Sample records for toxicity characteristic leaching

  1. Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests treated with one of five different waterborne chemical preservatives, were leached using 18-h batch- treated wood at concentrations above the U.S. federal toxicity characteristic limit (5 mg/L). All

  2. Determination of the toxicity characteristic for metals in soil: A comparison of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and total metal determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, D.A.; Taylor, J.D.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison is made of the concentrations of metals extracted from soils using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a total determination method. This information is of interest in two ways. First, it is hoped that a relationship might be established between the amount of each metal determined after extraction by the TCLP and the amount determined using a total determination method. And second, data are also presented which indicate the general extractability of various metals in soil samples using the TCLP. This study looks specifically at inorganic elements (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mg, Hg, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in soils from a firing range. Results show that total determination methods for metals can not generally be used for heterogeneous samples, such as soil samples from a firing range. Some correlation between a total determination method and TCLP was observed when Ba and Cd were present in the samples at lower concentrations (less than 80 mg/kg for Ba and less than 25 mg/kg for Cd); however, additional data are necessary to verify this correlation.

  3. TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC LEACHING PROCEDURE APPLIED TO RADIOACTIVE SALTSTONE CONTAINING TETRAPHENYLBORATE: DEVELOPMENT OF A MODIFIED ZERO-HEADSPACE EXTRACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapse, K.; Cozzi, A.; Crawford, C.; Jurgensen, A.

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the effect of extended curing times at elevated temperatures on saltstone containing Tank 48H waste, saltstone samples prepared as a part of a separate study were analyzed for benzene using a modification of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). To carry out TCLP for volatile organic analytes (VOA), such as benzene, in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) shielded cells (SC), a modified TCLP Zero-Headspace Extractor (ZHE) was developed. The modified method was demonstrated to be acceptable in a side by side comparison with an EPA recommended ZHE using nonradioactive saltstone containing tetraphenylborate (TPB). TCLP results for all saltstone samples tested containing TPB (both simulant and actual Tank 48H waste) were below the regulatory limit for benzene (0.5 mg/L). In general, higher curing temperatures corresponded to higher concentrations of benzene in TCLP extract. The TCLP performed on the simulant samples cured under the most extreme conditions (3000 mg/L TPB in salt and cured at 95 C for at least 144 days) resulted in benzene values that were greater than half the regulatory limit. Taking into account that benzene in TCLP extract was measured on the same order of magnitude as the regulatory limit, that these experimental conditions may not be representative of actual curing profiles found in the saltstone vault and that there is significant uncertainty associated with the precision of the method, it is recommended that to increase confidence in TCLP results for benzene, the maximum curing temperature of saltstone be less than 95 C. At this time, no further benzene TCLP testing is warranted. Additional verification would be recommended, however, should future processing strategies result in significant changes to salt waste composition in saltstone as factors beyond the scope of this limited study may influence the decomposition of TPB in saltstone.

  4. Product consistency test and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure results of the ceramic waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S. G.; Adamic, M. L.: DiSanto, T.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Foulkrod, L.; Goff, K. M.

    1999-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The ceramic waste form produced from the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium bonded spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was tested using two immersion tests with separate and distinct purposes. The product consistency test is used to assess the consistency of the waste forms produced and thus is an indicator of a well-controlled process. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure is used to determine whether a substance is to be considered hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed high level waste repository will not be licensed to receive hazardous waste, thus any waste forms destined to be placed there cannot be of a hazardous nature as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Results are presented from the first four fully radioactive ceramic waste forms produced and from seven ceramic waste forms produced from cold surrogate materials. The fully radioactive waste forms are approximately 2 kg in weight and were produced wit h salt used to treat 100 driver subassemblies of spent fuel.

  5. Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skodras, G.; Prokopidou, M.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischen) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn.

  6. Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying-Liang [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Ko, Ming-Sheng [Institute of Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chunghsiao E. Rd., Taipei City 10608, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Chieh [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Chung-Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chang, Juu-En, E-mail: juuen@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic {beta}-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability.

