National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for trace element analysis

  1. Trace Element Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

  2. Trace Element Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    release has occurred. References Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano, Joseph N. Moore (1983) Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot...

  3. Trace Element Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  4. Trace Element Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  5. Trace Element Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  6. Trace Element Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  7. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  8. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60C and passed through 2 m sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  9. Trace rare earth element analysis in briny groundwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.; Smith, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    A rare-earth element (REE) group separation scheme has been developed. REE data for two briny groundwaters representing Granite Wash and Wolfcamp Carbonate formations are reported. (DLC)

  10. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

    2008-06-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

  11. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  12. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  13. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  14. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  15. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the gasification of Illinois coals. Duplicate determinations of 34 elements in coal and ash samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential trace element emissions...

  16. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  17. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova

    2007-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  18. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GASIFICATION PLANTS; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; AIR POLLUTION; BERYLLIUM; COAL GASIFICATION; ELEMENTS; FLOWSHEETS; FLUORESCENCE...

  19. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  20. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  1. SolTrace Optical Analysis Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    SolTrace is a software package that models solar power optical systems and analyzes their performance. SolTrace can model parabolic trough collectors, point-focus concentrating systems, and power towers. It rapidly displays and saves data as scatter plots, flux maps, and performance graphs. SolTrace can model optical geometry as a series of stages, composed of optical elements that possess attributes such as shape, contour, and optical quality. It can also model any number of stages containing anymore » number of different elements, and it features an extensive variety of available shapes and contours.« less

  2. Trace-element zoning in garnets from sheared mantle xenoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, W.L.; Cousens, D.R.; Ryan, C.G.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. ); Smith, D. ); Boyd, F.R. )

    1989-02-01

    Proton-microprobe analyses of garnets from sheared high-temperature ultramafic xenoliths reveal marked zonation of trace elements, paralleling trends in major and minor elements. Garnet rims (600-1,000 {mu}m wide) are enriched in Fe, Ti, Zr, Y and Ga, and either enriched or depleted in Cr, relative to cores. Zoning profiles for Ti and Zr are S-shaped and extend further into the grains than the Cr and Ga gradients. The profiles are consistent with the formation of Ti, Zr, Y-enriched garnet overgrowths, followed by diffusive equilibration between rim and core over years to hundreds of years. This enrichment in Fe, Ca, Al and incompatible elements is ascribed to melt infiltration and consequent melt-crystal exchange and garnet growth, shortly before eruption. Zr/Y is 1 to 2 in garnet cores but 4 to 5 in rims, and so the infiltrating melt may have been relatively alkalic. Major and trace element concentrations in such high-temperature sheared xenoliths are not likely to resemble those of primitive mantle or of residual mantle depleted by melt extraction.

  3. Trace Elements in Hair from Tanzanian Children: Effect of Dietary Factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-04-19

    Trace elements in certain amounts are essential for childrens' health, because they are present in tissues participating in metabolic reactions of organisms. Deficiency of the essential elements may result in malnutrition, impaired body immunity, and poor resistance to disease. These conditions might be enhanced against a background of additional adverse environmental factors such as toxic elements. The analysis of elements in childrens' hair will give information on the deficiency of essential elements and excess of toxic elements in relation to their diet. In this study, 141 hair samples from children (girls and boys) living in two regions of Tanzanian mainland (Dar es Salaam and Moshi) and the island of Zanzibar have been analysed for trace elements in relation to food consumption habits. The analysis was carried out using long and short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. Arithmetic and geometric means with their respective standard deviations are presented for 19 elements. Subgroups were formed according to age, gender, and geographic regions from which the samples were collected. Differences in concentrations for the groups and with other childhood populations were explored and discussed.

  4. Trace rare earth element analysis of IAEA hair (HH-1), animal bone (H-5) and other biological standards by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme has been used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10/sup -8/g/g to 10/sup -11/g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore » early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  6. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (?13Corg~0.6) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  7. A review of trace element emissions from the combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, G.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The effects of cocombusting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal on stack emissions of trace elements in the ash stream were reviewed. The large number of variables and uncertainties involved precluded drawing definitive conclusions regarding many of the trace elements. However, it is evident that cocombustion resulted in increased emissions of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. Emissions of As and Ni tended to decrease when RDF was fired with coal. Modeling studies indicated that ambient levels of trace elements during cocombustion should be within acceptable limits. However, periodic monitoring of Cd, Hg, and Pb may be warranted in some instances.

  8. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19-6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20-30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352-450 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  9. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore »of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less

  10. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore »a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less

  11. Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

    1995-02-01

    Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

  12. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  13. Assessment of coal cleaning for trace element control. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.; Arnold, B.

    1998-12-01

    Current methods of cleaning coal already reduce the concentration of most of the elements named as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) under Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments because most of these elements are associated with ash-forming or sulfur-bearing minerals. Advanced methods of physical cleaning may prove even more effective than conventional cleaning technologies, in HAPs control, especially if the coal is crushed before cleaning. The most significant disadvantage of conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods for HAPs control is that reductions of 90% or greater from as-fired coal may not be possible. Chemical and biologic methods of cleaning coal can potentially remove greater amounts of at least some HAPs elements than conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods. At least one promising chemical process (HAPs-Rx) has been developed and tested at laboratory scale that has the potential of removing over half of the mercury and arsenic remaining in coal after conventional cleaning. An assessment of the cost and effectiveness of conventional, advanced, and the HAPs-Rx chemical process was performed using laboratory data and computer simulations. The study found that the cost of removing a pound of mercury from coal by cleaning often compared favorably with cost projections by the Environmental Protection Agency for removing a pound of mercury by activated carbon injection.

  14. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 31, August 1976-July 1977. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. [Fate of 36 trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    Results are presented on a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, and operated by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. under contract with the US Department of Energy. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosen such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives ( 8 hours to 5.2 years). Data are presented for a third equilibrium set of samples from the SRC-I process and compared to two similar sets analyzed previously. A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction. Data are also presented on a study of carbon monoxide addition to the hydrogen stream and its effect on trace elements, and trace element data on a study of thirty-six plant effluent water samples taken during an SRC-I production run.

  15. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process: trace elements research and development report no. 53, interim report no. 34. Volume III. Pilot plant development work part 6: the fate of trace elements in the SRC process for the period, August 1, 1977 - February 28, 1979. [36 elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filby, R.H.; Khalil, S.R.; Grimm, C.A.; Ekabaram, V.; Hunt, M.L.

    1980-12-01

    This work reports the results of neutron activation analysis determination of the fate of trace elements in the SRC II process. Six coals were studied for their behavior in material balance runs carried out at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant. The distribution of trace elements among products and input streams was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10/sup 12/ neutrons cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ followed by Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy. National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (SRM) were used to evaluate the analytical precision and accuracy of the methods used. For each material balance study the trace element input stream was taken as ground coal and the output streams were vacuum bottoms, SRC II product oil, and process water. In addition to these major components, oils, sludges and waters from liquid-liquid separators, effluent waters, biosludges, and by-product sulfur were also analyzed. Concerning the distribution of trace elements in the SRC II process, it was found that the vacuum bottoms was the major sink for all trace element studied, with the exception of Hg. Much lower trace element concentrations (except for Hg) were found in the SRC II product oil relative to the vacuum bottoms or the feed coal, irrespective of coal type. The results indicate excellent balances for the elements studied, except for Hg. Except for Hg, Se, and C1, the SRC II product and process waters contributed less than 1% of the elemental balances for light oil fractions and process waters indicates that Hg, and to a lesser degree As, Se, and Sb, exhibited volatile behavior in the SRC II process but that the degree of volatility is strongly dependent on conditions or coal type.

  16. Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

    2010-04-22

    A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

  17. Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H.

    1996-12-31

    A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

  18. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  19. Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

    1982-09-02

    Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

  20. Coal quality trends and distribution of Title III trace elements in Eastern Kentucky coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The quality characteristics of eastern Kentucky coal beds vary both spatially and stratigraphically. Average total sulfur contents are lowest, and calorific values highest, in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Reserve Districts. Average coal thickness is greatest in these two districts as well. Conversely, the thinnest coal with the highest total sulfur content, and lowest calorific value, on average, occurs in the Princess and Southwest Reserve Districts. Several Title III trace elements, notably arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, mirror this distribution (lower average concentrations in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Districts, higher average concentrations in the Princess and Southwest Districts), probably because these elements are primarily associated with sulfide minerals in coal. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are observed to increase in a stratigraphically older to younger direction. Several Title III elements, notably cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium follow this trend, with average concentrations being higher in younger coals. Average chlorine concentration shows a reciprocal distribution, being more abundant in older coals. Some elements, such as arsenic, manganese, mercury, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, phosphorus show concentration spikes in coal beds directly above, or below, major marine zones. With a few exceptions, average Title III trace element concentrations for eastern Kentucky coals are comparable with element distributions in other Appalachian coal-producing states.

  1. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  2. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Camore » / Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown References Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano, Joseph N. Moore (1983) Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot...

  4. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R. A.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J. F.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2015-10-12

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity, the quantification of which could be useful in determining the magnitude and sign of the biogeochemical feedback on radiative forcing. However, the impact of elemental deposition to remote ocean regions is not well understood and is not currently included in global climate models. In this study, emission inventories for eight elements primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si are determined based on a global mineral data set and a soil data set. The resulting elemental fractions are used to drive themore » desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions is evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically range from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soils, are consistent with observations, suggesting that this ratio is a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different; estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observations of elemental aerosol concentrations from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions range from 0.7 to 1.6, except for Mg and Mn (3.4 and 3.5, respectively). Using the soil database improves the correspondence of the spatial heterogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust element fluxes to different ocean basins and ice sheet regions have been estimated, based on the model results. The annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using the mineral data set are 0.30 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  5. (Relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of trace elements during contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks). Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of major, minor, and trace elements during the contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks. The large contrasts in chemical potentials of SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and CaO across a granitic pluton-limestone contact may induce metasomatism. In addition, rare earth and transition metal elements may act as tracers, and their redistribution during metamorphism may record convective cooling processes. The results of this study may have an application toward the problem of radioactive waste disposal and the degree to which radioactive nuclides may be expected to migrate during geologically significant periods of time.

  6. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 30. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. The fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [111 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, S. R.

    1980-02-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study the distribution and fate of up to 36 elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process Pilot Plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington. The elements Ti, V, Mg, Ca, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Br, Na, K, Sm, La, Ga, Cu, Sb, Se, Hg, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Cs, Sc, Tb, Eu, Ce, Sr, Ba, Th, U, Hf, Ta, Zr and Zn were measured in feed coal, insoluble residues, process solvent, process and effluent waters, by-product sulfur, SRC-I solid product, liquid-liquid separator oils and SRC-II liquid products. The material balance was calculated for each element from the concentration data and yields of each process fraction for both the SRC-I and SRC-II processes. Except for Ti, Cl and Br in the SRC-I mode and Hg in the SRC-II mode, each element was substantially lower in the SRC products than in the original feed coal. Residues from the process contained more than 80% of the trace element content found in the coal, except for Hg. More than 98.5% of the total contents of K and Fe in coal were retained in the insoluble residues. Elements such as Hg, Se, As and Sb can form volatile compounds (such as Hg/sup 0/, H/sub 2/Se, AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/) stable under the process conditions. The high enhancement factors of Se (957), As (202) and Sb (27.4) in the aqueous phase of the separator water compared to that of the oil are evidence for the formation of volatile species which are more soluble in water than in the oil phase.

  7. Determination of trace elements in soils with an axial sequential ICP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, J.; Flajnik, C.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past few years the popularity of axial viewed ICP has increased greatly. The major claimed advantage of axial ICP is improvement in detection limits by an order of magnitude over radial viewed plasmas. It has also been noted however, that axial ICP suffers from greater chemical and ionization interferences than radial ICP, making it less desirable for samples with a {open_quotes}matrix{close_quotes}. In this paper we will describe the determination of a number of trace paper elements in soil samples by axial ICP. The chemical and ionization interferences will be examined and the accuracy and precision will be evaluated. Comparisons to the same determinations done on a radial ICP with ultrasonic nebulizer will also be discussed.

  8. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  9. Trace element content and magnetic properties of commercial HOPG samples studied by ion beam microscopy and SQUID magnetometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spemann, D. Esquinazi, P. Setzer, A.; Bhlmann, W.

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the impurity concentration and magnetic response of nine highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples with different grades and from different providers were determined using ion beam microscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Apart from sideface contaminations in the as-received state, bulk contamination of the samples in most cases consists of disk-shaped micron-sized particles made of Ti and V with an additional Fe contamination around the grain perimeter. The saturation magnetization typically increases with Fe concentration, however, there is no simple correlation between Fe content and magnetic moment. The saturation magnetization of one, respectively six, out of nine samples clearly exceeds the maximum contribution from pure Fe or Fe{sub 3}C. For most samples the temperature dependence of the remanence decreases linearly with T a dependence found previously for defect-induced magnetism (DIM) in HOPG. We conclude that apart from magnetic impurities, additional contribution to the ferromagnetic magnetization exists in pristine HOPG in agreement with previous studies. A comparative study between the results of ion beam microscopy and the commonly used EDX analysis shows clearly that EDX is not a reliable method for quantitative trace elemental analysis in graphite, clarifying weaknesses and discrepancies in the element concentrations given in the recent literature.

  10. Trace element and isotope geochemistry of geothermal fluids, East Rift Zone, Kilauea, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, H.B.; Delanoy, G.A.; Thomas, D.M. . Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Gerlach, D.C. ); Chen, B.; Takahashi, P.; Thomas, D.M. Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA )

    1992-01-01

    A research program has been undertaken in an effort to better characterize the composition and the precipitation characteristic of the geothermal fluids produced by the HGP-A geothermal well located on the Kilauea East Rift Zone on the Island of Hawaii. The results of these studies have shown that the chemical composition of the fluids changed over the production life of the well and that the fluids produced were the result of mixing of at least two, and possibly three, source fluids. These source fluids were recognized as: a sea water composition modified by high temperature water-rock reactions; meteoric recharge; and a hydrothermal fluid that had been equilibrated with high temperature reservoir rocks and magmatic volatiles. Although the major alkali and halide elements show clearly increasing trends with time, only a few of the trace transition metals show a similar trend. The rare earth elements, were typically found at low concentrations and appeared to be highly variable with time. Studies of the precipitation characteristics of silica showed that amorphous silica deposition rates were highly sensitive to fluid pH and that increases in fluid pH above about 8.5 could flocculate more than 80% of the suspended colloidal silica in excess of its solubility. Addition of transition metal salts were also found to enhance the recovery fractions of silica from solution. The amorphous silica precipitate was also found to strongly scavenge the alkaline earth and transition metal ions naturally present in the brines; mild acid treatments were shown to be capable of removing substantial fractions of the scavenged metals from the silica flocs yielding a moderately pure gelatinous by-product. Further work on the silica precipitation process is recommended to improve our ability to control silica scaling from high temperature geothermal fluids or to recover a marketable silica by-product from these fluids prior to reinjection.

  11. Trace Element Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    importance of aspect. The samples were analyzed for their Hg contents, as well as for pH, hydrous Fe and Mn, and organic carbon, all of which are known to have influence on Hg...

  12. Trace Element Analysis At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Terrasol leach are two such techniques. This method has to datae been mostly applied to oil and mineral deposits. Limited unpulished studies on geothermal systems suggest that...

  13. Trace Element Analysis (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rock samples from the core of SOH-1 were analyzed for major and trace elements using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The samples were made into thin sections as well as...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Maui...

  16. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  17. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, Michael D.

    2014-02-01

    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  18. Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear ...

  19. Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2011-09-01

    Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.

  20. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-12-31

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey`s National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels.

  1. Control of Gas Tungsten Arc welding pool shape by trace element addition to the weld pool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1984-03-13

    An improved process for Gas Tungsten Arc welding maximizes the depth/width ratio of the weld pool by adding a sufficient amount of a surface active element to insure inward fluid flow, resulting in deep, narrow welds. The process is especially useful to eliminate variable weld penetration and shape in GTA welding of steels and stainless steels, particularly by using a sulfur-doped weld wire in a cold wire feed technique.

  2. Spectral analysis method for detecting an element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-02-12

    A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Snake River Plain Region ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Compound and Elemental Analysis At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  4. Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Indonesia Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Improving Exploration Models of...

  5. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea Southwest Rift And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Michelle L. Coombs, Thomas W. Sisson, Peter W. Lipman...

  6. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea East Rift Area (Coombs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Michelle L. Coombs, Thomas W. Sisson, Peter W. Lipman...

  7. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  9. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  10. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Lassen Volcanic National Park Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References J. Michael...

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  12. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Evans, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Nw Basin & Range Region (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    diagnostic lithogeochemical tool for geothermal exploration, the analysis of lithium and other elements in tufa deposits could serve as exploration guides for hot spring...

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fish Lake Valley Area...

  18. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Fish...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Clear Lake Area (Thompson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Based on the above discussion,...

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Area (Norman...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (Norman & Moore, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Area (Norman &...

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 2000) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff &...

  4. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff, Et Al., 1982) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

  5. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002)...

  6. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Goff ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)...

  7. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1982) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mt St Helens Area (Shevenell & Goff, 1995) Exploration Activity Details Location Mt St Helens Area Exploration Technique...

  9. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1985) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

  10. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (Dellechaie, 1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area...

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date...

  12. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Seven Mile Hole Area (Larson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seven Mile Hole Area (Larson, Et Al., 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Seven Mile Hole...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP)...

