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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from a population of treated utility wood poles and crossarms as obtained by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). An ancillary objective was to carefully document a subsampling method in preparing wood samples for tests by the TCLP. Data obtained in this study indicate that PCP-treated utility wood poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of PCP and other organic compounds subject to TCLP analysis were an order of magnitude or more below TC limits in 47 samples of wood derived from three different sections of 13 utility wood poles and from 9 crossarms. Wedge shaped subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of PCP. 4 refs., 3 figs., 10 tab.

Horn, M.E. (Environmental Management Services, Waupaca, WI (USA)); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of cresols (i.e., m-, o- and p-cresol isomers) from a population of creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms by application of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March 1990 (55FR 11798). Data generated in this study indicate that creosote-treated utility poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of total cresols and other semi-volatile organic compounds, from wood subjected to TCLP analysis, were an order of magnitude or more below their current Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory levels. The wood analyzed in this study consisted of 54 samples of wood poles and 6 crossarms. Subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and the resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of cresols and other semi-volatile compounds.

Horn, M.E. (Environmental Management Services, Waupaca, WI (United States)); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected glass compositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level radioactive waste is scheduled to begin in late 1995. The vitrification operation will take place at the SRS Defense waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The US Department of Energy has instituted specifications which provide technical criteria which must be met by the DWPF to ensure that the waste glass will be suitable for permanent disposal in a federal geologic repository. Included in these criteria is a specification requiring DWPF to determine whether its high level, radioactive waste glass should also be classified as characteristically hazardous waste. A study was performed, using the anticipated range of glass compositions which will be produced over the lifetime of the DWPF, which definitively proved that DWPF waste glass should not be classified as characteristic hazardous waste.

Applewhite-Ramsey, A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests leaching tests. The wood preservatives included chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quaternary, copper boron azole, copper citrate, and copper dimeth- yldithiocarbamate. An unpreserved wood sample

Florida, University of

5

Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic {beta}-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability.

Chen, Ying-Liang [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Ko, Ming-Sheng [Institute of Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chunghsiao E. Rd., Taipei City 10608, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Chieh [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Chung-Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chang, Juu-En, E-mail: juuen@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya , Thabet copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

Florida, University of

7

Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, and Environmental Research Center (ERC)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. [Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

PEP Support: Laboratory Scale Leaching and Permeate Stability Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents results from a variety of activities requested by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The activities related to caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, permeate precipitation behavior of waste as well as chromium (Cr) leaching are: • Model Input Boehmite Leaching Tests • Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Support Leaching Tests • PEP Parallel Leaching Tests • Precipitation Study Results • Cr Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Tests. Leaching test activities using the PEP simulant provided input to a boehmite dissolution model and determined the effect of temperature on mass loss during caustic leaching, the reaction rate constant for the boehmite dissolution, and the effect of aeration in enhancing the chromium dissolution during caustic leaching. Other tests were performed in parallel with the PEP tests to support the development of scaling factors for caustic and oxidative leaching. Another study determined if precipitate formed in the wash solution after the caustic leach in the PEP. Finally, the leaching characteristics of different chromium compounds under different conditions were examined to determine the best one to use in further testing.

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

11

Leaching of elements from bottom ash, economizer fly ash, and fly ash from two coal-fired power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To assess how elements leach from several types of coal combustion products (CCPs) and to better understand possible risks from CCP use or disposal, coal ashes were sampled from two bituminous-coal-fired power plants. One plant located in Ohio burns high-sulfur (about 3.9%) Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal from the Monongahela Group of the Central Appalachian Basin; the other in New Mexico burns low-sulfur (about 0.76%) Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation coal from the San Juan Basin, Colorado Plateau. The sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the Ohio plant were bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA); the sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the New Mexico plant were BA, mixed FA/EFA, FA, and cyclone-separated coarse and fine fractions of a FA/EFA and FA blend. Subsamples of each ash were leached using the long-term leaching (60-day duration) component of the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP) or the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP, 18-hour duration). These ashes were all alkaline. Leachate concentrations and leachabilities of the elements from the \\{CCPs\\} were similar between corresponding CCP types (BA, EFA, and FA) from each plant. The leachabilities of most elements were lowest in BA (least leachable) and increased from EFA to FA (most leachable). Ca and Sr were leached more from EFA than from either BA or FA. Leachability of most elements also increased as FA particle size decreased, possibly due in part to increasing specific surface areas. Several oxyanion-forming elements (As, Mo, Se, U, and V) leached more under SGLP than under TCLP; the opposite was true for most other elements analyzed.

Kevin B. Jones; Leslie F. Ruppert; Sharon M. Swanson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Copper Toxicity in the San Francisco Bay-Delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reducing the toxicity of copper that continues to leach fromothers to characterize copper bioaccumulation from distinctreview of total dissolved copper and its chemical speciation

Buck, Kristen N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Accelerated leach test development program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In FY 1989, a draft accelerated leach test for solidified waste was written. Combined test conditions that accelerate leaching were validated through experimental and modeling efforts. A computer program was developed that calculates test results and models leaching mechanisms. This program allows the user to determine if diffusion controls leaching and, if this is the case, to make projections of releases. Leaching mechanisms other than diffusion (diffusion plus source term partitioning and solubility limited leaching) are included in the program is indicators of other processes that may control leaching. Leach test data are presented and modeling results are discussed for laboratory scale waste forms composed of portland cement containing sodium sulfate salt, portland cement containing incinerator ash, and vinyl ester-styrene containing sodium sulfate. 16 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

COMPARISON OF LEACHING RESULTS FOR  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EFFECTS OF pH, ORP, AND CONDUCTIVITY ON EFFECTS OF pH, ORP, AND CONDUCTIVITY ON LEACHING OF TRACE METALS FROM FLY ASH George Kazonich U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Environmental Science Division P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 ABSTRACT Leaching of metals from coal utilization by-products (CUB) is being studied to assess the potential for environmental damage. Samples contained in fixed-bed columns were leached with five lixiviants. The lixiviants simulated environmental liquids and varied from acidic to alkaline (pH 1 to pH 11). The leachates were analyzed for major and trace metals. Trace metals that formed cations were leached by acidic lixiviants although, in most cases, the total amount leached was small. The concentrations of metals were low initially, increased rapidly

15

The energy transition Gerald Leach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interest to energy supply forecasting, both history experience, have proved to be effective or for biomassThe energy transition Gerald Leach The paper considers the substitution of tradition- these restrictions, they are of great importance to al biomass fuels by modern energy sources in the consumer welfare

Kammen, Daniel M.

16

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leached stopper components found in parenteral solutions produced by several manufacturers were identified and quantitated. Their toxicity potential was determined by comparing the types and quantities of the leached components with known toxicity levels and/or harmful effects. Toxicity potentials for benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, cyclohexanone, ethylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene are listed. Breakdown products of dextrose (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), which may also have harmful effects, were quantitated.

Danielson, J.W. (Sterility Analysis Research Center, Food and Drug Administration, Minneapolis, MI (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Leaching of CUB Using a CSTX  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Leaching of CUB Using a CSTX Leaching of CUB Using a CSTX Candace Kairies, Carol Cardone, and Karl Schroeder U.S. Dept. of Energy, NETL, PO Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 KEYWORDS: extraction, mercury, fly ash, fluidized bed combustion, flue gas desulfurization Abstract Leaching studies of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) are often performed to determine the compatibility of the material in a particular end-use or disposal environment. Typically, these studies are conducted using either a batch or a fixed-bed column technique. The fixed-bed column offers the advantage of a continuous flow of effluent that provides elution profiles with changing elution volume and pH. Unfortunately, clogs can form in fixed-bed leaching columns, either because of cementitious properties of the

19

Leaching of Irradiated Candu UO2 Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An assessment of the concept to dispose of spent, irradiated nuclear fuel in an underground repository requires information on the rates of radionuclide leaching from the fuel matrix and of fuel matrix dissolu...

T. T. Vandergraaf; L. H. Johnson…

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Determining the leaching characteristics of solidified/stabilized wastes using constant pH leaching tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into a landfill. Presently, the S/S process is mostly cement-based (Coibitt, 1990; U. S. EPA 1989). Various additives are typically added to lower the operation cost while main- taining the required performance. Fly-ash, bentonite, and silica fumes... degradation, and are vulnerable to long-term decay. For inorganic wastes, cement or pozzolanic binders? such as Portland cement, fly-ash, kiln-dust, lime, silicate, and a combination of these materials - are the common choices. They are inexpensive, readily...

Sofjan, Indratjahja

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Leaching of FGD Byproducts Using a CSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leaching studies of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) are often performed to determine the compatibility of the material in a particular end-use or disposal environment. Typically, these studies are conducted using either a batch or a fixed-bed column technique. Fixed-bed columns offer the advantage of a continuous flow of effluent that provides elution profiles with changing elution volume and pH. Unfortunately, clogs can form in fixed-bed leaching columns, either because of cementitious properties of the material itself, such as is seen for fluidized bed combustion (FBC) fly ash, or because of precipitate formation, such as can occur when a high-calcium ash is subjected to sulfate-containing leachates. Also, very fine-grained materials, such as gypsum, do not provide sufficient permeability for study in a fixed-bed column. A continuous, stirred-tank extractor (CSTX) is being used as an alternative technique that can provide the elution profile of column leaching but without the low permeability problems. The CSTX has been successfully employed in the leaching of flue gas desulfurization products that would not be sufficiently permeable under traditional column leaching conditions. The results indicate that the leaching behavior depends on a number of factors, including (but not limited to) solubility and neutralization capacity of the mineral phases present, sorption properties of these phases, behavior of the solubilized material in the tank, and the type of species in solution. In addition, leaching to near-exhaustion of a wallboard produced from FGD gypsum has allowed the isolation of a highly adsorptive phase. This phase appears to be present in at least some FGD gypsums and accounts for the immobilization of trace metals such as arsenic, cobalt, lead, and mercury.

Kairies, C.L.; Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

23

Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox© assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 ºC) than the OKEB biochar (450 ºC). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

24

Nutrient leaching characteristics of vegetation common to Texas reservoir sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Surinam (5), LH, thin 3 to 4 weeks after filling, there was zero DO below 3 to 4 meters and a serious hydro- gen sulfide problem in the deeper parts of the lake. It was stated that the low pH and anaerobic condit1ons prob- ably prevented the decay...

Weldon, Clark Pierce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

25

ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

26

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Leaching Chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaching chambers distribute treated wastewater into the soil. This publication lists the advantages and disadvantages of leaching chamber systems, explains how to maintain them and gives estimates of costs....

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2000-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

27

Leaching of boron from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leaching of boron from coal ash ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ...

James A. Cox; Gary L. Lundquist; Andrzej Przyjazny; C. David Schmulbach

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Release of Inorganic Constituents from Leached Biomass during Thermal Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Release of Inorganic Constituents from Leached Biomass during Thermal Conversion ... This suggests that while leaching reduces fuel nitrogen, it may also affect the nitrogen combustion chemistry in that a larger fraction of the fuel-bound nitrogen was converted to NO(g) during combustion of the leached samples compared to the unleached samples. ... Six biomasses with different chemical compositions ... ...

D. C. Dayton; B. M. Jenkins; S. Q. Turn; R. R. Bakker; R. B. Williams; D. Belle-Oudry; L. M. Hill

1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

29

Boston University Gramm-Leach-Bliley Safeguarding Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boston University Gramm-Leach-Bliley Safeguarding Program May 2003 Statement of Purpose The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act requires that the University implement a Safeguarding Program to (1) insure the security-Leach-Bliley Act covers the securing and safeguarding of data. Its requirements are additional to those

Xia, Yu "Brandon"

30

Metal Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems posed to plants by metal toxicity in the soils of the world are basically of two kinds. The first kind are of natural origin. These arise either as a consequence of the nature of the parent material f...

T. McNeilly

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

NETL: IEP - Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization The goal of the proposed effort is to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements on the management of CCBs. Supporting objectives are to 1) determine the release potential of selected air toxic elements, including mercury and arsenic, from CCBs under specific environmental conditions; 2) increase the database of information on mercury and other air toxic element releases for CCBs; 3) develop comparative laboratory and field data; and 4) develop appropriate laboratory and field protocols. The specific mechanisms of air toxic element releases to be evaluated will be leaching releases, vapor releases to the atmosphere, and biologically induced leaching and vapor releases.

32

Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Leaching of cadmium from pigmented plastics in a landfill site  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leaching of cadmium from pigmented plastics in a landfill site ... Plastics ending up in soil or landfill environment will eventually be degraded. ...

David C. Wilson; Peter J. Young; Brinley C. Hudson; Grant. Baldwin

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

LEACHING OF SLAG FROM STEEL RECYCLING: RADIONUCLIDES AND STABLE ELEMENTS. DATA REPORT, JAN.15, 1997, REVISED SEPT.9, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Of primary importance to this study are releases of radionuclides from slags. However, releases of other constituents also provide valuable information on releases of elements that may be toxic (e.g. Cr) or that may be used as analogs for radionuclides (e.g. K for Cs). In addition, leaching of bulk constituents from the slag gives information on weathering rates of the bulk material that can be used to estimate releases of non-leachable elements. Consequently, we have examined leaching of: radionuclides from those sloags that contain them; bulk elemental constituents of the slags; anionic constituents; trace elements, through spot checks of concentrations in leachates. Analysis by ICP of elemental constituents in leachates from radioactive samples was limited to those leachate samples that contained no detectable radionuclides, to avoid contamination of the ICP. In this data report we present leaching results for five slags that were produced by recycling steel. Two of the slags were generated at facilities that treat radioactively contaminated scrap, consequently the slag contains radionuclides. The slag from the other three was not contaminated. Because of this, we were able to examine the chemical composition of the slag and of the leachate generated during tests of these slags. For these materials we believe that leach rates of the stable elements can be used as analogs for radionuclides if the same steel processing method were used for radioactive material.

FUHRMANN,M.SCHOONEN,M.

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Toxic Substances from Coal Combustion - Forms of Occurrence Analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a cooperative agreement with DOE (Contract No. DE- AC22- 95101), the USGS has participated with Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI) in a project entitled "Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion -A Comprehensive Assessment". Samples from the Pittsburgh, Elkhorn/ Hazard, Illinois No. 6, and Wyodak program coals were examined to determine the mode of occurrence of selected trace elements (As, Se, Cr, Hg, and Ni) using selective leaching, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and X- ray diffraction techniques. Among other findings, our results indicate that the bulk of the arsenic in the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals is in pyrite. High percentages (60- 80%) of arsenic were leached by nitric acid, and microprobe data confirm the presence of arsenic in pyrite in each of these coals (concentrations ranging from <0.01 to 0.09 wt.% of the pyrite grains). In the Elkhorn/ Hazard coal, arsenic may have several modes of occurrences. About 30 percent of the arsenic in the Elkhorn/ Hazard coal was leached by hydrochloric acid, possibly indicating the presence of arsenates that were formed by the oxidation of pyrite. About 25 percent of the arsenic in the Elkhorn/ Hazard coal was leached by nitric acid, suggesting an association with pyrite. Only sixty percent of the total arsenic in the Elkhorn/ Hazard coal was leached. The low percentage of leachable arsenic may be accounted for by unleached pyrite grains, which were detected in solid residues from the nitric acid leach. In the Wyodak coal, arsenic probably occurs in iron oxides or carbonates (35 % arsenic leached by HCl) and clays (15% arsenic leached by HF). Arsenic in the Wyodak coal may also have an organic association, as indicated by low totals for leaching (50% unleached arsenic). In the four program coals 20 to 45 percent of the chromium was leached by hydrofluoric acid, suggesting an association with silicates (probably illite). Microprobe analysis of the Pittsburgh, Elkhorn/ Hazard, and Illinois No. 6 coals confirmed the presence of chromium in illite and possibly in other clays, at concentrations that are near the detection limits. Results related to the forms of occurrence of the other trace elements (Se, Hg, and Ni) are varied; further work in Phase II is planned to determine their mode of occurrence.

Allan Kolker; Curtis A. Palmer; Harvey E. Belkin; Jason Willet; Kathleen C. Kolb; Robert B. Finkelman; Sharon S. Crowley; Stanley J. Mroczkowski

1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

36

Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water Szilvia April 2009 Available online 21 May 2009 Keywords: Antimony Water Leaching Polyethylene terephthalate SODIS The Sb leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) package material into 10 different brands

Short, Daniel

37

Technology Offer Heterogeneous Leaching Free Pd-Catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technology Offer Heterogeneous Leaching Free Pd-Catalyst For further information please contact) of the carrier particles and the catalyst Potential Fields of Application Production of substituted biphenyls-coupling reactions Overview The present invention relates to non-leaching Pd-catalysts for C-C, C-O or C-N couplings

38

COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

HARRINGTON SJ

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

39

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid leaching present Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acid produced by the decay fungi plays during leaching... acids. The soluble heavy metal complex can then be leached from the wood. Thus, both the remediated wood... between...

40

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash leaching methods Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 18 Leaching of Dioxins from Municipal Waste Combustor Residues Summary: Leaching of DioxinsFurans from...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effects of various uranium leaching procedures on soil: Short-term vegetation growth and physiology. Progress report, April 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant volumes of soil containing elevated levels of uranium exist in the eastern United States. The contamination resulted from the development of the nuclear industry in the United States requiring a large variety of uranium products. The contaminated soil poses a collection and disposal problem of a magnitude that justifies the development of decontamination methods. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program to address the problem. The fundamental goal of the USID task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than what can be done using current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics and without generating waste that is difficult to manage and/or dispose of. However, procedures developed for removing uranium from contaminated soil have involved harsh chemical treatments that affect the physicochemical properties of the soil. The questions are (1) are the changes in soil properties severe enough to destroy the soil`s capacity to support and sustain vegetation growth and survival? and (2) what amendments might be made to the leached soil to return it to a reasonable vegetation production capacity? This study examines the vegetation-support capacity of soil that had been chemically leached to remove uranium. The approach is to conduct short-term germination and phytotoxicity tests for evaluating soils after they are subjected to various leaching procedures followed by longer term pot studies on successfully leached soils that show the greatest capacity to support plant growth. This report details the results from germination and short-term phytotoxicity testing of soils that underwent a variety of leaching procedures at the bench scale at ORNL and at the pilot plant at Fernald.

Edwards, N.T.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

PEP Support Laboratory Leaching and Permeate Stability Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A and B, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic.

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine ({sup 125}I), carbon ({sup 14}C), technetium ({sup 99}Tc), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), strontium ({sup 85}Sr), americium ({sup 241}Am), and plutonium ({sup 238}Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested.

Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Legore, V.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions. Volume 1, Batch leach and adsorption tests and sediment characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units.

Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Conca, J.L. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Wood, M.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Leach Hot Springs Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Leach Hot Springs Geothermal Project Leach Hot Springs Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Leach Hot Springs Geothermal Project Project Location Information Coordinates 40.603888888889°, -117.64805555556° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.603888888889,"lon":-117.64805555556,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

47

Sodium sulfide leaching of low-grade jamesonite concentrate in production of sodium pyroantimoniate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sodium sulfide leaching of a low-grade jamesonite concentrate in the production of sodium pyroantimoniate through the air oxidation process and the influencing factors on the leaching rate of antimony were...

Tian-zu Yang PhD; Ming-xi Jiang…

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-pollution-control residues leaching...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

leaching Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air-pollution-control residues leaching Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Solid Residues from...

49

A comparison of three learning methods to predict N2O fluxes and N leaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leaching; the first indicator is a powerful greenhouse gas and the second one is an important source

Boyer, Edmond

50

Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank S-110 Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Hanford Tank S-110 sludge caustic leaching test conducted in FY 2001 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The data presented here can be used to develop the baseline and alternative flowsheets for pretreating Hanford tank sludge. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the work through the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP; EM?50).

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carson, Katharine J.; Darnell, Lori P.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoopes, Francis V.; Sell, Richard L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, John J.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Original article Nutrient leaching from soil amended with apple waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Nutrient leaching from soil amended with apple waste Anne-Marie de COCKBORNE December 2000) Abstract ­ Among the possibilities for disposing of overproduction of apple, land application is flexible and inexpensive. Six soil columns receiving 0, 200 or 500 Mg of apple wasteha­1 were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

LEACHING OF TITANIUM FROM MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND MODIFIED MST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of a fouled coalescer and pre-filters from Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) operations showed evidence of Ti containing solids. Based on these results a series of tests were planned to examine the extent of Ti leaching from monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) in various solutions. The solutions tested included a series of salt solutions with varying free hydroxide concentrations, two sodium hydroxide concentrations, 9 wt % and 15 wt %, nitric and oxalic acid solutions. Overall, the amount of Ti leached from the MST and mMST was much greater in the acid solutions compared to the sodium hydroxide or salt solutions, which is consistent with the expected trend. The leaching data also showed that increasing hydroxide concentration, whether pure NaOH solution used for filter cleaning in ARP or the waste salt solution, increased the amount of Ti leached from both the MST and mMST. For the respective nominal contact times with the MST solids - for filter cleaning or the normal filter operation, the dissolved Ti concentrations are comparable suggesting either cause may contribute to the increased Ti fouling on the MCU coalescers. Tests showed that Ti containing solids could be precipitated from solution after the addition of scrub acid and a decrease in temperature similar to expected in MCU operations. FTIR analysis of these solids showed some similarity to the solids observed on the fouled coalescer and pre-filters. Although only a cursory study, this information suggests that the practice of increasing free hydroxide in feed solutions to MCU as a mitigation to aluminosilicate formation may be offset by the impact of formation of Ti solids in the overall process. Additional consideration of this finding from MCU and SWPF operation is warranted.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. (Carbohydrate Nutrition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, MD (United States))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(92) (92) Distribution Category UC-950 Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 April 1994 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepared this publication under the general direction of W. Calvin Kilgore, Director of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use (202-586-1617). The project was directed by Lynda T. Carlson, Director of the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division (EEUISD) (202-586-1112) and Nancy L. Leach, Chief

55

E-Print Network 3.0 - artemia salina leach Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean Summary: 1906) (North, Central and South America) are endemic to the New World. The bisexual A. salina Leach... dellArtemia...

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid leach solutions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acid produced by the decay fungi plays during leaching... acids. The soluble heavy metal complex can then be ... Source: Miha, Humar - Biotehnike fakultete, University of...

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammoniacal leaching media Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and the contamination of groundwater via leaching. While organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins) might be a concern, heavy... and acceptable risk. The potential risk of ground water...

58

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous phase leaching Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and the contamination of groundwater via leaching. While organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins) might be a concern, heavy... and acceptable risk. The potential risk of ground water...

59

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

order rate constants for americium leaching from sludgeT.V. Hydrolysis of Americium(III). J Radioanal. Nucl.I.G. Hydroxides of Pentavalent Americium. Translated from

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Nanoparticle toxicity testing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanoparticle toxicity testing Nanoparticle toxicity testing 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Nanoparticle toxicity testing Assessing the potential health hazards of nanotechnology March 25, 2013 Robot In the search for more accurate and efficient techniques to evaluate the health hazards of nanoparticles, Los Alamos researchers are developing artificial human tissues and organs to replace animal test subjects. A new approach to toxicity testing under development at Los Alamos uses artificial tissue and artificial organs instead of animal testing Manufactured nanoparticles such as buckyballs and carbon nanotubes, used in products ranging from sunscreens to solar panels, are proliferating so quickly that safety testing for potential health hazards-similar to those

62

Natural Toxicants in Foods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of exploring the potential naturally occurring toxic hazards of food plants is not to suggest an irrational avoidance of these common foods. However, it is important to identify, define, and invest...