  7. Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya , Thabet copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

  8. Nutrient leaching characteristics of vegetation common to Texas reservoir sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weldon, Clark Pierce

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decomposition of vegetation and the higher rate of nitrogen release that was observed. The fact that oxygen depletion was greatest when nitrogen 80 S 60 o m bO o 4 4J Distilled Water Lake Somerville Yegua Creek 40 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13... Lake Somerville Yegua Creek 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Time in Days Figure 6: K)eldahl Nitrogen Release with Time for Coastal Bermuda Grass Using Three Different Leaching Solutions Under Aeration (Test Series 1) m 6 c Distilled Water...

  9. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K. [University of Western Cape, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  10. Evaluation of batch leaching procedures for estimating metal mobility in glaciated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackovic, J.A.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Chheda, P.; Carley, R.J.; Patton, E.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Batch leaching methods have been used for several decades to estimate the potential release of contaminants from soils. Four batch leaching procedures (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure, deionized water leaching procedure, and California waste extraction test) were evaluated for their ability to realistically quantify the mobility of metals from previously contaminated glaciated soils. The study was conducted using soils from four different sites (three in Connecticut and one in Maine). The results of the batch leaching procedures were compared with a set of continuous column leaching experiments performed at two different flowrates and two influent pH values. The results suggested that the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was more realistic than the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), but still a conservative leaching estimate for evaluating the potential for metal mobility in glaciated soils. This study suggests that using SPLP as a test for estimating metal cleanup levels will result in lower remediation costs relative to TCLP or waste extraction test (WET), but still maintain a high level of confidence in the protection of ground water quality.

  11. Leaching characteristics of the metal waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process: Product consistency testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S. G.; Keiser, D. D.; Frank, S. M.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.

    1999-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent fuel from the experimental breeder reactor II. A product of this treatment process is a metal waste form that incorporates the stainless steel cladding hulls, zirconium from the fuel and the fission products that are noble to the process, i.e., Tc, Ru, Nb, Pd, Rh, Ag. The nominal composition of this waste form is stainless steel/15 wt% zirconium/1--4 wt% noble metal fission products/1--2 wt % U. Leaching results are presented from several tests and sample types: (1) 2 week monolithic immersion tests on actual metal waste forms produced from irradiated cladding hulls, (2) long term (>2 years) pulsed flow tests on samples containing technetium and uranium and (3) crushed sample immersion tests on cold simulated metal waste form samples. The test results will be compared and their relevance for waste form product consistency testing discussed.

  12. Influence of pH and Redox Conditions on Copper Leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavanaugh, Rathi; Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Purandare, Jaydeep; Allen, Derrick

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is a regulatory leach test in the RCRA programs. It was developed to determine the leaching potential of landfilled waste in order to assess the hazards associated with the leachates. The test was developed to study concentration of hazardous materials in leachates, under a mismanagement scenario, when they are co-disposed with municipal waste. The test uses leaching of waste at either of two acidic pH values i.e., 2.8 and 4.93. While low pH leachant can extract many metals, some metals soluble at higher pH values are either underestimated or totally unaccounted for. The method also has limitations for application to different waste matrices. The procedure does not take into account the effect of redox conditions on leaching. Leaching studies are, therefore, being conducted to determine the effect of combinations of Eh and pH on the leaching potential of mineral and organic wastes. The goal of this study is to propose alternate methods applicable for a variety of waste matrices. The presentation will discuss the effects of combinations of pH and redox conditions on the leaching behavior of copper from a mineral processing waste.

  13. The physical and chemical aspects of the leaching behavior of metals from portland cement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ricardo Corye

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), a modified version of the Extraction Procedure (m-EP) which assures a constant leachant pH, and a modified TCLP which exposes the samples to the leachant for up to 5 hours. Atomic absorption..., between 0. 15 and 0. 01 pm and less than 0. 01 )lm, respectively) are related to the following: mixing enhancement, precipitation of complex metal compounds and retardation of clinker hydration on addition of metal nitrates to cement, and dissolution...

