TRACER TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PROPOSAL: FROM TOWER TO PIXEL: INTEGRATION OF PATCH-SIZE NEE USING EXPERIMENTAL MODELING FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.

LEWIN,K.F.; NAGY, J.; WATSON, T.B.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Natural Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Department supports research and policy options to ensure environmentally sustainable domestic and global supplies of oil and natural gas.

344

Gas separating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

Gollan, A.

1988-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

345

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6

346

High-Resolution Simulations of Gas-Solids Jet Penetration Into a High Density Riser Flow  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution simulations of a gas-solids jet in a 0.3 m diameter and 15.9 m tall circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser were conducted with the open source software-MFIX. In the numerical simulations, both gas and solids injected through a 1.6 cm diameter radial-directed tube 4.3 m above the bottom distributor were tracked as tracers, which enable the analysis of the characteristics of a two-phase jet. Two jetting gas velocities of 16.6 and 37.2 m/s were studied with the other operating conditions fixed. Reasonable flow hydrodynamics with respect to overall pressure drop, voidage, and solids velocity distributions were predicted. Due to the different dynamic responses of gas and particles to the crossflow, a significant separation of gas and solids within the jet region was predicted for both cases. In addition, the jet characteristics based on tracer concentration and tracer mass fraction profiles at different downstream levels are discussed. Overall, the numerical predictions compare favorably to the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Detecting of Coal Gas Weak Signals Using Lyapunov Exponent under Strong Noise Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In coal gas monitoring system, the early detecting of gas concentration is key technique for preventing the gas explosion because the coal gas signals are very weak under strong noise background in mining digging laneway. In this paper, the coal gas ... Keywords: Coal gas, weak signals, coal mine underground, Lyapunov exponent, Duffing chaotic oscillator

Ma Xian-Min

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

TRACER STABILITY AND CHEMICAL CHANGES IN AN INJECTED GEOTHERMAL FLUID DURING INJECTION-BACKFLOW TESTING AT THE EAST MESA GEOTHERMAL FIELD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The stabilities of several tracers were tested under geothermal conditions while injection-backflow tests were conducted at East Mesa. The tracers I and Br were injected continuously while SCN (thiocyanate), B, and disodium fluorescein were each injected as a point source (slug). The tracers were shown to be stable, except where the high concentrations used during slug injection induced adsorption of the slug tracers. However, adsorption of the slug tracers appeared to ''armor'' the formation against adsorption during subsequent tests. Precipitation behavior of calcite and silica as well as Na/K shifts during injection are also discussed.

Adams, M.C.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

350

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

351

A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT SECURITY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT SECURITY 3463 MAGIC DRIVE, SUITE T-19 SAN ANTONIO, TX 78229 March 29, 2009 Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW. Washington, DC 20585. GC-62@hq.doe.gov ATTN: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER QUESTIONS. Response to Request for Information - Federal Register "The Costs and Benefits of Dealing with Federal Laboratories" This "white paper" is intended to deal constructively with issues relating to technology transfer and interaction of small businesses with federal laboratories, and should be considered a response to #6 (other). As a small businessman and entrepreneur engaged in the

353

Evaluation of Tracers for Use in the International Field Experiment on CO2 Ocean Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracers for Use in the International Field Experiment Tracers for Use in the International Field Experiment on CO 2 Ocean Sequestration E. Eric Adams (eeadams@mit.edu; 617-253-6595) Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 USA Introduction An international field experiment is scheduled to take place off of the west coast of the big island of Hawaii during the second half of 2001 (Adams, et al., 1999; Herzog, et al., 2000). Scientists representing some dozen institutions in five countries on four continents are expected to participate. The experiment will involve several sub-experiments in which CO 2 will be released at a depth of 800 m as a buoyant liquid at rates of 0.1 to 1.0 kg/s. The releases will each be made for a duration of about one hour using nozzles with differing diameters and numbers of ports.

354

TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT SECURITY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. TRACER DETECTION TECHNOLOGY CORP. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES FOR CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT SECURITY 3463 MAGIC DRIVE, SUITE T-19 SAN ANTONIO, TX 78229 March 29, 2009 Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW. Washington, DC 20585. GC-62@hq.doe.gov ATTN: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER QUESTIONS. Response to Request for Information - Federal Register "The Costs and Benefits of Dealing with Federal Laboratories" This "white paper" is intended to deal constructively with issues relating to technology transfer and interaction of small businesses with federal laboratories, and should be considered a response to #6 (other). As a small businessman and entrepreneur engaged in the

355

REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing Phase 2-3 work comprises the final development and field-testing of two complementary real-time reservoir technologies; a stimulation process and a tracer fracturing diagnostic system. Initial DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work included research, development, and testing of the patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This process was field-proven to be technically useful in providing tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing; however, technical licensing restrictions blocked Realtimezone from fully field-testing this real-time gamma diagnostic system, as originally planned. Said restrictions were encountered during Phase 2 field test work as result of licensing limitations and potential conflicts between service companies participating in project work, as related to their gamma tracer logging tool technology. Phase 3 work principally demonstrated field-testing of Realtimezone (RTZ) and NETL's Downhole-mixed Reservoir Stimulation process. Early on, the simplicity of and success of downhole-mixing was evident from well tests, which were made commercially productive. A downhole-mixed acid stimulation process was tested successfully and is currently commercially used in Canada. The fourth well test was aborted due to well bore conditions, and an alternate test project is scheduled April, 2004. Realtimezone continues to effectuate ongoing patent protection in the United States and foreign markets. In 2002, Realtimezone and the NETL licensed their United States patent to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Additional licensing arrangements with other industry companies are anticipated in 2004-2005. Ongoing Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-testing continues to confirm applications of both real-time technologies. Technical data transfer to industry is ongoing via Internet tech-transfer and various industry presentations and publications including Society of Petroleum Engineers. These real-time enhanced stimulation procedures should significantly increase future petroleum well recoveries in the United States, onshore and offshore, and in vertical and horizontal wells.