Ross C. Beier; Herbert N. Nigg

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Leaching induced concentration profiles in the solid phase of cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of the solid phase of portland cement specimens by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry before and after leaching provided elemental profiles within the cement. Releases of potassium were calculated from the solid phase profiles and were compared to releases determined from leachate analyses of potassium and cesium-137. The fraction of potassium released in the leachate was found to correlate closely to that of cesium-137 under varying time and temperature conditions, despite the different manner in which each was originally contained in the cement. Agreement was obtained among potassium releases as determined from the solid, potassium in the leachate and cesium-137 in the leachate. These correlations allowed the use of potassium as an analog for cesium-137 in cement. Profiles of potassium in the solid showed varying degrees of depletion. A specimen, sectioned immediately after leaching for 471 days, showed complete removal of potassium to 9 mm depth from the specimens surface. From 9 mm to the center of the specimen, an apparently linear increase in concentration was observed. Specimens that had been air dried prior to sectioning had profiles that were produced by evaporative transport of dissolved species toward the surface. Carbonation of the surface appears to have retarded migration of the dissolved material. This prevented it from reaching the outer edge and resulted in increased potassium concentrations several mm inside the surface. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material...

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.”(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

67

Modelling and simulations of the chemo-mechanical behaviour of leached cement-based materials: Interactions between damage and leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The assessment of the durability of cement-based materials, which could be employed in underground structures for nuclear waste disposal, requires accounting for deterioration factors, such as chemical attacks and damage, and for the interactions between these phenomena. The objective of the present paper consists in investigating the long-term behaviour of cementitious materials by simulating their response to chemical and mechanical solicitations. In a companion paper (Stora et al., submitted to Cem. Concr. Res. 2008), the implementation of a multi-scale homogenization model into an integration platform has allowed for evaluating the evolution of the mineral composition, diffusive and elastic properties inside a concrete material subjected to leaching. To complete this previous work, an orthotropic micromechanical damage model is presently developed and incorporated in this numerical platform to estimate the mechanical and diffusive properties of damaged cement-based materials. Simulations of the chemo-mechanical behaviour of leached cementitious materials are performed with the tool thus obtained and compared with available experiments. The numerical results are insightful about the interactions between damage and chemical deteriorations.

Stora, E., E-mail: stora@univ-mlv.f [Atomic Energy Commission, CEA Saclay DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME/Laboratoire d'Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multiechelle, FRE3160 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France); Bary, B. [Atomic Energy Commission, CEA Saclay DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME/Laboratoire d'Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); He, Q.-C. [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multiechelle, FRE3160 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France); Deville, E.; Montarnal, P. [CEA Saclay DEN/DANS/DM2S/SFME/MTMS, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH the stabilization of petroleum- contaminated soils (PCSs) using another recycled material, high carbon content fly; however, the level of petroleum contamination has a significant effect on the leaching properties

Aydilek, Ahmet

69

Title of the article MODELLING OF METAL POLLUTANT LEACHING THROUGH A SMECTITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as heavy metals, in soil constitutes a potential source of groundwater pollution. In the literature, some1 Title of the article MODELLING OF METAL POLLUTANT LEACHING THROUGH A SMECTITE Authors Chantal as the clay CEC. Keywords Leaching; metals; clay; copper; kinetic; modelling; CEC insu-00665250,version1-9May

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

1 Introduction In many soils of the tropics the nutrient losses by leaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

without fertilization, nutrient leaching can be very high especially after slash-and-burn interventions vertically from the soil surface or laterally from a soil pit. Cumulative leaching of NO3 ± and NH4. Therefore, a lateral installation of medium sized resin cores (100 mm diameter) from a soil pit was superior

Lehmann, Johannes

71

Convergence of a MFEFV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convergence of a MFE­FV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores in porous media, with applications to heap leaching of copper ores. These approximations are based on mixed

Sepúlveda, Mauricio

72

The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Influence of mechanoactivation on rare earths leaching from phosphogypsum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of mechanoactivation on the overall solubility of CaSO4 · 2H2O and of phosphogypsum in water and in diluted acids (10% HCl, 7% H2SO4) as well as on the leaching of rare earths from phosphogypsum have been studied. The mechanoactivation is performed in a centrifugal ball mill in air and in suspension with the acids mentioned above. Part of the experimental results are qualitatively explained considering the partial dehydration of the CaSO4 · 2H2O during the activation in air as well as considering the crystal structure disrupted by mechanoactivation. A dissolved fraction, considerably enriched in rare earths (compared to the initial phosphogypsum) is obtained as a result of H2SO4 treatment of the samples activated in water solution.

D. Todorovsky; A. Terziev; M. Milanova

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to dissolve solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct steam injection to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

75

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

76

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act, revised significantly in 2006, seeks to mitigate the use of toxic substances and the production of toxic byproducts through reporting requirements as well as resource conservation plans...

77

Toxic Pollution Prevention Act (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the purpose of this Act to reduce the disposal and release of toxic substances which may have adverse and serious health and environmental effects, to promote toxic pollution prevention as...

78

Effects of Lifestyle and Toxicants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A vast number of toxic chemicals encountered at the work place, in the environment or related to lifestyle have the potential to impair male reproductive health. The list of known male reproductive toxicants i...

J. P. Bonde

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

SIMS and RBS analysis of leached glass: Reliability of RSF method for SIMS quantification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reliability of the relative sensitivity factor (RSF) approach for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) quantification of the leached layers on glass ... investigated by measuring comparable samples of glass...

A. A. Salem; G. Stingeder; M. Grasserbauer…

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Long-term corrosion and leaching of depleted uranium (DU) in soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Corrosion and leaching of depleted uranium (DU) was investigated for 3 years...238U was determined in the effluents by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, 235U was measured occasionally to ...

W. Schimmack; U. Gerstmann; W. Schultz; G. Geipel

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Leaching of depleted uranium in soil as determined by column experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basic features of the leachability of depleted uranium (DU) projectiles in soil was investigated...235U and 238U were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The leaching rates of 238U fro...

W. Schimmack; U. Gerstmann; U. Oeh; W. Schultz…

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua ...

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

85

Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3} leaching of the W-25 sludge.

Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Flowsheet for shear/leach processing of N Reactor fuel at PUREX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document was originally prepared to support the restart of the PUREX plant using a new Shear/Leach head end process. However, the PUREX facility was shutdown and processing of the remaining N Reactor fuel is no longer considered an alternative for fuel disposition. This document is being issued for reference only to document the activities which were investigated to incorporate the shear/leach process in the PUREX plant.

Enghusen, M.B.

1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

87

Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

A mathematical model to predict leaching of hazardous inorganic wastes from solidified/stabilized waste forms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT LEACHING OF HAZARDOUS INORGANIC WASTES FROM SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED WASTE FORMS A Thesis by KRISHAN SABHARWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment...A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT LEACHING OF HAZARDOUS INORGANIC WASTES FROM SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED WASTE FORMS A Thesis by KRISHAN SABHARWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment...

Sabharwal, Krishan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Supplement to Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems in Irrigated Pecan Production: Salt Leaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES TR-387A 2010 Supplement to Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems in Irrigated Pecan Production: Salt Leaching By: S. Miyamoto Professor and Soil Scientist, Texas A... TWRI TR-287-A July 2010 Supplement to Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems in Irrigated Pecan Production: Salt Leaching S. Miyamoto Professor and Soil Scientist Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at El Paso (s...

Miyamoto, S.

90

Leach tests of simulated low-level transuranic waste forms containing transuranic elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulations of waste forms that could be produced by slagging pyrolysis incineration of low-level transuranic (TRU) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been fabricated containing the transuranic isotopes /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and /sup 244/Cm at levels of approximately 1 ..mu..Ci/g of each. Leach tests were performed on frit; concrete monoliths made with frit and Portland cement; and vitrified monoliths of average INEL TRU waste, INEL soil, and simulated Rocky Flats plant sludge. Static leach tests were performed at 90, 70, 40, and 25/sup 0/C in deionized water for up to 364 days. Leachates were analyzed for the TRU elements by alpha spectrometry. From the leaching results the following generalizations can be made: (1) cemented frit and vitrified sludge waste forms produce leachates with the highest pHs (> 11) and have the lowest TRU leach rates, 10/sup -4/ g/m/sup 2/ d at 90/sup 0/C; (2) neptunium has a higher leach rate than the other three TRU elements by as much as two orders of magnitude for all waste forms tested except cemented frit; and (3) only the vitrified soil samples display a marked temperature dependence for leach rates of all four TRU elements.

Welch, J.M.; Sill, C.W.; Flinn, J.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

92

Surface studies of coal, oil, and coal-oil-mixture ash using auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by the combustion of coal, oil, and a coal-oil mixture have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques. The Auger data indicate that the surface concentration of the metal ions Na, Fe, Mg, Ni, V, and Al as well as S and C increases on going from coal to coal-oil mixture and oil ash. The relative surface enrichments of oil and coal-oil-mixture ash are consistent with a simple model of the ash-formation process, and the results confirm that several toxic metals are significantly enriched on the surface of the ash particles. The Auger data are compared to HCl and tris buffer leachate composition analyses, and in neither case does the leachate give an accurate representation of the surface composition. HCl apparently dissolves large oxide deposits and thus overestimates the surface concentrations of Fe, Al, and V. Conversely, several metallic ions are essentially insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, so their surface concentration is underestimated by the tris leachate.

Stinespring, C.D.; Harris, W.R.; Cook, J.M.; Casleton, K.H.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Leach tests of simulated low-level transuranic waste forms containing transuranic elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulations of waste forms that might be produced by slagging pyrolysis incineration of low-level transuranic (TRU) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been fabricated containing the transuranic isotopes /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 244/Cm at levels of approximately 1 ..mu..Ci per gram of each. Leach tests were performed using frit and vitrified monolithic specimens of average INEL TRU waste, portland cement monoliths made with frit as aggregate, and vitrified monoliths of INEL soil and simulated Rocky Flats sludge. Static leach tests were performed at 90, 70, 40, and 25/sup 0/C in deionized water for up to 364 days. Leachates were analyzed for the TRU elements by alpha spectrometry. The following generalizations can be made: (1) Cemented frit and vitrified sludge waste forms produce leachates with the highest pHs (>11) and have the lowest TRU leach rates, 10/sup -4/ g/m/sup 2/.d at 90/sup 0/C. (2) Neptunium has a higher leach rate than the other three TRU elements by as much as two orders of magnitude for all waste forms tested except cemented frit. (3) Only the vitrified soil samples display a marked temperature dependence for leach rates of all four TRU elements.

Welch, J.M.; Sill, C.W.; Flinn, J.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review is presented as a common foundation for scientists interested in nanoparticles their origin activity and biological toxicity. It is written with the goal of rationalizing and informing public health concerns related to this sometimes-strange new science of “nano ” while raising awareness of nanomaterials’ toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to tiny particles via dust storms volcanic ash and other natural processes and that our bodily systems are well adapted to protect us from these potentially harmful intruders. The reticuloendothelial system in particular actively neutralizes and eliminates foreign matter in the body including viruses and nonbiological particles. Particles originating from human activities have existed for millennia e.g. smoke from combustion and lint from garments but the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation has profoundly increased anthropogenic particulate pollution. Significantly technological advancement has also changed the character of particulate pollution increasing the proportion of nanometer-sized particles-“nanoparticles”-and expanding the variety of chemical compositions. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between particulate air pollution levels respiratory and cardiovascular diseases various cancers and mortality. Adverse effects of nanoparticles on human health depend on individual factors such as genetics and existing disease as well as exposure and nanoparticle chemistry size shape agglomeration state and electromagnetic properties. Animal and human studies show that inhaled nanoparticles are less efficiently removed than larger particles by the macrophage clearance mechanisms in the lungs causing lung damage and that nanoparticles can translocate through the circulatory lymphatic and nervous systems to many tissues and organs including the brain. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size smaller than cells and cellular organelles allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures disrupting their normal function. Examples of toxic effects include tissue inflammation and altered cellular redox balance toward oxidation causing abnormal function or cell death. The manipulation of matter at the scale of atoms “nanotechnology ” is creating many new materials with characteristics not always easily predicted from current knowledge. Within the nearly limitless diversity of these materials some happen to be toxic to biological systems others are relatively benign while others confer health benefits. Some of these materials have desirable characteristics for industrial applications as nanostructured materials often exhibit beneficial properties from UV absorbance in sunscreen to oil-less lubrication of motors. A rational science-based approach is needed to minimize harm caused by these materials while supporting continued study and appropriate industrial development. As current knowledge of the toxicology of “bulk” materials may not suffice in reliably predicting toxic forms of nanoparticles ongoing and expanded study of “nanotoxicity” will be necessary. For nanotechnologies with clearly associated health risks intelligent design of materials and devices is needed to derive the benefits of these new technologies while limiting adverse health impacts. Human exposure to toxic nanoparticles can be reduced through identifying creation-exposure pathways of toxins a study that may someday soon unravel the mysteries of diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Reduction in fossil fuel combustion would have a large impact on global human exposure to nanoparticles as would limiting deforestation and desertification. While nanotoxicity is a relatively new concept to science this review reveals the result of life’s long history of evolution in the presence of nanoparticles and how the human body in particular has adapted to defend itself against nanoparticulate intruders.

Cristina Buzea; Ivan I. Pacheco; Kevin Robbie

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

97

The physical and chemical aspects of the leaching behavior of metals from portland cement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solvent (such as groundwater) passes through the system. In this work, Cr(NO3)S and Pb(NO3)Z at varying concentrations are mixed with Type I Portland cement to produce simulated waste forms. These samples are then leached by three methods... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemistry THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT A Thesis by RICARDO CORYE DAVIS Approved as to style and content by: David L. Cocke (Co...

Davis, Ricardo Corye

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Salinity: effect on germination of native plants and leaching in clay soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

study consisted of 2 main parts: (1) the effect of different salinity levels on the germination of various grasses and forbs; and (2) determining if salts present in saline clay soil can be leached to a level permitting easier establishment of salt... the style of the Journal of Ran e Mana ement. the feasibility of reducing salt in saline clay soil by leaching. The objectives of the study were: (1) to measure the germination of various grasses and forbs under different salinity levels; (2...

Neighbors, James Olen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Salt-stone Oxidation Study: Leaching Method - 13092  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cementitious waste forms can be designed to chemically stabilize selected contaminants, such as Tc{sup +7} and Cr{sup +6}, by chemically reduction to lower valance states, Tc{sup +4} and Cr{sup +3}, respectively, and precipitation of these species in alkaline media as low solubility solid phases. Data for oxidation of this type of cementitious waste form cured under field conditions as a function of time is required for predicting the performance of the waste form and disposal facility. The rate of oxidation (oxidation front advancement) is an important parameter for predicting performance because the solubilities of some radionuclide contaminants, e.g., technetium, are a function of the oxidation state. A non-radioactive experiment was designed for quantifying the oxidation front advancement using chromium, as an approximate redox-sensitive surrogate (Cr{sup +6} / Cr{sup +3}) for technetium (Tc{sup +7} / Tc{sup +4}). Nonradioactive cementitious waste forms were prepared in the laboratory and cured under both laboratory and 'field conditions'. Laboratory conditions were ambient temperature and sealed sample containers. Field conditions were approximated by curing samples in open containers which were placed inside a plastic container stored outdoors at SRS. The container had a lid and was instrumented with temperature and humidity probes. Sub-samples as thin as 0.2 mm were taken as a function of distance from the exposed surface of the as-cast sample. The sub-samples were leached and the leachates were analyzed for chromium, nitrate, nitrite and sodium. Nitrate, nitrite, and sodium concentrations were used to provide baseline data because these species are not chemically retained in the waste form matrix to any significant extent and are not redox sensitive. 'Effective' oxidation fronts for Cr were measured for samples containing 1000, 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr added as soluble sodium chromate, Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. For a sample cured for 129 days under field conditions, leachable Cr (assumed to be the oxidized form, i.e., Cr{sup +6} was detected in the top 15 to 20 mm of the sample spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr. Below about 20 mm, the Cr concentrations in leachates were below the detection limit (< 0.010 mg/L) which indicates that the oxidation as the result of exposure to air was limited to the top 20 mm of the sample after exposure for 129 days and that the bulk of the waste form was not affected, i.e., the Cr was stabilized and insoluble. For samples cured in the laboratory, leachable Cr was detected in the top 8 mm of the Cr 1000 sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days. Between 8 and 14 mm, the concentration Cr in the leachate dropped by a factor of about 20 to just above the detection limit. These depth of penetration results indicate that the rate of advancement of the oxidation front for samples spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr cured under 'field conditions' for 129 days is less than that for the sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days, i.e., 0.156 and 0.216 mm/day, respectively. Additional data are presented for samples spiked with 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr. In summary, cementitious waste forms are porous solids with a network of interconnected pores ranging in diameter from 10 E-10 m to greater than a few mm. The oxidation process is assumed to occur as the result of oxygen transport through the interconnected porosity which may be filled with air, aqueous salt solution, or both. Upon oxidation, the Cr becomes soluble and can be transported in solution through aqueous pore fluid or leachate. (authors)

Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Toxic components in diesel exhaust fumes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To control diesel-engine toxicity, a computation method is proposed for the concentration of toxic components in diesel exhaust fumes, on the basis of external engine...

A. F. Dorokhov; E. V. Klimova

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 7591 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 75­91 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching

Florida, University of

102

Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO/sub 3/) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Identification of Dynamic Leaching Kinetics of Stabilized, Water-Soluble Wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phosphogypsum (PG, CaSO4·H2O) is a technologically enhanced natural radioactive (TENR) byproduct from the wet process manufacturing of phosphoric acid. ... In practice, obtaining exact values of 1, 0.5, or 0 is rare since leaching is usually a combination of the dissolution, diffusion, and surface wash-off processes. ...

Tingzong Guo; Pradyot S. Deshpande; Kelly A. Rusch

2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

104

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests V. Tsiridis t The environmental hazard of six coal fly ash samples collected from various coal incineration plants were examined- bustion, considerable amounts of coal fly ash are still produced. Although coal fly ash can be moderately

Short, Daniel

105

A leach model for solidified/stabilized waste forms based on empirical partitioning of contaminants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

component in the bath diffuses into the solid to neutralize the high pH of the pore water. As a result, the metal contaminant mobilizes and leaches out from the solid into the bath. Empirical equations are used to describe chemical equilibrium in the model...

Kim, Inchul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Growth of New Guinea impatiens under no-leach drip irrigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the same fertility rate. In post-production studies following both experiments, all plants continued to grow and flower. In a third experiment, plants were grown under a no leach irrigation regime and the 12-3-4 fertility rate with six different media (peat...

Pannkuk, Timothy Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Improving Permeability and Salt Leaching in Irrigated Sports Fields: Exploratory Testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-310 2008 Improving Permeability and Salt Leaching in Irrigated Sports Fields: Exploratory Testing S. Miyamoto, Ignacio Martinez, Francisco Luna, and David Tirre Texas AgriLife Agricultural Research..., Ignacio Martinez, Francisco Luna, and David Tirre Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at El Paso El Paso City Parks and Recreation Department and El Paso Water Utilities TWRI Technical Report 310...

Miyamoto, S; Martinez, Ignacio; Luna, Francisco; Tirre, David

108

PEP Integrated Test D Run Report Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes" of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario (Test B and D) has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario (Test A) has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In Test D, 19M sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic) was added to the waste slurry in the UFP VSL T02 vessel after the solids were concentrated to ~20% undissolved solids. The NaOH was added to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by heating to 85°C using direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. The main difference of Test D compared to Test B is that the leach temperature is 85°C for 24 hrs as compared to 100°C for 12 hours. The other difference is the Test D simulant had Cr in the simulant from the start of processing and Test B had Cr added to adjust the simulant composition after aluminum leaching. Following the caustic leach, the UFP-VSL-T02A vessel contents are cooled using the vessel cooling jacket. The slurry was then concentrated to 17 wt% undissolved solids and washed with inhibited water to remove NaOH and other soluble salts. Next, the slurry was oxidatively leached using sodium permanganate to solubilize chrome. The slurry was then washed to remove the dissolved chrome and concentrated.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

109

Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Leaching behavior and possible resource recovery from air pollution control residues of fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash residues are generated at several points during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e., in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Such residues are of a complex physical and chemical nature and are often enriched in soluble salts and heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Zn. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of MSW is a relatively new technique and very little information is available about the leaching behavior of its residues. In this study, the total elemental composition, mineralogy and leaching behavior of cyclone and bag-house filter ashes from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler fired with municipal solid waste have been investigated. In addition, the possibilities of recovery heavy metals from these ashes were studied. The long-term leaching behavior of the ash constituents was evaluated using a two-step batch leaching test known as the CEN-test, whereas short and medium term leaching behavior was evaluated using a Column test. The extraction of elements from cyclone and filter ashes with various acidic solutions was also investigated. The leaching behavior of acid washed ashes was evaluated using the CEN test. The cyclone ash was mainly composed of aluminosilicate minerals, whereas the filter ash consisted of chlorides and hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. The concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was higher in the filter ash than in the cyclone ash. The leached amounts of sulfates and Pb from the cyclone ash decreased with leaching test contact time, indicating the formation of secondary mineral phases. Large amounts of chlorides, sulfates, Ca, Cu and Pb were leached from the filter ash. Acid extraction removed large amounts ({gt}50%) of Zn, Pb and Cu from the filter ash and approximately 56% of the total amount of Zn present in the cyclone ash. An efficient removal of heavy metal species from these types of ashes can probably be achieved by application of a recycling or multi-step process.

Abbas, Z.; Andersson, B.A.; Steenari, B.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation X. Hong, M. J. Leach, and S. Raman  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X. Hong, M. J. Leach, and S. Raman X. Hong, M. J. Leach, and S. Raman Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences .North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8208 Surface inhomogeneities, including boundaries between different types of vegetations and land use patterns, have important effects on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. Changes in the surface roughness, temperature and wetness make the planetary boundary layer (PBL) nonhomogeneous and produce substantial horizontal gradients of boundary layer properties. Significant differences in the surface thermal energy induce mesoscale circulations. The presence of vegetation modulates the evaporation from the soil and enhances the vertical flux of water vapor into the PBL through transpiration. A realistic canopy

112

C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

113

Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

1998-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Permeable Environmental Leaching Capsules (PELCAPs) for in Situ Evaluation of Contaminant Immobilization in Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a proof-of-principle, soils contained within these permeable environmental leaching capsules (PELCAPs) were labeled with either 85Sr or 134Cs and were leached in both laboratory tests and continuously in situ with ground and streamwaters at two field sites on the Oak Ridge reservation. ... One of the challenging problems for any advocate of contaminant immobilization in soil is to assess the long-term effectiveness of the immobilization either by a remedial technology or by natural attenuation (1). ... The objective of this investigation was to develop and demonstrate a proof-of-principle for an inexpensive, direct, and effective in situ technique to monitor soil contaminant immobilization nondestructively in the field using radioisotope-spiked soil contained within a permeable polymer matrix. ...

B. P. Spalding; S. C. Brooks

2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

116

An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs.

Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Geochemical Modeling of Leaching from MSWI Air-Pollution-Control Residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abbreviations are:? gyp, gypsum; bar, barite; Ba(S,Cr)O4(1), XCr = 0.23; cal, calcite; ett, ettringite; leu, leucite; por, porlandite; qtz, quartz; wai, wairakite; wol, wollastonite. ... Comparing measured data with the solubilities of Al(OH)3, Al2O3, and ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3OH12·26H2O), it was found that ettringite likely controlled Al leaching at pH-values above 9.5?10 for both residues. ... Al(OH)3, Al2O3, and ettringite have previously been identified in waste incineration APC residues (13, 22); however, only amorphous Al(OH)3 has been suggested to control leaching in nonstabilized APC residues (13, 18). ...

Thomas Astrup; Joris J. Dijkstra; Rob N. J. Comans; Hans A. van der Sloot; Thomas H. Christensen

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

Toxic Remediation System And Method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

Matthews, Stephen M. (Alameda County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

119

Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Measurement endpoints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. One is then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to ail organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazard to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. This section continues the debate by six panelists of the ``correct`` approach for determining wildlife toxicity thresholds by examining which are the appropriate measurement endpoints. Should only mortality, growth, or reproductive endpoints be used? Since toxicity threshold values may be used to make management decisions, should values related to each measurement endpoint be presented to allow the risk assessor to choose the measurement endpoint most relevant to the assessment questions being asked, or is a standard approach that uses the lowest value that causes a toxicologic response in any system of the animal a more appropriate, conservative estimate?

Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Berg, M. van den [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Application of Geothermal Energy to Mineral Processing: Cyanide Heap-Leaching of Low-Grade Gold Ore  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The advent of cyanide heap-leaching for low-grade gold and silver ores has resulted in an unprecedented increase in the output of mines throughout the world. This simple and economical process entails open-pit mi...

Thomas Flynn; Dennis Trexler…

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential ... reusable, plastic products that do not leach BPA. However, no study has focused on whether s...

George D Bittner; Chun Z Yang; Matthew A Stoner

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Synergistic effect of nanosilica aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants on improving flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2) sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by ...

Xiaodan Zhu, Yiqiang Wu, Cuihua Tian, Yan Qing, Chunhua Yao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

.A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

126

Removal of mercury from solids using the potassium iodide/iodine leaching process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potassium iodide (KI) and iodine (I{sub 2}) leaching solutions have been evaluated for use in a process for removing mercury from contaminated mixed waste solids. Most of the experimental work was completed using surrogate waste. During the last quarter of fiscal year 1995, this process was evaluated using an actual mixed waste (storm sewer sediment from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site). The mercury content of the storm sewer sediment was measured and determined to be approximately 35,000 mg/kg. A solution consisting of 0.2 M I{sub 2} and 0.4 M KI proved to be the most effective leachant used in the experiments when applied for 2 to 4 h at ambient temperature. Over 98% of the mercury was removed from the storm sewer sediment using this solution. Iodine recovery and recycle of the leaching agent were also accomplished successfully. Mathematical model was used to predict the amount of secondary waste in the process. Both surrogate waste and actual waste were used to study the fate of radionuclides (uranium) in the leaching process.

Klasson, K.T.; Koran, L.J. Jr.; Gates, D.D.; Cameron, P.A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Mechanism of Phosphorus Removal from Hanford Tank Sludge by Caustic Leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two experiments were conducted to explore the mechanism by which phosphorus is removed from Hanford tank sludge by caustic leaching. In the first experiment, a series of phosphate salts were treated with 3 M NaOH under conditions prototypic of the actual leaching process to be performed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The phosphates used were aluminum phosphate, bismuth phosphate, chromium(III) phosphate, and ?-tri-calcium phosphate; all of these phases have previously been determined to exist in Hanford tank sludge. The leachate solution was sampled at selected time intervals and analyzed for the specific metal ion involved (Al, Bi, Ca, or Cr) and for P (total and as phosphate). The solids remaining after completion of the caustic leaching step were analyzed to determine the reaction product. In the second experiment, the dependence of P removal from bismuth phosphate was examined as a function of the hydroxide ion concentration. It was anticipated that a plot of log[phosphate] versus log[hydroxide] would provide insight into the phosphorus-removal mechanism. This report describes the test activities outlined in Section 6.3.2.1, Preliminary Investigation of Phosphate Dissolution, in Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, Rev.1. The objectives, success criteria, and test conditions of Section 6.3.2.1 are summarized here.

Lumetta, Gregg J.

2008-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

130

Washing and alkaline leaching of Hanford tank sludges: A status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the assumed high cost of high-level waste (HLW) immobilization and disposal, pretreatment methods are being developed to minimize the volume of HLW requiring vitrification. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating several options for pretreating the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The pretreatment methods under study for the tank sludges include: (1) simply washing the sludges with dilute NaOH, (2) performing caustic leaching (as well as washing) to remove certain wash components, and (3) dissolving the sludges in acid and extracting key radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions. The data collected in this effort will be used to support the March 1998 decision on the extent of pretreatment to be performed on the Hanford tank sludges. This document describes sludge washing and caustic leaching tests conducted in FY 1994. These tests were performed using sludges from single-shell tanks (SST) B-201 and U-110. A summary is given of all the sludge washing and caustic leaching studies conducted at PNL in the last few years.

Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow UNL Extension Educator, Water Quality Algae is a microscopic plant that occurs in all water. However, only certain conditions bring algae to the surface, making it toxic to animals, especially humans and dogs. Toxic algae often are naturally occurring from high

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

132

Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Dose metric  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. One is then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to all organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazards to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. This section continues the debate by six panelists of the ``correct`` approach for determining wildlife toxicity thresholds by examining which dose metric to use for threshold determination and interspecific extrapolation, Since wild animals are exposed to environmental contaminants primarily through ingestion, should threshold values be expressed as amount of chemical in the diet (e.g., ppm) or as a body weight-adjusted dose (mg/kg/day)? Which of these two approaches is most relevant for ecological risk assessment decision making? Which is best for interspecific extrapolations? Converting from one metric to the other can compound uncertainty if the actual consumption rates of a species is unknown. How should this be dealt with? Is it of sufficient magnitude to be of concern?

Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Berg, M. van den [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project. Topical report for test circuit operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

135

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Methods of minimizing ground-water contamination from in situ leach uranium mining. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a research project designed to study methods of minimizing ground-water contamination from in situ leach uranium mining. Fieldwork and laboratory experiments were conducted to identify excursion indicators for monitoring purposes during mining, and to evaluate effective aquifer restoration techniques following mining. Many of the solution constituents were found to be too reactive with the aquifer sediments to reliably indicate excursion of leaching solution from the ore zone; however, in many cases, the concentrations of chloride and sulfate and the total dissolved solids level of the solution were found to be good excursion indicators. Aquifer restoration by ground-water sweeping consumed large quantities of ground water and was not effective for the redox-sensitive contaminants often present in the ore zone. Surface treatment methods such as reverse osmosis and electrodialysis were effective in reducing the amount of water used, but also had the potential for creating conditions in the aquifer under which the redox-sensitive contaminants would be mobile. In situ restoration by chemical reduction, in which a reducing agent is added to the solution recirculated through the ore zone during restoration, can restore the ore-zone sediment as well as the ground water. This method could lead to a stable chemical condition in the aquifer similar to conditions before mining. 41 figures.

Deutsch, W.J.; Martin, W.J.; Eary, L.E.; Serne, R.J.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Probable leaching mechanisms for UO/sub 2/ and spent fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation and dissolution mechanisms for UO/sub 2/ and spent fuel will be quite similar based on this preliminary work with electrochemical leaching of UO/sub 2/ and spent fuel. In solutions containing oxygen or other oxidizing species, the UO/sub 2/ surface will be rapidly oxidized and dissolved following the transformation of uranium from U(IV) to U(VI). The hydrolysis of dissolved uranyl ions forms solid UO/sub 3/ hydrates or related complex compounds deposited onto the UO/sub 2/ surface, or other surfaces, as thin or thick coatings. Depending on the pH, temperature, and time, the various kinds of porosity and the mechanical properties of the hydrate coatings will control the dissolution rate. The effects of radiation, in terms of generation of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, will enhance the dissolution kinetics. Electrochemical methods may be useful for determining the surface conditions, dissolution rate, and accelerated dissolution behavior for NO/sub 2/ and spent fuel. Electrochemial methods can rapidly generate much information in terms of dissolution rate and surface film properties - such as thickness, porosity, and oxidation state - in-situ during the leaching process.

Wang, R.; Katayama, Y.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment ... While nanoparticles occur naturally in the environment and have been intentionally used for centuries, the production and use of engineered nanoparticles has seen a recent spike, which makes environmental release almost certain. ... Therefore, recent efforts to characterize the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles have focused on the environmental implications, including exploration of toxicity to organisms from wide-ranging parts of the ecosystem food webs. ...

Melissa A. Maurer-Jones; Ian L. Gunsolus; Catherine J. Murphy; Christy L. Haynes

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

139

Lidocaine Toxicity Misinterpreted as a Stroke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxicity Misinterpreted as a Stroke Benjamin Bursell, MDdysfunction, manifested as a stroke, occurred acutely in andeterioration suggesting stroke. We will review the dosing,

Bursell, Benjamin; Smally, Alan J; Ratzan, Richard M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Factors affecting toxicity and efficacy of polymeric nanomedicines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine. The purpose of this article is to review common characteristics of polymeric nanomedicines with respect to passive targeting. We consider several biodegradable polymeric nanomedicines that are between 1 and 100 nm in size, and discuss the impact of this technology on efficacy, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and targeting. The degree of toxicity of polymeric nanomedicines is strongly influenced by the biological conditions of the local environment, which influence the rate of degradation or release of polymeric nanomedicines. The dissemination of polymeric nanomedicines in vivo depends on the capillary network, which can provide differential access to normal and tumor cells. The accumulation of nanomedicines in the microlymphatics depends upon retention time in the blood and extracellular compartments, as well as the type of capillary endothelium surrounding specific tissues. Finally, the toxicity or efficacy of intact nanomedicines is also dependent upon tissue type, i.e., non-endocrine or endocrine tissue, spleen, or lymphatics, as well as tumor type.

Igarashi, Eiki [NanoCarrier Co., Ltd., Chiba 277-0882 (Japan)], E-mail: igarashi@nanocarrier.co.jp

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a SolidFluid Elastic Rock Salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a Solid-filled cylindrical cavern of circular cross section in a homogeneous infinite fluid-saturated polycristalline salt pressure. The fluid in the cavern and in the mixture is treated as ideal and the solid as elastic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

Hanford Tank 241-S-112 Residual Waste Composition and Leach Test Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of laboratory characterization and testing of two samples (designated 20406 and 20407) of residual waste collected from tank S-112 after final waste retrieval. These studies were completed to characterize the residual waste and assess the leachability of contami¬nants from the solids. This is the first report from this PNNL project to describe the composition and leach test data for residual waste from a salt cake tank. All previous PNNL reports (Cantrell et al. 2008; Deutsch et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) describing contaminant release models, and characterization and testing results for residual waste in single-shell tanks were based on samples from sludge tanks.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

143

Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

144

Modeling the role of bacteria in leaching of low-grade ores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A robustious structural model is developed to describe the role of bacteria in the leaching process of low-grade ores under conditions controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The main impetus behind developing this model is to provide an insight into such systems, together with a suitable framework for interpreting experimental data. The model is derived in detail with respect to reaction chemistry and the role of bacteria in catalyzing these reactions, specifically the synergism of chemistry, physics and biology in determining the overall behavior of the system. The model is used to simulate the atmospheric oxidation of iron disulfide contained in porous solids in the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T. ferrooxidans). The experimental data are predicted well by the model, which demonstrates its applicability and supports the view that the rate of intraparticle diffusion is the controlling mechanism for this system.

Batarseh, K.I.; Stiller, A.H. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

An overview of the chemistry of the molten-caustic-leaching process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molten-caustic leaching (MCL) process is quite effective in its ability to remove both organic and pyritic sulfur, mineral matter, and trace elements from coal. This paper reports how the chemistry of various reactions taking place in the process has been examined by several researchers. For example, Ames Laboratory of Iowa State University is actively studying the chemistry of MCL desulfurization and reagent regeneration reactions, and researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center are examining the reactions of molten caustic with the organosulfur compounds present in coal. As a result of these research efforts, reactions of mineral pyrite, benzothiophene, and minerals commonly found in coal (quartz, illite, etc.) with molten caustic are well characterized.

Gala, H.B.; Srivastava, R.D. (Burns and Roe Services Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Rhee, K.H.; Hucko, R.E. (US Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Toxic congener-specific analysis of PCBs: assessment of toxicity in equivalents of TCDD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High resolution capillary gas chromatographic analysis of the polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) present in snapping turtle eggs, provided quantitative data on selected toxic congeners. The concentrations of these congeners have been converted into equivalent toxic concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD). The toxic equivalent factors (TEFs), necessary to effect this transformation were derived from EC/sub 50/ values (half the concentration of the toxic congener required to produce the maximum effect) for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction associated with the corresponding toxic PCB congener or isomer. Summation of the resulting toxic equivalents provided a composite assessment of the toxicity of the PCB mixture in terms of an equivalent concentration of TCDD.

Olafsson, P.G.; Bryan, A.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Buildings Characteristics 1992 Buildings Characteristics Overview Full Report Tables National and Census region estimates of the number of commercial buildings in the U.S. and...

150

Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy Metals: The Next Generation of Personal Exposure Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy...

151

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins...

152

Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods. Acute toxicity tests showed that when comparing LC50 values for C. dubia and D. ambigua, D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) while more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Results of chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in the same NOEC/LOEC values for both species. When exposed to unaltered SRS stream water, C. dubia demonstrated a `toxic` response for two of the three streams tested, while reproduction for D. ambigua was higher in all stream samples. Acute toxicity tests with sodium chloride in stream water, generally followed the sensitivity trend noted in tests conducted with regular laboratory water.

Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Harmon, S.M. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Characteristics of Cleanroom  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cleanroom shows different characteristics when it is in ... , the curve will reveal the law of cleanroom.

Zhonglin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and wildlife tissues were collected from four National Priority List Superfund sites within the United States. In general, chemical analysis was not always predictive of mixture toxicity. Although biodegradation reduced the concentration of total...

Gillespie, Annika Margaret

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review is presented as a common foundation for scientists interested in nanoparticles, their origin, activity, and biological toxicity. It is written with the goal of rationalizing and informing public he...

Cristina Buzea; Ivan I. Pacheco; Kevin Robbie

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in people who work in pulp and paper mills, at hazardous waste sites, municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, and those involved in production, use, and disposal of chlorinated pesticides and herbicides. The most toxic of the PCDDs, 2...

Naspinski, Christine S.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

157

Residual Toxicities of Insecticides to Cotton Insects.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the effects of simulated wind and rain on the residues. Tempera- ture and humidity conditions incident to the holding period were sufficient to destroy most of the residual toxicity of this material. Effect of Simulated Wind Among the chlorinated... hydrocarbon insecticides, there was little difference between the effects of simu- lated wind and rain on residual toxicities. However, it is likely that under field conditions the effects of rain would be more noticeable. Simulated wind was less damaging...

Hightower, B. G.; Gaines, J. C.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stormwater runoff from highways and commercial, industrial, and residential areas contains a wide spectrum of pollutants including heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, sediment, and nutrients. Recent efforts to reduce the impacts of urbanization on natural wetlands and other receiving waters have included the construction of stormwater treatment ponds and wetlands. These systems provide flood control and improve water quality through settling, adsorption, and precipitation of pollutants removing up to 95% of metals, nutrients and sediment before discharged from the site. The design of stormwater ponds to provide habitat for aquatic wildlife has prompted concern over the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these contaminants. Aquatic sediments concentrate a wide array of organic and inorganic pollutants. Although water quality criteria may not be exceeded, organisms living in or near the sediments may be adversely affected. The availability of chemicals in sediments depends strongly on the prevailing chemistry. Physical conditions of the sediment and water quality characteristics including pH, redox potential and hardness, also influence contaminant availability. Studies have shown that heavy metals and nutrients carried by runoff concentrate in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Although several investigations have assessed the toxicity of sediments in streams receiving urban runoff, there have been few studies of the toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to aquatic organisms. This study was part of a large-scale assessment of the contaminant hazards of stormwater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments and water from stormwater ponds over a 10-d period to juvenile Hyalella azteca. Bioassay results were related to concentrations of acid volatile sulfides and metals of the tested sediments. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Karouna-Renier, N.K. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States); [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sparling, D.W. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E. Management of exposure to oxygen toxicity myself using the good ole' FORTRAN programming language, I found that incorporating oxygen toxicity for others. Background Two oxygen toxicity parameters are typically "tracked" in technical diving

Read, Charles

160

Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.

Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H.; Stepan, D.J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

162

A field test of electromagnetic geophysical techniques for locating simulated in situ mining leach solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Bureau of Mines, The University of Arizona, Sandia National Laboratories, and Zonge Engineering and Research Organization, Inc., conducted cooperative field tests of six electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods to compare their effectiveness in locating a brine solution simulating in situ leach solution or a high-conductivity plume of contamination. The brine was approximately 160 m below the surface. The testsite was the University's San Xavier experimental mine near Tucson, AZ. Geophysical surveys using surface and surface-borehole, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) induction; surface controlled-source audiofrequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT); surface-borehole, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FEM) induction; crosshole FEM; and surface magnetic field ellipticity were conducted before and during brine injection. The surface TEM data showed a broad decrease in resistivity. CSAMT measurements with the conventional orientation did not detect the brine, but measurements with another orientation indicated some decrease in resistivity. The surface-borehole and crosshole methods located a known fracture and other fracture zones inferred from borehole induction logs. Surface magnetic field ellipticity data showed a broad decrease in resistivity at depth following brine injection.

Tweeton, D.R.; Hanson, J.C.; Friedel, M.J.; Sternberg, B.K.; Dahl, L.J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Toxic Range Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ly alter grazing behavior. To minimize losses to toxic plants, producers should learn how to identify the toxic plants, use good graz- ing and livestock management practices, and take measures to control the plants when necessary. Know which plants... are toxic The first step in managing for toxic plants is being able to identify them. Ranchers must be able to: Identify plants that are toxic to livestock in their area Understand what makes them poisonous Recognize the symptoms produced when live...

Hart, Charles R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2001-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: NOAEL versus LOAEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. One is then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to all organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazards to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. This section continues the debate by six panelists of the ``correct`` approach for determining wildlife toxicity thresholds by debating which toxicity value should be used for setting threshold criteria. Should the lowest observable effect level (LOAEL) be used or is it more appropriate to use the no observable effect level (NOAEL)? What are the short-comings of using either of these point estimates? Should a ``benchmark`` approach, similar to that proposed for human health risk assessments, be used instead, where an EC{sub 5} or EC{sub 10} and associated confidence limits are determined and then divided by a safety factor? How should knowledge of the slope of the dose-response curve be incorporated into determination of toxicity threshold values?

Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Berg, M. van den [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,Extension CommunicationsSpecialistTheTexasA&MUniversitySystem. Cover design byRhondaKappler, ExtensionCommercial Artist Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants Allan McGinty and Rick Machen* More than 100 species of toxic plants in- fest Texas rangelands. These plants... and Sons: New York, N.Y. Lane, M. A., M. H. Ralphs, J. D. Olsen, F. D. Provenza and J. A. Pfister. 1990. ?Conditioned taste aversion: potentialfor reducing cattle loss to larkspur.? Journal ofRangeManagement. 43:127-131. McGinty, Allan and Tommy G. Welch...

McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

167

Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

Oikari, A.O.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Toxic effects of excess cloned centromeres.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mitosis. We conclude that an excess of centromeres is toxic and...Yeast transformations. The lithium acetate method (19) was used...modifications. Cells were treated with lithium acetate at a cell concentration...and mixed with a twofold excess of similarly treated strain...

B Futcher; J Carbon

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER DOE FRAP 1997-15 Prepared for in both domestic and industrial wastewater. The release of these compounds during wastewater treatment to predict the mass of the VOCs in the wastewater treated by biotransformation and the mass stripped

170

Characteristics of Strong Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Existing financing programs offer a number of important lessons on effective program design. Some characteristics of strong financing programs drawn from past program experience are described below.

171

Long-term leaching of trace elements in a heavily sludge-amended silty clay loam soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis by ICP-MS of shallow groundwater collected at a field site in New York that had been heavily loaded with sewage sludge more than 15 years earlier revealed elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sr, Rb, Mo, Cd, As, Cr, Ni, Sb, W, Ag, Hg, and Sn compared with a nearby control site. Enhanced leaching of some elements from this near-neutral, fine-textured (silty clay loam) soil could be explained by exchange of soil-bound elements by components of the added sludge. For most of the heavy metals, however, increased leaching was a response to the high metal loadings in the soil, probably facilitated by higher dissolved organic matter in the leachate. Laboratory-determined distribution coefficients, K{sub D}, for the metals in newly prepared sludge/soil mixtures were lower than K{sub D} values of the field-aged sludge-treated soil, suggesting that metal mobility may have been substantially higher shortly after sludge application than many years later. Cumulative losses of certain trace elements from the topsoil have been estimated relative to Cr, a comparatively immobile element. These suggest that relative long-term losses range from 20 to 80%, with the order being: Sr, Mo, Sb {gt} Ni, Cd, Cu {gt} Zn, Ag. Generally, those elements with the smallest K{sub D} values (most soluble) measured recently in the soil had the largest loss estimates. However, present leaching loss rates are too slow to explain the estimated relative losses of several of these elements from the topsoil over the 15 or more years since sludge application.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity due Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic mode-of-action Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

176

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute testis toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

177

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity results Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... not cause overt fetal or maternal toxicity, but not rats...

178

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic encephalopathy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute renal toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - acutely toxic hepatitis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute urinary toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute liver toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic hepatitis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

184

Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program chemicals of concern that may impact the estuary's ecosystem. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE identified weak associations between mortality and bulk-phase chlordane and silver concentrations at Redwood

185

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Samples Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute...

186

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

187

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress Researchers at the University of Nebraska of toxic blue-green algae before the bacteria that produce it can grow into a full-scale bloom. Now UNL and monitor in real-time, the water-borne agents that can cause toxic blue- green algae to flourish and become

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

188

Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics...

189

Research priorities for mobile air toxics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Health Effects Institute, a cooperative effort of the auto industry and the EPA, whose mission is to provide health effects information to ensure that motor vehicle emissions do not pose unreasonable risks, recently undertook a project to define priorities for research that would decrease uncertainties in risk assessments for mobile air toxics. At a workshop held in December 1992, scientists from academia, industry, and government worked to identify uncertainties in understanding the potential risk of exposure to mobile air toxics, including methanol, an important potential alternate fuel. Although cancer risk was the primary concern regarding most compounds, there was also much discussion of non-cancer effects of potential importance. Participants discussed research priorities for scientific issues that apply across all compound groups, such as dosimetry, high-to-low dose extrapolation, exposure assessment, and molecular biology approaches.

Not Available

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

190

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

BACTOX, a Rapid Bioassay That Uses Protozoa To Assess the Toxicity of Bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...well-recognized standard for toxicity testing (, , , ). The purpose of the BACTOX test is the detection of the overall toxicity of surreptitious strains which synthesize toxic secondary metabolites (toxicants) and which may constitute a biohazard. Its purpose is...

Wolfram Schlimme; Marcello Marchiani; Kurt Hanselmann; Bernard Jenni

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

193

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Housing characteristics 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Disposition of toxic PCB congeners in snapping turtle eggs: expressed as toxic equivalents of TCDD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of snapping turtles, taken from the region of the Upper Hudson River, in New York State, revealed exceedingly high levels of PCBs in the adipose tissue. There is evidence to suggest that large reserves of fat provide protection against chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity. Such storage may protect snapping turtle eggs from disposition of toxic PCB congeners and account for the apparent absence of reports regarding detrimental effects on the hatchability of eggs from turtles living in the vicinity of the upper Hudson River. The present study was undertaken to determine if indeed these eggs are protected against disposition of toxic PCB congeners by the presence of large reserves of fat. Although tissue volumes play an important role in determining the initial site of disposition, the major factor controlling the elimination of these compounds involves metabolism. For simple halogenated benzenes as well as for more complex halogenated biphenyls, oxidative metabolism catalyzed by P-448, occurs primarily at the site of two adjacent unsubstituted carbon atoms via arene oxide formation leading to the formation of water soluble metabolites. Toxicological studies have demonstrated that the most toxic PCB congeners, isosteriomers of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), require no metabolic activation. These compounds have chlorine atoms in the meta and para positions of both rings. It may be concluded that the structures of PCB congeners and isomers which favor induction of cytochrome P-448 are also those which are toxic and resist metabolism. It is the objective of the present study to determine if the heavy fat bodies of the female turtle provide a sufficiently large sink to retain the toxic congeners and prevent their incorporation into the eggs.