  14. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  15. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  16. Analysis of data from leaching concrete samples taken from the TMI-2 reactor building basement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.D.; Box, W.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Scott, T.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of contaminated concrete from the basement of the reactor building at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2 were tested and analyzed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the potential for decontamination by diffusion-controlled leaching under conditions of full submergence and by forced flow-through leaching of porous concrete block walls. Pertinent physical characteristics of the concrete were measured, and leaching tests were performed. Data were analyzed by established mass transport principles, and predictions of leaching for several years were made. A numerical algorithm was used to model removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr by forced flow-through leaching. Results indicated that forced flow-through leaching would require only a few days, whereas complete decontamination by submerged, diffusion-only methods would require several years. 9 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Solidification/stabilization of toxic metal wastes using coke and coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vempati, R.K.; Mollah, M.Y.A.; Chinthala, A.K.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States); Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of a special rubber waste, NISCO Cyclone Ash (NCA), which contains substantial calcium oxide and calcium sulfites/sulfates for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of toxic metal wastes. The mineralogical compositions of the NCA and a class ``C`` fly ash have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrated mixtures of these wastes have been examined by XRD and found to form ettringite. Low concentrations of As (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Ba (500 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Pb (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), and Zn (1,000 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}) were added to these hydrated mixtures and found to be successfully immobilized and solidified, as determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). In addition, the mineralogy, chemistry and leaching characteristics of these combined waste products and their interactions with toxic metals are discussed.

  18. Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: maniskrjha@gmail.com [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Lee, Jae-chun, E-mail: jclee@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Vinay [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Jeong, Jinki [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5 M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5 M HCl at 90 Degree-Sign C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1 M nitric acid at 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10 g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

  19. The energy transition Gerald Leach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The energy transition Gerald Leach The paper considers the substitution of tradition. The In the context of energy policy and planning, the paper concludes with a review of the reasons why transition. In the IS THE TRANSITION HAPPENING? poorest developing countries biomass fuels account for 60-95% of total energy use

  20. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Assessment of metal contaminations leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles syntheses, partic- ularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. Methodology In this study, leaching

  2. Surface and bulk studies of leached and unleached fly ash using XPS, SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousuf, M.; Mollah, A.; Hess, T.R.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Gill Chair of Chemistry

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective chemical utilization of fly ash in environmental applications requires a detailed knowledge of the surface and bulk changes induced by leaching in acid solutions. The surface and bulk characteristics of fly ash from the combustion of Texas lignite have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of leaching with acid solutions commonly used in environmental studies have been documented using these techniques. The results of these studies reveal that the fly ash particles are relatively resistance to either chemical or physical changes due to attack by acidic leaching solutions.

  3. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization - 13400

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Peterson, Reid A.; Brown, Christopher F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. The goal of this campaign was to study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the encapsulated FBSR product in a geo-polymer monolith. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory. (authors)

  4. Determining the leaching characteristics of solidified/stabilized wastes using constant pH leaching tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sofjan, Indratjahja

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solidification/Stabilization treatment using Portland cement is an established procedure in the management of hazardous wastes. The technology is relatively simple, cheap, and highly reliable in prohibiting the migration of hazardous contaminants...

  5. Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

  6. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

  7. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Leaching Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2000-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaching chambers distribute treated wastewater into the soil. This publication lists the advantages and disadvantages of leaching chamber systems, explains how to maintain them and gives estimates of costs....

  8. Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUREG-1569 Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium Extraction License Applications Final Washington, DC 20555-0001 #12;NUREG-1569 Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium Extraction License OF A STANDARD REVIEW PLAN (NUREG­1569) FOR STAFF REVIEWS FOR IN SITU LEACH URANIUM EXTRACTION LICENSE

  9. Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

  10. Toxic remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Stephen M. (Alamed County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  11. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical considerations for application of leach tests to sediments and dredged material. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, T.E.; Brannon, J.M.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note summarizes the characteristics of and differences among laboratory leach tests used for preproject evaluation of leachate quality in confined disposal facilities (CDFs) for dredged material. The guidance provided in this note is based on ongoing research conducted under the Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations (LEDO) Program.

  12. Actinide speciation in glass leach-layers: An EXAFS study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biwer, B.M.; Soderholm, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Greegor, R.B. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Lytle, F.W. [EXAFS Co., Pioche, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium L{sub 3} X-ray absorption data were obtained from two borosilicate glasses, which are considered as models for radioactive wasteforms, both before and after leaching. Surface sensitivity to uranium speciation was attained by a novel application of simultaneous fluorescence and electron-yield detection. Changes in speciation are clearly discernible, from U(VI) in the bulk to (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+}-uranyl in the leach layer. The leach-layer uranium concentration variations with leaching times are also determined from the data.