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis...

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1981) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area...

  18. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The chemistry of the hot springs strongly suggests the existence of a neutral chloride reservoir...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gases usually include: carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ammonia (NH4) methane (CH4) Related Techniques Lab Analysis Techniques Fluid Lab Analysis Compound and...

  20. Precise trace rare earth analysis by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.; Weimer, W.C.; Wogman, N.A.

    1981-06-01

    A rare earth group separation scheme followed by normal Ge(Li), low energy photon detector (LEPD), and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) coincidence-noncoincidence spectrometry significantly enhances the detection sensitivity of individual rare earth elements (REE) at or below the ppB level. Based on the selected ..gamma..-ray energies, normal Ge(Li) counting is favored for /sup 140/La, /sup 170/Tb, and /sup 169/Yb; LEPD is favored for low ..gamma..-ray energies of /sup 147/Nd, /sup 153/Sm, /sup 166/Ho, and /sup 169/Yb; and noncoincidence counting is favored for /sup 141/Ce, /sup 143/Ce, /sup 142/Pr, /sup 153/Sm, /sup 171/Er, and /sup 175/Yb. The detection of radionuclides /sup 152m/Eu, /sup 159/Gd, and /sup 177/Lu is equally sensitive by normal Ge(Li) and noncoincidence counting; /sup 152/Eu is equally sensitive by LEPD and normal Ge(Li); and /sup 153/Gd and /sup 170/Tm is equally favored by all the counting modes. Overall, noncoincidence counting is favored for most of the REE. Precise measurements of the REE were made in geological and biological standards.

  1. TRACE/PARCS Core Modeling of a BWR/5 for Accident Analysis of ATWS Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuadra A.; Baek J.; Cheng, L.; Aronson, A.; Diamond, D.; Yarsky, P.

    2013-11-10

    The TRACE/PARCS computational package [1, 2] isdesigned to be applicable to the analysis of light water reactor operational transients and accidents where the coupling between the neutron kinetics (PARCS) and the thermal-hydraulics and thermal-mechanics (TRACE) is important. TRACE/PARCS has been assessed for itsapplicability to anticipated transients without scram(ATWS) [3]. The challenge, addressed in this study, is to develop a sufficiently rigorous input model that would be acceptable for use in ATWS analysis. Two types of ATWS events were of interest, a turbine trip and a closure of main steam isolation valves (MSIVs). In the first type, initiated by turbine trip, the concern is that the core will become unstable and large power oscillations will occur. In the second type,initiated by MSIV closure,, the concern is the amount of energy being placed into containment and the resulting emergency depressurization. Two separate TRACE/PARCS models of a BWR/5 were developed to analyze these ATWS events at MELLLA+ (maximum extended load line limit plus)operating conditions. One model [4] was used for analysis of ATWS events leading to instability (ATWS-I);the other [5] for ATWS events leading to emergency depressurization (ATWS-ED). Both models included a large portion of the nuclear steam supply system and controls, and a detailed core model, presented henceforth.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of interactions between Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) anodes and trace species in a survey of coal syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Martinez; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; James Postona

    2010-03-20

    A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of trace contaminants in syngas derived from coal gasification on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. The effluents from 15 different gasification facilities were considered to assess the impact of fuel composition on anode susceptibility to contamination. For each syngas case, the study considers the magnitude of contaminant exposure resulting from operation of a warm gas cleanup unit at two different temperatures and operation of a nickel-based SOFC at three different temperatures. Contaminant elements arsenic (As), phosphorous (P), and antimony (Sb) are predicted to be present in warm gas cleanup effluent and will interact with the nickel (Ni) components of a SOFC anode. Phosphorous is the trace element found in the largest concentration of the three contaminants and is potentially the most detrimental. Poisoning was found to depend on the composition of the syngas as well as system operating conditions. Results for all trace elements tended to show invariance with cleanup operating temperature, but results were sensitive to syngas bulk composition. Synthesis gas with high steam content tended to resist poisoning.

  3. Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis at ANL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation / Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E:

  4. In-Depth and ion image analysis of minor and trace constituents in V{endash}Cr{endash}Ti alloy welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odom, R.W.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes application of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to the study of the chemistry of welds in V{endash}Cr{endash}Ti alloys and presents preliminary data on the distribution of minor and trace elements (H, C, N, O, P, S, and Cl) in welds produced by gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam techniques. The motivation for this research is to develop techniques that determine correlations between the concentration and distribution of trace elements in alloy metal welds and the physical properties of the weld. To this end, quantitative SIMS techniques were developed for N, O, and S analysis in vanadium alloy welds using an ion implantation/relative sensitivity factor methodology. The data presented in this paper demonstrates that trace compositions and distributions of selected welds correlate, at least qualitatively, with such properties as microhardness and tensile elongation. This data support continuing these investigations to develop microanalysis methods which quantitatively correlate weld composition with mechanical properties. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  5. Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

  6. Matrix Optimization for the MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis of Trace Biodiesel Components (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpin, C. R.; Voorhees, K. J.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace biodiesel components that could reduce the fuel's operability in cold weather are analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

  7. {sup 39}Ar Detection at the 10{sup -16} Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; O'Connor, T. P.; Mueller, P.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Sun, Y. R.; Lu, Z.-T.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2011-03-11

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric {sup 39}Ar (half-life=269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10{sup -16}. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  8. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

  9. Element

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Departmental Element 2. System Name/ Major Application Name 3. Location 4. Name of System Owner/ Information or Data Owner 5. Contact Information 6. Does the system collect or maintain Social Security numbers? 7. Source of Legal Requirement/Authority to Collect or Maintain Social Security Numbers? 8. Does the system have a Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA)? 9. Does the system have a System of Records Notice (SORN)? If yes, provide the name of the System of Records Notice. 10. Does the system

  10. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  11. Batch methods for enriching trace impurities in hydrogen gas for their further analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Kumar, Romesh; Papdias, Dionissios D.

    2014-07-15

    Provided herein are batch methods and devices for enriching trace quantities of impurities in gaseous mixtures, such as hydrogen fuel. The methods and devices rely on concentrating impurities using hydrogen transport membranes wherein the time period for concentrating the sample is calculated on the basis of optimized membrane characteristics, comprising its thickness and permeance, with optimization of temperature, and wherein the enrichment of trace impurities is proportional to the pressure ratio P.sub.hi/P.sub.lo and the volume ratio V.sub.1/V.sub.2, with following detection of the impurities using commonly-available detection methods.

  12. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  13. Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

  14. Elemental composition of two cumulate rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naeem, A.; Almohandis, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two cumulate rock samples K-185, K-250 from the Kapalagulu intrusion, W. Tanzania, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), wet chemical and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Major element oxides were determined by XRF and wet chemical methods, while the concentration of trace elements were measured by NAA, using high resolution Ge(Li) detector, minicomputer-based data acquisition system and off-line computer. The percentage of major oxides and sixteen trace elements have been reported. It has been found that Cr, Ni, and Co are highly concentrated in K-250 while Sc, and most of the major elements are more concentrated in K-185. The variation of major and trace elements in these two samples have been discussed.

  15. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  16. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Newberry Caldera Area (Goles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Gordon G. Goles, Richard St J. Lambert (1990) A Strontium Isotopic Study Of Newberry Volcano,...

  18. Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis The invention apparatus can also be used to monitor for the presence of halogens, sulfur and silicon. Available for Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Microwave...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis Activity Date - 1983 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes See linked abstract for a synopsis of chemical analyses and Rb-Sr age determinations for gneissic...

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (including from the VC-3 core hole) to study mineral abundances using X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), examine specific mineral texturemorphology using Scanning electron...

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (including from the VC-3 core hole) to study mineral abundances using X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), examine specific mineral texturemorphology using Scanning electron...

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis A study of the known resource area Notes chemical and isotope analysis was completed to understand the location of the reservoir...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2001-11-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W. |

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  5. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July-August, 1991 • Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral Autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 Cruise • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A9, February March 1991) • Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Surface Water and the Atmosphere During 1986-1989 NOAA/PMEL Cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea Areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide Observations by Shipboard Automated Gas Chromatography: Results from Expeditions Between 1977 and 1990 • Indian Ocean Radiocarbon: Data from the INDIGO 1, 2, and 3 Cruises • Carbonate Chemistry of the North Pacific Ocean • Carbonate Chemistry of the Weddell Sea • GEOSECS Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Mediterranean Radiocarbon Data •\tTransient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) - Hydrographic Data and Carbon Dioxide Systems with Revised Carbon Chemistry Data.

  6. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 081103) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 090397) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 012296) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 102192) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 111093) The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 Jan, 1996) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

  7. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from about 500 to several thousand, depending upon the grain size of the rock. Whole-rock chemical analysis was performed by John Husler, University of New Mexico, using a variety...

  9. Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films due to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurement forces. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films due to measurement forces. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films due to measurement forces. Significant deformation of thin films occurs when measuring thickness by mechanical means. This source of measurement error can lead to underestimating film thickness if proper corrections are not made. Analytical

  10. Analytical and Elemental Analysis of Air and Soil Samples Facility and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Public Awareness Partnership (Training/Public Awareness) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Analytical and Elemental Analysis of Air and Soil Samples Facility and Public Awareness Partnership (Training/Public Awareness) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analytical and Elemental Analysis of Air and Soil Samples Facility and Public Awareness Partnership (Training/Public Awareness) This report reflects a joint training program at the Integrated Environmental

  11. Electrogalvanic finite element analysis of partially protected marine structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasper, R.G.; April, M.G.

    1983-05-01

    A general finite element modeling (FEM) procedure for calculating electrogalvanic field responses due to multiple anodic/cathodic interactions has been developed. Within any defined electrolytic continuum the exact geometry and location of anodes, cathodes, and paint surfaces can now be realistically incorporated in the mathematical model formulation. The anodic/cathodic interactions in the conductive electrolyte are predicted by the application of classical d.c. electric field theory for conductive continuums in conjunction with widely accepted laboratory oxidation/reduction responses for the electrodes. The electrogalvanic fields in the electrolyte are calculated using the scalar Poisson equation whereby traditional boundary conditions are prescribed in the far field of the electrolyte. In the near field of the anodes, cathodes, and the painted metallic substrate, complex boundary conditions are enforced based on empirical polarization curves and paint impedance values. The ionic current in the electrolyte leaving the anode and arriving at the cathodes are mathematically constrained to sum to zero over the metallic surface (spatial Kirchoff's law). Three example problems (three dimensional) of an iron bar in salt water will demonstrate the electrochemical field effects due to relative anodic/cathodic spacing, anodic/cathodic geometries, and infinite paint impedance. A fourth boundary value problem (two dimensional) will illustrate the effect of a paint discontinuity (unprotected area) in the center of the otherwise painted (finite impedance) metallic substrate. The proposed electrochemical modeling procedure has the advantage of concurrently treating numerous essential electrochemical parameters for any geometric anodic/cathodic configurations consistent with the physical laws of electrochemistry.

  12. FORMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF A PARAMETER-FREE STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    METHOD. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect FORMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF A PARAMETER-FREE STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FORMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF A PARAMETER-FREE STABILIZED FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. Abstract not provided. Authors: Bochev, Pavel B. ; Perego, Mauro ; Peterson, Kara J. Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1141394 Report Number(s): SAND2014-2582J 506568 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article

  13. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2002-10-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made up of three groups: Data Systems, Information Services, and Computer Systems, with nineteen full-time or part-time staff. The following section provides details on CDIAC's staff and organization. The Data Systems Group identifies and obtains databases important to global-change research; analyzes data; compiles needed databases; provides data management and support to specific programs [e.g., NARSTO, Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE), AmeriFlux, Oceans]; and prepares documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Information Services Group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; analyzes user statistics; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter (CDIAC Communications), the fiscal year annual reports, and various information materials. The Computer Systems Group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities; designs and maintains CDIAC's computing system network; ensures compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensures long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluates, develops, and implements software; ensures standards compliance; generates user statistics; provides Web design, development, and oversight; and provides systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-31

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has--since its inception in 1982--enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Acting Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC's FY 1999 budget was 2.2M dollars. CDIAC represents the DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System. Bobbi Parra, and Wanda Ferrell on an interim basis, is DOE's Program Manager with responsibility for CDIAC. CDIAC comprises three groups, Global Change Data, Computer Systems, and Information Services, with seventeen full-time and part-time staff. The Global Change Data group is responsible for identifying and obtaining databases important to global-change research, analyzing data, compiling needed databases, providing data management support to specific programs (e.g., NARSTO), and preparing documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Computer Systems group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities, including designing and maintaining CDIAC's computing system network; ensuring compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensuring long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluating, developing, and implementing software; ensuring standards compliance; generating user statistics; providing Web design, development, and oversight; and providing systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects. The Information Services group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter, CDIAC Communications, catalog, glossary, and educational materials. The following section provides further details on CDIAC's organization.

  16. Finite element strategies for the efficient analysis and evaluation of solar collector structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koteras, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrating or reflecting structures for solar energy systems must be evaluated as to their structural integrity and optical performance. Computer studies can be used as an integral part of these evaluations. The computer studies make use of finite element structural codes coupled with post-processors that calculate optical data. If the analysis of a solar structure is to be carried out in an efficient manner, these computer codes must have certain capabilities. A number of solar energy projects at Sandia National Laboratories have made extensive use of finite element analyses. The analyses have been useful in evaluating design concepts which hold promise for large scale use in solar energy projects. Analysis procedures have been developed for some structures so that evaluations can be carried out in a straightforward manner.

  17. GRIZ: Finite element analysis results visualization for unstructured grids. User manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dovey, D.J.; Spelce, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    GRIZ supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application which is designed to work with a variety of an analysis codes. Currently, GRIZ is capable of calculating and displaying derived variables for the DYNA3D, NIKE3D and TOPAZ3D analysis codes. GRIZ reads in data files in the ``MDG plotfile`` format. GRIZ provides support for modern 3D visualization techniques such as isosurface display, cutting planes and display of vector data. GRIZ also incorporates the ability to animate data over time and to store animation frames to a video disk. GRIZ is designed to utilize the capabilities of modern graphics workstations which provide hardware support for 3D graphics, thereby giving the user as much interactive performance as possible. This should make it easier for analysts to explore and interrogate their analysis results.

  18. Three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a nuclear waste truck cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    A three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a hypothetical accident event for the preliminary design of a shipping cask to be used to transport radioactive waste by standard tractor-semitrailer truck is presented. The dynamic structural analysis code DYNA3D, run on Sandia's Cray-1 computer, was used to calculate the effects of the closure-end of the cask impacting a rigid, frictionless surface on an edge of its external impact limiter after a 30-foot fall. The center of gravity of the 304 stainless steel and depleted uranium cask was assumed to be directly above the impact point. An elastic-plastic material constitutive model was used to calculate the nonlinear response of the cask components to the transient loading. Results from the calculations show the cask sustained large localized deformations. However, these were almost entirely confined to the impact limiters built into the cask. The closure sections were determined to remain intact and leakage would not be expected after the event. Interactive color computer graphics were used throughout the analysis, proving to be extremely helpful for generation and verification of the geometry and boundary conditions of the finite element model and for interpretation of the analysis results. 12 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. mu-Scale Variations Of Elemental Composition In Individual Atmospheric Particles By Means Of Synchrotron Radiation Based mu-XRF Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schleicher, N.; Kramar, U.; Norra, S.; Dietze, V.; Kaminski, U.; Cen, K.; Yu, Y.

    2010-04-06

    Atmospheric pollution poses a huge challenge especially for densely populated urban areas. Although a tremendous knowledge already exists on atmospheric particulate pollution, only very limited knowledge is available on mineral and chemical composition of single atmospheric particles because most studies on air pollution focus on total mass concentrations or bulk elemental analysis. However, it is of particular importance to investigate the properties of single particles since according to their individually composition they differ in their specific impact on climate change, negative environment and health effects, as well as accelerating the weathering of stone buildings in urban areas. Particles with sulfate and nitrate coatings together with sufficient moisture increase metal solubility and possibly catalyze further surface reactions on stone facades of buildings. From the viewpoint of health effects of aerosols it is important to consider agglomerations processes of fine anthropogenic and highly toxic particles with coarse geogenic and less toxic particles. With respect to fundamental research in mineralogy, processes forming composed coarse particles consisting of geogenic and anthropogenic substances are valuable to study since a new type of particle is produced. In this context, the important and still in detail unknown role of geogenic particles as catchers for anthropogenic aerosols can be investigated more closely. Coarse particles can provide a possible sink for fine particles. Moreover, the intermixture of particles from geogenic and anthropogenic sources and the spatial and temporal variations of contributions from different sources, which plays a decisive role in the study area of Beijing, can be clarified with this approach. For this study, particles were collected with the passive sampling device Sigma-2 and analyzed for particles from 3 to 96 {mu}m. The analyzed particles showed a very inhomogeneous distribution in their elemental composition. For this study, synchrotron radiation based mu-X-ray fluorescence analysis (mu-SXRF) proved to be an excellent tool to investigate mu-scalic distributions of main and trace element concentrations within individual airborne particles.

  20. Finite Element Results Visualization for Unstructured Grids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application supporting interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. In addition to basic pseudocolor renderings of state variables over the mesh surface, GRIZ provides modern visualization techniques such as isocontours and isosurfaces, cutting planes, vector field display, and particle traces. GRIZ accepts both command-line and mouse-driven input, and is portable to virtually any UNIX platform which provides Motif and OpenGl libraries.