Bryan, A.M.; Stone, W.B.; Olafsson, P.G.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1989-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

197

Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

198

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Reports > 2003 Building Characteristics Overview Data Reports > 2003 Building Characteristics Overview 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey—Commercial Buildings Characteristics Released: May 2002 Topics: Energy Sources and End Uses | End-Use Equipment | Conservation Features and Practices Additional Information on: Survey methods, data limitations, and other information supporting the data The 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) was the seventh in the series begun in 1979. The 1999 CBECS estimated that 4.7 million commercial buildings (± 0.4 million buildings, at the 95% confidence level) were present in the United States in that year. Those buildings comprised a total of 67.3 (± 4.6) billion square feet of floorspace. Additional information on 1979 to 1999 trends

199

Chapter 2. Vehicle Characteristics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Vehicle Characteristics 2. Vehicle Characteristics Chapter 2. Vehicle Characteristics U.S. households used a fleet of nearly 157 million vehicles in 1994. Despite remarkable growth in the number of minivans and sport-utility vehicles, passenger cars continued to predominate in the residential vehicle fleet. This chapter looks at changes in the composition of the residential fleet in 1994 compared with earlier years and reviews the effect of technological changes on fuel efficiency (how efficiently a vehicle engine processes motor fuel) and fuel economy (how far a vehicle travels on a given amount of fuel). Using data unique to the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey, it also explores the relationship between residential vehicle use and family income.

200

The Use of Remotely Sensed Bioelectric Action Potentials to Evaluate Episodic Toxicity Events and Ambient Toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from storm water runoff is very difficult. The research reported here describes a non-invasive, or minimally invasive, system that measures in real-time or near real-time, clam gape. Clams have been shown to change gape in the presence of toxicants i...

Waller, W. Tom; Acevedo, Miguel F.; Allen, H. J.; Schwalm, F. U.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Composition and structure of acid leached LiMn{sub 2-y}Ti{sub y}O{sub 4} (0.2<=y<=1.5) spinels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium manganese titanium spinels, LiMn{sub 2-y}Ti{sub y}O{sub 4}, (0.2<=y<=1.5) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction between TiO{sub 2} (anatase), Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and MnCO{sub 3}. Li{sup +} was leached from the powdered reaction products by treatment in excess of 0.2 N HCl at 85 deg. C for 6 h, under reflux. The elemental composition of the acidic solution and solid residues of leaching has been determined by complexometric titration, atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction was used for structural characterization of the crystalline fraction of the solid residues. It has been found that the amount of Li{sup +} leached from LiMn{sub 2-y}Ti{sub y}O{sub 4} decreases monotonically with increasing y in the interval 0.2<=y<=1.0 and abruptly drops to negligibly small values for y>1.0. The content of Mn and Li in the liquid phase and of Mn and Ti in the solid (amorphous plus crystalline) residue, were related to the composition and cation distribution in the pristine compounds. A new formal chemical equation describing the process of leaching and a mechanism of the structural transformation undergone by the initial solids as a result of Li{sup +} removal has been proposed. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the acid leaching of LiMn{sub 2-y}Ti{sub y}O{sub 4} (0.2<=y<=1.0).

Avdeev, Georgi [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Amarilla, Jose Manuel; Rojo, Jose Maria [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz no 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Petrov, Kostadin [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rojas, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rmrojas@icmm.csic.e [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz no 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Investigations of Sediment Elutriate Toxicity at Three Estuarine Stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigations of Sediment Elutriate Toxicity at Three Estuarine Stations in San Francisco Bay.............................................................................................. 8 Sediment-Water Interface Exposures................................................................................. 9 August 1997 Sediment-Water Interface Exposures

203

ANDERSON, DONALD M. Bloom dynamics of toxic Alexandrium ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

icity becomes dangerous. This is a particularly important feature, as the toxicity of ..... for certain marine biotoxins. Mass. Dep. Public Health. Final. Rep. 140 p.

204

Salicylate Toxicity from Ingestion and Continued Dermal Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of salicylate dermal absorption and toxicity. REFERENCESand Continued Dermal Absorption Rachel L. Chin, MD*, Kent R.bases in the percutaneous absorption of salicylates II. J

Chin, Rachel L; Olson, Kent R; Dempsey, Delia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Assessment of metal content and toxicity of leachates from teapots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metallic teapots traditionally used in Morocco were investigated for release of toxic metals from the teapots and their toxicity, as determined by MetPAD, a bacterial toxicity test that is specific for heavy metal toxicity. Our data show that some teapots were non-toxic while a few others were highly toxic, as shown by MetPAD. Tea addition reduced somewhat heavy metal toxicity due possibly to the complexing ability of tea. Chemical analysis of teapot leachates showed that some contained zinc and copper. Teapot No. 5, which showed the highest toxicity, also displayed the highest Zn concentration (7.39 mg/l), confirming the toxicity data. Based on estimates of tea consumption in Morocco, we showed that the extra daily burden of Zn ranged from 1.75 to 4.2 mg/day, assuming the maximum zinc concentration of 7.4 mg/l, as found in our study. This represents 3.5–8% of the LOAEL for zinc of 50 mg/day and would not be important as compared to other sources of zinc intake.

Ali Boularbah; Gabriel Bitton; J.L Morel

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Characteristic (Version A)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in Vladivostok is investigating the characteristics and limitations of a solar energy system as an energy source the photovoltaic array, the charging system, the energy storage system, and the power management system) on the design of an AUV. It also seeks to identify constraints that an AUV system places on the solar energy

207

Study of chemical toxicity of low-level wastes. Volume 1. Main report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical composition of fuel-cycle wastes is reasonably well known. By comparison, there is little information on the chemical composition of non-fuel cycle wastes. Such non-fuel cycle wastes come from a variety of sources - industrial, chemical, and medical. Because of the paucity of information, it is difficult to define the chemical characteristics and to evaluate potential hazards of non-fuel cycle wastes as a result of chemical toxicity. This report provides an assessment of the chemical toxicity of low-level radioactive wastes based on literature reviews, preparation of bibliographies and monographs, and application of a variety of methodologies either being currently applied or being proposed for relative hazard assessments. The report relies primarily on data from the Maxey Flats, Kentucky waste disposal site. While there are differences between humid and dry sites, the findings are believed to be generally applicable to evaluating the chemical toxicity of wastes at all low-level radioactive waste burial sites.

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Study of chemical toxicity of low-level wastes. Volume 2. Monographs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical composition of fuel-cycle wastes is reasonably well known. By comparison, there is little information on the chemical composition of non-fuel cycle wastes. Such non-fuel cycle wastes come from a variety of sources - industrial, chemical, and medical. Because of the paucity of information, it is difficult to define the chemical characteristics and to evaluate potential hazards of non-fuel cycle wastes as a result of chemical toxicity. This report provides an assessment of the chemical toxicity of low-level radioactive wastes based on literature reviews, preparation of bibliographies and monographs, and application of a variety of methodologies either being currently applied or being proposed for relative hazard assessments. The report relies primarily on data from the Maxey Flats, Kentucky waste disposal site. While there are differences between humid and dry sites, the findings are believed to be generally applicable to evaluating the chemical toxicity of wastes at all low-level radioactive waste burial sites.

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Assessing interactions between nutrients and toxicity : influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on triclosan toxicity to the aquatic macrophyte "lemna gibba".  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In the present study, influences of nutrient availability on triclosan toxicity to a model aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba were explored. Triclosan effective concentrations varied by… (more)

Fulton, Barry A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Assessing the potential toxicity of resuspended sediment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two moderately contaminated freshwater sediments (Sorel Harbour, St. Lawrence River, Canada) were subjected to a suspension event. The objective was to assess the environmental impact of the disposal of dredged material in water, in particular, the short-term effects of dumping on the water column and the long-term effects of dredged sediment deposits. In a series of microcosms, the sediments were left to stand for 25 d under flow-through conditions. In a second series of microcosms, sediments were vigorously suspended for 15 min before being left to settle and were submitted to the same treatment as reference sediments during the following 25 d. Physicochemical and biological parameters (Daphnia magna and Hydra attenuata survival) were measured in overlying water throughout the experiment. Sediment toxicity was assessed with Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca exposed to sediments collected at both the beginning and end of the 25-d period. Pore-water toxicity was evaluated with D. magna. During the suspension process, in the Sorel Harbour mixed sediment overlying water, the authors observed effects on H. attenuata survival and ammonia and metals (chromium, copper, and zinc) releases. Meanwhile, in reference (nonmixed) and mixed sediments as well as in associated pore waters, there were no significant chemical modifications no biological effects after the 25-d experiments. The developed approach, which attempts to simulate a dumping process, aims at allowing the assessment of the short- and long-term hazards resulting from a resuspension process in overlying water and in resettled sediments using both chemical and biological measurements.

Bonnet, C.; Babut, M.; Ferard, J.F.; Martel, L.; Garric, J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Combustion toxics: Available data and additional needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the continuing expansion of air pollution regulations there is an increasing awareness of the potential need to assess the emissions and impact of trace compounds from combustion sources in refineries and chemical plants. It has been found that these trace compounds may be emitted as the result of incomplete fuel combustion, formation of new compounds during combustion, or the presence of inorganics (e.g., metals) in the fuel. Emission factors based on field data from these sources have recently been published by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The emission factors indicate that a large number of trace compounds may be emitted from combustion sources including volatiles, semi-volatiles, PAHs, metals, and dioxins/furans. Some of these trace compounds have been classified as hazardous or toxic. A review of the EPA and API published data sets indicates that, while there is some overlap, many gaps exist in specific source and emission types. Where gaps exist, there is a lack of confirmation for the reported emission factor. Comparison of the EPA and API emission factors for gas and fuel oil fired boilers, however, indicates reasonable agreement for several metals and some PAHs where the data overlap. EPA, however, has sampled for many more metals than API and several EPA factors for PAHs are significantly higher than reported by API. Additionally tests may be warranted where there is insufficient overlap. Much additional work needs to be done to provide reliable factors which can be used to estimate trace toxic emissions from combustion. Many gaps and inconsistencies exist in the emission factors database and changes to existing factors are expected as the database is expanded.

Siegell, J.H.

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Chemistry 330 / Study Guide 217 Toxic Heavy Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry 330 / Study Guide 217 Unit 7 Toxic Heavy Metals Overview In ancient Rome wine was stored for this section. #12;Chemistry 330 / Study Guide 219 Common Features--Toxicity of the Heavy Metals Objectives. Metals--especially heavy metals--pose a unique environmental pollution problem. Heavy metals

Short, Daniel

213

VINYL CHLORIDE ACUTE TOXICITY THRESHOLDS IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTROLLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The "irreversible effects threshold" is the maximum concentration of pollutant in the air for a given exposure timeVINYL CHLORIDE ACUTE TOXICITY THRESHOLDS IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTROLLING URBAN DEVELOPMENT OR LAND of vinyl Chloride , the french procedure to set acute toxicity thresholds in the context of controlling

Boyer, Edmond

214

Chronic toxicity evaluation of simulated DWPF effluent to Ceriodaphnia dubia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 7-Day Full Series Chronic Toxicity test was conducted April 13--20, 1990, for the Savannah River Site to assess the chronic toxicity of Simulated defense waste processing facility (DWPF) effluent to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The simulated effluented consisted of Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Formate, and Corros. Inib.

Not Available

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Use of terrestrial toxicity tests for Superfund site assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most risk assessment efforts that evaluate risk from hazardous waste sites have focused on potential human health effects. Concern for potential ecological risk has become a prominent factor in these assessments. The potential impact on all components of ecological systems at risk (including the human component) has prompted the regulatory community to take a more comprehensive approach to risk assessments, incorporating terrestrial toxicity testing. Terrestrial toxicity testing ultimately strengthens the overall risk assessment since responses of feral animals in their natural habitats have important implications in human health. Many biological indicators of stress in animals can be extrapolated to human health as well. Reliance on terrestrial toxicity testing for hazardous waste sites provides both a priori toxicity tests of single chemicals (generally conducted in a laboratory setting), or site-specific testing of extant contamination. Using bioassays of toxicity of environmental samples or in situ testing. Appropriate toxicity tests with representative chemicals and chemical bioavailability, on appropriate species will greatly enhance the information gained and widen mitigation options. Risk managers will be better able to integrate and evaluate toxicity information for the entire system at risk, including the human component. The authors present several matrices that relate chemical action, anticipated toxic effects, and possible terrestrial effects that can be used to provide more comprehensive and ecologically realistic risk assessments at hazardous waste sites.

Williams, B.A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 6 were identified as significant contributors to national emissions of hazardous air pollutants EPA Mobile Source Air Toxics Rules March 2001 rule relied on existing control programs (Tier 2March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis for FHWA Projects Jeff Houk FHWA Resource Center

Minnesota, University of

217

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Tools for Policy Making Speaker(s): Jennifer Logue Date: October 27, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines air toxics as pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health effects. Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act established 189 chemicals as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants. Large uncertainties still exist regarding exposure, risks, and sources and there has been a heavy reliance on inventories and modeling to determine sources and risks. In January 2002, Carnegie Mellon University in collaboration with the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) embarked on a project to investigate air toxics in Allegheny County. This

218

The Crystallization Behavior of Porous PLA Prepared by Modified Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Technique for Potential Use of Tissue Engineering Scaffold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The porous PLA foams potential for tissue engineering usage are prepared by a modified solvent casting/particulate leaching method with different crystallinity. Since in typical method the porogens are solved in the solution and flow with the polymers during the casting and the crystallinity behavior of PLA chains in the limited space cannot be tracked, in this work the processing is modified by diffusing the PLA solution into a steady salt stack. With a thermal treatment before leaching while maintaining the stable structure of the porogens stack, the crystallinity of porous foams is made possible to control. The characterizations indicate the crystallization of porous foams is in a manner of lower crystallibility than the bulk materials. Pores and caves of around 250{\\mu}m size are obtained in samples with different crystallinity. The macro-structures are not much impaired by the crystallization nevertheless the morphological effect of the heating process is still obvious.

Ran Huang; Xiaomin Zhu; Haiyan Tu; Ajun Wan

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

220

Chemomechanics of calcium leaching of cement-based materials at different scales : the role of CH-dissolution and C-S-H degradation on strength and durability performance of materials and structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Calcium leaching is a durability threat for cement-based materials employed in critical infrastructures, such as Nuclear Waste Storage Systems. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the material and structural ...

Heukamp, Franz H. (Franz Hoyte), 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute silver toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Membrane of Rainbow Trout Gills Summary: that are the primary site for acute heavy metal toxicity (Mc- Donald and Wood, 1993). The toxic action of silver... and chloride...

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute copper toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with additional metals analyses. Because copper concentrations were within the range toxic to bivalves and sample... -six hour acute toxicity tests were conducted using...

223

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxic regulations Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AQPM air quality program manager ARP accidental release prevention ATCM air toxic control... -volatile organic compound TAC toxic air contaminant TCA trichloroethane TCE...

224

Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

225

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute cadmium toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cortisol levels were... -113 1. Introduction Cadmium (Cd) is a widely distributed heavy metal, toxic to terrestrial and aquatic... of the toxicant are acutely lethal, the rise in...

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics volume Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

designed to remove the acutely toxic chemicals before the air is discharged into the environment. Acutely... Chemistry Department Standard Operating Procedure Title: Acutely Toxic...

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute organ toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity between chemicals and between organisms... . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely... to...

228

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute systemic toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12... that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute ... Source: Kane, Andrew S. -...

229

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute skin toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... skin Reproductive effects of not seen with glycols...

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic potency Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute ... Source: Kane, Andrew S. -...

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute methanol toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... ) to acetaldehyde to acetate to acetyl CoA Methanol ...

232

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

233

GR via Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

Wafer characteristics via reflectometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

235

Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J. [CUNY Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Community & Preventative Medicine

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Management Permits are required to construct, install, or modify any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum quantity for that contaminant. Minimum quantities are specified in Table III of these regulations. Permits will be granted based in part on the impact of the projected emissions of the stationary source on acceptable ambient levels

238

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Indoor Plumes Speaker(s): David J. Wilson Date: October 19, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Why have people been able to get away with ignoring intermittency (periods of zero concentration or zero turbulent temperature difference) in heat and mass transfer for the past century? Why is intermittency crucially important in toxic load estimates for biological exposure? We will explore how a simple back-of-the-envelope model can be constructed for the respiration toxicology of concentration fluctuations at a fixed receptor (for example; your lungs). This simple model will show the origin of the toxic load exponent n=2.0 for concentration C in L=Cnt. An extensive set of

239

Fate of Toxic Potato Glycoalkaloids in a Potato Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The toxic glycoalkaloids, ?-solanine and ?-chaconine, are present in all parts of the potato plant and are possibly transferred to the terrestrial environment. The amounts of glycoalkaloids in plant, soil, and groundwater were followed in a potato field ...

Pia H. Jensen; Bjarne W. Strobel; Hans Christian B. Hansen; Ole Stig Jacobsen

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

240

Bacterial and enzymatic bioassays for toxicity testing in the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbioassays using bacteria or enzymes are increasingly applied to measure chemical toxicity in the environment. Attractive features of these assays may include low cost, rapid response to toxicants, high sample throughput, modest laboratory equipment and space requirements, low sample volume, portability, and reproducible responses. Enzymatic tests rely on measurement of either enzyme activity or enzyme biosynthesis. Dehydrogenases are the enzymes most used in toxicity testing. Assay of dehydrogenase activity is conveniently carried out using oxidoreduction dyes such as tetrazolium salts. Other enzyme activity tests utilize ATPases, esterases, phosphatases, urease, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, protease, amylase, or beta-glucosidase. Recently, the inhibition of enzyme (beta-galactosidase, tryptophanase, alpha-glucosidase) biosynthesis has been explored as a basis for toxicity testing. Enzyme biosynthesis was found to be generally more sensitive to organic chemicals than enzyme activity.107 references.

Bitton, G.; Koopman, B. (Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Neuro-reproductive toxicities of 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Male reproductive toxicities of 2-bromopropane are summarized in Table 1. The inhalation study (Ichihara et al. 1996, 1997) using Wistar rats showed exposure to 2-bromopropane decreased epididymal sperm count and...

Gaku Ichihara

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

243

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Thomas L. McCall, Jr. http:www.em.doe.govffaaortsca.html 4252001 Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agree.. Page 12 of 26 Deputy...

244

Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected paving asphalts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED PAVING ASPHALTS A Theis CARLOS LUIS MENDEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Adt, M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Safety Engineering TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED PAVING ASPHALTS A Thesis by CARLOS LUIS MENDEZ Submitted to Texas AdtM University in partial fulfillment...

Mendez, Carlos Luis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Veto likely on ocean burning of toxic wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Veto likely on ocean burning of toxic wastes ... Ocean incineration of toxic wastes has been under study for some time, and EPA has authorized test burns as far back as 1974. ... (where more than 6000 people showed up), and Mobile, Ala., where the issues of transporting the waste safely to the burn site and what advantages ocean incineration has over land incineration were hotly debated. ...

1984-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Identification of toxic components in beechwood and petroleum creosotes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC COMPONENTS IN BEECHWOOD AND PETROLEUM CREOSOTES A Thesis by MEHMET S. OKAYGUN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1989 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC COMPONENTS IN BEECHWOOD AND PETROLEUM CREOSOTES A Thesis by MEHMET S. OKAYGUN Approved as to style and content by: Ay(hn Akger (Co-Chairman of Committee) T. Rick Irvin (Co...

Okaygun, Mehmet S.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics emission Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

emission Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air toxics emission...

249

Characteristics Data Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Title Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Salminen, Justin, Nicolas Papaiconomou, Anand R. Kumar, Jong-Min Lee, John B. Kerr, John S. Newman, and John M. Prausnitz Journal Fluid Phase Equilibria Volume 261 Pagination 421-426 Keywords hydrophobic, ionic liquids, piperidinium, properties, pyrrolidinium, safety, toxicity Abstract Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]+, 1-methyl-1-octyl pyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]+ and 1-methyl-1-octyl piperidinium [MOPip]+ cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

252

Increased intrapulmonary retention of radiolabeled neutrophils in early oxygen toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequential lung injuries, such as oxygen toxicity followed by septicemia, are common during the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As these forms of vascular injury may be mediated in part by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), aberrant interactions between PMN and previously injured pulmonary endothelium are of both theoretical interest and clinical importance. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early oxygen toxicity at a dose that injuries pulmonary endothelium relatively selectively alters intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics. Unanesthetized rats breathing 1.0 atmospheres oxygen for 36 h showed ultrastructural endothelial damage but no edema, injury, or neutrophilic inflammation by histologic criteria. However, in these oxygen-toxic animals, whereas initial accumulation of radiolabeled PMN in lungs was normal, washout of PMN was abnormal at 120 min after infusion, at which point the pulmonary retention of radiolabeled PMN in the lungs of oxygen-treated animals was significantly higher than in control animals (139% of control, p less than 0.0096). Features of our methodology, including avoidance of osmotic stress and use of paired control animals, appear to have greatly enhanced the sensitivity of radiolabeled neutrophils for detecting a subtle abnormality of neutrophil-endothelial interactions. Our studies in the oxygen toxicity model provide the first demonstration in vivo of abnormal intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics in early oxygen toxicity prior to the onset of histologic evidence of lung injury or inflammation.

Rinaldo, J.E.; English, D.; Levine, J.; Stiller, R.; Henson, J.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Lands with Wilderness Characteristics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wilderness Characteristics Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandswithWildernessCharacteristics&oldid647799...

254

California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Toxic Substances Toxic Substances Control Jump to: navigation, search Name California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control Place Sacramento, California Website http://www.dtsc.ca.gov Coordinates 38.5815719°, -121.4943996° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.5815719,"lon":-121.4943996,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

255

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Speaker(s): Buvana Jayaraman Date: December 8, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 I investigate three applications related to toxic exposure in buildings and demonstrate the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to address important issues: 1. Improving containment of airborne hazardous materials in an existing room containing a downdraft table. CFD is used to find a ventilation configuration that ensures better containment of the hazardous material and hence improved worker safety. 2. Modeling gas transport in a large indoor space. The goal of this study is to understand how the level of detail of the CFD model affects its accuracy. Comparison of predictions with experimental data will be presented. 3. Understanding

256

List of Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins Acrylonitr ile Aniline Arsenic and its compounds Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Beryllium Boric acid (Boron) Cadmium and its compounds Carbon monoxide Chlordecone (Kepone) Chloroform Chloroprene Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Dioxane Epichlorohydrin Ethylene Dibromide Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Oxide Fluorocarbons Formaldehyde Formamides Lead (Organic) Manganese and its compounds Mercury and its compounds (Inorganic) Methyl n-butyl ketone Methyl chloroform Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone Platinum and its compounds Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) Polychlorinated bipenyls (PCB) Selenium and its compounds Styrene Tellurium and its compounds Tetr achloroethylene

257

New low toxicity corrosion inhibitors for industrial cleaning operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inhibitors are routinely employed in chemical cleaning solvents used for removing scale from electrical power plants and industrial equipment since these cleaning solvents are corrosive to metal surfaces. This paper discusses the development of three new inhibitors developed for the use in hydrochloric acid, ammoniated EDTA or citric acid chemical cleaning solutions. Synthesis procedures used in the production of Mannich derivatives employed in the inhibitors were optimized for maximum corrosion resistance and reduced toxicity. All auxiliary ingredients used in the formulation of final inhibitor products were chosen to give the lowest possible toxicity of these products.

Lindert, A.; Johnston, W.G. [Henkel Surface Technologies, Madison Heights, MI (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The toxicity of two crude oils and kerosine to cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TOXICITY OF TWO CRUDE OILS AND KEROSINE TO CATTLE A Thesis by LOYD DOUGLAS ROWE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major... Subject: Veterinary Toxicology THE TOXICITY OF TWO CRUDE OILS AND KEROSINE TO CATTLE A Thesis by LOYD DOUGLAS ROWE Approved as to style and content by: i (Chairman of Committee) J (Head of De rtment) (Member) (Me er) December 1972 ABSTRACT...