  13. Partitioning and Leaching Behavior of Actinides and Rare Earth Elements in a Zirconolite- Bearing Hydrothermal Vein System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Hart, Kaye P.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; McGlinn, Peter J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, 2234 (Australia); Giere, Reto [Mineralogisch-Geochemisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg, D-79104 (Germany)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical extraction techniques and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the distribution and behavior of actinides and rare earth elements (REE) in hydrothermal veins at Adamello (Italy). The six samples discussed in this paper were from the phlogopite zone, which is one of the major vein zones. The samples were similar in their bulk chemical composition, mineralogy, and leaching behavior of major elements (determined by extraction with 9 M HCl). However, there were major differences in the extractability of REE and actinides. The most significant influence on the leaching characteristics appears to be the amounts of U, Th and REE incorporated in resistant host phases (zirconolite and titanite) rather than readily leached phases (such as apatite). Uranium and Th are very highly enriched in zirconolite grains. Actinides were more readily leached from samples with a higher content of U and Th, relative to the amount of zirconium. The results show that REE and actinides present in chemically resistant host minerals can be retained under aggressive leaching conditions. (authors)

  14. Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyk s #12;#12;Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyks Ph.D. Thesis Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Cover: Torben Dolin & Julie Camilla Middleton Printed by: Vester

  15. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  16. Effects of various uranium leaching procedures on soil: Short-term vegetation growth and physiology. Progress report, April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, N.T.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant volumes of soil containing elevated levels of uranium exist in the eastern United States. The contamination resulted from the development of the nuclear industry in the United States requiring a large variety of uranium products. The contaminated soil poses a collection and disposal problem of a magnitude that justifies the development of decontamination methods. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program to address the problem. The fundamental goal of the USID task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than what can be done using current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics and without generating waste that is difficult to manage and/or dispose of. However, procedures developed for removing uranium from contaminated soil have involved harsh chemical treatments that affect the physicochemical properties of the soil. The questions are (1) are the changes in soil properties severe enough to destroy the soil`s capacity to support and sustain vegetation growth and survival? and (2) what amendments might be made to the leached soil to return it to a reasonable vegetation production capacity? This study examines the vegetation-support capacity of soil that had been chemically leached to remove uranium. The approach is to conduct short-term germination and phytotoxicity tests for evaluating soils after they are subjected to various leaching procedures followed by longer term pot studies on successfully leached soils that show the greatest capacity to support plant growth. This report details the results from germination and short-term phytotoxicity testing of soils that underwent a variety of leaching procedures at the bench scale at ORNL and at the pilot plant at Fernald.

  17. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  18. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

  19. Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Legore, V.L.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine ({sup 125}I), carbon ({sup 14}C), technetium ({sup 99}Tc), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), strontium ({sup 85}Sr), americium ({sup 241}Am), and plutonium ({sup 238}Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested.

  20. Leaching assessments of toxic metals in waste plasma display panel glass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, M; Jiang, P; Chen, H; Ogunseitan, OA; Li, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of waste cathode-ray tube glass. Waste Manage. 26:1468–76.leachability from waste PDP glass in order to determinewaste plasma display panel glass ab a a b a Mengjun Chen ,

  1. Leaching assessments of toxic metals in waste plasma display panel glass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, M; Jiang, P; Chen, H; Ogunseitan, OA; Li, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    elements in municipal solid waste incineration ?y ash. J.Beijing (MEP China). 2007. Solid waste-extraction procedureheavy metals from municipal solid waste incinerator ?y ash.

  2. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

  3. Phophorus and nitrogen leaching losses during turf establishment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hay, Francis John

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ) was transplanted sod grown with 50 kg ha-1 inorganic fertilizer P (triple superphosphate, 0-46-0). Treatment 3 (SM) was sprigged bermudagrass top-dressed with 100 kg ha-1 of P as CDM one day after planting. All treatments were applied 17 June 2002... and SM treatments received an additional application of CDM (100 kg P ha-1), and inorganic fertilizer (50 kg P ha-1) was applied to the FS treatment on 15 August 2002. ?Leaching set II? comprised three additional leachings, which were imposed 1, 4...