George Scott III

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Passive gas separator and accumulator device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separation device employing a gas separation filter and swirler vanes for separating gas from a gas-liquid mixture is provided. The cylindrical filter utilizes the principle that surface tension in the pores of the filter prevents gas bubbles from passing through. As a result, the gas collects in the interior region of the filter and coalesces to form larger bubbles in the center of the device. The device is particularly suited for use in microgravity conditions since the swirlers induce a centrifugal force which causes liquid to move from the inner region of the filter, pass the pores, and flow through the outlet of the device while the entrained gas is trapped by the filter. The device includes a cylindrical gas storage screen which is enclosed by the cylindrical gas separation filter. The screen has pores that are larger than those of the filters. The screen prevents larger bubbles that have been formed from reaching and interfering with the pores of the gas separation filter. The device is initially filled with a gas other than that which is to be separated. This technique results in separation of the gas even before gas bubbles are present in the mixture. Initially filling the device with the dissimilar gas and preventing the gas from escaping before operation can be accomplished by sealing the dissimilar gas in the inner region of the separation device with a ruptured disc which can be ruptured when the device is activated for use. 3 figs.

Choe, H.; Fallas, T.T.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

357

Subduction of South Pacific Tropical Water and Its Equatorward Pathways as Shown by a Simulated Passive Tracer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the subduction of South Pacific Tropical Water (SPTW) and its equatorward pathways using a simulated passive tracer of the consortium Estimating the Circulation & Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that ...

Tangdong Qu; Shan Gao; Rana A. Fine

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Origin and Pathway of Equatorial 13°C Water in the Pacific Identified by a Simulated Passive Tracer and Its Adjoint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The origin and pathway of the thermostad water in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, often referred to as the equatorial 13°C Water, are investigated using a simulated passive tracer and its adjoint, based on circulation estimates of a global ...

Tangdong Qu; Shan Gao; Ichiro Fukumori; Rana A. Fine; Eric J. Lindstrom

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. Part II: Transport and Diffusion of Tracer under Stable Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differences in nighttime transport and diffusion of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer in an urban complex-terrain setting (Salt Lake City, Utah) are investigated using surface and Doppler lidar wind data and large-scale surface pressure ...

Lisa S. Darby; K. Jerry Allwine; Robert M. Banta

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21,547 21,547 4,916 0.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 7,012 0.13 3 0.00 7,099 0.22 19,031 0.10 N e w H a m p s h i r e New Hampshire 77. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New Hampshire, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

139,881 139,881 26,979 0.30 463 0.00 115 3.92 27,709 0.53 19,248 0.70 28,987 0.92 103,037 0.52 A r i z o n a Arizona 50. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arizona, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 6 6 6 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 721 508 711 470 417 From Oil Wells ........................................... 72 110 48 88 47 Total.............................................................. 794 618 759 558 464 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease

362

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Atlantic 37. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Middle Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,857 1,981 2,042 1,679 1,928 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 36,906 36,857 26,180 37,159 38,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 161,372 152,717 140,444 128,677 152,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 162,196 153,327 140,982 129,400 153,134 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed

363

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

386,690 386,690 102,471 1.16 0 0.00 43 1.47 142,319 2.72 5,301 0.19 98,537 3.12 348,671 1.74 M i n n e s o t a Minnesota 71. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Minnesota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

364

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,108,583 1,108,583 322,275 3.63 298 0.00 32 1.09 538,749 10.28 25,863 0.95 218,054 6.90 1,104,972 5.52 I l l i n o i s Illinois 61. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Illinois, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 382 385 390 372 370 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 337 330 323 325 289 From Oil Wells ........................................... 10 10 10 10 9 Total.............................................................. 347 340 333 335 298 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

365

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

286,485 286,485 71,533 0.81 25 0.00 31 1.06 137,225 2.62 5,223 0.19 72,802 2.31 286,814 1.43 M i s s o u r i Missouri 73. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Missouri, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5 8 12 15 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 27 14 8 16 25 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 27 14 8 16 25 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

366

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

411,951 411,951 100,015 1.13 0 0.00 5 0.17 114,365 2.18 45,037 1.65 96,187 3.05 355,609 1.78 Massachusetts Massachusetts 69. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Massachusetts, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

367

Natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.eia.gov Over time the electricity mix gradually shifts to lower-carbon options, led by growth in natural gas and renewable generation U.S. electricity net generation trillion kilowatthours 6

Adam Sieminski Administrator; Adam Sieminski Usnic; Adam Sieminski Usnic

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

226,798 226,798 104,124 1.17 0 0.00 0 0.00 58,812 1.12 2,381 0.09 40,467 1.28 205,783 1.03 North Carolina North Carolina 81. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

369

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

370

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

371

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

372

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

373

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vehicle Fuel: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: New England New England 36. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New England, 1992-1996 Table 691,089 167,354 1.89 0 0.00 40 1.36 187,469 3.58 80,592 2.95 160,761 5.09 596,215 2.98 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................