Rowe, Loyd Douglas

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Dosimetric and Late Radiation Toxicity Comparison Between Iodine-125 Brachytherapy and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To compare the dose distributions and late radiation toxicities for {sup 125}I brachytherapy (IBT) and stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods: Ninety-four consecutive patients with juxtapapillary melanoma were reviewed: 30 have been treated with IBT and 64 with SRT. Iodine-125 brachytherapy cases were modeled with plaque simulator software for dosimetric analysis. The SRT dosimetric data were obtained from the Radionics XKnife RT3 software. Mean doses at predetermined intraocular points were calculated. Kaplan-Meier estimates determined the actuarial rates of late toxicities, and the log–rank test compared the estimates. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months in both cohorts. The 2 cohorts were balanced with respect to pretreatment clinical and tumor characteristics. Comparisons of radiation toxicity rates between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded actuarial rates at 50 months for cataracts of 62% and 75% (P=.1), for neovascular glaucoma 8% and 47% (P=.002), for radiation retinopathy 59% and 89% (P=.0001), and for radiation papillopathy 39% and 74% (P=.003), respectively. Dosimetric comparisons between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded mean doses of 12.8 and 14.1 Gy (P=.56) for the lens center, 17.6 and 19.7 Gy (P=.44) for the lens posterior pole, 13.9 and 10.8 Gy (P=.30) for the ciliary body, 61.9 and 69.7 Gy (P=.03) for optic disc center, and 48.9 and 60.1 Gy (P<.0001) for retina at 5-mm distance from tumor margin, respectively. Conclusions: Late radiation-induced toxicities were greater with SRT, which is secondary to the high-dose exposure inherent to the technique as compared with IBT. When technically feasible, IBT is preferred to treat juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma.

Krema, Hatem, E-mail: htmkrm19@yahoo.com [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Beiki-Ardakani, Akbar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Weisbrod, Daniel [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laperriere, Normand J.; Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action Andrea B. Dann and Alice Hontela* ABSTRACT: Triclosan [5chloro2(2,4dichlorophenoxy)phenol; TCS] is a broad spectrum antibacterial been shown to be effective. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Keywords: triclosan; irgasan

Hontela, Alice

262

A Drug Toxicity Death Involving Propylhexedrine and Mitragynine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......toxicity urine Substance Abuse Detection methods Substance-Related...Tandem Mass Spectrometry Young Adult A death involving abuse of propylhexedrine and...decedent's computer and internet usage history indicated...and CEDIA for drugs of abuse. A full-scan (m......

Justin M. Holler; Shawn P. Vorce; Pamela C. McDonough-Bender; Joseph Magluilo; Jr.; Carol J. Solomon; Barry Levine

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The Transport and Deposition of Persistent Toxic Substances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances, held May 21-22, in Romulus Michigan. The material presented here was collected . . . . . . . u Bruce Kirschner . . . . . b Serge L'Italien . . . . . . c Paul Lioy . . . . . . . . . . a Maris Ratza . . . . . . . . l Orlando Cabrera Rivera k Bruce Rodger . . . . . . . k Joyce Rosenthal . . . . q

264

INVENTORY -EDITED SARA TITLE III TOXIC CHEMICALS Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY - EDITED SARA TITLE III TOXIC CHEMICALS Department: Principal Investigator: SARA Reporter) 75-71-8 Dielectric Oil 64742-53-6 Emetine Dihydrochloride 316-42-7 Formaldehyde 50-00-0 Fuel Oil, #2 (Inside) 68476-30-2 Fuel Oil, #4 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #4 (Underground) 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #6 68553

Entekhabi, Dara

265

Toxic Inhalation Fatalities of US Construction Workers, 1990 to 1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

space standard could save lives, particularly among water, sewer, and utility line industry workers. (J numbers of fatalities. The majority of these deaths occurred in confined spaces. Water, sewer, and utility line workers are at increased risk for poisoning fatality. Toxic inhalation fatalities

Illinois at Chicago, University of

266

A Wily Recruiter in the Battle Against Toxic ? Amyloid Aggregation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...recruiter in the battle against toxic beta amyloid aggregation. | Comment News | 0 Amyloid beta-Peptides 0 Ligands 0 Piperidines 0 SLF-CR compound 573-58-0 Congo Red EC 5.2.1.- Tacrolimus Binding Proteins | Amyloid beta-Peptides chemistry metabolism...

Ingrid Wickelgren

2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

267

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, toxic waste sites, air pollutants and heavy metals, with the strongest evidence found for air pollutants and pesticides. Gestational exposure to methylmercury (through fish retrospective case­control, ecological or prospective cohort studies, although a few had weaker study designs

Cai, Long

268

Toxic effects of Triclosan on the detoxification system and breeding of Daphnia magna  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The toxic effects of different concentrations of Triclosan (TCS) (1–128 ?g/L)...Daphnia magna (D. magna) were investigated by acute (48 h) and chronic (21-day) toxicity tests. The response of antioxidase system a...

Ying Peng; Ying Luo; Xiang-Ping Nie; Wei Liao; Yu-Feng Yang…

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

E-Print Network 3.0 - apap toxicity unexpectedly Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity unexpectedly Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: apap toxicity unexpectedly Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The use of human and...

270

A human pluripotent stem cell platform for assessing developmental neural toxicity screening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Current methods of testing chemicals for developmental neural toxicity include animal testing...in vitro...testing using cultured primary cells or cell lines. Here, we review the current state of neural toxicity ...

Zhonggang Hou; Jue Zhang; Michael P Schwartz; Ron Stewart…

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

E-Print Network 3.0 - amyloid beta toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: amyloid beta toxicity Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Development of Novel Small-Size Peptides...

272

The role of antioxidant enzymes in adaptive responses to environmental toxicants in vascular disease  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Human exposure to environmental toxicants is known to contribute to the development of vascular disease. Inhalation of environmental toxicants induces inflammation and oxidative stress in the vascular system a...

Seung Eun Lee; Yong Seek Park

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - agent toxicity testing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity testing Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: agent toxicity testing Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Acclimation. (1) Steady-state...

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic radiation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of California at San Diego Collection: Engineering 24 doi:10.1016j.ijrobp.2004.04.014 FRACTIONATION AND LATE RECTAL TOXICITY Summary: , et al. Interim report of toxicity...

275

Geochemistry, toxicity, and sorption properties of contaminated sediments and pore waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geochemistry, toxicity, and sorption properties of contaminated sediments and pore waters from two chemistry, sorption properties, and toxicity were determined on several samples. Metal concentrations and desorption experiments for Cu, Zn, and Cd on composite sediment samples demonstrated typical sorption

276

Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in material selection processes for sustainable design andselection process for developing a sustainable materialintegrated sustainable material selection process of toxic

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may help to design green solvents for specific applications.liquids as new, green, and non-toxic solvents. However,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Advanced combustor design concepts to control NO{sub x} and air toxics. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Reaction Engineering International (REI) and ABB/Combustion Engineering have joined together in this research proposal to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on ignition stability and flame characteristics because these critically affect: NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and emissions of air toxics; existing laboratory and bench scale facilities are being used to generate critical missing data which will be used to improve the NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels in comprehensive combustion simulation tools currently being used by industrial boiler manufacturers. To ensure effective and timely transfer of This technology, a major manufacturer (ABB) and a combustion model supplier (REI) have been included as part of the team from the early conception of the proposal. ABB/Combustion Engineering is providing needed fundamental data on the extent of volatile evolution from commercial coals as well as background information on current design needs in industrial practice. MIT is responsible for the development of an improved char nitrogen oxidation model which will ultimately be incorporated into an enhanced NO{sup x} submodel. Reaction Engineering International is providing the lead engineering staff for the experimental studies and an overall industrial focus for the work based on their use of the combustion simulation tools for a wide variety of industries. The University of Utah is conducting bench scale experimentation to (1) investigate alternative methods for enhancing flame stability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and (2) characterize air toxic emissions under ultralow NO{sub x} conditions. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented to the solid sampling system and char nitrogen modeling.

Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Coll. of Engineering; Sarofim, A.; Goel, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

Spatial and temporal variations in toxicity in an urban-runoff treatment marsh  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxicity tests have not been widely used to assess the performance of urban-runoff treatment facilities. In the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests were used to quantify toxicity of urban runoff at Crandall Creek and the downstream Demonstration Urban Stormwater Treatment (DUST) March in Fremont, California. Acute toxicity, expressed as the median time to lethality (LT50) for C. dubia, was used to compare the relative intensities of toxicity in the system. During or shortly after storm events, horizontal and vertical gradients in LT50 and electrical conductivity were observed, with high correlation between the two parameters. Toxicity diminished as time passed after the storm. The performance of the DUST Marsh as a treatment facility was evaluated for three aspects: detection, dilution, and toxicity removal. The authors found that toxic storm water generated by small- to medium-sized storms was contained in the marsh. Toxicity was greatly reduced upon dilution of storm water with pre-existing marsh water, and mixing of the water column increased the rate of toxicity diminution. Toxicity reduction, above and beyond that attributable to dilution, was evident in the marsh. Results of this study demonstrates the potential use of toxicity assessments as an integral component of marsh design and management.

Katznelson, R.; Jewell, W.T.; Anderson, S.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake Final Report Fremont Lake #20 Water-two-three punch to knockout toxic algae and restore water quality in Nebraska's numerous sandpit lakes. "It seems to help rid the too-often toxic algae prone Fremont State Lakes of the oily green scum that can close them

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Dele river in Northern France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima to accumulate in sediments at the bottom of the water column; and if toxic levels are reached, metals can affect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

The Chemical Thesaurus V2.0 Created by Mark R. Leach. Meta-Synthesis, 56 Downland Road, Brighton, BN2 6DJ, England. 2001. £ 19.95 (Approximately $29.00).  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Chemical Thesaurus V2.0 Created by Mark R. Leach. ... The Chemical Thesaurus is a reaction chemistry information system that extends traditional references by providing hyperlinks between related information. ... With its built-in connections, organizing themes, and multiple ways to sort and view data, The Chemical Thesaurus is much greater than the sum of the data in its database. ...

Kimberley R. Cousins

2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

283

Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ``Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.`` To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste.

Ragaini, R.C.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

The subchronic toxicity of Roridin A in sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zealand, have also undergcme acute and ~nic trials. Lambs fed extracts from ~rothecium sp. in an acute trial, exhibited anorexia, severe depression, ~1 ~, and scouring. Upon death, necropsies revealed the gastric ccaapartmentalization of excemive... was cavered with wool breaks or bare spots. Neurolagical signs were exhibited by animals f24 and f47. On days 16 and 17 of the trial, both animals exhibited signs of a severe toxic crisis. 'Ihe animals were ataxic and refused to remain standing. Hi...

Thormahlen, Keller Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

285

Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Title Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sohn, Michael D., Richard G. Sextro, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(6) Pagination 1792-1796 Date Published Sept. 4-9, 2005 Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Keywords airflow and pollutant transport group, airflow modeling, comis, countermeasures to chemical and biological threats, emergency response, exposure, indoor environment department, shelter-in-place Abstract An accidental or intentional outdoor release of pollutants can produce a hazardous plume, potentially contaminating large portions of a metropolitan area as it disperses downwind. To minimize health consequences on the populace, government and research organizations often recommend sheltering in place when evacuation is impractical. Some reports also recommend "hardening" an indoor shelter, for example by applying duct tape to prevent leakage into a bathroom. However, few studies have quantified the perceived beneficial effects of sheltering and hardening, or examined the limits of their applicability. In this paper, we examine how sheltering and hardening might reduce exposure levels under different building and meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction). We predict concentrations and exposure levels for several conditions, and discuss the net benefits from several sheltering and hardening options

286

Ross Hazardous and Toxic Materials Handling Facility: Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) owns a 200-acre facility in Washington State known as the Ross Complex. Activities at the Ross Complex routinely involve handling toxic substances such as oil-filled electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organic and inorganic compounds for preserving wood transmission poles, and paints, solvents, waste oils, and pesticides and herbicides. Hazardous waste management is a common activity on-site, and hazardous and toxic substances are often generated from these and off-site activities. The subject of this environmental assessment (EA) concerns the consolidation of hazardous and toxic substances handling at the Complex. This environmental assessment has been developed to identify the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the proposal. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to determine if the proposed action is likely to have a significant impact on the environment. In addition to the design elements included within the project, mitigation measures have been identified within various sections that are now incorporated within the project. This facility would be designed to improve the current waste handling practices and to assist BPA in meeting Federal and state regulations.

URS Consultants, Inc.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Allometry versus physiologically-based toxicokinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. The authors are then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to all organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazards to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. The question arises of how interspecific extrapolations should be made. Should extrapolations be limited to animals within the same class, order, family or genus? Alteratively, should extrapolations be made along trophic levels or physiologic similarities rather than by taxonomic classification? In other words, is an avian carnivore more like a mammalian carnivore or an avian granivore in its response to a toxic substance? Can general rules be set or does the type of extrapolation depend upon the class of chemical and its mode of uptake and toxicologic effect?

Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Berg, M. van den [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

Specht, W.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Water purification and toxicity control of chlorophenols by 3D nanofiber membranes decorated with photocatalytic titania nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Highly photocatalytic water purification three-dimensional nanofiber membranes were fabricated. We identified the optimal fabrication process of nylon-6 nanofiber membranes suspending titania nanoparticles for potential water purifications and toxicity control of chlorophenols. Nanofibers and nanoparticles were deposited on a soda lime glass substrate by electrospinning and electrospraying, respectively. Titania nanoparticles were used to induce the UV light driven photocatalytic effect and nanofibers were used to tightly suspend the nanoparticles in air. Both batch and continuous deposition processes were introduced in the membrane fabrication process and their water purification performances were compared and quantified using a methylene blue solution, which is often used as a model pollutant. Surface morphologies and characteristics of the membranes fabricated at various process conditions were also provided. The membrane fabricated by the continuous means yielded 100% degradation of the methylene blue solution within 90 min under a relatively weak UV irradiation (0.6 mW/cm2), which promises its potential indoor application. The nano-textured membranes developed in this work was also applied to the real pollutants, such as chlorophenols, and showed a promising performance in their toxicity control.

Seongpil An; Min Wook Lee; Bhavana N. Joshi; Ayeong Jo; Jinho Jung; Sam S. Yoon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

A mechanism for providing institutional assurance for the safe handling of acutely toxic or physically dangerous chemicals in research laboratories  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical use is ubiquitous in research laboratories and is necessary for the advancement of research and creation of new technology. Regulatory mechanisms currently exist that mandate the provision of basic safety training for workers and the assurance that essential safety information is readily available. Unfortunately, in some cases, institutional oversight of specific “high risk” laboratory chemical use may be absent. This may be due in part to the difficulty in delineating between chemicals that are commonly used but possess a hazardous characteristic (e.g., flammability) and those that exhibit acutely toxic or particularly dangerous properties (e.g., explosivity). In 1994, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston began addressing this issue through the creation of an institutional Chemical Safety Committee (CSC) that consists largely of research faculty. Through a shared governance process, the committee identified criteria for which certain chemical use would require institutional review and approval, striving to achieve a balance between supporting research while providing an added level of assurance that work involving the acutely toxic or physically dangerous chemical can be performed safely. The process used for developing these criteria is described along with the lessons learned from its evolutionary process.

Robert Emery

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Subchronic toxicity of croton oil (Croton tiglium L.) to sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Charles F. Hall (Member) J. D. cCrady (Head of Department) December 1983 ABSTRACT Subchronic Toxicity of Croton Oil (Croton ti lium L. ) to Sheep (December 1983) Roger B. Harvey, B. S. , Texas A&M University; D. V. M. , Texas A&M University... Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. E. M. Bailey, Jr. Croton oil (Croton ~ti lium L. ) was administered daily via stomach tube to 12 clinically healthy Rambouillet crossbred sheep (2 ewes, 2 wethers per group for 3 groups), 1 to 4 years of age for 60...

Harvey, Roger Bruce

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Toxicity of the isolated tannin from Quercus havardi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

present. Rabbits were then fed tannic acid at a level of 1 g/kg of . body weiglt for 40 days which produced symptoms similar to those found in aqueous extracts. From this work, they concluded that the tannins were the toxic principle in the aqueous... 18 5, 6, and 7 tabulate the results. Ellagic acid has been reported present in a number of ~ercus species and a small scale extraction of shin oak with hot water was made in an effort to isolate ellagic acid from the plant. Ellagic acid...

Pigeon, Robert F

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION AND LEACHING OF A THERMOWELL AND CONDUCTIVITY PROBE PIPE SAMPLE FROM TANK 48H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. The material on the Tank 48H internal tank surfaces is estimated to have a total volume of approximately 115 gallons consisting of mostly water soluble solids with approximately 20 wt% insoluble solids (33 Kg TPB). This film is assumed to be readily removable. The material on the internal equipment/surfaces of Tank 48H is presumed to be easily removed by slurry pump operation. For Tank 49H, the slurry pumps were operated almost continuously for approximately 6 months after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids--Na{sub 3}H(CO){sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, NaTPB, NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2}. Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. Depending on when the Recycle material or inhibited water can be added to Tank 48H, the tank may not be allowed to agitate for this same amount of time. The tank will be filled above 150 inches and agitated at least once during the Aggregation process. If the material cannot be removed after completion of these batches, the material may be removed with additional fill and agitation operations. There is a risk that this will not remove the material from the internal surfaces. As a risk mitigation activity, properties of the film and the ease of removing the film from the tank will be evaluated prior to initiating Aggregation. This task will investigate the dissolution of Tank 48H solid deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, tank personnel plan to cut and remove a thermowell pipe from Tank 48H and submit the cut pieces to SRNL for both characterization and leaching behavior. A plan for the removal, packaging and transport of the thermowell pipe has been issued. This task plan outlines the proposed method of analysis and testing to estimate (1) the thickness of the solid deposit, (2) chemical composition of the deposits and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid deposits in inhibited water (IW) and in Tank 48H aggregate solution.

Fondeur, F

2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

294

Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and ?-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by ?- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Majid, Amran Ab., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Sarmani, Sukiman, E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

295

Sensitometric characteristics of dental xeroradiography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dental xeroradiography is a high-quality intraoral imaging system which provides a potentially convenient, rapid, low-dose alternative to conventional film radiography. In this study the sensitometric properties of dental xeroradiography were investigated via assessment of high- and low-contrast xeroradiographic processor settings, transmission versus reflection densitometry, reciprocity-law failure, and kVp (tube voltage) plate dependence. Findings of the study indicated that imaging at high-contrast processor settings results in greater dynamic range but less exposure latitude than imaging at low-contrast processor settings. Determination of characteristic curves demonstrated greater contrast in reflection mode than imaging by transillumination for all but the very densest of images (greater than 1.6 O.D.). There was also little difference in characteristic curves produced from 50 to 90 kVp, indicating that the xeroradiographic plate exhibits a relatively constant sensitivity over the tube voltages tested if exposure is expressed in roentgens. Finally, no substantial reciprocity-law failure was observed for dental xeroradiography over a clinically relevant range of exposure times.

Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

297

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solutin and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY); Gillow, Jeffrey B. (Valley Cottage, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A Schematic Method for Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the material selection process for sustainable design andfrom the perspectives of sustainable process design andinte- grated sustainable material selection process of toxic

Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute acetaminophen toxicity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

North Carolina State University Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 59 Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action Summary: indicate that...

300

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetaminophen toxicity evidence Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine, University of Maryland at College Park Collection: Biology and Medicine 70 Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action Summary: Triclosan:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics sources Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Summary: standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July 30 Air Toxics Inventory State Compare......

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics regulatory Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Summary: standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July 30 Air Toxics Inventory State Compare......

303

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics control Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air toxics control Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Chemistry Department Standard Operating Procedure Title:...

304

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient air toxics Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indicators Project; CDC, NCEH, EHHE; January 2006 7 Summary: pollutants in ambient air Hazardous or toxic substances released in ambient air Residence in non... Indicators...

305

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics exposure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indicators Project; CDC, NCEH, EHHE; January 2006 7 Summary: pollutants in ambient air Hazardous or toxic substances released in ambient air Residence in non... Indicators...

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics compliance Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Summary: standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July 30 Air Toxics Inventory State Compare......

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics releases Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Cu) and lead (Pb) (typically) Toxic chemical release reporting... standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July ... Source: Wechsler, Risa H. - Kavli...

308

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetaminophen apap toxicity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(APAP), bromobenzene (BB), and 4... with the toxicity of many electrophiles, and the identification of relevant in vivo protein targets is a desirable... derivative of teucrin...

309

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous toxic metals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

including selected metals, PAHs and organochlorine pesticides. While toxicity identification... evaluations (TIEs) suggest that metals are the primary cause of sediment...

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - aflatoxin b1 toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

potent toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites... CROP ROTATION INFLUENCES AFLATOXIN PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH TEXAS... Tucson, AZ Abstract...

311

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient water toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The most Summary: waters of the toxicity test beakers. Immediate collection and analysis of interstitial water... was necessary. Others have recommended interstitial waters...

312

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute acrolein toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology 43 Anal cancer IMRT A multi-institutional acute gastrointestinal toxicity analysis of anal cancer Summary: Anal cancer IMRT A multi-institutional acute gastrointestinal...

313

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity assessment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Before the Senate Committee on Small Business Summary: . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely......

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute aquatic toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ., 1999) and subsequently the rest of the food chain. The acute toxicity of pollutants to rotifers... , suggesting a simi- lar underlying mechanism in each group. No acute...

315

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic response Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Before the Senate Committee on Small Business Summary: . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely......

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity sensitivity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Before the Senate Committee on Small Business Summary: . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely......

317

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal toxicity testing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: differentiated toxic from nontoxic sam- ples. It is suggested that the RIA test in its present state is useful... administration into appropriate animals....

318

Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Glomus Intraradices) Fungus with Tomato Plants grown under Copper Toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the toxic effect of copper. Therefore additionalpotassium, calcium, iron and copper from soil particles, anddifferent concentration of copper. Total protein content

Malekzadeh, Parviz; Khara, Jalil; Farshian, Shadi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Phosphorus sorption characteristics of intertidal marsh sediments ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phosphorus sorption characteristics of intertidal marsh sediments along an estuarine salinity gradient. Sundareshwar, P. V., James T. Morris. Limnol. Oceanogr.

320

Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Characteristics of coking coal burnout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

Nakamura, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Bailey, J.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

323

Interaction Between Toxic Metals and Complex Biofilm/Mineral/Solution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

highlights highlights title by Alexis S. Templeton, Thomas P. Trainor, and Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Stanford University Sorption reactions on particle surfaces can dramatically affect the speciation, cycling and bioavailability of essential micronutrients (i.e. PO43-, Cu, Zn etc.) and toxic metals and metalloids (i.e. Pb, Hg, Se, As) in soils and aquatic environments. Considerable attention has been focused on understanding metal sorption reactions at a molecular/mechanistic level and the effects of metal concentration, pH, ionic strength, and complexing ligands on the ways in which metal ions bind to the surfaces of common mineral phases such as Fe-, Mn- and Al-(hydr)oxides and clays. However, a significant fraction of mineral surfaces in natural environments are extensively colonized by microbial organisms, which can also be potent sorbents for metals due to the large number of reactive functional groups that decorate the cell walls and outer membranes of bacterial surfaces.

324

Method and apparatus for diagnosis of lead toxicity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved methods and apparatus for in vivo measurement of the skeletal lead burden of a patient and for diagnosis of lead toxicity are disclosed. The apparatus comprises an x-ray tube emitting soft low energy x-rays from a silver anode, a polarizer for polarizing the emitted x-rays, and a detector for detecting photons fluoresced from atoms in the patient's tibia upon irradiation by the polarized x-rays. The fluoresced photons are spectrally analyzed to determine their energy distribution. Peaks indicating the presence of lead are identified if the patient has relatively high bone lead content. The data may be compared to data recorded with respect to a similar test performed on patients having also had the conventional EDTA chelation tests performed thereon in order to correlate the test results with respect to a particular patient to the conventionally accepted EDTA chelation test.