  4. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  5. A comparison of three learning methods to predict N2O fluxes and N leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    leaching; the first indicator is a powerful greenhouse gas and the second one is an important source

  6. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

  7. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Aydilek, Ahmet H., E-mail: aydilek@umd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Li, Lin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 17068 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  9. Caustic Leaching of Sludges from Selected Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to measure the caustic dissolution behavior of sludge components from selected Hanford waste tank sludge samples under different conditions. The dissolution of aluminum, chromium, and other constituents of actual sludge samples in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was evaluated using various values of temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration, volume of caustic solution per unit mass of sludge (liquid:solids ratio), and leaching time.

  10. Leaching scale effect for radioactive wastes encapsulated in cement, bitumen or polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomine, J.C.; Ferriot, J.F. [CEA Centre d`Etude de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Girard, J.; Montigon, J.F. [CEA Centre d`Etude de Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective method to determine of the radioactive waste package s acceptable for a final disposal and in accordance with the requirements is by leaching tests. For many reasons the leaching tests are conducted on small size samples rather than full scale blocks. Nevertheless, it is necessary to demonstrate that laboratory or cored samples are representative of real form-scale embedding (in accordance with the specific activity, the chemical composition of the waste, the matrix and structure) for the leaching tests. This paper gives the results of studies on the leaching behavior of waste embeddings in three different cases (hydraulic binder, bitumen and polymer matrices). For cesium, even if no scale effect on its leaching mechanism has been shown, it is difficult to prove before testing that small samples are representative of the real waste forms. For cobalt, results on bitumen or polymer embedded waste show no scale effect on its leaching mechanism.

  11. Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Addressing Nitrates in Groundwater. Report to theSources and Loading to Groundwater, Technical Report 2,nitrogen leaching to groundwater by John Letey and Peter

  12. air-pollution-control residues leaching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the top of the ore pile. The bioleaching process Seplveda, Mauricio 30 Landscape Controls on Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Leaching across Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  13. The distribution of potentially toxic heavy metals in the sediments of San Antonio Bay and the northwest Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefry, John Harold

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total of 123 sediment samples from 48 locations in the northwest Gulf of Mexico, including San Antonio Bay and the Mississippi River Delta, were acid leached and analyzed for iron, manganese, lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and nickel by atomic... of the river mouths, also showed slightly higher than expected levels of nickel, lead, and cadmium. The proposition that shell dredging operations in the bay remobilize significant quantities of toxic metals and make them available to the biota of the area...

  14. Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

  15. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

  16. PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.”(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  17. CHEMISTRY AND TOXICITY OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sewer water produced no acute toxicity, and only slightly inhibited Ceriodaphnia reproduction, again) primary treated domestic sewage from greater Vancouver (Annacis Island Wastewater Treatment Plant); (2 exceeded 10 mg/L. Storm sewer water was relatively low in dissolved salts, but contained significant

  18. Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, James Gregory

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in significantly higher concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P, and potassium (K). Generally, a higher CM content in acidic and alkaline blends resulted in higher leachate concentrations for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total...

  19. Improving Permeability and Salt Leaching in Irrigated Sports Fields: Exploratory Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S; Martinez, Ignacio; Luna, Francisco; Tirre, David

    corrugated surface to permit lateral drainage was also highly effective in salt leaching in deep clay. Subsoiling of Glendale and Saneli silty clay loam followed by topdressing with a thin layer of sand also resulted in good salt leaching, especially when...

  20. Temperature-dependent leaching of chemical elements from mineral water bottle materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    t It is well established that minute amounts of chemical elements will leach from bottle materials (glass leach- ing increases with storage temperature. For glass bottles this is clearly the case for a long, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, U, V, W and Zr. However, for glass bottles drinking water maximum admissible

  1. Concrete calcium leaching at variable temperature: experimental data and numerical model inverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , concrete porous solution is very basic (pH around 13) and several ionic species are highly concentrated [1Concrete calcium leaching at variable temperature: experimental data and numerical model inverse/DSU/SSIAD/BERIS, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France Abstract A simplified model for calcium leaching in concrete is presented

  2. Toxic Pollution Prevention Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the purpose of this Act to reduce the disposal and release of toxic substances which may have adverse and serious health and environmental effects, to promote toxic pollution prevention as...