  1. Elemental and isotopic analysis of inorganic salts by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayasekharan, T.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2013-02-05

    Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is applied for the analysis of elements as well as their isotopic composition in different inorganic salts. At very low laser energies the inorganic ions are desorbed and ionized from the thin layer of the sample surface. The naturally occurring isotopes of alkali and silver ions are resolved using time of flight mass spectrometer. Further increase in laser energy shows the appearance of Al, Cr, and Fe ions in the mass spectra. This indicates the penetration laser beam beyond the sample surface leading to the ablation of sample target at higher energies. The simultaneous appearance of atomic ions from the sample target at relatively higher laser energies hampers the unambiguous identification of amino acid residues from the biomolecular ions in MALDI-MS.

  2. Finite element analysis of three TVA dams with alkali-aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenoble, B.A.; Meisenheimer, J.K.; Wagner, C.D.; Newell, V.A.

    1995-12-31

    Three large Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) dams are currently experiencing problems caused by alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). Since the fall of 1990, engineers in Stone & Webster`s Denver, Colorado office have been working with TVA to evaluate how AAR is affecting the dams and to identify measures for controlling the adverse effects of the concrete growth. This paper provides an overview of how finite element analysis is being used to understand the affects of AAR on these structures and to evaluate alternatives for minimizing the adverse effects of the concrete growth. Work on Hiwassee Dam is essentially complete, while that on the Chickamauga and Fontana Projects is still in progress. Consequently, this paper will focus primarily on Hiwassee Dam. The ongoing work on the other two projects will only be discussed briefly.

  3. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-06

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  4. Fundamental and methodological investigations for the improvement of elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass soectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, Christopher Hysjulien

    2012-07-27

    This dissertation describes a variety of studies meant to improve the analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS. The emission behavior of individual droplets and LA generated particles in an ICP is studied using a high-speed, high frame rate digital camera. Phenomena are observed during the ablation of silicate glass that would cause elemental fractionation during analysis by ICP-MS. Preliminary work for ICP torch developments specifically tailored for the improvement of LA sample introduction are presented. An abnormal scarcity of metal-argon polyatomic ions (MAr{sup +}) is observed during ICP-MS analysis. Evidence shows that MAr{sup +} ions are dissociated by collisions with background gas in a shockwave near the tip of the skimmer cone. Method development towards the improvement of LA-ICP-MS for environmental monitoring is described. A method is developed to trap small particles in a collodion matrix and analyze each particle individually by LA-ICP-MS.

  5. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Wayne E. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons, simultaneously measuring the electron dosage and x-ray intensities for each sample of element to determine a "K.sub.AB " value to be used in the equation ##EQU1## where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B, and exposing the multielement sample to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  6. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, W.E.

    1986-01-06

    This disclosure describes a method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons. Simultaneously the electron dosage and x-ray intensities are measured for each sample of element to determine a ''K/sub AB/'' value to be used in the equation (I/sub A/I/sub B/) = K/sub AB/ (C/sub A//C/sub B/), where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B. The multielement sample is exposed to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  7. SEACAS Theory Manuals: Part III. Finite Element Analysis in Nonlinear Solid Mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laursen, T.A.; Attaway, S.W.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1999-03-01

    This report outlines the application of finite element methodology to large deformation solid mechanics problems, detailing also some of the key technological issues that effective finite element formulations must address. The presentation is organized into three major portions: first, a discussion of finite element discretization from the global point of view, emphasizing the relationship between a virtual work principle and the associated fully discrete system, second, a discussion of finite element technology, emphasizing the important theoretical and practical features associated with an individual finite element; and third, detailed description of specific elements that enjoy widespread use, providing some examples of the theoretical ideas already described. Descriptions of problem formulation in nonlinear solid mechanics, nonlinear continuum mechanics, and constitutive modeling are given in three companion reports.

  8. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-09-11

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the {sup 239}Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a {sup 239}Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in {sup 239}Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of {sup 239}Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U. This large difference allows small changes in the {sup 239}Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and {sup 239}Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the {sup 239}Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of {sup 239}Pu up to approximately two weight percent.

  9. Trace Holdings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holdings Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trace Holdings Product: Trace Holdings is now fully integrated in Xantrex Technologies Inc following a 2000 merger. References: Trace...

  10. Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.; Maker, B.N.; Spelce, T.E.

    1992-03-24

    There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

  11. High resolution analysis of soil elements with laser-induced breakdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebinger, Michael H. (Santa Fe, NM); Harris, Ronny D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-04-06

    The invention is a system and method of detecting a concentration of an element in a soil sample wherein an opening or slot is formed in a container that supports a soil sample that was extracted from the ground whereupon at least a length of the soil sample is exposed via the opening. At each of a plurality of points along the exposed length thereof, the soil sample is ablated whereupon a plasma is formed that emits light characteristic of the elemental composition of the ablated soil sample. Each instance of emitted light is separated according to its wavelength and for at least one of the wavelengths a corresponding data value related to the intensity of the light is determined. As a function of each data value a concentration of an element at the corresponding point along the length of the soil core sample is determined.

  12. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  13. DYNA3D Finite Element Analysis of Steam Explosion Loads on a Pedestal Wall Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, C R

    2007-01-18

    The objective of this brief report is to document the ESBWR pedestal wall finite element analyses that were performed as a quick turnaround effort in July 2005 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and describe the assumptions and failure criteria used for these analyses [Ref 4]. The analyses described within are for the pedestal wall design that included an internal steel liner. The goal of the finite element analyses was to assist in determining the load carrying capacity of the ESBWR pedestal wall subjected to an impulsive pressure generated by a steam explosion.

  14. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  15. Analysis of Mode III Elastodynamic Cracked Plane using the Fractal Two-Level Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, J.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    2010-05-21

    In this study, the fractal two-level finite element method, which has mainly been used for static cracked plane problems, is applied to the cracked plane problem. Using the transformation process in the proposed method, the infinite dimension of the finite element matrices that are assembled for a singular region is made finite in terms of the dynamics stress intensity factors directly, and thus the computational time can be reduced significantly. The Newmark time integration scheme is then used to obtain the dynamic stress intensity factors. The results from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement with those of classical methods. The main drawback of the time integration scheme is that numerical oscillations are induced in some cases.

  16. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  17. Finite-element analysis of earing using non-quadratic yield surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.

    1995-06-18

    During deep draw cupping, the phenomenon known as earing may occur as the cup wall is formed, resulting in a periodic variation of cup wall height around the perimeter of the finished cup. This is generally due to planar anisotropy of flow in rolled sheet product. It is generally observed that the anisotropy parameter R will vary in the plane of the sheet when ears are observed in cupping, with a parameter {Delta}R describing the variation of R in the plane of the sheet. For many common textures in face-centered and body-centered materials, the ears form relative to the sheet rolling direction at 0{degrees} and 90{degrees} around the perimeter if {Delta}R>0, and at -45{degrees} and +45{degrees} if {Delta}R<0. There is extensive experimental evidence that ear height shows a linear correlation with {Delta}R/R, but attempts to duplicate this using the finite-element method are highly dependent on both the methodology and yield surface used. It was shown previously that using a coarse mesh and the quadratic Hill yield surface tends to greatly under predict earing. In this study, we have used two different finite-element codes developed at LLNL to examine the predicted earing using both quadratic Hill and alternative non-quadratic yield surfaces. These results are compared to experimental data and conclusions drawn about the most desirable closed-form yield surfaces to duplicate the observed earing phenomena.

  18. IDENTIFYING FRACTURE ORIGIN IN CERAMICS BY COMBINATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AND DISCRETE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senapati, Rajeev; Zhang Jianmei

    2010-02-22

    Advanced ceramic materials have been extensively applied in aerospace, automobile and other industries. However, the reliability of the advanced ceramics is a major concern because of the brittle nature of the materials. In this paper, combination of nondestructive testing and numerical modeling Discrete Element Method is proposed to identify the fracture origin in ceramics. The nondestructive testing--laser scattering technology is first performed on the ceramic components to reveal the machining-induced damage such as cracks and the material-inherent flaws such as voids, then followed by the four point bending test. Discrete Element software package PFC{sup 2D} is used to simulate the four point bending test and try to identify where the fractures start. The numerical representation of the ceramic materials is done by generating a densely packed particle system using the specimen genesis procedure and then applying the suitable microparameters to the particle system. Simulation of four point bending test is performed on materials having no defects, materials having manufacturing-induced defects like cracks, and materials having material-inherent flaws like voids. The initiation and propagation of defects is modeled and the mean contact force on the loading ball is also plotted. The simulation prediction results are well in accordance with the nondestructive testing results.

  19. Automated quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus usable to generate mesh in a finite element analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blacker, Teddy D. (12205 Kashmir, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1994-01-01

    An automatic quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus is provided for automatically discretizing a geometric region without decomposing the region. The automated quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus automatically generates a mesh of all quadrilateral elements which is particularly useful in finite element analysis. The generated mesh of all quadrilateral elements is boundary sensitive, orientation insensitive and has few irregular nodes on the boundary. A permanent boundary of the geometric region is input and rows are iteratively layered toward the interior of the geometric region. Also, an exterior permanent boundary and an interior permanent boundary for a geometric region may be input and the rows are iteratively layered inward from the exterior boundary in a first counter clockwise direction while the rows are iteratively layered from the interior permanent boundary toward the exterior of the region in a second clockwise direction. As a result, a high quality mesh for an arbitrary geometry may be generated with a technique that is robust and fast for complex geometric regions and extreme mesh gradations.

  20. Large deformation analysis of laminated composite structures by a continuum-based shell element with transverse deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wung, Pey Min.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, a finite element formulation and associated computer program is developed for the transient large deformation analysis of laminated composite plate/shell structures. In order to satisfy the plate/shell surface traction boundary conditions and to have accurate stress description while maintaining the low cost of the analysis, a newly assumed displacement field theory is formulated by adding higher-order terms to the transverse displacement component of the first-order shear deformation theory. The laminated shell theory is formulated using the Updated Lagrangian description of a general continuum-based theory with assumptions on thickness deformation. The transverse deflection is approximated through the thickness by a quartic polynomial of the thickness coordinate. As a result both the plate/shell surface tractions (including nonzero tangential tractions and nonzero normal pressure) and the interlaminar shear stress continuity conditions at interfaces are satisfied simultaneously. Furthermore, the rotational degree of freedoms become layer dependent quantities and the laminate possesses a transverse deformation capability (i.e the normal strain is no longer zero). Analytical integration through the thickness direction is performed for both the linear analysis and the nonlinear analysis. Resultants of the stress integrations are expressed in terms of the laminate stacking sequence. Consequently, the laminate characteristics in the normal direction can be evaluated precisely and the cost of the overall analysis is reduced. The standard Newmark method and the modified Newton Raphson method are used for the solution of the nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations. Finally, a variety of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the finite element program developed herein.

  1. SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L.

    1993-12-01

    SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

  2. Cohesive zone finite element analysis of crack initiation from a butt joint’s interface corner

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reedy, E. D.

    2014-09-06

    The Cohesive zone (CZ) fracture analysis techniques are used to predict the initiation of crack growth from the interface corner of an adhesively bonded butt joint. In this plane strain analysis, a thin linear elastic adhesive layer is sandwiched between rigid adherends. There is no preexisting crack in the problem analyzed, and the focus is on how the shape of the traction–separation (T–U) relationship affects the predicted joint strength. Unlike the case of a preexisting interfacial crack, the calculated results clearly indicate that the predicted joint strength depends on the shape of the T–U relationship. Most of the calculations usedmore » a rectangular T–U relationship whose shape (aspect ratio) is defined by two parameters: the interfacial strength σ* and the work of separation/unit area Γ. The principal finding of this study is that for a specified adhesive layer thickness, there is any number of σ*, Γ combinations that generate the same predicted joint strength. For each combination there is a corresponding CZ length. We developed an approximate CZ-like elasticity solution to show how such combinations arise and their connection with the CZ length.« less

  3. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-24

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  4. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Bearing Trace Gases A critical scientific and policy oriented question is what are the present day sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the natural environment and how will these sinks evolve under rising CO2 concentrations and expected climate change and ecosystem response. Sources and sinks of carbon dioxide impart their signature on the distribution, concentration, and isotopic composition of CO2. Spatial and temporal trends (variability) provide information on the net surface

  5. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1993-11-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  6. HFE-TRACE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003281IBMPC00 An Integrated Tool for Functional Requirements Analysis, Function Allocation and Task Analysis

  7. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  8. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the history of the system. Authors Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano and Joseph N. Moore Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1983 DOI Not...

  9. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this distribution may be a useful solid geothermometer. Authors O.D. Christensen, J.N. Moore and R.M. Capuano Conference GRC Annual Meeting; Salt Lake City, UT; 09091980...

  10. Trace 700 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Trace 700 AgencyCompany Organization: Trane Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Topics: Technology characterizations...

  11. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  12. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  13. Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorpotion analysis. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, B R

    1980-01-01

    Only the actual application of the ultratrace metal analysis methods to samples taken from geothermal sites in Washington and Oregon is covered. The in-field sampling equipment constructed for the studies, procedures developed or adapted, and the results obtained on representative samples taken from geothermal sites are described. (MHR)

  14. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linker, K.L.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program has as one of its program elements the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program's goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia's Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  15. Nuclear matrix elements for 0??{sup ?}?{sup ?} decays: Comparative analysis of the QRPA, shell model and IBM predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Suhonen, Jouni

    2013-12-30

    In this work we report on general properties of the nuclear matrix elements involved in the neutrinoless double ?{sup ?} decays (0??{sup ?}?{sup ?} decays) of several nuclei. A summary of the values of the NMEs calculated along the years by the Jyvskyl-La Plata collaboration is presented. These NMEs, calculated in the framework of the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), are compared with those of the other available calculations, like the Shell Model (ISM) and the interacting boson model (IBA-2)

  16. ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement...

  17. Characteristics, finite element analysis, test description, and preliminary test results of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linker, K.L.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Smith, G.

    1991-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Program has as one of its program elements the development and evaluation of conversion device technologies applicable to dish-electric systems. The primary research and development combines a conversion device (heat engine), solar receiver, and generator mounted at the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator. The Stirling-cycle heat engine was identified as the conversion device for dish-electric with the most potential for meeting the program`s goals for efficiency, reliability, and installed cost. To advance the technology toward commercialization, Sandia National Laboratories has acquired a Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., kinematic Stirling engine, STM4-120, for evaluation. The engine is being bench-tested at Sandia`s Engine Test Facility and will be combined later with a solar receiver for on-sun evaluation. This report presents the engine characteristics, finite element analyses of critical engine components, test system layout, instrumentation, and preliminary performance results from the bench test.

  18. Characterization of the Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 Sheet Steels Using Microstructure-Based Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, several studies conducted by automotive industry revealed the tremendous advantages of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is one of the typical representative of AHSS. This kind of materials exhibits high strength as well as high formability. Analyzing the crack behaviour in TRIP steels is a challenging task due to the microstructure level inhomogeneities between the different phases (Ferrite, Bainite, Austenite, Martensite) that constitute these materials. This paper aims at investigating the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. For this purpose, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. Uniaxial tensile tests on TRIP 800 sheet notched specimens were also conducted and tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were determined. The comparison between simulation and experimental results leads us to the conclusion that the method using microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) captures well enough the complex behavior of TRIP steels. The effect of phase transformation, which occurs during the deformation process, on the toughness is observed and discussed.

  19. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perdian, David C.

    2009-08-19

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  20. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  1. Scalable Analysis of Distributed Workflow Traces (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    important in both the scientific research and business domains. Science and commerce have both experienced an explosion in the sheer amount of data that must be analyzed....

  2. Scalable Analysis of Distributed Workflow Traces (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is Large-scale workflows are becoming increasingly important in both the scientific...

  3. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  4. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  5. Programmatic Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods of meeting the requirements of DOE O 151.1C for programmatic elements that sustain the emergency management program and maintain the readiness of the program to respond to an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-1, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-3.

  6. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir conditions. Our research has shown that the REE signature imparted to the formation fluid by the introduction of CO₂ to the formation, can be measured and tracked as part of an MMV program. Additionally, this REE fingerprint may serve as an ideal tracer for fluid migration, both within the CCS target formation, and should formation fluids migrate into overlying aquifers. However application of REE and other trace elements to CCS system is complicated by the high salt content of the brines contained within the target formations. In the United States by regulation, in order for a geologic reservoir to be considered suitable for carbon storage, it must contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) > 10,000 ppm, and in most cases formation brines have TDS well in excess of that threshold. The high salinity of these brines creates analytical problems for elemental analysis, including element interference with trace metals in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) (i.e. element mass overlap due to oxide or plasma phenomenon). Additionally, instruments like the ICP-MS that are sensitive enough to measure trace elements down to the parts per trillion level are quickly oversaturated when water TDS exceeds much more than 1,000 ppm. Normally this problem is dealt with through dilution of the sample, bringing the water chemistry into the instruments working range. However, dilution is not an option when analyzing these formation brines for trace metals, because trace elements, specifically the REE, which occur in aqueous solutions at the parts per trillion levels. Any dilution of the sample would make REE detection impossible. Therefore, the ability to use trace metals as in situ natural tracers in high TDS brines environments requires the development of methods for pre-concentrating trace elements, while reducing the salinity and associated elemental interference such that the brines can be routinely analyzed by standard ICP-MS methods. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL-CAES has developed a rapid, easy to use process that pre-concentrates trace metals, including REE, up to 100x while eliminating interfering ions (e.g. Ba, Cl). The process is straightforward, inexpensive, and requires little infrastructure, using only a single chromatography column with inexpensive, reusable, commercially available resins and wash chemicals. The procedure has been tested with synthetic brines (215,000 ppm or less TDS) and field water samples (up to 5,000 ppm TDS). Testing has produced data of high quality with REE capture efficiency exceeding 95%, while reducing interfering elements by > 99%.« less

  7. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  8. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  9. Top Quark Produced Through the Electroweak Force: Discovery Using the Matrix Element Analysis and Search for Heavy Gauge Bosons Using Boosted Decision Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pangilinan, Monica; /Brown U.