Rosen, John F. (Riverside, CT); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Bayside, NY); Wielopolski, Lucian (Shirley, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million U.S. Households; 45 pages, 128 kb) Million U.S. Households; 45 pages, 128 kb) Contents Pages HC1-1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-4a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-5a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-6a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-7a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, Million U.S. Households, 1997 4

326

Toxicity of depleted uranium on isolated rat kidney mitochondria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background Kidney is known as the most sensitive target organ for depleted uranium (DU) toxicity in comparison to other organs. Although the oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage induced by DU has been well investigated, the precise mechanism of DU-induced nephrotoxicity has not been thoroughly recognized yet. Methods Kidney mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation from Wistar rats and mitochondrial toxicity endpoints were then determined in both in vivo and in vitro uranyl acetate (UA) exposure cases. Results Single injection of UA (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Isolated mitochondria from the UA-treated rat kidney showed a marked elevation in oxidative stress accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse as compared to control group. Incubation of isolated kidney mitochondria with UA (50, 100 and 200 ?M) manifested that UA can disrupt the electron transfer chain at complex II and III that leads to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione oxidation. Disturbances in oxidative phosphorylation were also demonstrated through decreased ATP concentration and ATP/ADP ratio in UA-treated mitochondria. In addition, UA induced a significant damage in mitochondrial outer membrane. Moreover, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were observed following the UA treatment in isolated mitochondria. General significance Both our in vivo and in vitro results showed that UA-induced nephrotoxicity is linked to the impairment of electron transfer chain especially at complex II and III which leads to subsequent oxidative stress.

Fatemeh Shaki; Mir-Jamal Hosseini; Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari; Jalal Pourahmad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Is It Time to Tailor the Prediction of Radio-Induced Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients? Building the First Set of Nomograms for Late Rectal Syndrome  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Development of user-friendly tools for the prediction of single-patient probability of late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This multicenter protocol was characterized by the prospective evaluation of rectal toxicity through self-assessed questionnaires (minimum follow-up, 36 months) by 718 adult men in the AIROPROS 0102 trial. Doses were between 70 and 80 Gy. Nomograms were created based on multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three endpoints were considered: G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding (52/718 events), G3 late rectal bleeding (24/718 events), and G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence (LINC, 19/718 events). Results: Inputs for the nomogram for G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding estimation were as follows: presence of abdominal surgery before RT, percentage volume of rectum receiving >75 Gy (V75Gy), and nomogram-based estimation of the probability of G2 to G3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity (continuous variable, which was estimated using a previously published nomogram). G3 late rectal bleeding estimation was based on abdominal surgery before RT, V75Gy, and NOMACU. Prediction of G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence was based on abdominal surgery before RT, presence of hemorrhoids, use of antihypertensive medications (protective factor), and percentage volume of rectum receiving >40 Gy. Conclusions: We developed and internally validated the first set of nomograms available in the literature for the prediction of radio-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients. Calculations included dosimetric as well as clinical variables to help radiation oncologists predict late rectal morbidity, thus introducing the possibility of RT plan corrections to better tailor treatment to the patient's characteristics, to avoid unnecessary worsening of quality of life, and to provide support to the patient in selecting the best therapeutic approach.

Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Radiotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS - Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rancati, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.rancati@istitutotumori.mi.it [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Yu Changhong [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vavassori, Vittorio [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Humanitas - Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Cagna, Elena [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Gabriele, Pietro [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Mauro, Flora Anna; Baccolini, Micaela [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Villa Maria Cecilia, Lugo (Italy); Bianchi, Carla [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Menegotti, Loris [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Monti, Angelo F. [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Giganti, Maria Olga [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Dept. of Oncology, Ospedale Niguarda, Milan (Italy); and others

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Chronic toxicity evaluation of simulated DWPF effluent to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 7-Day Full Series Chronic Toxicity test was conducted April 13--20, 1990, for the Savannah River Site to assess the chronic toxicity of Simulated defense waste processing facility (DWPF) effluent to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The simulated effluented consisted of Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Formate, and Corros. Inib.

Not Available

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

UNDERSTANDING THE GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT EXPOSURE: CHERNOBYL AS A MODEL SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNDERSTANDING THE GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT EXPOSURE: CHERNOBYL AS A MODEL to Chernobyl radiation. Our results suggest that genetic diversity in radioactive regions of Ukraine to elucidate the effects of toxicant exposure. Keywords--Chernobyl Bank vole Population genetics Comparative

Baker, Robert J.

330

National Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

healthy. But when your environment exposes you to dangerous events or toxic substances, your health canNational Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry CDC's Climate and Health Program Environmental Health Your environment is everything around you--the air you

331

ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Aspects of Dioxin Toxicity Are Mediated by Interleukin 1-Like  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Aspects of Dioxin Toxicity Are Mediated by Interleukin 1-Like Cytokines, 2005 ABSTRACT Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) re- sults in a broad spectrum of toxic effects. Most, if not all, of these responses are dependent upon the binding of dioxin to the aryl

Bradfield, Christopher A.

332

Development of dioxin toxicity evaluation method in human milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of dioxin toxicity evaluation method in human milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Co. Ltd., Tokyo 105-8528, Japan b Dioxin Research Group, Saitama Institute of Public Health, Saitama, the development of a toxicity evaluation method for dioxins in human milk by enzyme-linked im- munosorbent assay

Hammock, Bruce D.

333

Assessing the effect of metal speciation on lead toxicity to Vicia faba pigment contents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal, but its putative toxicity with respect to its speciation remains to unveil. In this study, Pb-induced toxicity to Vicia faba pigment contents was assessed against Pb speciation and accumulation. After a culture period of three weeks, V. faba seedlings were exposed to 5 ?M of lead nitrate alone or chelated by citric acid (CA) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The plants were treated for 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h in nutrient solution. Exposure to Pb-5 caused increased production of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and decrease in V. faba chlorophyll contents during 24 h. Lead-induced oxidative stress and toxicity to chlorophyll contents varied with the speciation of Pb. Addition of EDTA to Pb solution alleviated Pb-induced oxidative stress and toxicity to V. faba pigments by decreasing Pb accumulation in V. faba leaves. However, addition of citric acid to Pb did not affect Pb accumulation or toxicity to V. faba leaves. It is proposed that metal speciation plays an important role in Pb toxicity to V. faba pigment. Moreover, organic ligands vary greatly in terms of their ability to modify Pb phytoaccumulation and toxicity.

Muhammad Shahid; Camille Dumat; Bertrand Pourrut; Muhammad Sabir; Eric Pinelli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fusibility Characteristics of Residual Ash from Lignite Fluidized-Bed Gasification To Understand Its Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant resource, which accounts for approximately 40% of global coal reserves. ... The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites ...

Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Quan-run Liu

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

335

Toxic potential of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in commercial PCB preparations: 2,3,7,8-T/sub 4/ CDD Toxicity Equivalence Factors Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Identification of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in commercial PCBs has contributed to the belief that they play a major role in the PCB toxicity. However, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have indicated that PCB congeners with chlorine substitution at both para and two or more meta positions resemble 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (T/sub 4/CDD) in their biologic and toxic effects due to their coplanarity. The relative toxic potential of these PCB isomers in wild animals such as Forster's tern, marine mammals and Snapping turtle has been emphasized. Some members of these toxic congeners were also identified and quantitated in commercial PCBs. However, there is no serious effort to evaluate the toxic potential of these PCB congeners in commercial PCB mixtures. Hence an isomer-specific toxic evaluation was attempted in those mixtures to understand the chemical factors behind their toxicity.

Kannan, N.; Tanabe, S.; Tatsukawa, R.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Effects of Bioethanol-Blended Diesel Fuel on Combustion and Emission Reduction Characteristics in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea ... As a fuel for compression engines, bioethanol-blended diesel fuels have some different trends on the exhaust emission characteristics according to the engine load. ... The paper begins with an introduction of general information on the nature of emissions of exhaust gases, including the toxicity and causes of emissions for both spark-ignition and diesel engines. ...

Su Han Park; Junepyo Cha; Chang Sik Lee

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

337

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1995 - Index Page  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

>Commercial Buildings Home > 1995 Characteristics Data 1995 Data Executive Summary Table of Contents Overview to Detailed Tables Detailed Tables 1995 national and Census region...

338

Examiner Characteristics and the Patent Grant Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characteristics and the Patent Grant Rate * Mark Lemley †USPTO: whether or not to grant a patent. We ?nd that moreart, are more likely to grant patent applications. These

Lemley, Mark A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River...

340

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy A Consortium to Optimize...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Sandia National Laboratories: balance energy characteristics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

balance energy characteristics Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in...

342

Evaluation of artificially-weathered standard fuel oil toxicity by marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weathering of petroleum spilled in the marine environment may not only change its physical and chemical properties but also its effects on the marine ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) obtained from a standard fuel oil following an environmentally realistic simulated weathering process for a period of 80 d. Experimental flasks with 40 g L?1 of fuel oil were incubated at 18 °C with a 14 h light:10 h dark photoperiod and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 70 ?E m?2 s?1. Samples were taken at four weathering periods: 24 h, 7, 21 and 80 d. WAF toxicity was tested using the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) embryo–larval bioassays and the aromatic hydrocarbons levels (AH) in the WAF were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In contrast with the classic assumption of toxicity decrease with oil weathering, the present study shows a progressive increase in WAF toxicity with weathering, being the EC50 after 80 d eightfold lower than the EC50 at day 1, whereas AH concentration slightly decreased. In the long term, inoculation of WAF with bacteria from a hydrocarbon chronically-polluted harbor slightly reduced toxicity. The differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered fuels could not be explained on the basis of the total AH content and the formation of oxidized derivatives is suggested to explain this toxicity increase.

Juan Bellas; Liliana Saco-Álvarez; Óscar Nieto; Josep María Bayona; Joan Albaigés; Ricardo Beiras

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Nanoparticle toxicity by the gastrointestinal route: evidence and knowledge gaps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing interest in nanoparticles for advanced technologies, consumer products, and biomedical applications has led to great excitement about potential benefits but also concern over the potential for adverse human health effects. The gastrointestinal tract represents a likely route of entry for many nanomaterials, both directly through intentional ingestion or indirectly via nanoparticle dissolution from food containers or by secondary ingestion of inhaled particles. Additionally, increased utilisation of nanoparticles may lead to increased environmental contamination and unintentional ingestion via water, food animals, or fish. The gastrointestinal tract is a site of complex, symbiotic interactions between host cells and the resident microbiome. Accordingly, evaluation of nanoparticles must take into consideration not only absorption and extraintestinal organ accumulation but also the potential for altered gut microbes and the effects of this perturbation on the host. The existing literature was evaluated for evidence of toxicity based on these considerations. Focus was placed on three categories of nanomaterials: nanometals and metal oxides, carbon-based nanoparticles, and polymer/dendrimers with emphasis on those particles of greatest relevance to gastrointestinal exposures.

Ingrid L. Bergin; Frank A. Witzmann

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

345

Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA{sub 2}SO{sub 4} demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC{sub 50} for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O`Reilly, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Inner Solar System Characteristics of Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Inner Solar System #12;The Earth #12;Characteristics of Earth A terrestrial, rocky planet floats on mantle · Crust is created and destroyed #12;Characteristics of Earth Today Surface: · 70% water · 30% land Atmosphere: ·77% N2 ·21% O2 ·0.1% H2O ·+Ar, CO2, Ne #12;The Dynamic Earth Molten Core

Walter, Frederick M.

347

The toxic levels of Microcide, a chlorine compound, for selected fishes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TOXIC LEVELS OF M)CROCIDE, A CHLORINE COMPOUND, FOR SELECTED FISHES A Thesis by Michael A. Champ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A=M University in partial fultillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... The Toxic Levels of MICROCIDE, A Chlorine Compound, For Selected Fishes. (May' 1969) Micha I A. Champ, B. S. , Texas AsM University Directed by: Dr. W. J. Clark Levels of MICROCIDE toxicity were established for selected fishes, using the City of College...

Champ, Michael Augustus

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

Property:Other Characteristics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Characteristics Characteristics Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Other Characteristics Property Type String Pages using the property "Other Characteristics" Showing 8 pages using this property. A Alden Large Flume + Point measurement capability + Alden Small Flume + Point measurement capability + Alden Tow Tank + Point measurement capability + Alden Wave Basin + Point measurement capability + D DeFrees Flume 4 + Sufficient fetch to generate wind waves + H Haynes Wave Basin + Two individual fans placed as appropriate + O OTRC Wave Basin + Bank of 16 fans with variable speed control for low frequency gustiness. + S Ship Towing Tank + Wind is provided from a special moving carriage + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:Other_Characteristics&oldid=597949

349

The Nature of Glass Leaching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Argonne National Laboratory Specialists’ Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Nuclear Waste Management / Radioactive Waste

G. L. McVay; C. Q. Buckwalter

350

Leaching of Nuclear Waste Glasses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Resistance to aqueous corrosion is the most important requirement of glasses designed to immobilize high level radioactive wastes. Obtaining a highly durable nuclear waste glass is complicated by the requirement ...

L. L. Hench

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acrolein, a member of reactive ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including ?-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent of U.S. Households; 45 pages, 121 kb) Percent of U.S. Households; 45 pages, 121 kb) Contents Pages HC1-1b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-2b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-3b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4 HC1-4b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-5b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-6b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 3 HC1-7b. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, Percent of U.S. Households, 1997 4

355

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About It Speaker(s): Arlene Blum Date: November 3, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: William Fisk Polystyrene, polyisocyanurate, and polyurethane are insulation materials that increase energy efficiency and whose use in buildings, especially energy efficient buildings, is growing rapidly. At the same time, the flame retardants currently in use with these materials are often chemicals that are known to be toxic or have not been adequately evaluated for their impact on human health and the environment. For example, all polystyrene foam insulation used in buildings is treated with HBCD, a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic flame retardant. The impacts of exposure to

356

TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory Dataset Summary Description TRI.NET ("T-R-I-dot-net") is a new application developed by EPA to help you analyze Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) information. This application is capable of easily and quickly performing complex queries to help you understand TRI information. It is especially useful for analysts who need a highly interactive environment in order to refine their queries and analyses in an efficient and productive way. TRI.NET makes heavy use of mashups using the latest mapping technologies to help visualize where TRI releases are occurring.

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity histopathology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

P.O. Box 5786 Summary: ; Fungal culture 3 ; Histopathology 4 ; Neospora IFA 5 ; Toxic heavy metal screen 6 ; Toxoplasma gondii MAT... Parvovirus-2 FA 4 ; Histopathology 5 ; (2)...

358

Toxicity of oiled wetland sediments influenced by natural and enhanced bioremediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

evaluated were inorganic nutrients and inorganic nutrients plus an alternate electron acceptor. The effects of treatments on sediment toxicity and mutagenicity were assessed using Microtox 100% and Solid-phase Tests and amphipod, cytochrome P450 Reporter...

Mueller, Danica Christine

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Effect of Chemical Speciation on Toxicity of Mercury to Escherichia coli Biofilms and Planktonic Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Chemical Speciation on Toxicity of Mercury to Escherichia coli Biofilms and Planktonic Cells ... charged forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl3-/HgCl42-) induced less light prodn. ...

Isaac Najera; Chu-Ching Lin; Golenaz Adeli Kohbodi; Jennifer A. Jay

2005-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

360

Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Toxicity Is Mediated by a Dynamin-Dependent Protein-Trafficking Pathway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ARTICLE PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNITY Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Toxicity Is Mediated...Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Ebola virus infection causes a highly lethal...effects, the molecular events that underlie Ebola virus cytopathicity are poorly understood...

Nancy J. Sullivan; Mary Peterson; Zhi-yong Yang; Wing-pui Kong; Heinricus Duckers; Elizabeth Nabel; Gary J. Nabel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Engineered nanomaterials: knowledge gaps in fate, exposure, toxicity, and future directions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to identify current knowledge gaps in fate, exposure, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), highlight research gaps, and suggest future research directions. Humans and other living organisms are exposed to ENMs during ...

Arun Kumar, Prashant Kumar, Ananthitha Anandan, Teresa F. Fernandes, Godwin A. Ayoko, George Biskos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A review on sources, toxicity and remediation technologies for removing arsenic from drinking water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Arsenic is a natural element found in the environment in organic and inorganic forms. The inorganic form is much more toxic and is found in ground water, surface water and many foods. This form is responsible ...

Ankita Basu; Debabrata Saha; Rumpa Saha; Tuhin Ghosh…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics index Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

calcium and sulfate as causes of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in a hard rock mining... Received in revised form 2 June 2010 Accepted 8 June 2010 Available online 10 July...

364

Testing for toxic effects of prey on zooplankton using sole versus ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Testing for toxic effects of prey on zooplankton using sole versus mixed diets. Colin, Sean P., Hans G. Dam. Limnol. Oceanogr., 47(5), 2002, 1430-1437 | DOI: ...

365

Hydrogen oxidation in soils as a possible toxic-effects indicator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient soil bioassays are needed in a screening array to determine the toxicities of industrial products and wastes. Hydrogen consumption is a common soil microbiological process that we evaluated as a possible soil indicator of toxic effects. Elemental tritium was used as a tracer to determine the H/sub 2/ oxidation rates in soils. The H/sub 2/ bioassay can be completed within 24 h using liquid scintillation counting of the tritium tracer. This test was used to evaluate the effects of known toxic chemicals (e.g., heavy metals, herbicides, and air pollutants), as well as a variety of suspected environmentally harmful compounds (e.g., waste waters, particulates, and sludges from industrial processes) on H/sub 2/ oxidation in soils. This bioassay responded to test compounds at concentrations shown to be toxic in other soil microbiological investigations.

Rogers, R.D. (U.S. EPA, Las Vegas); McFarlane, J.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute bowel toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

diseases responsible for the death of people are directly linked to our diets and food Summary: (s) of exposure is critical in assessing the acute toxicity of a pesticide...

367

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics provisions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Center Collection: Physics 64 Assembly Bill No. 118 CHAPTER 750 Summary: air pollutants and air toxics. (j) This act will be implemented in a manner to ensure the fair......

368

Toxicity of Fuel Oil Water Accommodated Fractions on Two Marine Microalgae, Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the acute toxicity of four fuel oils including F120, F180, F380 and No.-20 was evaluated by exposing the marine microalgae Chlorela spp. (Chlorophyta) and Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyta) in ...

Min Chao; Xinqiang Shen; Fengxia Lun…

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Biosensor Control of Acute Total Toxicity of Water and Soil Polluted by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article a short analysis of total toxicity of different samples of water and soil (obtained from some Azerbaijan mud bobbling volcanoes, region of oil production, railway lines, Dnieper river and prepa...

Nikolay F. Starodub

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone on rats and human by gel entrapped hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Troglitazone, despite passing preclinical trials on animals, was shortly withdrawn from market due to its severe hepatotoxicity in clinic. As rat hepatocyte monolayer consistently showed sensitive troglitazone toxicity as human hepatocyte monolayer in contrast to the species-specific toxicity in vivo, this paper utilized both hepatocytes in three-dimensional culture of gel entrapment to reflect the species difference on hepatotoxicity. Rat hepatocytes in gel entrapment did not show obvious cellular damage even under a long-term exposure for 21 days while gel entrapped human hepatocytes significantly displayed oxidative stress, steatosis, mitochondrial damage and cell death at a short exposure for 4 days. As a result, the detected species-specific toxicity of troglitazone between gel entrapped rat and human hepatocytes consisted well with the situation in vivo but was in a sharp contrast to the performance of two hepatocytes by monolayer culture. Such contradictory toxicity of rat hepatocytes between monolayer and gel entrapment culture could be explained by the fact that troglitazone was cleared more rapidly in gel entrapment than in monolayer culture. Similarly, the differential clearance of troglitazone in rat and human might also explain its species-specific toxicity. Therefore, gel entrapment of hepatocytes might serve as a platform for evaluation of drug toxicity at early stage of drug development by reducing costs, increasing the likelihood of clinical success and limiting human exposure to unsafe drugs. -- Highlights: ? Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone reflected by rat/human hepatocytes ? 3D hepatocytes in 21 days’ long-term culture used for drug hepatotoxicity ? Oversensitive toxicity in hepatocyte monolayer by slow troglitazone clearance.

Shen, Chong [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Meng, Qin, E-mail: mengq@zju.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Guoliang [Institute of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Zhejiang 310012 (China)] [Institute of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Zhejiang 310012 (China)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Ammonia inhalation toxicity in cats: a study of acute and chronic respiratory dysfunction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AMMONIA INHALATION TOXICITY IN CATS A STUDY OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION A Thesis by KENNETH TRAVIS DODD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A)M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Veterinary Physiology AMMONIA INHALATION TOXICITY IN CATS A STUDY OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION A Thesis by KENNETH TRAVIS DODD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Dodd, Kenneth Travis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

372

The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE QUANTIFICATION OF OXYGEN TOXICITY BY THE TECHNIQUE OF CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS OF RAT SERUM PROTEINS A Thesis by MARCIA WAGNER BARKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&ii University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Biology THE QUANTIFICATION OF OXYGEN TOXICITY BY THE TECHNIQUE OF CELLULOSE ACETATE ELECTROPHORESIS OF RAT SERUM PROTEINS A Thesis by MARCIA WAGNER BARKER Approved...

Barker, Marcia Wagner

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Smoke and toxic species analyses from combustion of guayule bagasse modified fiberboards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The determination of particle size distribution. 3. The identification of heavy metals in the smoke and ash phases. 4. The identification of other major smoke components. These tests will also be performed on normal, untreated fiberboard samples so... and untreated fiberboards were less than 10 microns in size and were, therefore, respirable to humans. Toxic species identification through the use of the gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy identified no unusually toxic chemical species within the smoke...

Paris, Lisa Danielle

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Toxicity of azinphosmethyl and chlordimeform to parasitoid Bracon mellotor say: lethal, reproductive, and behavioral effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOXICITY OF AZINPHOSMETHYL AND CHLORDIMEFORM TO PARASITOID BRACON MELLITOR SAY: LETHAL, REPRODUCTIVE, AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS A Thesis by PATTI JANE O' BRIEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Entomology TOXICITY OF AZINPHOSMETHYL AND CHLORDIMEFORM TO PARAS I TO ID BRACON MELI. ITOR SAY: LETHAL, REPRODUCTIVE, AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS A Thesis by PATT I JANE 0 ' BRIEN...

O'Brien, Patti Jane

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The effect of climatic factors on the toxicity of certain organic insecticides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? k3 Laboratory and Field Cage Experiments - 1950 1# Results of cage toxicity tests for boll weevil control con? ducted in the laboratory, greenhouse and field using insec? ticides indicated applied as sprays and dusts in experiment 1 at College... Station, Texas ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 78 2* Results of cage toxicity tests for boll weevil control conducted in the laboratory using insecticides indicated applied as sprays in experiment 2 at College Station, T e x a...

Mistric, Walter Joseph

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Property:Special Characteristics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Characteristics Characteristics Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Special Characteristics Property Type String Pages using the property "Special Characteristics" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + None + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + None + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + Yes + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + None + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + None + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + None + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + Yes + A Alden Large Flume + Yes + Alden Small Flume + Yes + Alden Tow Tank + None + Alden Wave Basin + Yes + B Breakwater Research Facility + None + Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + Yes + C Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + None + Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + None +

377

Pipelining characteristics of Daqing waxy crude oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Compared with pipelining Newtonian fluid, the pipelining characteristics of the waxy crude pipeline are sensitive to the complicated rheological properties. When the temperature is lower than the wax appearance t...

Ying-ru Zhu ???; Jin-jun Zhang ???

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Total lightning characteristics of ordinary convection.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Twenty-two isolated, non-severe, warm season thunderstorms (ordinary thunderstorms) were examined to test possible correlations between three-dimensional lightning flash characteristics and the complex evolution of the… (more)

Motley, Shane Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

24 October 2012 ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.D. Director of University of Minnesota Food Industry Center Koller Endowed Professor in Agribusiness specific characteristics that are different from industrial manufacturing and service supply chains from food manufacturers downstream to food retailers · Globalization of agriculture and agrifood supply

Levinson, David M.

380

Aging Characteristics of Polyurethane Foam Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Closed-cell polyurethane foam insulation displays a time-dependent thermal conductivity characteristic commonly known as aging. Freshly made foam has a relatively low thermal conductivity, which ... in order to e...

J. Navickas; R. A. Madsen

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Liquefaction characteristics of a fine sand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIQUEFACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINE SAND A Thesis by DONALD TIMOTHY BRANDON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering LIQUEFACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINE SAND A Thesis by DONALD TIMOTHY BRANDON Approved as to style and content by: airman o Commi ee) ead of Depar ent) (Member) ( ber) ABSTRACT LIQUEFACTION CEARACTERISTICS OF A FINE SAND...