374

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

29,693 29,693 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 0.20 17,290 0.33 0 0.00 16,347 0.52 33,644 0.17 District of Columbia District of Columbia 56. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas District of Columbia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

375

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

42,980 42,980 14,164 0.16 0 0.00 1 0.03 9,791 0.19 23,370 0.86 6,694 0.21 54,020 0.27 D e l a w a r e Delaware 55. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Delaware, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

376

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-49,536 -49,536 7,911 0.09 49,674 0.25 15 0.51 12,591 0.24 3 0.00 12,150 0.38 32,670 0.16 North Dakota North Dakota 82. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Dakota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 496 525 507 463 462 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 104 101 104 99 108 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 12,461 18,892 19,592 16,914 16,810 From Oil Wells ........................................... 47,518 46,059 43,640 39,760 38,906 Total.............................................................. 59,979 64,951 63,232 56,674 55,716 Repressuring ................................................

377

Geomechanics of subsurface sand production and gas storage .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Improving methods of hydrocarbon production and developing new techniques for the creation of natural gas storage facilities are critically important for the petroleum industry. This… (more)

Choi, Jong-Won

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Gas Delivered  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Average . Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers, 1980-1996 Figure 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet Dollars per Thousand Cubic Meters Nominal Dollars Constant Dollars Sources: Nominal dollars: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Constant dollars: Prices were converted to 1995 dollars using the chain-type price indexes for Gross Domestic Product (1992 = 1.0) as published by the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Residential: Prices in this publication for the residential sector cover nearly all of the volumes of gas delivered. Commercial and Industrial: Prices for the commercial and industrial sectors are often associated with

380

GAS TURBINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the age of volatile and ever increasing natural gas fuel prices, strict new emission regulations and technological advancements, modern IGCC plants are the answer to growing market demands for efficient and environmentally friendly power generation. IGCC technology allows the use of low cost opportunity fuels, such as coal, of which there is a more than a 200-year supply in the U.S., and refinery residues, such as petroleum coke and residual oil. Future IGCC plants are expected to be more efficient and have a potential to be a lower cost solution to future CO2 and mercury regulations compared to the direct coal fired steam plants. Siemens has more than 300,000 hours of successful IGCC plant operational experience on a variety of heavy duty gas turbine models in Europe and the U.S. The gas turbines involved range from SGT5-2000E to SGT6-3000E (former designations are shown on Table 1). Future IGCC applications will extend this experience to the SGT5-4000F and SGT6-4000F/5000F/6000G gas turbines. In the currently operating Siemens ’ 60 Hz fleet, the SGT6-5000F gas turbine has the most operating engines and the most cumulative operating hours. Over the years, advancements have increased its performance and decreased its emissions and life cycle costs without impacting reliability. Development has been initiated to verify its readiness for future IGCC application including syngas combustion system testing. Similar efforts are planned for the SGT6-6000G and SGT5-4000F/SGT6-4000F models. This paper discusses the extensive development programs that have been carried out to demonstrate that target emissions and engine operability can be achieved on syngas operation in advanced F-class 50 Hz and 60 Hz gas turbine based IGCC applications.

Power For L; Satish Gadde; Jianfan Wu; Anil Gulati; Gerry Mcquiggan; Berthold Koestlin; Bernd Prade

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Gas laser  

SciTech Connect

According to the invention, the gas laser comprises a housing which accommodates two electrodes. One of the electrodes is sectional and has a ballast resistor connected to each section. One of the electrodes is so secured in the housing that it is possible to vary the spacing between the electrodes in the direction of the flow of a gas mixture passed through an active zone between the electrodes where the laser effect is produced. The invention provides for a maximum efficiency of the laser under different operating conditions.

Kosyrev, F. K.; Leonov, A. P.; Pekh, A. K.; Timofeev, V. A.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 15:

383

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's:

384

Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)  

SciTech Connect

Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at various planes. Together, these two techniques can provide the needed local solids flow dynamic information for the same setup under identical operating conditions, and the data obtained can be used as a benchmark for development, and refinement of the appropriate riser models. For the above reasons these two techniques were implemented in this study on a fully developed section of the riser. To derive the global mixing information in the riser, accurate solids RTD is needed and was obtained by monitoring the entry and exit of a single radioactive tracer. Other global parameters such as Cycle Time Distribution (CTD), overall solids holdup in the riser, solids recycle percentage at the bottom section of the riser were evaluated from different solids travel time distributions. Besides, to measure accurately and in-situ the overall solids mass flux, a novel method was applied.

Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O'hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

2005-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

385

Trip Report for the 2005 Sino-American SF6 Tracer Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Chinese Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) conducted an SF6 atmospheric tracer experiment in July 2005 in the vicinity of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Company complex on the coast of the East China Sea. The experiment was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, under the NA-23 International Emergency Management and Cooperation Program. NA-23 sent a delegation of five scientists to observe the experiment; four of the observers were from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and one was from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). CIRP's cooperation with the US-Japanese delegation was excellent, and the project was very successful from the international cooperation perspective. Although the experiment was modest in scope, it may provide one or more data sets that can be used for international dispersion model validation and intercomparison projects. Several areas for procedural improvements were noted by the US and Japanese observers, and a more concise measure of the experiment's scientific value will be available after CIRP completes and delivers the database of the experiment results by the end of the fiscal year. The consensus recommendation of the observers is that CIRP and DOE/NNSA NA-23 build on the experience and personal contacts gained during the experiment to plan and conduct an even more effective experiment in the future, perhaps as early as next year (2006). If the decision is made to conduct a follow-on experiment, we strongly recommend that the LLNL and JAERI representatives work cooperatively with CIRP throughout the entire planning phase of the experiment. As discussed in Section V, a 2006 China tracer experiment could serve as a springboard to a 2007 long-range international tracer experiment involving South Korea.

Bradley, M M; Sullivan, T J; Keating II, G A; Leach, M J

2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,554,530 1,554,530 311,229 3.51 3,094,431 15.67 442 15.08 299,923 5.72 105,479 3.86 210,381 6.66 927,454 4.64 Mountain Mountain 43. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Mountain, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 38,711 38,987 37,366 39,275 38,944 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 30,965 34,975 38,539 38,775 41,236 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 2,352,729 2,723,393 3,046,159 3,131,205 3,166,689 From Oil Wells ........................................... 677,771 535,884 472,397 503,986 505,903 Total.............................................................. 3,030,499 3,259,277 3,518,556

387

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,592,465 1,592,465 716,648 8.08 239,415 1.21 182 6.21 457,792 8.73 334,123 12.23 320,153 10.14 1,828,898 9.14 South Atlantic South Atlantic 40. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,307 3,811 4,496 4,427 4,729 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 39,412 35,149 41,307 37,822 36,827 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 206,766 208,892 234,058 236,072 233,409 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 214,349 216,903 242,526 243,204 240,115

388

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,999,161 1,999,161 895,529 10.10 287,933 1.46 1,402 47.82 569,235 10.86 338,640 12.39 308,804 9.78 2,113,610 10.57 Pacific Contiguous Pacific Contiguous 44. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Contiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,896 3,781 3,572 3,508 2,082 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 1,142 1,110 1,280 1,014 996 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 156,635 124,207 117,725 96,329 88,173 From Oil Wells ........................................... 294,800 285,162 282,227 289,430 313,581 Total.............................................................. 451,435 409,370

389

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-122,394 -122,394 49,997 0.56 178,984 0.91 5 0.17 37,390 0.71 205 0.01 28,025 0.89 115,622 0.58 West Virginia West Virginia 96. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West Virginia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 2,356 2,439 2,565 2,499 2,703 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 38,250 33,716 39,830 36,144 35,148 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 Repressuring ................................................

390

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

134,294 32,451 0.37 0 0.00 32 1.09 43,764 0.83 10,456 0.38 39,786 1.26 126,488 0.63 C o n n e c t i c u t Connecticut 54. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Connecticut, 1992-1996...

391

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

73,669 73,669 141,300 1.59 221,822 1.12 3 0.10 46,289 0.88 33,988 1.24 31,006 0.98 252,585 1.26 A r k a n s a s Arkansas 51. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arkansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,750 1,552 1,607 1,563 1,470 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,988 4,020 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 171,543 166,273 161,967 161,390 182,895 From Oil Wells ........................................... 39,364 38,279 33,446 33,979 41,551 Total.............................................................. 210,906 204,552 195,413 195,369 224,446 Repressuring ................................................

392

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-1,080,240 -1,080,240 201,024 2.27 1,734,887 8.78 133 4.54 76,629 1.46 136,436 4.99 46,152 1.46 460,373 2.30 O k l a h o m a Oklahoma 84. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Oklahoma, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 13,926 13,289 13,487 13,438 13,074 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 28,902 29,118 29,121 29,733 29,733 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 1,674,405 1,732,997 1,626,858 1,521,857 1,467,695 From Oil Wells ........................................... 342,950 316,945 308,006 289,877 267,192 Total.............................................................. 2,017,356 2,049,942 1,934,864

393

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,038,115 7,038,115 3,528,911 39.78 13,646,477 69.09 183 6.24 408,861 7.80 1,461,718 53.49 281,452 8.91 5,681,125 28.40 West South Central West South Central 42. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West South Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 87,198 84,777 88,034 88,734 62,357 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 92,212 95,288 94,233 102,525 102,864 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 11,599,913 11,749,649 11,959,444 11,824,788 12,116,665 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,313,831 2,368,395 2,308,634 2,217,752 2,151,247 Total..............................................................

394

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

77,379 77,379 94,481 1.07 81,435 0.41 8 0.27 70,232 1.34 1,836 0.07 40,972 1.30 207,529 1.04 K e n t u c k y Kentucky 65. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kentucky, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,084 1,003 969 1,044 983 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 12,483 12,836 13,036 13,311 13,501 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 Repressuring ................................................