    2010-02-01

    The top quark produced through the electroweak channel provides a direct measurement of the V{sub tb} element in the CKM matrix which can be viewed as a transition rate of a top quark to a bottom quark. This production channel of top quark is also sensitive to different theories beyond the Standard Model such as heavy charged gauged bosons termed W{prime}. This thesis measures the cross section of the electroweak produced top quark using a technique based on using the matrix elements of the processes under consideration. The technique is applied to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data from the D0 detector. From a comparison of the matrix element discriminants between data and the signal and background model using Bayesian statistics, we measure the cross section of the top quark produced through the electroweak mechanism {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.30{sub -1.20}{sup +0.98} pb. The measured result corresponds to a 4.9{sigma} Gaussian-equivalent significance. By combining this analysis with other analyses based on the Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) and Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) method, the measured cross section is 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb with a significance of 5.0{sigma}, resulting in the discovery of electroweak produced top quarks. Using this measured cross section and constraining |V{sub tb}| < 1, the 95% confidence level (C.L.) lower limit is |V{sub tb}| > 0.78. Additionally, a search is made for the production of W{prime} using the same samples from the electroweak produced top quark. An analysis based on the BDT method is used to separate the signal from expected backgrounds. No significant excess is found and 95% C.L. upper limits on the production cross section are set for W{prime} with masses within 600-950 GeV. For four general models of W{prime} boson production using decay channel W{prime} {yields} t{bar b}, the lower mass limits are the following: M(W{prime}{sub L} with SM couplings) > 840 GeV; M(W{prime}{sub R}) > 880 GeV or 890 GeV if the right-handed neutrino is lighter or heavier than W{prime}{sub R}; and M(W{prime}{sub L+R}) > 915 GeV.

  10. Trace Replay and Network Simulation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-03-23

    TraceR is a trace reply tool built upon the ROSS-based CODES simulation framework. TraceR can be used for predicting network performances and understanding network behavior by simulating messaging in High Performance Computing applications on interconnection networks.

  11. Response Elements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-07-11

    The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Supersedes DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

  12. The Origin of the Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Edward

    2012-11-20

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  13. The Origin of the Elements

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murphy, Edward

    2014-08-06

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  14. The role of trace impurities in classification of in-core reactor components. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luksic, A.T.; Pauley, K.A.; Reid, B.d.

    1993-08-01

    Low-level radioactive waste is classified into three distinct categories under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61). These categories, Class A, B, and C, are determined by the concentrations of specified radionuclides, with Class C being the most restrictive. Waste which is determined to exceed the Class C limits is referred to as Greater Than Class C (GTCC) and is generally deemed to be unacceptable for disposal in a shallow land burial site. Under the Low-Level Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1985 (Public Law 99-240), the responsibility for disposal of waste classified as GTCC rests with the US government. To provide a better understanding of the elemental constituents that are present in nuclear fuel related materials, 41 samples of unirradiated materials used in the manufacture of fuel assembly hardware and nonfuel assembly components were obtained and analyzed. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluating the concentration of niobium in Zircaloy. The results of this work indicate that insignificant amounts of niobium are found in the current generation of Zircaloy. However, the reason for the inconsistency between the trace amounts of elemental niobium (<10 ppM) observed in the current analysis and the significant amounts (>100 ppM) that were observed in the previous analysis has not been identified.

  15. TRACE3D. Interactive Beam-Dynamics Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, L.; Yao, C.Y.

    1993-12-01

    TRACE3D is an interactive program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined system. The transport system may consist of the following elements: drift, thin lens, quadrupole, permanent magnet quadrupole, solenoid, doublet, triplet, bending magnet, edge angle (for bend), RF gap, radio-frequency-quadrupole cell, RF cavity, coupled-cavity tank, user-desired element, coordinate rotation, and identical element. The beam is represented by a 6X6 matrix defining a hyper-ellipsoid in six-dimensional phase space. The projection of this hyperellipsoid on any two-dimensional plane is an ellipse that defines the boundary of the beam in that plane.

  16. Method of determining lanthanidies in a transition element host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Kalb, Edward L.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1976-02-03

    A phosphor composition contains a lanthanide activator element within a host matrix having a transition element as a major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or vanadates such as YPO.sub.4 with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one or more of the transition elements. On X-ray or other electromagnetic excitation, trace lanthanide impurities or additives within the phosphor are spectrometrically determined from their characteristic luminescence.

  17. Rating Element

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Score Maturity Value Score Maturity Value Score A1 Cost Estimate H 7.5 1 7.5 0.0 0.0 A2 Cost RiskContingency Analysis P 3.0 1 3.0 0.0 0.0 A3 Funding RequirementsProfile H 7.5 1 ...

  18. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  19. Albany/FELIX: A parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.

    2015-04-27

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, along with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.

  20. Albany/FELIX: A parallel, scalable and robust, finite element, first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver built for advanced analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tezaur, I. K.; Perego, M.; Salinger, A. G.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Price, S. F.

    2015-04-27

    This paper describes a new parallel, scalable and robust finite element based solver for the first-order Stokes momentum balance equations for ice flow. The solver, known as Albany/FELIX, is constructed using the component-based approach to building application codes, in which mature, modular libraries developed as a part of the Trilinos project are combined using abstract interfaces and template-based generic programming, resulting in a final code with access to dozens of algorithmic and advanced analysis capabilities. Following an overview of the relevant partial differential equations and boundary conditions, the numerical methods chosen to discretize the ice flow equations are described, alongmore » with their implementation. The results of several verification studies of the model accuracy are presented using (1) new test cases for simplified two-dimensional (2-D) versions of the governing equations derived using the method of manufactured solutions, and (2) canonical ice sheet modeling benchmarks. Model accuracy and convergence with respect to mesh resolution are then studied on problems involving a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry discretized using hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. Also explored as a part of this study is the effect of vertical mesh resolution on the solution accuracy and solver performance. The robustness and scalability of our solver on these problems is demonstrated. Lastly, we show that good scalability can be achieved by preconditioning the iterative linear solver using a new algebraic multilevel preconditioner, constructed based on the idea of semi-coarsening.« less

  1. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  2. Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Ablation | The Ames Laboratory Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond Laser Ablation FWP/Project Description: This project will develop analytical methodology for the use of femtosecond laser ablation sampling and analysis techniques for the rapid screening of samples derived from detection of clandestine nuclear operations, and nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards activities. A state-of-the-art femtosecond laser ablation system in conjunction with

  3. Easy system call tracing for Plan 9.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnich, Ronald G.

    2010-09-01

    Tracing system calls makes debugging easy and fast. On Plan 9, traditionally, system call tracing has been implemented with acid. New systems do not always implement all the capabilities needed for Acid, particularly the ability to rewrite the process code space to insert breakpoints. Architecture support libraries are not always available for Acid, or may not work even on a supported architecture. The requirement that Acid's libraries be available can be a problem on systems with a very small memory footprint, such as High Performance Computing systems where every Kbyte counts. Finally, Acid tracing is inconvenient in the presence of forks, which means tracing shell pipelines is particularly troublesome. The strace program available on most Unix systems is far more convenient to use and more capable than Acid for system call tracing. A similar system on Plan 9 can simplify troubleshooting. We have built a system calling tracing capability into the Plan 9 kernel. It has proven to be more convenient than strace in programming effort. One can write a shell script to implement tracing, and the C code to implement an strace equivalent is several orders of magnitude smaller.

  4. The Effects of Trace Contaminants on Catalytic Processing of Biomass-Derived Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Peterson, Keith L.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Alderson, Eric V.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2004-03-25

    Trace components in biomass feedstocks are potential catalyst poisons when catalytically processing these materials to value-added chemical products. Trace components include inorganic elements such as alkali metals and alkaline earths, phosphorus or sulfur, aluminum or silicon, chloride, or transition metals. Protein components in biomass feedstocks can lead to formation of peptide fractions (from hydrolysis) or ammonium ions (from more severe breakdown) both of which might interfere with catalysis. The effects of these components on catalytic hydrogenation processing has been studied in batch reactor processing tests

  5. Trace metal levels and partitioning in Wisconsin rivers: Results of background trace metals study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, M.M.; Overdier, J.T.; Armstrong, D.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Webb, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Levels of total and filtrable Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in 41 Wisconsin rivers draining watersheds of distinct homogeneous characteristics (land use/cover, soil type, surficial geology) were quantified. Levels, fluxes, and yields of trace metals are interpreted in terms of principal geochemical controls. The study samples were also used to evaluate the capability of modern ICP-MS techniques for ``background`` level quantification of metals. Order-of-magnitude variations in levels of a given metal between sites was measured. This large natural variance reflects influences of soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOC), ionic strength, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on metal levels. Significant positive correlations between DOC levels and filtrable metal concentrations were observed, demonstrating the important role that DOC plays in metal speciation and behavior. Systematic, chemically consistent, differences in behavior between the metals is evident with partition coefficients (K,) and fraction in particulate forms ranking in the order: Al > Pb > Zn > Cr >Cd > Cu. Total metal yields correlate well with SPM yields, especially for highly partitioned elements, whereas filtrable metal yields reflect the interplay of partitioning and water yield. The State of Wisconsin will use these data in a re-evaluation of regulatory limits and in the development of water effects ratio criteria.

  6. LEACHING OF SLAG FROM STEEL RECYCLING: RADIONUCLIDES AND STABLE ELEMENTS. DATA REPORT, JAN.15, 1997, REVISED SEPT.9, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUHRMANN,M.SCHOONEN,M.

    2003-07-31

    Of primary importance to this study are releases of radionuclides from slags. However, releases of other constituents also provide valuable information on releases of elements that may be toxic (e.g. Cr) or that may be used as analogs for radionuclides (e.g. K for Cs). In addition, leaching of bulk constituents from the slag gives information on weathering rates of the bulk material that can be used to estimate releases of non-leachable elements. Consequently, we have examined leaching of: radionuclides from those sloags that contain them; bulk elemental constituents of the slags; anionic constituents; trace elements, through spot checks of concentrations in leachates. Analysis by ICP of elemental constituents in leachates from radioactive samples was limited to those leachate samples that contained no detectable radionuclides, to avoid contamination of the ICP. In this data report we present leaching results for five slags that were produced by recycling steel. Two of the slags were generated at facilities that treat radioactively contaminated scrap, consequently the slag contains radionuclides. The slag from the other three was not contaminated. Because of this, we were able to examine the chemical composition of the slag and of the leachate generated during tests of these slags. For these materials we believe that leach rates of the stable elements can be used as analogs for radionuclides if the same steel processing method were used for radioactive material.

  7. Method for remote detection of trace contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simonson, Robert J.; Hance, Bradley G.

    2003-09-09

    A method for remote detection of trace contaminants in a target area comprises applying sensor particles that preconcentrate the trace contaminant to the target area and detecting the contaminant-sensitive fluorescence from the sensor particles. The sensor particles can have contaminant-sensitive and contaminant-insensitive fluorescent compounds to enable the determination of the amount of trace contaminant present in the target are by relative comparison of the emission of the fluorescent compounds by a local or remote fluorescence detector. The method can be used to remotely detect buried minefields.

  8. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  9. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were employed to measure about 37 major, minor, and trace elements in two standard reference materials: oyster tissue (SRM 1566) supplied by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and animal bone (H-5) supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Wherever the comparison exists, our data show excellent agreement with accepted values for each SRM. These SRM's are useful as reference standards for the analysis of biological materials. Additionally, the chondritic normalized rare earth element pattern of animal bone behaves as a smooth function of the ionic radii, as previously observed for biological materials.

  11. Cuttings Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown References Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano, Joseph N. Moore (1983) Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot...

  12. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  13. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  14. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (4 Ledgewood Dr., Bedford, MA 01730); Smatlak, Donna L. (10 Village Hill Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Cohn, Daniel R. (26 Walnut Hill Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167); Wittle, J. Kenneth (1740 Conestoga Rd., Chester Springs, PA 19425); Titus, Charles H. (323 Echo Valley La., Newton Square, PA 19072); Surma, Jeffrey E. (806 Brian La., Kennewick, WA 99337)

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  15. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.

  16. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  17. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  18. Progress on the Development of XRF Imaging and Analysis at the Siam Photon Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saengsuwan, V.; Klysubun, W.; Wongprachanukul, N.; Bovornratanaraks, T.; Srisatit, T.

    2010-06-23

    XRF imaging and analysis at the Siam Photon Laboratory have been recently developed for supporting various applications in x-ray micro analysis. An experimental setup for white beam x-ray fluorescent imaging has been installed at the beamline BL2 for elemental and quantitative analyses. A white micro beam of 163x170 {mu}m{sup 2}(FWHM) measured by wire scanning has been delivered to samples using a polycapillary x-ray half-lens. The fluorescent emissions of characteristic x-rays (1 keV and above) are detected by a Si-PIN detector. XRF imaging of Ni grids on supporting glass and XRF analysis on a trace-element standard were conducted for testing the apparatus. The test results on these samples as well as the necessary software developed for elemental identification and imaging are presented.

  19. Data analysis techniques, differential cross sections, and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γp → Φp

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dey, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Bellis, M.; Williams, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; et al

    2014-05-27

    High-statistics measurements of differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γ p → Φp have been made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. We cover center-of-mass energies (√s) from 1.97 to 2.84 GeV, with an extensive coverage in the Φ production angle. The high statistics of the data sample made it necessary to carefully account for the interplay between the Φ natural lineshape and effects of the detector resolution, that are found to be comparable in magnitude. We study both the charged- (Φ → K⁺K⁻) and neutral- (Φ → K0SK0L) KK̄ decay modes of themore » Φ. Further, for the charged mode, we differentiate between the cases where the final K⁻ track is directly detected or its momentum reconstructed as the total missing momentum in the event. The two charged-mode topologies and the neutral-mode have different resolutions and are calibrated against each other. Extensive usage is made of kinematic fitting to improve the reconstructed Φ mass resolution. Our final results are reported in 10- and mostly 30-MeV-wide √s bins for the charged- and the neutral-mode, respectively. Possible effects from K⁺Λ* channels with pKK̄ final-states are discussed. These present results constitute the most precise and extensive Φ photoproduction measurements to date and in conjunction with the ω photoproduction results recently published by CLAS, will greatly improve our understanding of low energy vector meson photoproduction.« less

  20. Paraxial ray-tracing approach for the simulation of ultrasonic inspection of welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardahaut, Audrey; Jezzine, Karim [CEA, LIST, Digiteo Labs, Bt 565, PC 120, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cassereau, Didier [CNRS, UMR 7623, LIP, 15 rue de l'cole de mdecine, 75006 Paris, France and ESPCI ParisTech, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-02-18

    On-site inspection of bimetallic or austenitic welds can be very difficult to interpret owing to their internal structures. Skewing and splitting of the ultrasonic beam may occur due to the anisotropic and inhomogeneous properties of the welding material. In this paper, we present a ray-based method to simulate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such structures. The formalism is based on dynamic ray tracing system in Cartesian coordinates along a reference ray. Standard ray tracing consists in the solution of a system of linear ordinary differential equations of the first order and is used to determine the trajectory of the ray. Likewise, dynamic ray tracing (DRT) also called paraxial ray tracing consists in the solution of an additional system of linear ordinary differential equations along the ray allowing paraxial quantities to be computed. It is used to evaluate the geometrical spreading and amplitude along the ray and in its vicinity. DRT is applied on a smooth representation of the elastic properties of the weld obtained thanks to an image processing technique applied on a macrograph of the weld. Simulation results are presented and compared to finite elements and experimental results.

  1. Gaseous trace impurity analyzer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jr., David (Bellport, NY); Schneider, William (Setauket, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Simple apparatus for analyzing trace impurities in a gas, such as helium or hydrogen, comprises means for drawing a measured volume of the gas as sample into a heated zone. A segregable portion of the zone is then chilled to condense trace impurities in the gas in the chilled portion. The gas sample is evacuated from the heated zone including the chilled portion. Finally, the chilled portion is warmed to vaporize the condensed impurities in the order of their boiling points. As the temperature of the chilled portion rises, pressure will develop in the evacuated, heated zone by the vaporization of an impurity. The temperature at which the pressure increase occurs identifies that impurity and the pressure increase attained until the vaporization of the next impurity causes a further pressure increase is a measure of the quantity of the preceding impurity.

  2. Groundwaters of Florence (Italy): Trace element distribution and vulnerability of the aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bencini, A.; Ercolanelli, R.; Sbaragli, A.