Brandon, Donald Timothy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

382

Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

Ecology and Air Quality Group

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Chest Wall Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Malignant Lesions of the Lung and Liver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To quantify the frequency of rib fracture and chest wall (CW) pain and identify the dose-volume parameters that predict CW toxicity after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: The records of patients treated with SBRT between 2000 and 2008 were reviewed, and toxicity was scored according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 for pain and rib fracture. Dosimetric data for CW and rib were analyzed and related to the frequency of toxicity. The risks of CW toxicity were then further characterized according to the median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) dose-response model. Results: A total of 347 lesions were treated with a median follow-up of 19 months. Frequency of Grade I and higher CW pain and/or fracture for CW vs. non-CW lesions was 21% vs. 4%, respectively (p < 0.0001). A dose of 50 Gy was the cutoff for maximum dose (Dmax) to CW and rib above which there was a significant increase in the frequency of any grade pain and fracture (p = 0.03 and p = 0.025, respectively). Volume of CW receiving 15 Gy - 40 Gy was highly predictive of toxicity (R{sup 2} > 0.9). According to the EC{sub 50} model, 5 cc and 15 cc of CW receiving 40 Gy predict a 10% and 30% risk of CW toxicity, respectively. Conclusion: Adequate tumor coverage remains the primary objective when treating lung or liver lesions with SBRT. To minimize toxicity when treating lesions in close proximity to the CW, Dmax of the CW and/or ribs should remain <50 Gy, and <5 cc of CW should receive {>=}40 Gy.

Andolino, David L., E-mail: dandolin@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Forquer, Jeffrey A.; Henderson, Mark A.; Barriger, Robert B.; Shapiro, Ronald H.; Brabham, Jeffrey G.; Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Cardenes, Higinia R.; Fakiris, Achilles J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) 10581065 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods a complex array of toxic substances such as heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs Personal computer Heavy metal Dynamic leaching Environment a b s t r a c t A dynamic leaching test (DLT

Short, Daniel

387

THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

388

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Role of soil in Rhizobacteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract- Our surrounding is filled up with a large number of toxicants in different forms. They contaminate our water, land and atmosphere where we live. Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes. Phytoremediation of toxic heavy metals could be carried out by using specific metallophytes. Green plants are the lungs of nature with unique ability to purifying impure air by photosynthesis and remove or minimize heavy metals toxicity from soil and water ecosystem by absorption, accumulation and biotransformation process. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal toxicity in contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from Rhizosphere of plants growing metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes. Index Terms- Environmental, heavy metal toxicity,

Rajendra Prasad Bharti; Abhilasha Shri Vastava; Kishor Soni; Asha Tiwari; Shivbhanu More

389

The toxicity of oil and chemically dispersed oil to the seagrass Thalassia testudinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turtle grass beds, a valuable natural resource, are diminishing throughout the tropics because of damage from dredging, boats, and other factors. The toxicity of chemical dispersants and crude oil to turtle grass was determined in the laboratory to assess the potential for damage from spills occurring in the field. Studies of water-soluble fractions (WSF) of crude oil in static bioassays showed that a chemical dispersant (Corexit 9527) increased the amount of total oil in water more than 50-fold. The toxicity of chemically dispersed oil was assessed by conventional (96-h 50% lethal concentration) methods in static systems, and the results were compared with toxicity measurements where the system was flushed after 12 h. Prudhoe Bay crude WSF was more toxic than dispersed oil or dispersant alone, possibly because of the large component of benzene, toluene, and C-2 benzene. The percentage of green (chlorophyllous) leaves was useful as evidence of toxicity. The importance of anatomical features such as recessed meristem and abundant leaf sheaths in protecting the growing region from waterborne pollutants was evident.

Baca, B.J.; Getter, C.D.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 - Publication and Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Buildings Characteristics Data > Publication and Tables Buildings Characteristics Data > Publication and Tables Publication and Tables Percent of Buildings and Floorspace by Census Region, 1992 figure on percent of building and floorspace by census region, 1992 separater bar To View and/or Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties, visit our Technical Frequently Asked Questions. You have the option of downloading the entire report or selected sections of the report. Full Report - Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992 with only selected tables (file size 1.34 MB) pages: 157 Selected Sections: Main Text (file size 883,980 bytes) pages: 28, includes the following: Contacts Contents Executive Summary Introduction Background Organization of the report

391

Toxic substances from coal combustion -- Forms of occurrence analyses. Technical progress report, April 30--November 1, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to provide analytical support for the Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI) effort being performed under a DOE Contract. The Pittsburgh, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Illinois No. 6 program coals have been examined to determine the mode of occurrence of selected trace elements using scanning electron microscopy, microprobe analysis, and experimental leaching procedures. Preliminary microprobe data indicates that the arsenic content of pyrite grains in the Illinois No. 6 (0.0--0.027 ppm As) and Pittsburgh (0.0--0.080 ppm As) coals is similar. Pyrite grains observed in the Elkhorn/Hazard coal generally have arsenic concentrations (0.0--0.272 wt.% As) that are slightly higher than those of the Pittsburgh or Illinois No. 6 coals. One pyrite grain observed in the Elkhorn/Hazard coal contained much higher levels of arsenic (approximately 2 wt.% As). Preliminary microprobe analyses and data from leaching experiments indicate the association of arsenic with pyrite in the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals. Leaching data for arsenic in the Elkhorn/Hazard coal, in contrast, is inconclusive and additional data are needed before a definite determination can be made.

Crowley, S.S.; Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kolb, K.C.; Belkin, H.E.

1996-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

392

Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion...

395

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced...

396

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a...

397

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of...

398

Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance in the nano-flow regime. Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance in the...

399

SUMMARY OF AIR TOXICS -. EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN UTILITY POWER PLANTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AIR TOXICS AIR TOXICS -. EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN UTILITY POWER PLANTS Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Prepared Under Burns and Roe Services Corporation Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC92100 .Subtask 44.02 July 1996 SUMMARY OF AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN . . UTILITY POWER PLANTS Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center . Prepared by Adrian Radziwon and Edward Winter Burns and Roe Services Corporation Terence J. McManus, Oak Ridge Associated Universities July 1996 TABLE OF CONTERlW SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION ................... 1 Background . : .................. 1 Objectives .................... 1 Report Structure ................. 3 Uncertainties ................... 3 SECTION 2.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................. 7

400

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form | U.S. DOE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E: sc.ber@science.doe.gov More Information » April 2013 Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Two genes responsible for mercury methylation identified. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo

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401

Developmental toxicity of diesel exhaust: A review of studies in experimental animals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of combustion products of diesel fuel, including gases and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), commonly known as soot, that contains many toxic air contaminants. Studies of pre- and postnatal exposure to DE or \\{DEPs\\} have revealed changes in growth, sexual development, hormone levels, spermatogenesis, weights of the reproductive and accessory organs, behavior, monoaminergic system, expression of immune-related genes, histopathology of the testes and brain, susceptibility to allergies, and inflammatory and genotoxic endpoints in rodent offspring. Changes in gene expression for gonadal development were also observed after exposure to DE. As for the causative agent for the developmental toxicity of DE, \\{DEPs\\} and the gaseous phase, conflicting findings were reported. Although this paper provides initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of DE including the gaseous phase and DEPs, further studies using relevant concentrations closely reflecting expected levels of human exposure are needed.

Makoto Ema; Masato Naya; Masao Horimoto; Haruhisa Kato

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Expanded High-Level Waste Glass Property Data Development: Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two separate test matrices were developed as part if the EM-21 Glass Matrix Crucible Testing. The first matrix, developed using a single component-at-a-time design method and covering glasses of interest primarily to Hanford, is addressed in this data package. This data package includes methods and results from glass fabrication, chemical analysis of glass compositions, viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, canister centerline cooling, product consistency testing, and the toxicity characteristic leach procedure.

Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Lang, Jesse B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Raszewski, F. C.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Best, D. R.; Reamer, Irene A.; Riley, W. T.; Simmons, P. T.; Workman, R. J.

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

403

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

404

The characteristic function of optical evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The master equation of quantum optical density operator is transformed to the equation of characteristic function. The parametric amplification and amplitude damping as well as the phase damping are considered. The solution for the most general initial quantum state is obtained for parametric amplification and amplitude damping. The purity of one mode Gaussian system and the entanglement of two mode Gaussian system are studied.

Xiao-yu Chen

2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

405

EXPLORING MULTIPACTING CHARACTERISTICS OF A RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 Presented at the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, NY SRF990409-05 Abstract Multipacting (MP) characteristics is subjected to RF fields and vacuum[1]. When MP occurs, a large number of elec- trons are generated, consuming

Geng, Rong-Li

406

Comparative toxicity of several sulphurs to two species of spider mites attacking cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and color as furnished by the Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. 12 Laboratory toxicity tests for control of T. desertorum using acaricides as indicated SuemeLry of data presented in Table 2 24 Analysis of variance of the data presented in Table 2 and 3 on control... and color as furnished by the Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. 12 Laboratory toxicity tests for control of T. desertorum using acaricides as indicated SuemeLry of data presented in Table 2 24 Analysis of variance of the data presented in Table 2 and 3 on control...

Arrese, Luis Humberto

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

1997 toxic chemical release inventory -- Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 313  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two listed toxic chemicals were used at the Hanford Site above established activity thresholds: phosphoric acid and chlorine. Because total combined quantities of chlorine released, disposed, treated, recovered through recycle operations, co-combusted for energy recovery, and transferred to off-site locations for the purpose of recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and/or disposal, amounted to less than 500 pounds, the Hanford Site qualified for the alternate one million pound threshold for chlorine. Accordingly, this Toxic Chemical Release Inventory includes a Form A for chlorine, and a Form B for phosphoric acid.

Zaloudek, D.E.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

408

Strengths and limitations of using repeat-dose toxicity studies to predict effects on fertility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The upcoming European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) will require the risk assessment of many thousands of chemicals. It is therefore necessary to develop intelligent testing strategies to ensure that chemicals of concern are identified whilst minimising the testing of chemicals using animals. Xenobiotics may perturb the reproductive cycle, and for this reason several reproductive studies are recommended under REACH. One of the endpoints assessed in this battery of tests is mating performance and fertility. Animal tests that address this endpoint use a relatively large number of animals and are also costly in terms of resource, time, and money. If it can be shown that data from non-reproductive studies such as in-vitro or repeat-dose toxicity tests are capable of generating reliable alerts for effects on fertility then some animal testing may be avoided. Available rat sub-chronic and fertility data for 44 chemicals that have been classified by the European Union as toxic to fertility were therefore analysed for concordance of effects. Because it was considered appropriate to read across data for some chemicals these data sets were considered relevant for 73 of the 102 chemicals currently classified as toxic to reproduction (fertility) under this system. For all but 5 of these chemicals it was considered that a well-performed sub-chronic toxicity study would have detected pathology in the male, and in some cases, the female reproductive tract. Three showed evidence of direct interaction with oestrogen or androgen receptors (linuron, nonylphenol, and fenarimol). The remaining chemicals (quinomethionate and azafenidin) act by modes of action that do not require direct interaction with steroid receptors. However, both these materials caused in-utero deaths in pre-natal developmental toxicity studies, and the relatively low \\{NOAELs\\} and the nature of the hazard identified in the sub-chronic tests provides an alert for possible effects on fertility (or early embryonic development), the biological significance of which can be ascertained in a littering (e.g. 2-generation) study. From the chemicals reviewed it would appear that where there are no alerts from a repeat-dose toxicity study, a pre-natal developmental toxicity study and sex steroid receptor binding assays, there exists a low priority for animal studies to address the fertility endpoint. The ability for these types of tests to provide alerts for effects on fertility is clearly dependent on the mode of action of the toxicant in question. Further work should therefore be performed to determine the ‘failure rate’ of this type of approach when applied to a larger group of chemicals with diverse modes of action.

M.P. Dent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

Becker, Marion Carol

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

410

Biocides in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids: A Critical Review of Their Usage, Mobility, Degradation, and Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To enable assessment of the potential environmental and health impacts of the biocides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids, we review their relevant pathways of environmental contamination, environmental mobility, stability and chemical behavior in a variety of natural environments, and toxicity. ... In Fracking’s Wake: New Rules Are Needed to Protect Our Health and Environment From Contaminated Wastewater, NRDC Document D:12-05-A; Natural Resources Defense Council (NDRC): New York, 2012; pp 1– 113. ... Henderson, N. D. Environmental Impact and Toxic Effects of DDAC; Environmental Protection Division, BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks: Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 1992. ...

Genevieve A. Kahrilas; Jens Blotevogel; Philip S. Stewart; Thomas Borch

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

411

BLT-EC (Breach, Leach Transport, and Equilibrium Chemistry), a finite-element model for assessing the release of radionuclides from low-level waste disposal units: Background, theory, and model description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance assessment models typically account for the processes of sorption and dissolution-precipitation by using an empirical distribution coefficient, commonly referred to as K{sub d} that combines the effects of all chemical reactions between solid and aqueous phases. In recent years, however, there has been an increasing awareness that performance assessments based solely on empirically based K{sub d} models may be incomplete, particularly for applications involving radionuclides having sorption and solubility properties that are sensitive to variations in the in-situ chemical environment. To accommodate variations in the in-situ chemical environment, and to assess its impact on radionuclide mobility, it is necessary to model radionuclide release, transport, and chemical processes in a coupled fashion. This modeling has been done and incorporated into the two-dimensional, finite-element, computer code BLT-EC (Breach, Leach, Transport, Equilibrium Chemistry). BLT-EC is capable of predicting container degradation, waste-form leaching, and advective-dispersive, multispecies, solute transport. BLT-EC accounts for retardation directly by modeling the chemical processes of complexation, sorption, dissolution-precipitation, ion-exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions. In this report we: (1) present a detailed description of the various physical and chemical processes that control the release and migration of radionuclides from shallow land LLW disposal facilities; (2) formulate the mathematical models that represent these processes; (3) outline how these models are incorporated and implemented in BLT-EC; and (4) demonstrate the application of BLT-EC on a set of example problems.

MacKinnon, R.J.; Sullivan, T.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Simonson, S.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Suen, C.J. [California State Univ., Fresno, CA (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Inhibition of systemic onset of post-transcriptional gene silencing by non-toxic concentrations of cadmium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clearing virus (TVCV), is inhibited by treating the host plants with non-toxic levels of the heavy metal±plant interactions. To better understand this process, the heavy metal cadmium was identi®ed as a speci®c inhibitor of cadmium do not represent a general property of toxic metal ions because two other such elements

Citovsky, Vitaly

413

Single-step multiplex detection of toxic metal ions by Au nanowires-on-chip sensor using reporter elimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-step multiplex detection of toxic metal ions by Au nanowires-on-chip sensor using reporter sensitively detect multiple toxic metal ions. Most importantly, the reporter elimination method simplified by using this sensor. 1. Introduction Heavy metal ions such as mercury (Hg2+ ), silver (Ag+ ), and lead (Pb

Kim, Bongsoo

414

Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in DPYD and Toxicity and Efficacy of Capecitabine in Advanced Colorectal Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...associated with grade 2 to 3 hand-foot syndrome, any grade 3 to 4...are cases. Thus, statistical power is increased without facing...toxicities Genotype Diarrhea Hand-foot syndrome Any (non)hematologic...Diarrhea 39 59 23 75 Hand-foot syndrome 44 62 47 59 Any toxicity...

Maarten J. Deenen; Jolien Tol; Artur M Burylo; Valerie D. Doodeman; Anthonius de Boer; Andrew Vincent; Henk-Jan Guchelaar; Paul H.M. Smits; Jos H. Beijnen; Cornelis J.A. Punt; Jan H.M. Schellens; and Annemieke Cats

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Identification of Zebrafish ARNT1 Homologs: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Toxicity in the Developing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of Zebrafish ARNT1 Homologs: 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Toxicity,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) developmental toxicity, it is essential to know which proteins are involved proteins in mediating these responses. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins are lipophilic, persis- tent

Tullos, Desiree

416

Role of resuspended sediments in the transport and bioaccumulation of toxic organic contaminants in nearshore marine environment. Annual report, 1 Jun 91-31 May 92  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The resuspension - deposition continuum plays a significant part in the distribution of fine grained sediments and associated organic pollutants in aquatic systems. The chemistry of resuspension was investigated during a year long study by submitting a variety of sediments, including relatively contaminated homogenized dredge spoils and moderately contaminated stratigraphically intact sediments, to artificial resuspension using a particle entrainment simulator. Fine grained sediments were entrained into the test cylinder under conditions that are similar to the resuspension energy that would be expected in a typical estuary. Samples of the resuspended material were collected under a variety of experimental conditions, for the evaluation of organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (typically associated with oil pollution as well as petrogenically derived) and PCBs (a mixture of toxic organic constituents associated with industrial pollution) as well as for geotechnical parameters such as grain size and particle number and organic carbon content. Results thus far indicate that the volume weighted resuspended sediment load is proportional to the shear stress energy applied for any given core. Moreover, each core has a relatively characteristic erodibility pattern, apparently depending upon the distinctive characteristics of the sediment, for example, grain size composition, biological density, homogeneity, etc.

Latimer, J.S.; Quinn, J.G.

1992-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Multiple-Drug Toxicity Caused by the Coadministration of 4-Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone) and Heroin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of Results Substance Abuse Detection Young Adult An accidental death...found for sale on the internet as a re- search chemical...be discovered through internet drug user forums. Multiple-DrugToxicity...considered a rare drug of abuse. However, in July 2009......

Amber J. Dickson; Shawn P. Vorce; Barry Levine; Marilyn R. Past

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Radio-toxicity of spent fuel of the advanced heavy water reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Radio-toxicity of spent fuel of the advanced heavy water reactor S. Anand * K. D. S...Mumbai 400085, India The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a new power...PHWR. INTRODUCTION The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR)(1, 2), currently......

S. Anand; K. D. S. Singh; V. K. Sharma

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Functionalized Quantum Dots for Biosensing and Bioimaging and Concerns on Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In addition, recent concerns on the potential toxic effects of QDs are described as a general guidance for the development on QD formulations in future studies. ... (54) By using this delivery method, individual kinesin motor proteins in HeLa cells were imaged by bioconjugated QDs at single molecule resolution. ... Tracking Individual Kinesin Motors in Living Cells Using Single Quantum-Dot Imaging ...

Yucheng Wang; Rui Hu; Guimiao Lin; Indrajit Roy; Ken-Tye Yong

2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

420

Identification and treatment of lithium as the primary toxicant in a groundwater treatment facility effluent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{sup 6}Li is used in manufacturing nuclear weapons, shielding, and reactor control rods. Li compounds have been used at DOE facilities and Li-contaminated waste has historically been land disposed. Seep water from burial grounds near Y-12 contain small amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons, traces of PCBs, and 10-19 mg/L Li. Seep treatment consists of oil-water separation, filtration, air stripping, and carbon adsorption. Routine biomonitoring tests using fathead minnows and {ital Ceriodaphnia}{ital dubia} are conducted. Evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that toxicity was most likely due to Li. Laboratory tests showed that 1 mg Li/L reduced the survival of both species; 0.5 mg Li/L reduced {ital Ceriodaphnia} reproduction and minnow growth. However, the toxicity was greatly reduced in presence of sodium (up to 4 mg Li/L, Na can fully negate the toxic effect of Li). Because of the low Na level discharged from the treatment facility, Li removal from the ground water was desired. SuperLig{reg_sign} columns were used (Li-selective organic macrocycle bonded to silica gel). Bench-scale tests showed that the material was very effective for removing Li from the effluent, reducing the toxicity.

Kszos, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crow, K.R. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of toxic substances in LCA. II: Assessing parameter06 iF fw- ingestion-USES-LCA (-) 1,0E-04 1,0E-02 Figure 5b04 iF fw-inhalation-USES-LCA (-) Figure 6a 1,0E-04 iF fw-

Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Novel wear resistant and low toxicity dental obturation materials Miriam Estvez a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel wear resistant and low toxicity dental obturation materials Miriam Estévez a,b , Susana of commercial dental materials. The new materials provide scratch resistance as well as good adhesion to dentin and Optimized Materials (LAPOM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, PO

North Texas, University of

423

TOXICITY OF SEDIMENTS As water quality has improved over the past three decades in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T TOXICITY OF SEDIMENTS Overview As water quality has improved over the past three decades in North America, diffuse sources of pollution such as storm- water runoff and sediments are now recognized as long-term, widespread pollutant sources to aquatic systems. Substantial impacts on the ecosystem from sediment

424

Bioavailability of Sediment-Associated Toxic Organic Contaminants Primary Investigator: Peter Landrum -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioavailability of Sediment-Associated Toxic Organic Contaminants Primary Investigator: Peter the bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants to benthic organisms. In this past year, specific measurements of desorption for three Lake Michigan sediments and measurements of concentrations in Diporeia

425

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

426

Toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 3700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July, 1991, Reactor Materials increased the supernate treatment concentration in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility from 2700 gallons of supernate per 36000 gallon dilute wastewater batch to 3700 gallons/batch. This report summarizes the toxicity testing on the effluents of the increased treatment rate.(JL)

Pickett, J.B.; Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

427

Paraquat toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of the herbicide paraquat on humans and animals. Topics include clinical and pathological findings, biochemical mechanisms, effects of oxygen, pulmonary effects of exposure, and effects on freshwater and marine organisms. The contamination of marijuana plants with paraquat is also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Radio-toxicity of spent fuel of the advanced heavy water reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......during their short/long term-storage is investigated in...radio-toxicity of radioactive waste is widely regarded...exchangers of the spent fuel storage bay. The decay power...VVER type reactors at long-term storage. Radiat. Prot. Dosim......

S. Anand; K. D. S. Singh; V. K. Sharma

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Engineering metal ion coordination to regulate amyloid fibril assembly and toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering metal ion coordination to regulate amyloid fibril assembly and toxicity Jijun Dong13 and H14 implicated in A -metal ion binding, we show that Cu2 forms complexes with A (13 fibrils. These results establish that the N-terminal region of A can access different metal-ion

Scott, Robert A.