395

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,720 0.32 31,767 1.16 29,447 0.93 153,549 0.77 Pacific Noncontiguous Pacific Noncontiguous 45. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Noncontiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341

396

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-310,913 -310,913 110,294 1.24 712,796 3.61 2 0.07 85,376 1.63 22,607 0.83 57,229 1.81 275,508 1.38 K a n s a s Kansas 64. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,681 9,348 9,156 8,571 7,694 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,400 19,472 19,365 22,020 21,388 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 580,572 605,578 628,900 636,582 629,755 From Oil Wells ........................................... 79,169 82,579 85,759 86,807 85,876 Total.............................................................. 659,741 688,157 714,659 723,389 715,631 Repressuring ................................................

397

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

819,046 819,046 347,043 3.91 245,740 1.24 40 1.36 399,522 7.62 32,559 1.19 201,390 6.38 980,555 4.90 M i c h i g a n Michigan 70. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Michigan, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,223 1,160 1,323 1,294 2,061 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,257 5,500 6,000 5,258 5,826 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 120,287 126,179 136,989 146,320 201,123 From Oil Wells ........................................... 80,192 84,119 91,332 97,547 50,281 Total.............................................................. 200,479 210,299 228,321 243,867 251,404 Repressuring ................................................

398

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W W y o m i n g -775,410 50,253 0.57 666,036 3.37 14 0.48 13,534 0.26 87 0.00 9,721 0.31 73,609 0.37 Wyoming 98. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wyoming, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,826 10,933 10,879 12,166 12,320 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,111 3,615 3,942 4,196 4,510 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 751,693 880,596 949,343 988,671 981,115 From Oil Wells ........................................... 285,125 142,006 121,519 111,442 109,434 Total.............................................................. 1,036,817 1,022,602 1,070,862 1,100,113 1,090,549 Repressuring

399

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,179 0.31 31,767 1.16 27,315 0.86 150,877 0.75 A l a s k a Alaska 49. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Alaska, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341 3,085,900 3,369,904 3,373,584 Repressuring

400

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

628,189 628,189 449,511 5.07 765,699 3.88 100 3.41 528,662 10.09 39,700 1.45 347,721 11.01 1,365,694 6.83 West North Central West North Central 39. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West North Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,177 9,873 9,663 9,034 8,156 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,569 19,687 19,623 22,277 21,669 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 594,551 626,728 651,594 655,917 648,822 From Oil Wells ........................................... 133,335 135,565 136,468 134,776 133,390 Total.............................................................. 727,886 762,293

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,048,760 1,048,760 322,661 3.64 18,131 0.09 54 1.84 403,264 7.69 142,688 5.22 253,075 8.01 1,121,742 5.61 N e w Y o r k New York 80. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New York, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 329 264 242 197 232 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5,906 5,757 5,884 6,134 6,208 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 22,697 20,587 19,937 17,677 17,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 23,521 21,197 20,476 18,400 18,134 Repressuring ................................................

402

Natural Gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3.91 119,251 0.60 229 7.81 374,824 7.15 2,867 0.10 189,966 6.01 915,035 4.57 O h i o Ohio 83. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Ohio, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996...

403

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0.00 53 1.81 147,893 2.82 7,303 0.27 93,816 2.97 398,581 1.99 W i s c o n s i n Wisconsin 97. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wisconsin, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994...

404

Gas Prices  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prices Gasoline Prices for U.S. Cities Click on the map to view gas prices for cities in your state. AK VT ME NH NH MA MA RI CT CT DC NJ DE DE NY WV VA NC SC FL GA AL MS TN KY IN...

405

Natural Gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

10,799 1,953 0.02 0 0.00 0 0.00 2,523 0.05 24 0.00 2,825 0.09 7,325 0.04 V e r m o n t Vermont 93. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Vermont, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995...

406

Natural Gas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

845,998 243,499 2.75 135,000 0.68 35 1.19 278,606 5.32 7,239 0.26 154,642 4.90 684,022 3.42 P e n n s y l v a n i a Pennsylvania 86. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas...

407

Demonstration of the BNL Continuous Dual Trap Analyzer to Detect Perfluorocarbon Tracers for the Tag, Track and Location Program  