    1993-11-01

    Geochemical and hydrogeological research has been carried out in Florence, to evaluate conductivity and main chemistry of groundwaters, the pattern of some possible pollutant chemical species (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}), and the vulnerability of the aquifers. The plain is made up of Plio-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine sediments for a maximum thickness of 600 m. Silts and clays, sometimes with lenses of sandy gravels, are dominant, while considerable deposits of sands, pebbles, and gravels occur along the course of the Arno river and its tributary streams, and represent the most important aquifer of the plain. Most waters show conductivity values around 1000-1200 {mu}S, and almost all of them have an alkaline-earth-bicarbonate chemical character. In western areas higher salt content of the groundwaters is evident. Heavy metal and NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3} analyses point out that no important pollution phenomena affect the groundwaters; all mean values are below the maximum admissible concentration (MAC) for drinkable waters. Some anomalies of NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, Fe, Mn, and Zn are present. The most plausible causes can be recognized in losses of the sewage system; use of nitrate compounds in agriculture; oxidation of well pipes. All the observations of Cr, Cu, and Pb are below the MAC; the median values of <3, 3.9, and 1.1 {mu}g/l, respectively, could be considered reference concentrations for groundwaters in calcareous lithotypes, under undisturbed natural conditions. Finally, a map of vulnerability shows that the areas near the Arno river are highly vulnerable, for the minimum thickness (or lacking) of sediments covering the aquifer. On the other hand, in the case of pollution, several factors not considered could significantly increase the self-purification capacity of the aquifer, such asdilution of groundwaters, bacteria oxidation of nitrogenous species, and sorption capacity of clay minerals and organic matter. 31 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Subtask 2.8 - Control of Trace Elements in Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson

    2009-03-28

    Detailed investigations were carried out to investigate the removal of mercury using a variety of substrates at elevated temperature under reducing conditions. Sorbents tested mainly comprised 6A, 7A, 1B, 2B, and metals from the periodic table. The new high-surface halogen-treated carbon sorbents performed exceptionally well on the bench scale at relatively high temperatures (400 C). The new sorbents could be incorporated into a gas cleanup technology for fuel gas, where the gas is cooled to medium temperatures. Other work in this task focused on halogen-containing sorbents prepared on a carbon support. Similar sorbents had been previously found to be superior for mercury in flue gas. All granular sorbents were conducted in fixed beds heated at 350 and 400 C with 10 vol% hydrogen in a nitrogen stream containing 34.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of Hg{sup 0}.

  4. Runtime Tracing of The Community Earth System Model: Feasibility and Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dali [ORNL] [ORNL; Domke, Jens [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Community Earth System Models (CESM) is one of US's leading earth system modeling systems, which has over decades of development history and embraced by large, active user communities. In this paper, we first review the history of CESM software development and layout the general objectives of performance analysis. Then we present an offline global community land model simulation within the CESM framework to demonstrate the procedure of runtime tracing of CESM using the Vampir toolset. Finally, we explain the benefits of runtime tracing to the general earth system modeling community. We hope those considerations can also be beneficial to many other modeling research programs involving legacy high-performance computing applications.

  5. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korton, George (Cincinnati, OH)

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure by encompassing the sides of the fuel element between the header plates.

  6. Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-09

    Plasmonic sensors are important detectors of biochemical trace compounds, but those that utilize optical readout are approaching their absolute limits of detection as defined by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in both differential intensity and phase readout. However, the use of more general minimum uncertainty states in the form of squeezed light can push the noise floor in these sensors below the shot noise limit (SNL) in one analysis variable at the expense of another. Here, we demonstrate a quantum plasmonic sensor whose noise floor is reduced below the SNL in order to perform index of refraction measurements with sensitivities unobtainablemore » with classical plasmonic sensors. The increased signal-to-noise ratio can result in faster detection of analyte concentrations that were previously lost in the noise. As a result, these benefits are the hallmarks of a sensor exploiting quantum readout fields in order to manipulate the limits of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.« less

  7. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M. (Santa Fe, NM); Maier, II, William B. (Los Alamos, NM); Holland, Redus F. (Los Alamos, NM); Beattie, Willard H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (.about.2 ppm) present in commercial Xe and ppm levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zocher, Roy W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  9. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  10. Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-09-23

    Rare earth element measurements for thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California. Samples were collected in acid washed HDPE bottles and acidified with concentrated trace element clean (Fisher Scientific) nitric acid. Samples were pre-concentratated by a factor of approximately 10 using chelating resin with and IDA functional group and measured on magnetic sector ICP-MS. Samples include Seyferth Hot Springs, Surprise Valley Resort Mineral Well, Leonard's Hot Spring, and Lake City Mud Volcano Boiling Spring.

  11. Rare Earth Elements Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Earth Elements Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal By-Products logo. Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal By-Products program overview slide. The REE Program is focused on developing technologies for the recovery of REEs from Coal and Coal By-Products. Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal By-Products background slide The 17-element group known as rare earth elements (REEs) provides significant value to our national security, energy independence, environmental future, and economic

  12. Element Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: DFJ Element, a partnership between Element Venture Partners and Draper Fisher Jurvetson, manages a venture capital fund focusing on investments in high growth,...

  13. Super-Heavy Element Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Targets for Super-Heavy Element Research Presented at International Workshop on Super-Heavy Element Research SHE-15 J. B. Roberto Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

  14. American Elements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elements Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Elements Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90024 Product: US-based manufacturer and supplier of PV feedstocks such as silicon,...

  15. Elemental Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Elemental Energy Name: Elemental Energy Address: 14500 SW 92nd Ave Place: Portland, Oregon Country: United States Zip: 97224 Region: Pacific...

  16. Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Timothy; Bond, Stephen D.; Littlewood, David John; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-12-01

    The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the art of local models with the flexibility and accuracy of the nonlocal peridynamic model. In the mixed locality method this coupling occurs across scales, so that the nonlocal model can be used to communicate material heterogeneity at scales inappropriate to local partial differential equation models. Additionally, the computational burden of the weak form of the peridynamic model is reduced dramatically by only requiring that the model be solved on local patches of the simulation domain which may be computed in parallel, taking advantage of the heterogeneous nature of next generation computing platforms. Addition- ally, we present a novel Galerkin framework, the 'Ambulant Galerkin Method', which represents a first step towards a unified mathematical analysis of local and nonlocal multiscale finite element methods, and whose future extension will allow the analysis of multiscale finite element methods that mix models across scales under certain assumptions of the consistency of those models.

  17. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  18. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  19. Heating element support clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawyer, William C. (Salida, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum.

  20. Heating element support clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawyer, W.C.

    1995-08-15

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum. 6 figs.

  1. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  2. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic...

  3. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the ...

  4. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  5. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Abstract A major campaign to quantify the...

  6. An Efficient Format for Nearly Constant-Time Access to Arbitrary Time Intervals in Large Trace Files

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, Anthony; Gropp, William; Lusk, Ewing

    2008-01-01

    A powerful method to aid in understanding the performance of parallel applications uses log or trace files containing time-stamped events and states (pairs of events). These trace files can be very large, often hundreds or even thousands of megabytes. Because of the cost of accessing and displaying such files, other methods are often used that reduce the size of the tracefiles at the cost of sacrificing detail or other information. This paper describes a hierarchical trace file format that provides for display of an arbitrary time window in a time independent of the total size of the file andmore » roughly proportional to the number of events within the time window. This format eliminates the need to sacrifice data to achieve a smaller trace file size (since storage is inexpensive, it is necessary only to make efficient use of bandwidth to that storage). The format can be used to organize a trace file or to create a separate file of annotations that may be used with conventional trace files. We present an analysis of the time to access all of the events relevant to an interval of time and we describe experiments demonstrating the performance of this file format.« less

  7. Determination of ultra-trace amounts of uranium by ICP-AES technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, A.G.; Godbole, S.V.; Nadraswala, K.H.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Mallapurkar, V.S.; Joshi, B.D.

    1983-09-01

    An atomic emission spectrometric method based on the use of Inductively coupled argon plasma source has been developed for the determination of ultra trace concentrations of uranium in aqueous solutions. Using the optimized experimental conditions for the ICP source, uranium can be determined at 0.05 ..mu..g/ml concentration in 0.3M HNO/sub 3/ solutions with either of the two analytical lines viz. 3859.6 A/sup 0/ or 4090.1 A/sup 0/. The precision of determinations at the lowest detection limit is better than 2% R.S.D. The uranium estimation has been corrected for the interference due to the presence of eighteen metallic elements using an inter-element correction procedure. A number of spiked samples and NBL reference samples with concomitant impurities have been analysed using the standardised procedure and good agreement has been observed with their certified values.

  8. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  10. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C. |

    1996-07-26

    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  11. A new elastoplastic shell element formulation for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, B.E.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-08-01

    The analysis of shell structures undergoing dynamic elastoplastic deformation is an important capability of DYNA3D. This paper presents an improved formulation for a 4-node quadrilateral shell element for explicit dynamic analysis. The proposed element is derived from a three-field weak form, and incorporates recently developed assumed strain methods for improved accuracy. In addition, the element is formulated in a large-displacement small-strain setting for minimum cost. Complex nonlinear constitutive models are easily incorporated into this formulation. Numerical examples illustrating the accuracy, robustness, and speed of the new element are shown. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  13. Integrating Meshfree Peridynamic Models with Classical Finite Element

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrating Meshfree Peridynamic Models with Classical Finite Element Analysis. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrating Meshfree Peridynamic Models with Classical Finite Element Analysis. Abstract not provided. Authors: Littlewood, David John ; Silling, Stewart Andrew ; Seleson, Pablo D ; Mitchell, John Anthony Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1242046 Report Number(s): SAND2014-19109C 540715 DOE Contract Number:

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Carl E. (Elk Grove, IL); Crouthamel, Carl E. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  15. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  16. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  17. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  18. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  19. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  20. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  1. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  2. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  3. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Peter J. (Middleton, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle.

  4. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, P.J.

    1994-10-11

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle. 10 figs.

  5. RECONDITIONING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, H.L.

    1962-02-20

    A process is given for decanning fuel elements that consist of a uranium core, an intermediate section either of bronze, silicon, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers or of lead, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers around said core, and an aluminum can bonded to said intermediate section. The aluminum can is dissolved in a solution of sodium hydroxide (9 to 20 wt%) and sodium nitrate (35 to 12 wt %), and the layers of the intermediate section are dissolved in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution of a minimum concentration of 50 wt%. (AEC) A method of selectively reducing plutonium oxides and the rare earth oxides but not uranium oxides is described which comprises placing the oxides in a molten solvent of zinc or cadmium and then adding metallic uranium as a reducing agent. (AEC)

  6. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Christen (Alexandria, VA)

    1990-01-01

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  9. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, C.

    1987-12-07

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

  10. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for specimen analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Akshaya; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Burgess, Shane C.; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-08-15

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus, a system and a method for detecting the presence or absence of trace elements in a biological sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. The trace elements are used to develop a signature profile which is analyzed directly or compared with the known profile of a standard. In one aspect of the invention, the apparatus, system and method are used to detect malignant cancer cells in vivo.

  12. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: TRACE Version 6.3.2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that the TRACE version 6.3.2 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D (c)(1) and (d) Regulations Notice 2006-52, Section 6 requirements as amplified by Notice 2008-40, Section 4 requirements.

  13. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As

  14. Technique for identifying, tracing, or tracking objects in image data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rothganger, Fredrick (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-08-28

    A technique for computer vision uses a polygon contour to trace an object. The technique includes rendering a polygon contour superimposed over a first frame of image data. The polygon contour is iteratively refined to more accurately trace the object within the first frame after each iteration. The refinement includes computing image energies along lengths of contour lines of the polygon contour and adjusting positions of the contour lines based at least in part on the image energies.

  15. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  16. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - SolTrace Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolTrace Concentrating Solar Power Research SolTrace is a software tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model concentrating solar power (CSP) systems and analyze their optical performance. Although ideally suited for solar applications, the code can also be used to model and characterize many general optical systems. The creation of the code evolved out of a need to model more complex solar optical systems than could be modeled with existing tools. The code

  17. NAS Report and Microsite Trace SSL Evolution and Future Promise |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy NAS Report and Microsite Trace SSL Evolution and Future Promise NAS Report and Microsite Trace SSL Evolution and Future Promise February 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has added a new microsite to complement its 2013 report, Assessment of Advanced Solid State Lighting. The report explores the history of public policy on lighting, evaluates costs and consumer acceptance issues, assesses the development of LED and OLED technologies, and

  18. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  19. Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Analysis Home/Tag:Analysis - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis, Capabilities,

  20. Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Home/Analysis - Structures of the zwitterionic coatings synthesized for this study. Permalink Gallery Investigations on Anti-biofouling Zwitterionic Coatings for MHK Is Now in Press Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Water Power Investigations on Anti-biofouling Zwitterionic Coatings for MHK Is Now in Press Sandia's Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Advanced Materials program has a new publication on the antifouling efficacy

  1. Circuit level modeling of inductive elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muyshondt, G.P.; Portnoy, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Design and analysis of spacecraft power systems have been difficult to perform because of the lack of circuit level models for nonlinear inductive elements. This paper reviews some of the models which have been proposed, their limitations, and applications. An improved saturation dependent model will be described. The model has been implemented in SPICE and with a commercial circuit program and demonstrated to be satisfactory in both implementations. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, T.C.; Beasley, E.G.

    1961-01-17

    A fuel element for neutronic reactors, particularly the gas-cooled type of reactor, is described. The element comprises a fuel-bearing plate rolled to form a cylinder having a spiral passageway passing from its periphery to its center. In operation a coolant is admitted to the passageway at the periphery of the element, is passed through the spiral passageway, and emerges into a central channel defined by the inner turn of the rolled plate. The advantage of the element is that the fully heated coolant (i.e., coolant emerging into the central channel) is separated and thus insulated from the periphery of the element, which may be in contact with a low-temperature moderator, by the intermediate turns of the spiral fuel element.

  3. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  4. Finite element modeling of lightning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, C.C.; Huang, S.R.; Bor, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the transmission line equation which describes the transient voltage and current distributions of a lightning stroke is employed. Finite element method is used to derive the element equations and one-dimensional linear elements are used to discretize the field region. The implicit Newmark time integration technique is used to convert the resulting second-order ordinary differential equations into a set of recurrence equations which are then solved at each time step. Numerical example is included and discussed.

  5. Element Labs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Labs Jump to: navigation, search Name: Element Labs Address: 3350 Scott Blvd Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95054 Region: Bay Area Sector: Efficiency Product: LED Producer...

  6. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  7. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  8. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  9. The Search for Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-17

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  11. Dynamic ray tracing and traveltime corrections for global seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian Yue Hung, S.-H.; Nolet, Guust; Montelli, Raffaella; Dahlen, F.A.

    2007-09-10

    We present a dynamic ray tracing program for a spherically symmetric Earth that may be used to compute Frechet kernels for traveltime and amplitude anomalies at finite frequency. The program works for arbitrarily defined phases and background models. The numerical precisions of kinematic and dynamic ray tracing are optimized to produce traveltime errors under 0.1 s, which is well below the data uncertainty in global seismology. This tolerance level is obtained for an integration step size of about 20 km for the most common seismic phases. We also give software to compute ellipticity, crustal and topographic corrections and attenuation.

  12. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be

  13. Method for removing trace pollutants from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1986-01-01

    A method of substantially removing a trace metallic contaminant from a liquid containing the same comprises, adding an oxidizing agent to a liquid containing a trace amount of a metallic contaminant of a concentration of up to about 10.sup.-1 ppm, the oxidizing agent being one which oxidizes the contaminant to form an oxidized product which is insoluble in the liquid and precipitates therefrom, and the conditions of the addition being selected to ensure that the precipitation of the oxidized product is homogeneous, and separating the homogeneously precipitated product from the liquid.

  14. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmorealong constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.less

  15. Method for detecting an element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2007-02-06

    A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.

  16. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  17. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  18. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 ..mu..g/g, 49 ..mu..g/g, and 272 ..mu..g/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel.

  19. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-07-01

    Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that corrodes battery materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a controlled trace-amount of water (25-100 ppm) can be an effective electrolyte additive for achieving dendrite-free Li metal deposition in LiPF6-based electrolytes and avoid its detrimental effect at the same time. Detailed analyses reveal that the trace amount of HF formed by the decomposition reaction of LiPF6 with water will be electrochemically reduced during initial Li deposition process to form a uniform and dense LiF-rich SEI layer on the surface of the substrate. This LiF-rich SEI layer leads to a uniform distribution of the electric field on the substrate surface and enables uniform and dendrite-free Li deposition. Meanwhile the detrimental effect of HF is diminished due to the consumption of HF in the LiF formation process. Microscopic analysis reveals that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films exhibit a self-aligned and highly-compacted Li nanorods structure which is consistent with their charming blue color or known as structure color. These findings clearly demonstrate a novel approach to control the nucleation and grow process of Li metal films using well-controlled trace-amount of water. They also shine the light on the effect of water on other electrodeposition processes.

  20. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

  1. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte ...

  2. Surface Cleaning Techniques: Ultra-Trace ICP-MS Sample Preparation and Assay of HDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2013-06-01

    The worlds most sensitive radiation detection and assay systems depend upon ultra-low background (ULB) materials to reduce unwanted radiological backgrounds. Herein, we evaluate methods to clean HDPE, a material of interest to ULB systems and the means to provide rapid assay of surface and bulk contamination. ULB level material and ultra-trace level detection of actinide elements is difficult to attain, due to the introduction of contamination from sample preparation equipment such as pipette tips, sample vials, forceps, etc. and airborne particulate. To date, literature available on the cleaning of such polymeric materials and equipment for ULB applications and ultra-trace analyses is limited. For these reasons, a study has been performed to identify an effective way to remove surface contamination from polymers in an effort to provide improved instrumental detection limits. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was utilized to assess the effectiveness of a variety of leachate solutions for removal of inorganic uranium and thorium surface contamination from polymers, specifically high density polyethylene (HDPE). HDPE leaching procedures were tested to optimize contaminant removal of thorium and uranium. Calibration curves for thorium and uranium ranged from 15 ppq (fg/mL) to 1 ppt (pg/mL). Detection limits were calculated at 6 ppq for uranium and 7 ppq for thorium. Results showed the most effective leaching reagent to be clean 6 M nitric acid for 72 hour exposures. Contamination levels for uranium and thorium found in the leachate solutions were significant for ultralow level radiation detection applications.