431

National Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry CS229334 from Health Threats. Saving Money Through Prevention. Environmental Health Your environment and healthy, you are more likely to stay healthy. But when your environment exposes you to dangerous events

432

(Published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research) Potentially toxic element fractionation in technosoils using two  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research) Potentially toxic element fractionation elements (Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb) in contaminated technosoils of two former smelting and mining areas using. Surface soils were samples from a waste landfill contaminated with Zn, Pb, and Cd located at Mortagne

Boyer, Edmond

433

Nuclear reactor characteristics and operational history  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. Capacity and Generation, Table 3. Characteristics and Operational History 1. Capacity and Generation, Table 3. Characteristics and Operational History Table 2. U.S. Nuclear Reactor Ownership Data PDF XLS Plant/Reactor Name Generator ID Utility Name - Operator Owner Name % Owned Arkansas Nuclear One 1 Entergy Arkansas Inc Entergy Arkansas Inc 100 Arkansas Nuclear One 2 Entergy Arkansas Inc Entergy Arkansas Inc 100 Beaver Valley 1 FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company FirstEnergy Nuclear Generation Corp 100 Beaver Valley 2 FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company FirstEnergy Nuclear Generation Corp 100 Braidwood Generation Station 1 Exelon Nuclear Exelon Nuclear 100 Braidwood Generation Station 2 Exelon Nuclear Exelon Nuclear 100 Browns Ferry 1 Tennessee Valley Authority Tennessee Valley Authority 100

434

CBECS 1992 - Building Characteristics, Detailed Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Detailed Tables Detailed Tables Detailed Tables Percent of Buildings and Floorspace by Census Region, 1992 Percent of Buildings and Floorspace by Census Region, 1992 The following 70 tables present extensive cross-tabulations of commercial buildings characteristics. These data are from the Buildings Characteristics Survey portion of the 1992 CBECS. The "Quick-Reference Guide," indicates the major topics of each table. Directions for calculating an approximate relative standard error (RSE) for each estimate in the tables are presented in Figure A1, "Use of RSE Row and Column Factor." The Glossary contains the definitions of the terms used in the tables. See the preceding "At A Glance" section for highlights of the detailed tables. Table Organization

435

NREL: Wind Research - Site Wind Resource Characteristics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Site Wind Resource Characteristics Site Wind Resource Characteristics A graphic showing the location of National Wind Technology Center and its wind power class 2. Click on the image to view a larger version. Enlarge image This graphic shows the wind power class at the National Wind Technology Center. You can download a printable copy. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is on the Great Plains just miles from the Rocky Mountains. The site is flat and covered with short grasses. The terrain and lack of obstructions make the site highly suitable for testing wind turbines. Take a tour of the NWTC and its facilities to better understand its location and layout. Another prime feature of the NWTC is the strong directionality of the wind - most of the strong winds come within a few degrees of 285°. West of

436

Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003 - Major Characteristics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Major Characteristics of All Commercial Buildings in 2003 Major Characteristics of All Commercial Buildings in 2003 CBECS data are used to answer basic questions about the commercial buildings sector, such as: What types are there? How large are they? How old are they? and Where are they? Results from the 2003 CBECS show that: The commercial buildings sector is not dominated by a single building type. Office buildings, the most common type of commercial building, account for 17 percent of buildings, floorspace, and energy consumed. Commercial buildings range widely in size and smaller buildings are much more numerous than larger buildings. The smallest buildings (1,001 to 5,000 square feet) account for 53 percent of buildings, but consume only 11 percent of total energy. The largest buildings (those larger than 500,000 square feet)

439

Characteristics and storage stability of sorghum extrudates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are precooking and gelatinization of the starch, providing a desired shape to the product, and giving the food an expanded, crisp, and pleasing characteristic (Harper, 1981). Starch products from a number of generic sources are currently being used in snack..., 1970; Sacharow, 1974; 1976). Cabral et al. (1979) examined the keeping quality of potato chips, when different packaging films were used. Under accelerated condi- tions, products packed in OPP, K Cello/OPP, and metallized polyester (IIPET) pouches...

Cheng, Tai-Yau

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and Juvenile Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large quantitites of estuarine and marine water are treated with chlorine to prevent condenser system fouling at power plants. Chlorine and its residual by-products, however, are toxic to many forms of aquatic life. Ozone is one alternative oxidant which has proven to be an effective biocide and disinfectant in many fresh water applications. Ozonation of estuarine and marine waters, however, may produce residual compounds similar to those produced by chlorination. This study was initiated to provide baseline information on the toxicity of ozonated estuarine water to two representative estuarine species. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, and the Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe, were selected because of their wide distribution and commercial importance. The toxicity of ozone has been compared with chlorine toxicity data from the literature in an effort to examine possible similarities in toxicity.

Richardson, L.B.; Burton, D.T.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Acute toxicity of toluene, hexane, xylene, and benzene to the rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large number of studies on the biological effects of oil pollution in the aquatic environment deal with the effects of whole crude or refined oils or their water-soluble fractions. However, low boiling, aromatic hydrocarbons, which are probably the most toxic constituents of oil, have until now not been examined in sufficient detail. Toluene, benzene and xylene, constitute a major component of various oils. They may be readily lost by weathering but are toxic in waters that are relatively stagnant and are chronically polluted. Korn et al. have stated that toluene is more toxic than many other hydrocarbons such as benzene, though the latter are more water-soluble. Report of the effects of exposure to organic solvents like hexane or toluene are still limited although organic solvents are a well-known group of neurointoxicants. Various benzene derivates continue to be used as chemical intermediates, solvents, pesticides, so on, in spite of incomplete knowledge of their chronic toxicity. The majority of toxicity studies about the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms under controlled conditions have used either fish or the cladoceran Daphnia magna and there are few studies reported using rotifers. The effects of herbicides on population variables of laboratory rotifer cultures have been investigated. Rotifers are one of the main sources of zooplankton production and they have an important ecological significance in the aquatic environment. The present work was designed to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to some petroleum derivates which might be expected to occur immediately under an oil-slick, on freshwater and brackish environment rotifers. 18 refs., 1 tab.

Ferrando, M.D.; Andreu-Moliner, E. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ? Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ? W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ? W–Ni–Co induces a greater oxidative burst response than W–Ni–Fe in lung macrophages.

Roedel, Erik Q., E-mail: Erik.Roedel@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Cafasso, Danielle E., E-mail: Danielle.Cafasso@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Lee, Karen W.M., E-mail: Karen.W.Lee@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Pierce, Lisa M., E-mail: Lisa.Pierce@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

Specht, W.L.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Journal of Hazardous Materials B89 (2002) 213232 Characteristics of chromated copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The combustion of recovered wood from construction and demolition waste as biomass fuel is a common practice the combustion of 100% CCA-treated wood and mixtures containing 5% CCA-treated wood leached enough arsenic (and; Waste wood; Wood; Recycling; Solid waste 1. Introduction The combustion of wood waste has the benefits

Florida, University of

445

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

{open_quotes}Fine particulate control and air toxics{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tables 1-4 give an overview of current TSP control capabilities of fabric filters on some applications. Very little data is available as to the control of PM{sub 10} and under. Most air toxic limitations will require much higher control as can be seen in Tables 5 and 6. The control of most air toxics is definitely related to the control of TSP and PM{sub 10}, however it appears that meeting current limits of TSP do not ensure meeting the desired air toxic limits. Since TSP is desired to be used as a surrogate and is all that is routinely monitored through opacity or other stack CEM systems, lower TSP limits would have to be met which opens the question of how accurate we can monitor TSP or PM{sub 10} on a continuous basis. Tables 3 and 4 provide some insight as to the uniformity of TSP results between identical operating units and over time at two NSW installation. Except for the 9/10/91 test, the baghouses were inspected for failing bags prior to testing. Tables 7 and 8 show the impact of TSP and air toxic metals of a plant upset. In this case it took up to one day for the emissions to return to normal following a 30 minute complete shutdown of the incinerator and three baghouse systems being tested. Table 9 describes the impact of broken bags on emissions for a typical size baghouse. As emission levels become tighter in attempts to control air toxics, response to broken bags will take on new importance. More importantly, system design changes to promote longer bag life and better emission monitoring will be needed. Once continuous monitoring of outlet particulate is required, the industry will be challenged. Until then it will be business as usual with designs aimed at passing a one time or yearly stack test with the baghouse primed for peak performance. This won`t do much to protect the environment from air toxics to the proposed units.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Greiner, G.P. [ETS International, Inc., Roanoke, VA (United States); Harrison, W. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States); Nichols, G.B. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Carcass and Meat Characteristics of Nilgai Antelope.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

character- istics related to tenderness. METHODS I reatment of Carcasses Three nilgai-one adult male, one adult female and one subadult male-were collected on King Ranch, Inc. Tlie carcasses were weighed, field dressed, re- weighed and transported... Characteristics of NiIgai Ante SI'MIIARY: Nilgai antelope (Eoselaphus tragocamelus) sccin to be a potential source of meats acceptable to the conslrn~er public. Carcasses dress out at approx- irnatt!y 50 percent of live weight and have less than I pcrt on...

Ables, E. D.; Carpenter, Z. L.; Quarrier, Lynn; Sheffield, W. J.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Acoustic characteristics of clearly spoken English fricatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acoustic characteristics of clearly spoken English fricatives renc n Fr cept em exam s to aref fric ed b gram wn effe e co h w by effo y an and 21/1 Deliberately clarified speech has been seen to yield intelligi- 2003; Krause and Braida, 2004... situations.3962 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125 #2;6#1;, June 2009 0001-4966/2009/12 ution subject to ASA license or copyright; see http://acousticalsociety.org/ce, Kansas 66044 ancisco, California 94104 ed 1 September 2008#2; to be understood more easily...

Maniwa, Kazumi; Jongman, Allard

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Gasification characteristics of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is evaluating the gasification characteristics of Eastern oil shales as a part of a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and HYCRUDE Corporation to expand the data base on moving-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification of shale fines will improve the overall resource utilization by producing synthesis gas or hydrogen needed for the hydroretorting of oil shale and the upgrading of shale oil. Gasification characteristics of an Indiana New Albany oil shale have been determined over temperature and pressure ranges of 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Carbon conversion of over 95% was achieved within 30 minutes at gasification conditions of 1800/sup 0/F and 15 psig in a hydrogen/steam gas mixture for the Indiana New Albany oil shale. This paper presents the results of the tests conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor to obtain reaction rate data and in a continuous mini-bench-scale unit to obtain product yield data. 2 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Volatilization characteristics of solid recovered fuels (SRFs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The volatilization characteristics of three MSW-derived materials (FO, RT and FL) produced by local waste-management companies were investigated as potential solid recovered fuels (SRFs). FL was prepared from sorted domestic waste and consisted of non-recyclable plastics, refuse paper and biomass. RT and FO were obtained through active hygienization of unsorted MSW and refuse materials from selective waste-collection streams. RT was rich in plastics and had low biomass, whereas FO was mainly biomass and refuse paper. The rate of energy release during volatilization depended on the content of biomass and plastic, especially at a low conversion. Major contaminants had different rates of volatilization. Nitrogen and sulfur tended to accumulate in the charred solid, and were released as SO2 and nitrous oxides during both the volatilization–combustion stage and the char burning stage. Chlorine release was faster for the fuels rich in plastic waste. According to their ash melting characteristics and slagging indexes (Fs: 1188 °C for FO, 1192 °C for RT and 1234 °C for FL) the three fuels were equivalent to commercial SRFs. The three fuels showed potential as standardized SRF, although it would be desirable to reduce their chlorine content and, in the case of FO, to increase it’s heating value.

Daniel Montané; Sònia Abelló; Xavier Farriol; César Berrueco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Characteristics of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact were studied through both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Based on thermodynamics and statistical physics, a thermal ionization model was proposed to explore the relationships of ionization degree and plasma conductivity to temperature with consideration of the velocity distribution law in the thermodynamic equilibrium state. In order to derive the temperature, internal energy, and density of the plasma generated by the impact for the above relationships, a 3-D model for the impact of an aluminum spherical projectile on an aluminum target was established and five cases with different impact angles were numerically simulated. Then, the temperature calculated from the internal energy and the Thomas Fermi (TF) model, the internal energy and the density of the plasma were put into the function of the ionization degree to study the characteristics of plasma. Finally, based on the experimental data, a good agreement was obtained between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results, and the feasibility of this theoretical model was verified.

Song, Weidong; Li, Jianqiao; Ning, Jianguo [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving water to freshwater organisms. Third edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual describes four short-term (four- to seven-day) methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to three freshwater species: The fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. The methods include single and multiple concentration static renewal and non-renewal toxicity tests for effluents and receiving waters. Also included are guidelines on laboratory safety, quality assurance, facilities, equipment and supplies; dilution water; effluent and receiving water sample collection, preservation, shipping, and holding; test conditions; toxicity test data analysis; report preparation; and organism culturing, holding, and handling.

Lewis, P.A.; Klemm, D.J.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Peltier, W.H.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals. [Final report, September 4, 1990--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ``dioxins`` and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

THE CHARACTERISTIC VARIETY OF A GENERIC FOLIATION JORGE VITORIO PEREIRA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CHARACTERISTIC VARIETY OF A GENERIC FOLIATION JORGE VIT´ORIO PEREIRA Abstract. We confirm. characteristic foliation, invariant variety, D-modules. 1 #12;2 JORGE VIT ´ORIO PEREIRA F is non

Pereira, Jorge Vitório

456

An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR...

457

Grain characteristics and engineering properties of coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Ash produced by the coal fired thermal plants is often used as ... the grain characteristics and the engineering properties of coal ash. The results of x-ray diffraction, ... characteristic that may be used for ...

A. Trivedi; V. K. Sud

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Dynamic characteristics of ocean platform with mooring system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics of a semi-submersible system are simulated in the time domain based on linear theory. The semi-submersibleDynamic characteristics of ocean platform with mooring system Aichun Feng ­af2g10@soton

Sóbester, András

459

Regulation: EPA sued for undercounting toxic emissions at refineries, chemical plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several community organizations have filed a lawsuit to force the Environmental Protection Agency to review the way it measures toxic air pollution from oil refineries and petrochemical plants along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast. ... Recent independent studies at Marathon Oil, Shell, and BP refineries measured actual emissions at levels 10 to 100 times higher than estimates based on the methods facilities currently use to report their releases, the suit says. ...

GLENN HESS

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

460

Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to larval and juvenile shrimps (Armstrong et al. , 1976; Wickins, 1976) and to fish (Russo et al. , 1974", Smith and Williams, 1974", Smith and Russo' 1975; Crawford and Allen, 1977; Thurston et al. , 1978; Wedemeyer and Yasutake, 1978) and can.... Although the toxicity of ammonia to freshwater shrimp larvae has been reported by Armstrong et al. (1978), other aspects require further investigation before a reliable estimate of safe concentrations can be esta'blished. This study, which examines...

Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

The toxicity of several organic phosphorus compounds to cotton insects and spider mites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by operating a spray gun air-tank assembly, which was mounted on a stand* The cone nozzles could be adjusted to give adequate coverage of the plants. The spray gun con? sisted of 2 nozzles, a small copper tank and a regulated air supply. The spray.......................................................... 79 Bibliography........................................................81 Page TABLES Table Page 1? Results of laboratory cage toxicity tests for boll weevil control using insecticides indicated applied as sprays in experiment 1 at College S t a...

Fuller, Freeman Miree

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

462

Toxicity of herbicides. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational surveys, clinical investigations, and laboratory analyses pertaining to the toxic effects of herbicides. Topics include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses, regulatory aspects, transport and metabolism, and registration standards and procedures. The detection of specific compounds and their effects on selected species are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected automotive rubber components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the types of anti-pollution control methods utilized on the incinerator. B. Smoke Analysis An Arapahoe smoke chamber was used to generate smoke for this research, in accordance with ASTM D4100, Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Smoke... the criteria pollutants, incinerators also emit small amounts of trace organics and trace metals, which are classified as toxic pollutants. Trace organics such as dioxins (polychlorinated p-dibenzodioxins-PCDDs) and furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans...

Shalkowski, Mark Henry

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

A high-throughput method for assessing chemical toxicity using a Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction assay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Research Council has outlined the need for non-mammalian toxicological models to test the potential health effects of a large number of chemicals while also reducing the use of traditional animal models. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an attractive alternative model because of its well-characterized and evolutionarily conserved biology, low cost, and ability to be used in high-throughput screening. A high-throughput method is described for quantifying the reproductive capacity of C. elegans exposed to chemicals for 48 h from the last larval stage (L4) to adulthood using a COPAS Biosort. Initially, the effects of exposure conditions that could influence reproduction were defined. Concentrations of DMSO vehicle {<=} 1% did not affect reproduction. Previous studies indicated that C. elegans may be influenced by exposure to low pH conditions. At pHs greater than 4.5, C. elegans reproduction was not affected; however below this pH there was a significant decrease in the number of offspring. Cadmium chloride was chosen as a model toxicant to verify that automated measurements were comparable to those of traditional observational studies. EC{sub 50} values for cadmium for automated measurements (176-192 {mu}M) were comparable to those previously reported for a 72-h exposure using manual counting (151 {mu}M). The toxicity of seven test toxicants on C. elegans reproduction was highly correlative with rodent lethality suggesting that this assay may be useful in predicting the potential toxicity of chemicals in other organisms.

Boyd, Windy A. [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); McBride, Sandra J.; Rice, Julie R.; Snyder, Daniel W. [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Freedman, Jonathan H., E-mail: freedma1@niehs.nih.go [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Identifying Biomarkers and Mechanisms of Toxic Metal Stress with Global Proteomics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hg is a wide-spread contaminant in the environment and is toxic in all of its various forms. Data suggest that RHg+ and Hg2+ are toxic in two ways. At low levels, Hg species appear to disrupt membrane-bound respiration causing a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that further damage the cell. At higher Hg concentrations, RHg+ and Hg2+ may form adducts with cysteine- and selenocysteine-containing proteins in all cellular compartments resulting in their inactivation. Although these mechansims for toxicity are generally accepted, the most sensitive targets associated with these mechanisms are not well understood. In this collaborative project involving three laboratories at three institutions, the overall goal was to develop of a mass spectrometry-based global proteomics methodology that could be used to identify Hg-adducted (and ideally, ROS-damaged) proteins in order to address these types of questions. The two objectives of this overall collaborative project were (1) to identify, quantify, and compare ROS- and Hg-damaged proteins in cells treated with various Hg species and concentrations to test this model for two mechanisms of Hg toxicity, and (2) to define the cellular roles of the ubiquitous bacterial mercury resistance (mer) locus with regards to how the proteins of this pathway interact to protect other cell proteins from Hg damage. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the Miller lab in this project included: (1) Development of algorithms for analysis of the Hg-proteomic mass spectrometry data to identify mercury adducted peptides and other trends in the data. (2) Investigation of the role of mer operon proteins in scavenging Hg(II) from other mer pathway proteins as a means of protecting cellular proteins from damage.

Miller, Susan M.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

466

Identification of airfoil characteristics for optimum wind turbine performance / b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combine to determine how much power output is obtained. Oi' specific interest in this study is the influence of airi'oil section characteristics on horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) performance. By identifying these characteristics, better selection... characteristics f' or HAWT airfoil design or selection. EFFECT OF AIRFOIL CHARACTERISTICS ON INTEGRATED TURBINE PERFORMANCE Wind Turbine Performance Com uter Pro ram An existing horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) performance computer program" was modified f...

Miller, Leonard Scott

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Evaluation of toxicity and biodegradability of choline chloride based deep eutectic solvents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been dramatically expanding in popularity as a new generation of environmentally friendly solvents with possible applications in various industrial fields, but their ecological footprint has not yet been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, three choline chloride-based \\{DESs\\} with glucose, glycerol and oxalic acid as hydrogen bond donors were evaluated for in vitro toxicity using fish and human cell line, phytotoxicity using wheat and biodegradability using wastewater microorganisms through closed bottle test. Obtained in vitro toxicity data on cell lines indicate that choline chloride: glucose and choline chloride:glycerol possess low cytotoxicity (EC50>10 mM for both cell lines) while choline chloride:oxalic acid possess moderate cytotoxicity (EC50 value 1.64 mM and 4.19 mM for fish and human cell line, respectively). Results on phytotoxicity imply that tested \\{DESs\\} are non-toxic with seed germination EC50 values higher than 5000 mg l?1. All tested \\{DESs\\} were classified as?readily biodegradable? based on their high levels of mineralization (68–96%). These findings indicate that \\{DESs\\} have a green profile and a good prospect for a wider use in the field of green technologies.

Kristina Radoševi?; Marina Cvjetko Bubalo; Višnje Gaurina Sr?ek; Dijana Grgas; Tibela Landeka Dragi?evi?; Ivana Radoj?i? Redovnikovi?

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

Diebold, J.P. [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 ?g[L(h)1/2]?1, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO3)2, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention.

Andrew Turner; Lynsey Rice

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Concentration and toxicity of sea-surface contaminants in Puget Sound  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Marine Research Laboratory conducted studies during CY 1985 to evaluate the effects of sea-surface contamination on the reproductive success of a valued marine species. Microlayer and bulk water samples were collected from a rural bay, central Puget Sound, and three urban bays and analyzed for a number of metal and organic contaminants as well as for densities of neuston and plankton organisms. Fertilized neustonic eggs of sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus) were exposed to the same microlayer samples during their first week of embryonic and larval development. Also, we evaluated the effects of microlayer extracts on the growth of trout cell cultures. Compared to rural sites, urban bays generally contained lower densities of neustonic flatfish eggs during the spawning season. Also, in contrast to the rural sites or the one central Puget Sound site, approximately half of the urban bay microlayer samples resulted in significant increases in embryo mortality (up to 100%), kyphosis (bent spine abnormalities) in hatched larvae, increased anaphase aberrations in developing embryos, and decreased trout cell growth. The toxic samples generally contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic and/or chlorinated hydrocarbons and/or potentially toxic metals. In some cases, concentrations of contaminants on the sea surface exceeded water-quality criteria by several orders of magnitude. Several samples of subsurface bulk water collected below highly contaminated surfaces showed no detectable contamination or toxicity.

Hardy, J.T.; Crecelius, E.A.; Kocan, R.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.

Simbeck, D.J.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

The reversibility of the glutathionyl-quercetin adduct spreads oxidized quercetin-induced toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quercetin is one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants. During its antioxidant activity, quercetin becomes oxidized into its o-quinone/quinone methide QQ. QQ is toxic since it instantaneously reacts with thiols of, e.g., proteins. In cells, QQ will initially form an adduct with glutathione (GSH), giving GSQ. We have found that GSQ is not stable; it dissociates continuously into GSH and QQ with a half life of 2 min. Surprisingly, GSQ incubated with 2-mercapto-ethanol (MSH), a far less reactive thiol, results in the conversion of GSQ into the MSH-adduct MSQ. A similar conversion of GSQ into relatively stable protein thiol-quercetin adducts is expected. With the dithiol dihydrolipoic acid (L(SH){sub 2}), quercetin is formed out of GSQ. These results indicate that GSQ acts as transport and storage of QQ. In that way, the initially highly focussed toxicity of QQ is dispersed by the formation of GSQ that finally spreads QQ-induced toxicity, probably even over cells.

Boots, Agnes W. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.boots@farmaco.unimaas.nl; Balk, Jiska M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Bast, Aalt [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Haenen, Guido R.M.M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

474

Effect of stress at dosing on organophosphate and heavy metal toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews recent studies assessing the effect of well-defined, severe, transient stress at dosing on two classical models of toxicity. These are the acute (anticholinesterase) toxicity seen following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, and the nephrotoxicity elicited by the heavy metal depleted uranium, in rats. Stress was induced by periods of restraint and forced swimming in days to weeks preceding toxicant exposure. Forced swimming was far more stressful, as measured by marked, if transient, elevation of plasma corticosterone. This form of stress was administered immediately prior to administration of chlorpyrifos or depleted uranium. Chlorpyrifos (single 60 mg/kg subcutaneously) elicited marked inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase 4-day post-dosing. Depleted uranium (single intramuscular doses of 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg uranium) elicited dose-dependent increase in kidney concentration of the metal, with associated injury to proximal tubular epithelium and increases in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during the 30-day post-dosing period. Stress at dosing had no effect on these toxicologic endpoints.

Jortner, Bernard S. [Laboratory for Neurotoxicity Studies, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, 1 Duck Pond Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0442 (United States)], E-mail: bjortner@vt.edu

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cumulative exposure to multiple stresses may lead to aggravating the toxicity of each stress, qualitatively or quantitatively altering biological responses because of toxicological interaction. In this study, we intended to determine the possible effects of restraint stress on reproductive toxicity due to ethanol usage in male rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 h/day) or alcohol intoxication (2 mg/kg body weight) or both for 60 days. Body weights of control and experimental rats were similar during the 60 days of this study. Testes were harvested, weighed, and prepared for enzyme assays, and cauda epididymides were isolated for the determination of density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa. Restraint stress or alcohol treatment significantly reduced testis weight and caused significant reductions in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Mean density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa were reduced in experimental rats. Plasma testosterone concentrations in rats subjected to restraint stress or alcohol were decreased compared with those of controls, concomitant with increased concentrations of LH and FSH in experimental rats. These data suggest that sub-chronic exposure to restraint stress or alcohol contribute to reduce testicular and epididymal function in exposed rats. The study also suggests that restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.

P. Hari Priya; B.P. Girish; P. Sreenivasula Reddy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

479

3) What makes a species invasive? Is it characteristics of the species or characteristics of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traits (Chapter 3 of NRC 2002) 1. Reproductive system · Dioecious vs. Monoecious · Self-incompatible Life History Traits (Chapter 3 of NRC 2002) 1. Reproductive system · Dioecious vs. Monoecious · Self-incompatible pollen vs. Self-compatible pollen #12;3) What makes a species invasive? Species characteristics: Plant

Nowak, Robert S.

480

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.