  3. Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act, revised significantly in 2006, seeks to mitigate the use of toxic substances and the production of toxic byproducts through reporting requirements as well as resource conservation plans...

  4. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  5. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

  6. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crespi, Charles L. (Downers Grove, IL); Thilly, William G. (Winchester, MA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity) is disclosed. Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. Mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics, are also disclosed.

  7. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  8. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  9. Supplement to Diagnosis and Management of Salinity Problems in Irrigated Pecan Production: Salt Leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.

    (e. g., Hanson and Bendixen, 1995). The flow under drip irrigation is largely unsaturated flow, and the evaporation-driven salinity increase associated with high frequency sprinkler irrigation is minimal with drip systems. This method... of leaching irrigation depend largely upon the existing irrigation system, and the types of soils involved. Several items, however, should be kept in mind. We already mentioned that it is preferable to apply leaching irrigation during the dormant period...

  10. The physical and chemical aspects of the leaching behavior of metals from portland cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ricardo Corye

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT A Thesis by RICARDO CORYE DAVIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemistry THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT A Thesis by RICARDO CORYE DAVIS Approved as to style and content by: David L. Cocke (Co...

  11. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30.

  12. Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrera Godinez, J.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

  13. Leaching of metals from ores. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the extraction of metals from ores by leaching. Topics include leaching of metals from ore heaps, mine tailings, smelter wastes, and sea nodules. Metals covered include gold, uranium, copper, nickel, silver, manganese, and cobalt. Bacterio-electric, biological-acid, and hydrogen peroxide leaching are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic...

  15. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  16. Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.; Bell, N.E.; Martin, W.J.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO/sub 2/), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established.

  17. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  18. SPR salt wall leaching experiments in lab-scale vessel : data report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen Walter; O'Hern, Timothy John; Hartenberger, Joel David

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During cavern leaching in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), injected raw water mixes with resident brine and eventually interacts with the cavern salt walls. This report provides a record of data acquired during a series of experiments designed to measure the leaching rate of salt walls in a labscale simulated cavern, as well as discussion of the data. These results should be of value to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models used to simulate leaching applications. Three experiments were run in the transparent 89-cm (35-inch) ID diameter vessel previously used for several related projects. Diagnostics included tracking the salt wall dissolution rate using ultrasonics, an underwater camera to view pre-installed markers, and pre- and post-test weighing and measuring salt blocks that comprise the walls. In addition, profiles of the local brine/water conductivity and temperature were acquired at three locations by traversing conductivity probes to map out the mixing of injected raw water with the surrounding brine. The data are generally as expected, with stronger dissolution when the salt walls were exposed to water with lower salt saturation, and overall reasonable wall shape profiles. However, there are significant block-to-block variations, even between neighboring salt blocks, so the averaged data are considered more useful for model validation. The remedial leach tests clearly showed that less mixing and longer exposure time to unsaturated water led to higher levels of salt wall dissolution. The data for all three tests showed a dividing line between upper and lower regions, roughly above and below the fresh water injection point, with higher salt wall dissolution in all cases, and stronger (for remedial leach cases) or weaker (for standard leach configuration) concentration gradients above the dividing line.

  19. C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

  20. Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 7591 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 75­91 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching

  1. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

  2. Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crespi, Charles L. (Marblehead, MA); Thilly, William G. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics.

  3. Percolated water can leach undesirable chemical compounds below the rooting zone of plants and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a great threat to plant and animal health, the environment, the economy, and civilization. Further ReadingPercolated water can leach undesirable chemical compounds below the rooting zone of plants. Surface runoff typically begins as sheet flow but, as it accelerates and gains in erosive power

  4. Growth of New Guinea impatiens under no-leach drip irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pannkuk, Timothy Richard

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the same fertility rate. In post-production studies following both experiments, all plants continued to grow and flower. In a third experiment, plants were grown under a no leach irrigation regime and the 12-3-4 fertility rate with six different media (peat...