  3. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furenlid, L.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Stephani, D.; Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Beren, J. ); Cramer, S.P. . Dept. of Applied Science)

    1991-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500,000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since x-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 element Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10*10 matrix of 4mm * 4mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultra-high purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A to D converter, and histogramming memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entire instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection.

  4. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furenlid, L.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Stephani, D.; Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Beren, J.; Cramer, S.P.

    1991-12-31

    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500,000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since x-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 element Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10*10 matrix of 4mm * 4mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultra-high purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A to D converter, and histogramming memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entire instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection.

  5. Element Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Element Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Element Energy Ltd. Place: Cambridge, England, United Kingdom Zip: CB1 2JD Product: Cambridge-based strategic energy...

  6. Element Labs Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Labs Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Element Labs, Inc. Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95054 Product: Element Labs is a developer of LED video technology for...

  7. Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have...

  8. Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron

    2013-02-26

    Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.

  9. Fast stereoscopic images with ray-traced volume rendering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adelson, S.J.; Hansen, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    One of the drawbacks of standard volume rendering techniques is that is it often difficult to comprehend the three-dimensional structure of the volume from a single frame; this is especially true in cases where there is no solid surface. Generally, several frames must be generated and viewed sequentially, using motion parallax to relay depth. Another option is to generate a single spectroscopic pair, resulting in clear and unambiguous depth information in both static and moving images. Methods have been developed which take advantage of the coherence between the two halves of a stereo pair for polygon rendering and ray-tracing, generating the second half of the pair in significantly less time than that required to completely render a single image. This paper reports the results of implementing these techniques with parallel ray-traced volume rendering. In tests with different data types, the time savings is in the range of 70--80%.

  10. Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Gilman, Jessica; Warneke, Carsten; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Kuster, W. C.; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Jung, H.; Weise, David

    2013-01-07

    Vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected from five locations in the southeastern and southwestern U.S. and burned in a series of 77 fires at the U.S. Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS). 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC)) were identified and quantified with the above instruments. An additional 152 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species. As phase II of this study, we conducted airborne and ground-based sampling of the emissions from real prescribed fires mostly in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5) was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These extensive field measurements of emission factors (EF) for temperate biomass burning are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab/field EF ratio for the pine understory fuels was not statistically different from one, on average. However, our lab EF for smoldering compounds emitted by burning the semi-arid SW fuels should likely be increased by about a factor of 2.7 to better represent field fires. Based on the lab/field comparison, we present a table with emission factors for 365 pyrogenic species (including unidentified species) for 4 broad fuel types: pine understory, semi-arid shrublands, evergreen canopy, and duff. To our knowledge this is the most complete measurement of biomass burning emissions to date and it should enable improved representation of smoke in atmospheric models. The results provide important insights into the nature of smoke. For example, ~35% (range from 16-71%) of the mass of gas-phase NMOC species was attributed to the species that we could not identify. These unidentified species are likely not represented in most models, but some provision should be made for the fact that they will react in the atmosphere. In addition, the total mass of gas-phase NMOC divided by the mass of co-emitted PM2.5 averaged ~2.6 for the main fire types with a range from ~1.8-8.8. About 36-63% of the NMOC were likely semivolatile or of intermediate volatility. Thus, the gas-phase NMOC represent a large reservoir of potential precursors for secondary formation of organic aerosol. For the one fire in organic soil (Alaskan duff) about 28% of the emitted carbon was present as gas-phase NMOC in contrast to the other fuels for which NMOC accounted for only ~1-3% of emitted carbon. 71% of the mass of NMOC emitted by the smoldering duff was un-identified. The duff results highlight the need to learn more about the emissions from smoldering organic soils. The ?NMOC/NOx-as-NO ratio was consistently about ten for the main fire types when accounting for all NMOC, indicating strongly NOx-limited O3 production conditions. Finally, the fuel consumption per unit area was measured on 6 of the 14 prescribed fires and averaged 7.08 2.09 (1?) Mg ha-1.

  11. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO{sub 2}, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  12. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui (Yorktown, VA); Michelle D. Shinn (Newport News, VA)

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  13. Fast acting multiple element valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jefferson Y. S. (Orange, CA); Wada, James M. (Torrance, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of slide valve elements having plural axial-spaced annular parts and an internal slide are inserted into a bulkhead in a fluid conduit from a downstream side of the bulkhead, locked in place by a bayonet coupling and set screw, and project through the bulkhead into the upstream conduit. Pneumatic lines connecting the slide valve element actuator to pilot valves are brought out the throat of the valve element to the downstream side. Pilot valves are radially spaced around the exterior of the valve to permit the pneumatic lines to be made identical, thereby to minimize adverse timing tolerances in operation due to pressure variations. Ring manifolds surround the valve adjacent respective pilot valve arrangements to further reduce adverse timing tolerances due to pressure variations, the manifolds being directly connected to the respective pilot valves. Position sensors are provided the valve element slides to signal the precise time at which a slide reaches or passes through a particular point in its stroke to initiate a calibrated timing function.

  14. Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.

  15. The Transuranium Elements - Present Status: Nobel Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1951-12-12

    The discovery of the transuranium elements and the work done on them up to the present time are reviewed. The properties of these elements, their relationship to other elements, their place in the periodic table, and the possibility of production and identification of other transuranium elements are discussed briefly.

  16. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  17. Self supporting heat transfer element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Story, Grosvenor Cook (Livermore, CA); Baldonado, Ray Orico (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved internal heat exchange element arranged so as to traverse the inside diameter of a container vessel such that it makes good mechanical contact with the interior wall of that vessel. The mechanical element is fabricated from a material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity above about 0.8 W cm.sup.-1.degree. K.sup.-1 and is designed to function as a simple spring member when that member has been cooled to reduce its diameter to just below that of a cylindrical container or vessel into which it is placed and then allowed to warm to room temperature. A particularly important application of this invention is directed to a providing a simple compartmented storage container for accommodating a hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  18. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  19. Element of an inductive coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-08-15

    An element for an inductive coupler in a downhole component comprises magnetically conductive material, which is disposed in a recess in annular housing. The magnetically conductive material forms a generally circular trough. The circular trough comprises an outer generally U-shaped surface, an inner generally U-shaped surface, and two generally planar surfaces joining the inner and outer surfaces. The element further comprises pressure relief grooves in at least one of the surfaces of the circular trough. The pressure relief grooves may be scored lines. Preferably the pressure relief grooves are parallel to the magnetic field generated by the magnetically conductive material. The magnetically conductive material is selected from the group consisting of soft iron, ferrite, a nickel iron alloy, a silicon iron alloy, a cobalt iron alloy, and a mu-metal. Preferably, the annular housing is a metal ring.

  20. 2.10 Heavy Element Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 6/1/2011 2.10 Heavy Element Chemistry For more than 50 years, the Office of Science and predecessor agencies have supported the discovery and study of the actinide elements, in particular the transuranium elements-atoms that are heavier than uranium. Glenn Seaborg and Ed McMillan of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1951 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry for the discovery of plutonium and other actinide elements, began this quest. Today, the Heavy Element Chemistry program continues the

  1. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Christen (Alexandria, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  2. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  3. Analyzing health risks due to trace substance emissions from utility fossil-fired plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    EPRI has undertaken a number of project addressing a range of issues on the potential health effects due to long-term inhalation exposure to trace substances emitted from utility stacks. This report describes particular studies conducted to assess the health risks due to emissions from groups of power plants operated by individual utility companies. Researchers conducted specialized risk assessments for each of the power plants involved by incorporating utility-specific data into a modeling framework developed as part of EPRI`s Comprehensive Risk Evaluation (CORE) project to tailor the analysis for the individual utility. The results indicated the value of using more up-to-date, precise data in conducting risk assessments, rather than default assumptions. The report also describes CRAFT, the Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Toxics software package, developed to perform these utility-wide air toxics risk assessments.

  4. The Uranium Processing Facility Finite Element Meshing Discussion

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) Finite Element Meshing Discussion ...Need picture of Building... October 25, 2011 Department of Energy - Natural Phenomenon Hazard Workshop 1 Loring Wyllie Arne Halterman Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco Purpose of Presentation * Design vs. Analysis * Discuss the mesh criteria * Discuss the evolution of the mesh of the UPF main building model * Discuss how the mesh affects the analysis process October 25, 2011 2 Department of Energy - Natural Phenomenon Hazard

  5. Trace detection of analytes using portable raman systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alam, M. Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Martin, Laura E.; Jones, David Alexander

    2015-11-24

    Apparatuses and methods for in situ detection of a trace amount of an analyte are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the present disclosure provides a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) insert including a passageway therethrough, where the passageway has a SERS surface positioned therein. The SERS surface is configured to adsorb molecules of an analyte of interest. A concentrated sample is caused to flow over the SERS surface. The SERS insert is then provided to a portable Raman spectroscopy system, where it is analyzed for the analyte of interest.

  6. Method of monitoring stored nuclear fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borloo, E.; Buergers, W.; Crutzen, S.; Vinche, C.

    1983-05-24

    To monitor a nuclear fuel element or fuel elements located in a store, e.g. a pond in a swimming pool reactor, the store is illuminated ultrasonically using one or more transducers transmitting ultrasonic signals in one or more predetermined directions to obtain an output which, because it depends on the number and relative location of the fuel elements in the store, and the structure of the store itself is distinctive to the fuel elements or elements stored therein. From this distinctive output is derived an identity unique to the stored fuel element or elements and a reference signal indicative of the whole structure when intact, the reference signal and identity being recorded. Subsequent ultrasonic testing of the store and its contents under identical operating conditions produces a signal which is compared to the recorded reference signal and if different therefrom reveals the occurrence of tampering with the store and/or the fuel element or elements.

  7. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  8. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selle, J E

    1992-06-26

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented.

  9. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campana, Robert J. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  10. The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O.

    1948-01-00

    Several isotopes of the new element 95 have been produced and their radiations characterized. The chemical properties of this tripositive element are similar to those of the typical tripositive lanthanide rare-earth elements. Element 95 is different from the latter in the degree and rate of formation of certain compounds of the complex ion type, which makes possible the separation of element 95 from the lanthanide rare-earths. The name americium (after the Americas) and the symbol Am are suggested for the element on the basis of its position as the sixth member of the actinide rare-earth series, analogous to europium, Eu, of the lanthanide series.

  11. Shell model nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms contributing to double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, Mihai

    2013-12-30

    Recent progress in the shell model approach to the nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay process are presented. This includes nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms to neutrionless double beta decay, a comparison between closure and non-closure approximation for {sup 48}Ca, and an updated shell model analysis of nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe.

  12. Identification of Human Repetitive DNA Elements

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    PYTHIA identifies the subfamily membership of Alu sequences, occurrences of repetitive human DNA elements, and simple DNA sequences.

  13. Stacked switchable element and diode combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard M.; Wang, Qi

    2006-06-27

    A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14).

  14. Stacked Switchable Element and Diode Combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, H. M.; Wang, Q.

    2006-06-27

    A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14).

  15. Element One, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Element One, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 191524 likes Element One, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Element One's detection products will change the paradigm in the way hydrogen and other hazardous gas leaks are detected, achieving a new level of safety in existing industrial and emerging consumer environments. Element One has patented the only available coatings for the detection of hydrogen that change color reversibly or non-reversibly as desired to give both

  16. Uncertainties in nuclear transition matrix elements of neutrinoless ?? decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, P. K.

    2013-12-30

    To estimate the uncertainties associated with the nuclear transition matrix elements M{sup (K)} (K=0?/0N) for the 0{sup +} ? 0{sup +} transitions of electron and positron emitting modes of the neutrinoless ?? decay, a statistical analysis has been performed by calculating sets of eight (twelve) different nuclear transition matrix elements M{sup (K)} in the PHFB model by employing four different parameterizations of a Hamiltonian with pairing plus multipolar effective two-body interaction and two (three) different parameterizations of Jastrow short range correlations. The averages in conjunction with their standard deviations provide an estimate of the uncertainties associated the nuclear transition matrix elements M{sup (K)} calculated within the PHFB model, the maximum of which turn out to be 13% and 19% owing to the exchange of light and heavy Majorana neutrinos, respectively.

  17. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  18. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  19. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented.

  1. ''Magic'' Energies for Detecting Light Elements with Resonant Alpha Particle Backscattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetteland, C.J.; Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; He, X-M.; Lee, D-H.

    1998-11-04

    Resonant backscattering is widely used to improve the detection limit of the light elements such as B, C, N and O. One disadvantage, however, is that several incident energies are normally needed if the sample contains a number of the light elements. There are ''magic'' energies at which several light elements can be detected simultaneously with suitable sensitivities. When these energies are used along with the elastic recoil detection of hydrogen, multiple elements can be detected without changing the beam energy, and the analysis time is greatly reduced. These reactions along with examples will be discussed.

  2. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  3. Characterisation of graphite using boron as a marker element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamble, Granthali S.; Pandey, Shailaja; Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Venkatesh, K.; Kumar, Sangita D.; Kameswaran, R.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2013-06-12

    Graphite has many industrial applications. Two of the most important applications are as electrodes in industries and as moderator in nuclear industry. Determination of the Boron Equivalent of the impurity elements in graphite is the most important parameter for certifying the grade of graphite electrode [1]. The use of a suitable method with low limits of determination of boron is therefore necessary. A method has been standardised in Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC for determining trace amounts of boron in graphite electrodes. It involves controlled dissolution of graphite sample powder and measurement of boron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) using matrix matched standards. The method detection limit is 1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The method Relative Standard Deviation was 5%. The method was verified by spike recovery experiments. Recoveries were found to be within 100{+-}2% in the concentration range of 1 to 100 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The developed method has been adopted for the compositional characterization of several graphite electrode samples.

  4. The trace of the CNO cycle in the ring nebula NGC 6888

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesa-Delgado, A.; Esteban, C.; Garca-Rojas, J.; Reyes-Prez, J.; Morisset, C.; Bresolin, F.

    2014-04-20

    We present new results on the chemical composition of the Galactic ring nebula NGC 6888 surrounding the WN6(h) star WR136. The data are based on deep spectroscopical observations taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph at the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The spectra cover the optical range from 3700 to 7400 . The effect of the CNO cycle is well-identified in the abundances of He, N, and O, while elements not involved in the synthesis such as Ar, S, and Fe present values consistent with the solar vicinity and the ambient gas. The major achievement of this work is the first detection of the faint C II ?4267 recombination line in a Wolf-Rayet nebula. This allows us to estimate the C abundance in NGC 6888 and therefore investigate for the first time the trace of the CNO cycle in a ring nebula around a Wolf-Rayet star. Although the detection of the C II line has a low signal-to-noise ratio, the C abundance seems to be higher than the predictions of recent stellar evolution models of massive stars. The Ne abundance also shows a puzzling pattern with an abundance of about 0.5 dex lower than the solar vicinity, which may be related to the action of the NeNa cycle. Attending to the constraints imposed by the dynamical timescale and the He/H and N/O ratios of the nebula, the comparison with stellar evolution models indicates that the initial mass of the stellar progenitor of NGC 6888 is between 25 M {sub ?} and 40 M {sub ?}.

  5. Widget:HoverMultipleElements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the element with hovered state to be applied without being hovered targetclass - css class to apply to target element when trigger element is hovered Example...

  6. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Blackfoot Reservoir Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References Amy Hutsinpiller, W. T. Parry (1985) Geochemistry And Geothermometry Of Spring Water From The Blackfoot Reservoir Region, Southeastern Idaho Additional References...

  7. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    East Rift Zone known as Puna Ridge. The samples were analyzed by electron microscope and infrared spectroscopy. Volatile studies of previous dredged samples from the Puna Ridge...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lake City Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Chris Sladek, Greg B. Arehart, Walter R. Benoit (2004) Geochemistry Of The Lake City Geothermal System, California, Usa...

  9. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of two distinct waters in this group of samples (Tom Powell of Thermochem Inc., personal communication, 2005). Powell found that MDH, TRS-1 and TRS-6 are the most prospective...

  10. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCompound...

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  12. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Beowawe Hot Springs Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  18. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Mccredie Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two....

  4. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to other geothermal systems hosted within sedimentary rocks, suggesting that organic carbon and nitrogen in Paleozoic and Miocene strata were depleted during 13 million years...

  5. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to other geothermal systems hosted within sedimentary rocks, suggesting that organic carbon and nitrogen in Paleozoic and Miocene strata were depleted during 13 million years...

  6. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to other geothermal systems hosted within sedimentary rocks, suggesting that organic carbon and nitrogen in Paleozoic and Miocene strata were depleted during 13 million years...