SciTech Connect

The Tag, Track and Location System (TTL) Program is investigating methods of tracking an asset using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT). The success of any TTL method requires sound detection/location instrumentation. Tracer Detection Technologies Corp (TDT), through a contract with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), is investigating different detection systems. The detections systems generally fall into two categories; proximity detectors and standoff detectors. Proximity detectors, as the name implies, need to be in close proximity (e.g., meter to 10's of meters) to the PFT source. Standoff detection searches for the PFT from a greater distance away from the source (e.g., 100's of meters to kilometers). Gas Chromatographs (GC) are generally considered a proximity detection systems, but in the case of PFTs should be considered for both proximity and standoff detection with the caveat that in standoff use the GC needs to be somewhere in the PFT plume, i.e., generally downwind of the source. With a properly sized PFT source, the right GC can afford fairly large standoff (distance from the source) distances; 100's of meters to kilometers downwind. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has such a GC system and offered to demonstrate the CDTA for TTL as a no cost addition to the TDTTTL project, of which BNL was a participant. BNL is a leading authority on the sampling, collection, release and detection of PFTs. In addition, the BNL team has extensive background in atmospheric dispersion, the application of PFTs to such studies and the development of applications utilizing PFTs such as building infiltration measurements, control room integrity determination, leak location and environmental investigations. This experience and expertise is essential in developing any PFT application were dispersion, dilution and overcoming environmental conditions and interferences are integral to success. BNL has developed sophisticated gas chromatography methods and instruments that allow detection of up to seven PFTs at part per quadrillion levels (1015) with sample times as short as 60 seconds. The Continuous Dual-Trap Analyzer (CDTA) was developed for leak hunting applications and can continuously sample the air for PFTs without interruption. Sample time can be as short as 60 seconds. The CDTA has been extensively used in the commercial sector to detect PFTs that have been introduced to leaking buried dielectric fluid-filled cables or leaking subsurface gas lines. The PFTs travel through the cable or pipe until they reach the leak site. PFTs then escape into the surrounding soil and permeate/diffuse to the surface where they can be detected with the CDTA. Typically a cable is tagged with ppm levels of PFTs resulting in ppt to ppq concentrations in the air at the leak site. The CDTA is proven to be rugged, reliable and has a proven track record of successful leak location. The application of the CDTA to PFT detection for TTL is identical to application for leak detection. The CDTA operator has a general idea, with a few miles of roadway, where the leak is located, but no specific knowledge of the location (it can be any where along the road). The CDTA is mounted in a Chevy Astro Van and is dispatched to the field. In the field the van is driven at nominally 15 mph along the road. The CDTA continuously samples the air outside the van (via a 1/4-inch plastic sample tube stuck out a side window) until a positive detection occurs. The van then covers the road section where the detection occurred at a slightly slower pace to pin-point the area where the leak is and to direct soil probe samples. The soil probe samples take soil gas samples every 10 yards or so and the samples are analyzed on the CDTA. The leak can be located to within a few feet in 95% of the cases. To date the CDTA has been successful in every leak hunt performed by BNL. One interesting case was a leak hunt that resulted in repeated negative detections. The confidence in the CDTA forced the utility to recheck its 'plumbing' which lead to the discovery that a valve was turned that sho

Heiser,J.H.; Adams, J.; Dietz, R..; Milian, L.; Watson, T.

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Natural Gas | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

March 25, 2013 March 25, 2013 Image of how methane hydrates can form in arctic and marine environments. | Illustration by the Energy Department. Data from Alaska Test Could Help Advance Methane Hydrate R&D Methane Hydrates present an enormous energy resource. The Energy Department is working to advance technologies and reap the possible benefits for a more secure energy future. March 22, 2013 ARPA-E Announces $40 Million for Research Projects to Develop Cleaner and Cheaper Transportation Choices for Consumers Two New ARPA-E Programs Will Engage Nation's Brightest Scientists, Engineers and Entrepreneurs in Research Competition to Improve Vehicle Manufacturing Techniques and Natural Gas Conversion January 10, 2013 Today shale gas accounts for about 25 percent of our natural gas production. And experts believe this abundant supply will mean lower energy costs for millions of families; fewer greenhouse gas emissions; and more American jobs. | Photo courtesy of the EIA.

409

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by numerical simulation below. pipeline gas shalecushion gas sand shale CH4 working gas CH4 working gas sand

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Unconventional Natural Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Unconventional Natural Gas Los Alamos scientists are committed to the efficient and environmentally-safe development of major U.S. natural gas and oil resources....

411

Underground Natural Gas Storage  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Underground Natural Gas Storage. Measured By. Disseminated Through. Monthly Survey of Storage Field Operators -- asking injections, withdrawals, base gas, working gas.

412

,"Texas Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Texas Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of Texas Natural Gas Exports...

413

,"Mississippi Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Mississippi Natural Gas Imports Price All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Mississippi Natural Gas...

414

,"Montana Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Montana Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of Montana Natural Gas Exports...

415

,"Michigan Natural Gas Summary"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Michigan Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of Michigan Natural Gas Exports...

416

2. Gas Productive Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2. Gas Productive Capacity Gas Capacity to Meet Lower 48 States Requirements The United States has sufficient dry gas productive capacity at the wellhead to meet ...

417

Tracer Study of Mixing and Transport in the Upper Hudson River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.g., air­water gas exchange). Here, we describe the measurement of advection, longitudinal dispersion, longi- tudinal dispersion, and gas exchange were made in reaches of the river that were free from sudden =longitudinal dispersion coefficient; and =first-order loss term due to air­water gas exchange. Solv- ing Eq. (2

Ho, David

418

A Microsoft Excel Program for Two-Well Tracer Test Data Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-well tracer tests are often conducted to investigate subsurface solute transport in the field. Analyzing breakthrough curves in the extraction and monitoring wells using numerical methods is nontrivial due to highly nonuniform flow conditions. We extended, and implemented analytical solutions for the convection-dispersion equation for an injection-extraction well-duplet in a homogeneous confined aquifer under steady state conditions. Functions were provided to calculate the concentrations in the extraction and monitoring wells at any location due to a step or pulse injection. Type curves for a step injection were compared with those calculated by numerically integrating the solution for a pulse injection. The results from the two approaches are similar when the dispersivity is small. As the dispersivity increases, the latter was found to be more accurate but requires more computing time. The code was verified by comparing the results with published type curves and applied to analyze data from the literature. It can be used as a first approximation for two-well tracer test data analysis, and to check accuracy of numerical solutions. The code and example files are publically-available.

Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A Spreadsheet Program for Two-Well Tracer Test Data Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-well tracer tests are often conducted to investigate subsurface solute transport in the field. Analyzing breakthrough curves in extraction and monitoring wells using numerical methods is nontrivial due to highly nonuniform flow conditions. We extended approximate analytical solutions for the advection-dispersion equation for an injection-extraction well doublet in a homogeneous confined aquifer under steady-state flow conditions for equal injection and extraction rates with no transverse dispersion and negligible ambient flow, and implemented the solutions in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Application (VBA). Functions were implemented to calculate concentrations in extraction and monitoring wells at any location due to a step or pulse injection. Type curves for a step injection were compared with those calculated by numerically integrating the solution for a pulse injection. The results from the two approaches are similar when the dispersivity is small. As the dispersivity increases, the latter was found to be more accurate but requires more computing time. The code was verified by comparing the results with published-type curves and applied to analyze data from the literature. The method can be used as a first approximation for two-well tracer test design and data analysis, and to check accuracy of numerical solutions. The code and example files are publicly available.

Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Landfill gas recovery: a technology status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Landfill gas, which consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, can be recovered and used as a fuel. Processing will upgrade it to a high-Btu gas of pipeline quality. There are more than a dozen commercial landfill-gas recovery facilities in the US at present, all at relatively large sites. The amount of gas produced by a given site is a function of size, composition, and age of the landfill. Various techniques can be used to enhance gas production and yield, including controlled addition of moisture and nutrients; bacterial seeding and pH control also appear useful. Several computer models have been developed to examine the effects of various parameters on gas production and yield; these can aid in predicting optimum gas recovery and in maintaining the proper chemical balance within the producing portion of the landfill. Economically, a site's viability depends on its location and potential users, current competing energy costs, and legislation governing the site's operation. Legal problems of site operation can occur because of environmental and safety issues, as well as from questions of gas ownership, liability, and public utility commission considerations. Currently, R and D is under way to improve present recovery techniques and to develop new technologies and concepts. Cost comparisons and potential environmental impacts are being examined. Additional research is needed in the areas of gas enhancement, decompositional analysis, computer modeling, gas characterization, instrumentation, and engineering cost analysis. 77 references, 11 figures, 23 tables.

Zimmermann, R.E.; Lytwynyshyn, G.R.; Wilkey, M.L.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finalized Phase 2-3 project work has field-proven two separate real-time reservoir processes that were co-developed via funding by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Both technologies are presently patented in the United States and select foreign markets; a downhole-commingled reservoir stimulation procedure and a real-time tracer-logged fracturing diagnostic system. Phase 2 and early Phase 3 project work included the research, development and well testing of a U.S. patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This stimulation logging process was successfully field-demonstrated; real-time tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing was accomplished and proven technically possible. However, after the initial well tests, there were several licensing issues that developed between service providers that restricted and minimized Realtimezone's (RTZ) ability to field-test the real-time gamma diagnostic system as was originally outlined for this project. Said restrictions were encountered after when one major provider agreed to license their gamma logging tools to another. Both of these companies previously promised contributory support toward Realtimezone's DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work, however, actual support was less than desired when newly-licensed wireline gamma logging tools from one company were converted by the other from electric wireline into slickline, batter-powered ''memory'' tools for post-stimulation logging purposes. Unfortunately, the converted post-fracture measurement memory tools have no applications in experimentally monitoring real-time movement of tracers in the reservoir concurrent with the fracturing treatment. RTZ subsequently worked with other tracer gamma-logging tool companies for basic gamma logging services, but with lessened results due to lack of multiple-isotope detection capability. In addition to real-time logging system development and well testing, final Phase 2 and Phase 3 project work included the development of a real-time reservoir stimulation procedure, which was successfully field-demonstrated and is presently patented in the U.S. and select foreign countries, including Venezuela, Brazil and Canada. Said patents are co-owned by RTZ and the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL). In 2002, Realtimezone and the NETL licensed said patents to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Additional licensing agreements (LA) are anticipated with other service industry companies in 2005. Final Phase 3 work has led to commercial applications of the real-time reservoir stimulation procedure. Four successfully downhole-mixed well tests were conducted with commercially expected production results. The most recent, fourth field test was a downhole-mixed stimulated well completed in June, 2004, which currently produces 11 BOPD with 90 barrels of water per day. Conducted Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-test work to date has resulted in the fine-tuning of a real-time enhanced stimulation system that will significantly increase future petroleum well recoveries in the United States and foreign petroleum fields, both onshore and offshore, and in vertical and horizontal wells.

George L. Scott III

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Spirometer techniques for measuring molar composition in argon carbon dioxide mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines a new technique for measuring gas composition through the use of a spirometer. A spirometer is high precision pressure transducer which measures the speed of sound in a gas through the emission and ...

Chonde, Daniel Burje

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

GAS SEAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

425

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 152 170 165 195 224 Production (million cubic feet)...

426

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 280 300 225 240 251 Production (million cubic feet)...

427

Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet) Data Series: ... coalbed production data are included in Gas Well totals.

428

Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Withdrawals from Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells Repressuring Vented and Flared...

429

Natural Gas Vehicles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are either fueled exclusively with compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas (dedicated NGVs) or are capable of natural gas and gasoline fueling (bi-fuel NGVs).

430

Natural Gas Monthly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas: Gas in place at the time that a reservoir was converted to use as an underground storage reservoir, as in contrast to injected gas volumes. Natural Gas: A gaseous mixture...