  7. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to be related to characteristics of the fluid at Dixie Valley such as a relatively high pH and low concentrations of sulfate and chloride. References Scott A. Wood (2002) Behavior...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Springs Area (Goff,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1981) Geology, Water Geochemistry And Geothermal Potential Of The Jemez Springs Area, Canon De San Diego, New Mexico Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  9. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1981) Geology, Water Geochemistry And Geothermal Potential Of The Jemez Springs Area, Canon De San Diego, New Mexico Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  10. ZPPR FUEL ELEMENT THERMAL STRESS-STRAIN ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Jason Andrus; Chad Pope

    2014-04-01

    The design temperature of high plutonium concentration ZPPR fuel assemblies is 600 degrees C. Cladding integrity of the 304L stainless steel cladding is a significant concern with this fuel since even small holes can lead to substantial fuel degradation. Since the fuel has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than the cladding, an investigation of the stress induced in the cladding due to the differential thermal expansion of fuel and cladding up to the design temperature was conducted. Small holes in the cladding envelope would be expected to lead to the fuel hydriding and oxidizing into a powder over a long period of time. This is the same type of chemical reaction chain that exists in the degradion of the high uranium concentration ZPPR fuel. Unfortunately, the uranium fuel was designed with vents which allowed this degradation to occur. The Pu cladding is sealed so only fuel with damaged cladding would be subject to this damage. The thermal stresses that can be developed in the fuel cladding have been calculated in in this paper and compared to the ultimate tensile stress of the cladding. The conclusion is drawn that thermal stresses cannot induce holes in the cladding even for the highest storage temperatures predicted in calculations (292C). In fact, thermal stress can not cause cladding failure as long as the fuel temperatures are below the design limit of 600 degrees C (1,112 degrees F).

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown References B. M. Kennedy, M. A. Lynch, J. H. Reynolds, S. P. Smith (1985) Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview...

  12. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References B. M. Kennedy, J. H. Reynolds, S. P. Smith (1988) Noble Gas Geochemistry In Thermal Springs Additional References Retrieved from...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lake City Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    consists of a previously identified geothermal site that has been explored with both geophysics and drilling (Hedel, 1981), but has not been characterized adequately to allow...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Notes Our examination of Cerro Prieto gas analyses indicates that the geothermal system structure is changing with time. Gas data routinely measured in most geothermal...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Hurwitz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of climatic and hydrologic factors. References Shaul Hurwitz, Jacob B. Lowenstern, Henry Heasler (2007) Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of...

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from locations west and east of the plant revealed the presence of isobutane related to plant operations. The 13C values of diffuse CO2 range from - 5.7 to - 3.4, similar...

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Reese River Area (Henkle ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Notes Four formation water samples were collected from well 56-4, during an airlift test which took place between November 11 and November 14, 2007....

  18. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    published in 1976 (Mariner and Willey, 1976). Details of sampling practices and field treatment are detailed in the text. Water samples were passed through a 0.7x4 cm column...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and ICP emission for anions. The hottest sampled spring appears to match the location and temperature of the Borax Spring, first described in 1885, but reportedly inactive in 1981...

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    identification was also undertaken for selected samples using standard X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Since the VTTS fossil...

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    identifications were confirmed through examination of thin sections. X-ray powder diffraction was used to test the purity of some mineral separates. The chemical compositions of...

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2004...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    done by the CFS (crushfast-scan) method (Norman 1996) show that chips have a high density of homogeneous fluid inclusions. Analyses were averaged and plotted verses depth...

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valles caldera. Several authors have reported results from these core holes, including Goff et al. (1986, 1987), Gardner et al. (1987, 1989), Hulen & Nielson (1985), Hulen et al....

  4. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    material to write exploration activity summary. References Jamie N. Gardner, Fraser E. Goff, Sammy Garcia, Roland C. Hagan (1986) Stratigraphic Relations and Lithologic Variations...

  5. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    not controlled by mineral equilibrium. References Art F White, Nancy J Chuma, Fraser E. Goff (1992) Mass Transfer Constraints On The Chemical Evolution Of An Active Hydrothermal...

  6. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen isotope contents as a part of previous studies (Goff & Grigsby, 1982; Vuataz & Goff, 1986). The present study focuses on the interpretation...

  7. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    not controlled by mineral equilibrium. References Art F White, Nancy J Chuma, Fraser E. Goff (1992) Mass Transfer Constraints On The Chemical Evolution Of An Active Hydrothermal...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and hot springs in the Lassen area for comparison. Analytical methods are outlined in Goff and Janik (2002, p.305). References Cathy J. Janik, Marcia K. McLaren (2010) Seismicity...

  9. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analyzed for their hydrogen and oxygen isotope contents as a part of previous studies (Goff & Grigsby, 1982; Vuataz & Goff, 1986). The present study focuses on the interpretation...

  10. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Jemez Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1972 - 1974 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Frank W. Trainer (1974) Groundwater in the Southwestern Part of the Jemez Mountains Volcanic Region, New Mexico...

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of fluids sampled from the Sulphur Springs within the caldera and from several hotcold springs and drill holes along the Jemez fault zone were used to construct a preliminary...

  12. Analytical and Elemental Analysis of Air and Soil Samples Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish (Wilson), Twin Peak, Cudahy, Laverkin, Grantsville, Crystal Prison, Arrowhead, Red Hill, Monroe, Joseph, Castilla, Saratoga, Thermo, Crater, Wasatch, Beck, Deseret, Big...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    well is relatively low in total dissolved solids and shows little tendency for corrosion or scaling. The authors attempt to relate the changes in the liquid and gas...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lightning Dock Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Part of the Geothermal Resource Evaluation and Definition (GRED) Program administered by DOE-AAO under Cooperative...

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to explore. The results also continue to hold promise that such measurements may one day be a useful, routine tool for exploration for geothermal systems. However, additional...

  18. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of water in the wellbore, and identify magmatic gases present in the well fluids. Notes Water samples were collected from the pump discharge line at the surface during each flow...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1991...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    steam migration) to produce the observed natural state of the reservoir. References Williams, A. E.; Copp, J. F. (1 January 1991) Variations in dissolved gas compositions of...

  20. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Geysers Area (Kennedy & Truesdell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    adds new constraints to genetic models of the system and its evolution. The high proportion of magmatic gas and high total NCG in HTR steam are inconsistent with an origin of...

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid Mixing and Chemical Geothermometry Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Determination of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in SRC-II process development Unit P-99 gas streams. [Impure hydrogen in recycle gas and low pressure gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.; Galli, R.D.; McCracken, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A knowledge of the identity and concentration of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in the various gas streams of the SRC-II Coal Liquefaction Process is needed in order to design the recycle gas purification and low pressure gas processing systems in large-scale plants. This report discusses the results of an experimental study to identify and quantify trace compounds in the various high and low pressure gas streams of SRC-II Process Development Unit P-99. A capillary column trace hydrocarbon analysis has been developed which can quantify 41 hydrocarbons from methane to xylenes in SRC-II gas streams. With more work a number of other hydrocarbons could be quantified. A fixed gas analysis was also developed which can be integrated with the hydrocarbon analysis to yield a complete stream analysis. A gas chromatographic procedure using a flame photometric detector was developed for trace sulfur compounds, and six sulfur compounds were identified and quantified. A chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ down to 10 ppB in concentration. A gas chromatographic procedure using an electron capture detector was developed for HCN analysis down to 5 ppM. Drager tube analyses gave semiquantitative data on HCl and NH/sub 3/ content of the gas streams.

  3. Element One, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    191524 likes Element One, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Element One's detection products will change the paradigm in the way hydrogen and other hazardous gas leaks are detected, achieving a new level of safety in existing industrial and emerging consumer environments. Element One has patented the only available coatings for the detection of hydrogen that change color reversibly or non-reversibly as desired to give both current and historical information about leaked hydrogen. In

  4. William Fowler and Elements in the Stars

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    William Fowler and Elements in the Stars Resources with Additional Information William A. Fowler Courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives 'William A. Fowler ... shared the 1983 Nobel Prize in physics for his research into the creation of chemical elements inside stars ... . During his career in nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics, which spanned more that 60 years, Fowler was primarily concerned with studies of fusion reactions--how the nuclei of lighter chemical elements fuse to create

  5. Two position optical element actuator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

  6. Nature Elements Holding AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holding AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nature Elements Holding AG Place: Baar, Switzerland Zip: CH-6340 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Swiss developer of renewable energy...

  7. Nature Elements Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nature Elements Capital Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100125 Product: Beijing-based private equity firm investing in...

  8. Elemental Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Elemental Energy develops, owns and operates distributed solar energy facilities and sells solar-generated electricity through Power Purchase Agreements...

  9. Low exchange element for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brogli, Rudolf H. (Aarau, CH); Shamasunder, Bangalore I. (Encinitas, CA); Seth, Shivaji S. (Encinitas, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A flow exchange element is presented which lowers temperature gradients in fuel elements and reduces maximum local temperature within high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The flow exchange element is inserted within a column of fuel elements where it serves to redirect coolant flow. Coolant which has been flowing in a hotter region of the column is redirected to a cooler region, and coolant which has been flowing in the cooler region of the column is redirected to the hotter region. The safety, efficiency, and longevity of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor is thereby enhanced.

  10. Bi-stable optical element actuator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a bistable optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to move an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, between two stable positions. A non-powered means holds the actuation arm in either of the two stable positions. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm between the two stable positions.

  11. US-Japan rare elements meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    US-Japan rare elements meeting US-Japan rare elements meeting US-Japan rare earth elements meeting PDF icon US-Japan rare elements meeting More Documents & Publications Microsoft...

  12. The New Element Curium (Atomic Number 96)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G. T.; James, R. A.; Ghiorso, A.

    1948-00-00

    Two isotopes of the element with atomic number 96 have been produced by the helium-ion bombardment of plutonium. The name curium, symbol Cm, is proposed for element 96. The chemical experiments indicate that the most stable oxidation state of curium is the III state.

  13. Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

    2014-04-15

    Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

  14. Precise rare earth analysis of geological materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Wogman, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are very informative in revealing chemical fractionation processs in geological systems. The REE's (La-Lu) behavior is characteristic of various primary and secondary minerals which comprise a rock. The REE's contents and their patterns provide a strong fingerprint in distinguishing among various rock types and in understanding the partial melting and/or fractional crystallization of the source region. The REE contents in geological materials are usually at trace levels. To measure all the REE at such levels, radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been used with a REE group separation scheme. To maximize detection sensitivites for individual REE, selective ..gamma..-ray/x-ray measurements have been made using normal Ge(Li) and low-energy photon detectors (LEPD), and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) coincidence-noncoincidence spectrometer systems. Using these detection methods an individual REE can be measured at or below the ppB levels; chemical yields of the REE are determined by reactivation.

  15. How individual traces and interactive timelines could support outage execution - Toward an outage historian concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parfouru, S.; De-Beler, N.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of a project that is designing innovative ICT-based solutions for the organizational concept of outage management, we focus on the informational process of the OCR (Outage Control Room) underlying the execution of the outages. Informational process are based on structured and unstructured documents that have a key role in the collaborative processes and management of the outage. We especially track the structured and unstructured documents, electronically or not, from creation to sharing. Our analysis allows us to consider that the individual traces produced by an individual participant with a specific role could be multi-purpose and support sharing between participants without creating duplication of work. The ultimate goal is to be able to generate an outage historian, that is not just focused on highly structured information, which could be useful to improve the continuity of information between participants. We study the implementation of this approach through web technologies and social media tools to address this issue. We also investigate the issue of data access through interactive visualization timelines coupled with other modality's to assist users in the navigation and exploration of the proposed historian. (authors)

  16. Flow injection trace gas analysis method for on-site determination of organoarsenicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldstadt, J.H. III

    1997-06-24

    A method is described for real-time determination of the concentration of Lewisite in the ambient atmosphere, the method includes separating and collecting a Lewisite sample from the atmosphere in a collection chamber, converting the collected Lewisite to an arsenite ion solution sample, pumping the arsenite ion containing sample to an electrochemical detector connected to the collection chamber, and electrochemically detecting the converted arsenite ions in the sample, whereby the concentration of arsenite ions detected is proportional to the concentration of Lewisite in the atmosphere. 2 figs.

  17. Flow injection trace gas analysis method for on-site determination of organoarsenicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldstadt, III, Joseph H. (Orland Park, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for real-time determination of the concentration of Lewisite in the ambient atmosphere, the method includes separating and collecting a Lewisite sample from the atmosphere in a collection chamber, converting the collected Lewisite to an arsenite ion solution sample, pumping the arsenite ion containing sample to an electrochemical detector connected to the collection chamber, and electrochemically detecting the converted arsenite ions in the sample, whereby the concentration of arsenite ions detected is proportional to the concentration of Lewisite in the atmosphere.

  18. Elemental Modes of Occurrence in an Illinois #6 Coal and Fractions Prepared by Physical Separation Techniques at a Coal Preparation Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.; Seidu, L; Shah, N; Huffman, G; Honaker, R; Kyger, J; Higgins, B; Robertson, J; Pal, S; Seehra, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois No.6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({approx} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser amounts associated with illite and a third form yet to be conclusively identified. The non-sulfide zinc forms are removed predominantly by the first stage of separation (rotary breaker), whereas the sphalerite is removed by the second stage (heavy media). Germanium is the only trace element determined to have a predominantly organic association.

  19. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.4 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  20. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.8

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.8 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  1. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.7

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.7 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  2. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.6

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.6 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  3. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.5

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.5 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  4. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.9

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.9 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  5. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.1.2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.1.2 meets Internal Revenue Code 179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  6. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.1.1.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.1.1.0 meets Internal Revenue Code 179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  7. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.1.0.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.1.0.0 meets Internal Revenue Code 179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  8. Analysis of LOCA Scenarios in the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, J. S.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D.

    2015-08-30

    An analysis has been done of hypothetical loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCAs) in the research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The purpose of the analysis is to determine if the peak clad temperature remains below the Safety Limit, which is the blister temperature for the fuel. The configuration of the NBSR considered in the analysis is that projected for the future when changes will be made so that shutdown pumps do not operate when a LOCA signal is detected. The analysis was done for the present core with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and with the proposed low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel that would be used when the NBSR is converted from one to the other. The analysis consists of two parts. The first examines how the water would drain from the primary system following a break and the possibility for the loss of coolant from within the fuel element flow channels. This work is performed using the TRACE system thermal-hydraulic code. The second looks at the fuel clad temperature as a function of time given that the water may have drained from many of the flow channels and the water in the vessel is in a quasi-equilibrium state. The temperature behavior is investigated using the three-dimensional heat conduction code HEATING7.3. The results in all scenarios considered for both HEU and LEU fuel show that the peak clad temperature remains below the blister temperature.

  9. Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility The calculation for the optics of the synchrotron radiation small and

  10. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Compact Stellarator Experiment (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a three-field period compact stellarator presently in the construction phase at

  11. Element choices for explicit and implicit nonlinear finite-element computation. ISPRA courses on structural dynamics - lecture notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    The confrontation of the finite element technology with the awesome number crunching required for the nonlinear problem has forced a new assessment. The finite element community discovered that for impact, wave propagation and even slower impulsively driven dynamic problems, the finite difference hydrocodes were much more efficient, albeit requiring contorted mesh topologies to model practical geometries and fifty thousand time steps to follow a quasi-static process or reach static equilibrium. The experience of engineering analysis at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has straddled both worlds, and the intent of this lecture is to review choices in the context of the two and three dimensional implicit and explicit Lagrangian codes developed in our Methods Development Group. The explicit DYNA2D and DYNA3D and implicit NIKE2D and NIKE3D of Hallquist form the focus of this discussion.

  12. Pressurization of whole element canister during staging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.F.

    1998-01-27

    An analytical model was developed to estimate the buildup of gas pressure for a single outer element in a hot cell test container for a post cold vacuum drying staging/storage test. This model considers various sources of gas generation and gas consumption as a function of time. In a canister containing spent nuclear fuel, hydrogen is generated from the reactions of uranium with free water or hydrated water, hydride decomposition, and radiolysis. The canister pressurization model predicts a stable pressure and a peak temperature during staging, with an assumption that a fuel element contains 40 gm of corrosion products and a decay heat of 2.07 or 1.06 Watts. Calculations were also performed on constant temperature tests for fuel elements containing varied amounts of sludge tested at 150, 125, 105, and 85 C. The pressurization model will be used to evaluate test results obtained from post-drying testing on whole fuel elements.

  13. Magnetic bearing element with adjustable stiffness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    A compact magnetic bearing element is provided which is made of permanent magnet discs configured to be capable of the adjustment of the bearing stiffness and levitation force over a wide range.

  14. Ion processing element with composite media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nick R. (Blackfoot, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Sebesta, Ferdinand (Prague, CZ)

    2003-02-04

    An ion processing element employing composite media disposed in a porous substrate, for facilitating removal of selected chemical species from a fluid stream. The ion processing element includes a porous fibrous glass substrate impregnated by composite media having one or more active components supported by a matrix material of polyacrylonitrile. The active components are effective in removing, by various mechanisms, one or more constituents from a fluid stream passing through the ion processing element. Due to the porosity and large surface area of both the composite medium and the substrate in which it is disposed, a high degree of contact is achieved between the active component and the fluid stream being processed. Further, the porosity of the matrix material and the substrate facilitates use of the ion processing element in high volume applications where it is desired to effectively process a high volume flows.

  15. Method and apparatus for staking optical elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Robert O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus for staking two optical elements together in order to retain their alignment is disclosed. The apparatus includes a removable adaptor made up of first and second adaptor bodies each having a lateral slot in their front and side faces. The adaptor also includes a system for releasably attaching each adaptor body to a respective optical element such that when the two optical elements are positioned relative to one another the adaptor bodies are adjacent and the lateral slots therein are aligned to form key slots. The adaptor includes keys which are adapted to fit into the key slots. A curable filler material is employed to retain the keys in the key slots and thereby join the first and second adaptor bodies to form the adaptor. Also disclosed is a method for staking together two optical elements employing the adaptor of the present invention.