431

Symbolic identification for fault detection in aircraft gas turbine engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symbolic identification for fault detection in aircraft gas turbine engines S Chakraborty, S Sarkar and computationally inexpensive technique of component-level fault detection in aircraft gas-turbine engines identification, gas turbine engines, language-theoretic analysis 1 INTRODUCTION The propulsion system of modern

Ray, Asok

432

Gas Metrology Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... automobile industry meeting more stringent … more. Audit of EPA Protocol Gas Suppliers EPA Protocol gas mixture calibration ...

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

433

Completion techniques for geothermal-geopressured wells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following are covered: oil well completions, water well completions, sand control techniques, geopressured oil and gas wells, and geopressured water well completion. The conclusions for a geothermal-geopressured water well completion and needed research are included. (MHR)

Boyd, W.E.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

435

Using chemically reactive tracers to determine temperature characteristics of geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rates of most chemical reactions are very sensitive to temperature, and this property can be used to measure temperature patterns in geothermal reservoirs. Two approaches are considered: reverse-flush and flow-through. Both of these can indicate thermal drawdown faster than the measurement of produced-fluid temperature. The reverse-flush approach is more difficult to carry out and interferes more with normal operation, but it gives the earlier indication of thermal drawdown and yields more information when using a single reaction. In both approaches, injecting a suite of reactants can yield bivariate time-temperature distributions which give temperature distributions as functions of fluid residence time. Applications to Hot Dry Rock systems are considered throughout the paper. Results of early kinetics studies of candidate tracer reactions also are reported.

Robinson, B.A.; Tester, J.W.; Brown, L.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Nitrogen geochemistry as a tracer of fluid flow in a hydrothermal vent complex in the Karoo Basin, South Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen geochemistry as a tracer of fluid flow in a hydrothermal vent complex in the Karoo Basin and hydrothermal vent complexes (HVC) in the Karoo Basin in South Africa. The HVC formed during phreatic eruptions from the lower stratigraphic units of the Karoo Basin shows that the vitrinite reflectance and d15 N

Svensen, Henrik

437

Assessing Tracer Transport Algorithms and the Impact of Vertical Resolution in a Finite-Volume Dynamical Core  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling the transport of trace gases is an essential part of any atmospheric model. The tracer transport scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model finite-volume dynamical core (CAM-FV), which is part of the National Center for Atmospheric Research’...

James Kent; Christiane Jablonowski; Jared P. Whitehead; Richard B. Rood

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Effects from influent boundary conditions on tracer migration and spatial variability features in intermediate-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

In previous unsaturated transport studies at Los Alamos dispersion coefficients were estimated to be higher close to the tracer source than at greater distances from the source. Injection of tracers through discrete influent outlets could have accounted for those higher dispersions. Also, a lack of conservation of mass of the tracers was observed and suspected to be due to spatial variability in transport. In the present study experiments were performed under uniform influent (ponded) conditions in which breakthrough of tracers was monitored at four locations at each of four depths. All other conditions were similar to those of the unsaturated transport experiments. A comparison of results from these two sets of experiments indicates differences in the parameter estimates. Estimates were made for the dispersion coefficient and the retardation factor by the one-dimensional steady flow computer code, CFITIM. Estimates were also made for mass and for velocity and the dispersion coefficient by the method of moments. The dispersion coefficient decreased with depth under discrete influent application and increased with depth under ponded influent application. Retardation was predicted better under the discrete influent application than under ponded influent application. Differences in breakthroughs and in estimated parameters among locations at the same depth were observed under ponded influent application. Those differences indicate that there is a lack of conservation of mass as well as significant spatial variability across the experimental domain. 14 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Springer, E.P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

GTI online - matching gas technologies with global gas markets  

SciTech Connect

The International Centre for Gas Technology Information (ICGTI) is a technology information centre of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Its members account for more than half the world`s natural gas production and consumption. ICGTI has established a web site, GTI Online (http://www.icgti.org). GTI Online is designed to cover all aspects of the gas industry from production to end-use as well as supporting technologies, including market assessment, national energy policies, environmental information and computing and modeling techniques. It si designed to use existing information sources whenever possible, so as not to duplicate public and/or commercial efforts. It is intended to fill the gap in providing useful international information to both the US and global market.

Lang, M., Manor, D.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Gas lift systems make ideal offshore workers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Electron Based Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Characterization of Materials through High Resolution Coherent Imaging: Electron Based Techniques Sponsored by: TMS Structural Materials ...

443

Milling Techniques - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

February 4-8 · 1996 TMS ANNUAL MEETING · Anaheim, California. SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING OF NANOCRYSTALLINE POWDER III: Milling Techniques ...

444

Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

445

Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad...

446

Cameron, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Cameron, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million...

447

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and...

448

Golden Pass, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports (price...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Golden Pass, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports (price) (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Golden Pass, TX Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports (price) (Dollars per...

449

North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

450

Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

451

Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

452

Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

453

Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

454

Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

455

Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

456

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

457

California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

458

New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

459

Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

460

West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Annual Download Data (XLS File) West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tracer gas technique" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

462

Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

463

Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

464

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet)...

465

Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Highgate Springs, VT Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Canada (Million...

466

Northeast Gateway, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gateway, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Northeast Gateway, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic...

467

South Dakota Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

468