  16. Ion processing element with composite media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nick R. (Blackfoot, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Sebesta, Ferdinand (Prague, CZ)

    2009-03-24

    An ion processing element employing composite media disposed in a porous substrate, for facilitating removal of selected chemical species from a fluid stream. The ion processing element includes a porous fibrous glass substrate impregnated by composite media having one or more active components supported by a matrix material of polyacrylonitrile. The active components are effective in removing, by various mechanisms, one or more constituents from a fluid stream passing through the ion processing element. Due to the porosity and large surface area of both the composite medium and the substrate in which it is disposed, a high degree of contact is achieved between the active component and the fluid stream being processed. Further, the porosity of the matrix material and the substrate facilitates use of the ion processing element in high volume applications where it is desired to effectively process a high volume flows.

  17. Quadrilateral/hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Scott, Michael A; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    A technique for coarsening a finite element mesh ("FEM") is described. This technique includes identifying a coarsening region within the FEM to be coarsened. Perimeter chords running along perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region are identified. The perimeter chords are redirected to create an adaptive chord separating the coarsening region from a remainder of the FEM. The adaptive chord runs through mesh elements residing along the perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region. The adaptive chord is then extracted to coarsen the FEM.

  18. Poole-frenkel piezoconductive element and sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habermehl, Scott D.

    2004-08-03

    A new class of highly sensitive piezoconductive strain sensor elements and sensors has been invented. The new elements function under conditions such that electrical conductivity is dominated by Poole-Frenkel transport. A substantial piezoconductive effect appears in this regime, allowing the new sensors to exhibit sensitivity to applied strain as much as two orders of magnitude in excess of prior art sensors based on doped silicon.

  19. Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

    2009-07-07

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  20. The Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Economics of Photovoltaic Systems | Department of Energy Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems The Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to better understand the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of

  1. Efficient large-scale finite-element computations in a CRAY environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.; Bailey, R.A.; Hallquist, J.O.; Murray, R.C.; Sackett, S.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory engineering computational experience on the CRAY-1 is highlighted in the context of our large general purpose solid and structural mechanics codes. DYNA2D and DYNA3D are explicit large deformation inelastic Lagrangian codes with one point elements and hourglass control. NIKE2D and NIKE3D are implicit codes of comparable continuum formulation but use two point constant pressure elements and an optimized linear equation solver. NIKE3D has a finite rotation plastic resultant shell element. The new general purpose linear elastic structures code GEMINI is also illustrated for large static and eigenvalue analysis. 19 references.

  2. Dual fiber microprobe for mapping elemental distributions in biological cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Rodger C [Powell, TN; Martin, Madhavi Z [Powell, TN

    2007-07-31

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied on a microscale for in situ elemental analysis and spatial mapping in biological cells. A high power laser beam is focused onto a cell surface using a dual branching optical fiber probe for optical excitation of the cell constituents. Dual spectrometers and ICCD detectors capture the emission spectra from the excited cell(s). Repeated probing or repositioning of the laser beam with respect to the cell can provide 2-D or 3-D mapping of the cell.

  3. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

  4. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and hydrogen selenide sorbents. The noncarbon sorbent was able to reduce the concentration to 0 ppb from a starting concentration of 120 ppb. This compares to the target value of 5 ppb (~17?g/m3). The EERC-prepared metal-based pellet and coprecipitate sorbents exhibited arsine reductions of 90% or greater, being below 10 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited brief periods (<1 hour) of attaining 90% arsine reduction but were able to achieve greater than 80% reduction for several hours. With respect to hydrogen selenide, all Group IB and IIB metal-based sorbents tested exhibited 100% reduction from an inlet concentration of approximately 400 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited an 82% reduction when two monoliths were tested simultaneously in series.

  5. Pulsed Neurton Elemental On-Line Material Analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vourvopoulos, George (Bowling Green, KY)

    2002-08-20

    An on-line material analyzer which utilizes pulsed neutron generation in order to determine the composition of material flowing through the apparatus. The on-line elemental material analyzer is based on a pulsed neutron generator. The elements in the material interact with the fast and thermal neutrons produced from the pulsed generator. Spectra of gamma-rays produced from fast neutrons interacting with elements of the material are analyzed and stored separately from spectra produced from thermal neutron reactions. Measurements of neutron activation takes place separately from the above reactions and at a distance from the neutron generator. A primary passageway allows the material to flow through at a constant rate of speed and operators to provide data corresponding to fast and thermal neutron reactions. A secondary passageway meters the material to allow for neutron activation analysis. The apparatus also has the capability to determine the density of the flowed material. Finally, the apparatus continually utilizes a neutron detector in order to normalize the yield of the gamma ray detectors and thereby automatically calibrates and adjusts the spectra data for fluctuations in neutron generation.

  6. Stacked switchable element and diode combination with a low breakdown switchable element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi (Littleton, CO); Ward, James Scott (Englewood, CO); Hu, Jian (Englewood, CO); Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-06-19

    A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship. The semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a low-density forming current and/or a low voltage.

  7. Logic elements for reactor period meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.

    1976-01-01

    Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.

  8. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  9. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described.

  10. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  11. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed.

  12. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1993-10-26

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described. 21 figures.

  13. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Discusses progress...

  14. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics Authors: Brodsky, Stanley J. ;...

  15. GNEP Element:Develop Advanced Burner Reactors | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Develop Advanced Burner Reactors GNEP Element:Develop Advanced Burner Reactors An article describing burner reactors and the role in GNEP. PDF icon GNEP Element:Develop Advanced...

  16. OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements for Federal Employee Occupational Safety and Health Programs and Related Matters; 29 CFR 1960 OSHA Rulemaking on Basic Program Elements...

  17. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2013-11-02

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  18. Element Agglomeration Algebraic Multigrid and Upscaling Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-02-11

    ELAG is a serial C++ library for numerical upscaling of finite element discretizations. It provides optimal complexity algorithms to build multilevel hierarchies and solvers that can be used for solving a wide class of partial differential equation (elliptic, hyperbolic, saddle point problems) on general unstructured mesh. Additionally, a novel multilevel solver for saddle point problems with divergence constraint is implemented.

  19. Trace fossils of Marnoso-Arenacea Formation (Miocene), northern Italy: preliminary data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, E.F.; Picard, M.D.

    1988-02-01

    Many horizons in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation contain rare to abundant trace fossils at numerous localities. Slope, fan, and basin-plain deposits have trace fossils dominated by the Nereites ichnofacies but include taxa from the Zoophycos ichnofacies plus Ohphiomorpha and Thalassinoides. Slope deposits contain Chondrites, Cosmorhaphe, Desmograpton, Helminthoida, Neonereites, Paleodictyon, Pelecypodichnus, Planolites, Punctorhaphe, and Scolicia; fan-channel deposits contain Chondrites and Planolites; fan-lobe deposits contain Chondrites, Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides, Scolicia, and Zoophycos; and basin-plain deposits contain Chondrites, Helminthoida, Planolites, and Zoophycos. The distribution of hypichnial taxa may be in part the result of selective preservation (i.e., dependent on the depth of erosion by turbidity currents).

  20. Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a hierarchical data structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Boulos, Solomon; Shirley, Peter

    2012-09-04

    Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. In this example embodiment, the hierarchical data structure includes at least a parent node and a corresponding plurality of child nodes. The method includes a first act of determining that a first active ray in the packet hits the parent node and a second act of descending to each of the plurality of child nodes.

  1. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additive (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that

  2. Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalinin, Sergei V. [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M. [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P. [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20

    A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of single-layer graphene resonators using atomic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    finite element method (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Sensitivity analysis of single-layer graphene resonators using atomic finite element method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sensitivity analysis of single-layer graphene resonators using atomic finite element method Atomic finite element simulation is applied to study the natural frequency and sensitivity of a single-layer graphene-based resonator with CCCC, SSSS, CFCF, SFSF,

  4. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D.; Sulchek, Todd A.; Feigin, Stuart C.

    2012-07-10

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  5. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2014-04-29

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  6. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  7. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D.; Sulchek, Todd A.; Feigin, Stuart C.

    2010-04-06

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  8. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Terry R.; Ackerman, John P.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Fischer, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

  9. GNEP Element:Demonstrate More Proliferation-Resistant Recycling |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy GNEP Element:Demonstrate More Proliferation-Resistant Recycling GNEP Element:Demonstrate More Proliferation-Resistant Recycling An article describing GNEP element of recycling. PDF icon GNEP Element:Demonstrate More Proliferation-Resistant Recycling More Documents & Publications GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Demonstrate

  10. An Energy Conservative Ray-Tracing Method With a Time Interpolation of the Force Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Jin

    2015-02-10

    A new algorithm that constructs a continuous force field interpolated in time is proposed for resolving existing difficulties in numerical methods for ray-tracing. This new method has improved accuracy, but with the same degree of algebraic complexity compared to Kaisers method.

  11. conformal decomposition finite-element method

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conformal decomposition finite-element method - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  12. Oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA); Fullam, Harold T. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A process for oxidizing hydrogen halides having substantially no sulfur impurities by means of a catalytically active molten salt is disclosed. A mixture of the subject hydrogen halide and an oxygen bearing gas is contacted with a molten salt containing an oxidizing catalyst and alkali metal normal sulfates and pyrosulfates to produce an effluent gas stream rich in the elemental halogen and substantially free of sulfur oxide gases.

  13. ExodusII Finite Element Data Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-05-14

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface. (exodus II is based on netcdf)

  14. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  15. ASC Program Elements | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Program Elements | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  16. Exploration of R2XM2 (R=Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, rare earth; X=main group element; M=transition metal, Si, Ge): Structural Motifs, the novel Compound Gd2AlGe2 and Analysis of the U3Si2 and Zr3Al2 Structure Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean William McWhorter

    2006-05-01

    In the process of exploring and understanding the influence of crystal structure on the system of compounds with the composition Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} several new compounds were synthesized with different crystal structures, but similar structural features. In Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}, the main feature of interest is the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), which allows the material to be useful in magnetic refrigeration applications. The MCE is based on the magnetic interactions of the Gd atoms in the crystal structure, which varies with x (the amount of Si in the compound). The crystal structure of Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} can be thought of as being formed from two 3{sup 2}434 nets of Gd atoms, with additional Gd atoms in the cubic voids and Si/Ge atoms in the trigonal prismatic voids. Attempts were made to substitute nonmagnetic atoms for magnetic Gd using In, Mg and Al. Gd{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}InGe{sub 2} both possess the same 3{sup 2}434 nets of Gd atoms as Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}, but these nets are connected differently, forming the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} crystal structure. A search of the literature revealed that compounds with the composition R{sub 2}XM{sub 2} (R=Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, rare earth; X=main group element; M=transition metal, Si, Ge) crystallize in one of four crystal structures: the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}, Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}, Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2} and W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2} crystal structures. These crystal structures are described, and the relationships between them are highlighted. Gd{sub 2}AlGe{sub 2} forms an entirely new crystal structure, and the details of its synthesis and characterization are given. Electronic structure calculations are performed to understand the nature of bonding in this compound and how electrons can be accounted for. A series of electronic structure calculations were performed on models with the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2} structures, using Zr and A1 as the building blocks. The starting point for these models was the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} structure, and models were created to simulate the transition from the idealized U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} structure to the distorted Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2} structure. Analysis of the band structures of the models has shown that the transition from the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} structure to the Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2} structure lifts degeneracies along the {Lambda} {yields} Z direction, indicating a Peierls-type mechanism for the displacement occurring in the positions of the Zr atoms.

  17. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  18. Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-18

    Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on themoreproblem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.less

  19. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  20. Foreword [Special Issue on Superheavy Elements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Düllmann, Christoph E.; Herzberg, Rolf -Dietmar; Nazarewicz, Witold; Oganessian, Yuri

    2015-12-07

    Reflecting the breadth of research opportunities in the field of superheavy element research, this special issue covers the range of topics in a comprehensive way, including synthesis of superheavy isotopes, nuclear structure, atomic shell structure, and chemical properties. The contributions detail the status of the field and lay out perspectives for the future. The prospects are bright: new isotopes are awaiting discovery, completing the landscape of superheavy nuclei and bridging the currently existing gap between nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions and those from 48Ca induced fusion reactions. The possibility that the limits of nuclear structure studies can be pushedmore » even further in mass and charge has greatly motivated a number of new facilities. Advances in experimental techniques will allow studies on isotopes produced significantly below the 1 pb level. Chemical studies progressing to elements never studied to date are already being prepared. Ultra-fast chemistry setups are under development and it will be fascinating to see them at work, elucidating the influence of relativistic effects on superheavy elements. The richness of chemical systems available for transactinides will expand further, giving access to new chemical systems, giving more information on the architecture of the periodic table.« less

  1. Foreword [Special Issue on Superheavy Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Düllmann, Christoph E.; Herzberg, Rolf -Dietmar; Nazarewicz, Witold; Oganessian, Yuri

    2015-12-07

    Reflecting the breadth of research opportunities in the field of superheavy element research, this special issue covers the range of topics in a comprehensive way, including synthesis of superheavy isotopes, nuclear structure, atomic shell structure, and chemical properties. The contributions detail the status of the field and lay out perspectives for the future. The prospects are bright: new isotopes are awaiting discovery, completing the landscape of superheavy nuclei and bridging the currently existing gap between nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions and those from 48Ca induced fusion reactions. The possibility that the limits of nuclear structure studies can be pushed even further in mass and charge has greatly motivated a number of new facilities. Advances in experimental techniques will allow studies on isotopes produced significantly below the 1 pb level. Chemical studies progressing to elements never studied to date are already being prepared. Ultra-fast chemistry setups are under development and it will be fascinating to see them at work, elucidating the influence of relativistic effects on superheavy elements. The richness of chemical systems available for transactinides will expand further, giving access to new chemical systems, giving more information on the architecture of the periodic table.

  2. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  3. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heubeck, N.B.

    1998-09-08

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

  4. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  5. Simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Volker; Preissner, Curt A; Hla, Saw-Wai; Wang, Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    A method and system for performing simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast analysis in a scanning, tunneling microscope. The method and system also includes nanofabricated coaxial multilayer tips with a nanoscale conducting apex and a programmable in-situ nanomanipulator to fabricate these tips and also to rotate tips controllably.

  6. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  7. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  8. Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad; Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd

    2015-05-15

    Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.

  9. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K.

    2009-07-01

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  11. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  12. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  13. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sease, John D [ORNL

    2010-02-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  14. Heat Exchanger With Internal Pin Elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerstmann, Joseph (Framingham, MA); Hannon, Charles L. (Arlington, MA)

    2004-01-13

    A heat exchanger/heater comprising a tubular member having a fluid inlet end, a fluid outlet end and plurality of pins secured to the interior wall of the tube. Various embodiments additionally comprise a blocking member disposed concentrically inside the pins, such as a core plug or a baffle array. Also disclosed is a vapor generator employing an internally pinned tube, and a fluid-heater/heat-exchanger utilizing an outer jacket tube and fluid-side baffle elements, as well as methods for heating a fluid using an internally pinned tube.

  15. Eddy current measurement of tube element spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latham, Wayne Meredith (Forest, VA); Hancock, Jimmy Wade (Lynchburg, VA); Grut, Jayne Marie (Madison Heights, VA)

    1998-01-01

    A method of electromagnetically measuring the distance between adjacent tube elements in a heat exchanger. A cylindrical, high magnetic permeability ferrite slug is placed in the tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. A bobbin or annular coil type probe operated in the absolute mode is inserted into a second tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. From prior calibrations on the response of the eddy current coil, the signals from the coil, when sensing the presence of the ferrite slug, are used to determine the spacing between the tubes.

  16. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  17. 2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-10-30

    AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less

  18. Electrical connection structure for a superconductor element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lallouet, Nicolas; Maguire, James

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical connection structure for a superconductor element cooled by a cryogenic fluid and connected to an electrical bushing, which bushing passes successively through an enclosure at an intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and the temperature of the cryogenic fluid, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, said bushing projecting outside the ambient temperature enclosure. According to the invention, said intermediate enclosure is filled at least in part with a solid material of low thermal conductivity, such as a polyurethane foam or a cellular glass foam. The invention is applicable to connecting a superconductor cable at cryogenic temperature to a device for equipment at ambient temperature.

  19. Finite Element Heat & Mass Transfer Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-10-10

    FEHM is a numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes. It models 3-D, time-dependent, multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal, reactive flow through porous and fractured media. It can accurately represent complex 3-D geologic media and structures and their effects on subsurface flow and transport. Its capabilities include flow of gas, water, and heat; flow of air, water, and heat; multiple chemically reactive and sorbing tracers; finite element/finite volume formulation; coupled stress module; saturated and unsaturated media; andmoredouble porosity and double porosity/double permeability capabilities.less

  20. Finite Element Heat & Mass Transfer Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-10-10

    FEHM is a numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes. It models 3-D, time-dependent, multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal, reactive flow through porous and fractured media. It can accurately represent complex 3-D geologic media and structures and their effects on subsurface flow and transport. Its capabilities include flow of gas, water, and heat; flow of air, water, and heat; multiple chemically reactive and sorbing tracers; finite element/finite volume formulation; coupled stress module; saturated and unsaturated media; andmore » double porosity and double porosity/double permeability capabilities.« less