  5. Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chriswell, Colin D. (Slater, IA); Kaushik, Surender M. (Socorro, NM); Shah, Navin D. (Houston, TX); Markuszewski, Richard (Ames, IA)

    1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

  6. Estimation of Hydraulic Parameters under Unsaturated Flow Conditions in Heap Leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sepúlveda, Mauricio

    is a widely used extraction method for low-grade minerals as well as copper, gold, silver, and uranium. Copper minerals are primar- ily categorized as either copper sulphides or oxides. During heap leaching, sulfuric is suitable for copper recovery of the more stable sulphide minerals from copper ores. The construction

  7. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  8. MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH Waste Management (in source such as municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration ash, requires a knowledge of the so percolating through waste evolve over time, for a given percolation scenario (infiltration rate, waste source

  9. Evaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly AshSoil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    from coal-fired power plants, which burn over 1 billion t of coal annually (Kim 2006). This generationEvaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly Ash­Soil Mixtures Jason Becker: Beneficial reuse of coal combustion byproducts, e.g., in highway construction, requires an evaluation

  10. Evaluation of Foaming and Antifoam Effectiveness During the WTP Oxidative Leaching Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P. R.; Jones, T. M.; White, T. L.; Crawford, C. L.; Calloway, T. B

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using a Hanford waste simulant subjected to air sparging during oxidative leaching. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated by SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming studies and in small scale air sparger studies. The commercial antifoam, Dow Corning Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators and in vessel equipped with pulse jet mixers and air spargers. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels (HLP-VSL-00027A/B), the Ultrafiltration Vessels (UFP-VSL-00002A&B), and the HLW Feed Blend Vessel (HLPVSL-00028) to assist the performance of the Pulse Jet Mixers (PJM). The previous air sparger antifoam studies conducted by SRNL researchers did not evaluate the hydrogen generation rate expected from antifoam additions or the effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching or oxidative leaching. The fate of the various antifoam components and breakdown products in the WTP process under prototypic process conditions (temperature & radiation) was also not investigated. The effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching, expected hydrogen generation rate associated with antifoam addition, and the fate of various antifoam components are being conducted under separate SRNL research tasks.

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    December 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Coal combustion by products Fly ash Heavy metals Leaching road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater is produced in the United States as a by-product of burning coal in electric power plants (ACAA, 2009

  12. Temperature and Microbial Activity Effects on Trace Element Leaching from Metalliferous Peats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Temperature and Microbial Activity Effects on Trace Element Leaching from Metalliferous PeatsDue to geochemical processes, peat soils often have elevated con- sulfides (Cannon, 1955). The maximum Zn concentra as high as 10 g kg 1 . Theperatures to vary microbial activity in two metalliferous peats (M7 acidic peat

  13. 1 Introduction In many soils of the tropics the nutrient losses by leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    in soil poses considerable technical problems. For quantifying nutrient losses by seepage a variety1 Introduction In many soils of the tropics the nutrient losses by leaching exceed the inputs in humid tropical lowlands (Williams et al., 1997). These losses need to be reduced for sustainable

  14. Evaluation of gold and silver leaching from printed circuit board of cellphones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petter, P.M.H., E-mail: patymhp@yahoo.com.br; Veit, H.M.; Bernardes, A.M.

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Printed circuit boards (PCB) of mobile phones have large amounts of metals with high economic value such as gold and silver. • Dissolution of gold was done with a cyanide-based reagent and silver with nitric acid. • Leaching of PCB with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to examine the feasibility of using these reagents was done. - Abstract: Electronic waste has been increasing proportionally with the technology. So, nowadays, it is necessary to consider the useful life, recycling, and final disposal of these equipment. Metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Sn and Ni can be found in the printed circuit boards (PCB). According to this, the aims of this work is to characterize the PCBs of mobile phones with aqua regia; obtaining “reference” values of leaching, to gold and silver, with cyanide and nitric acid, respectively; and study the process of leaching of these metals in alternative leaching with sodium thiosulfate and ammonium thiosulfate. The metals were characterized by digesting the sample with aqua regia for 1 and 2 h at 60 °C and 80 °C. The leaching of Au with a commercial reagent (cyanide) and the Ag with HNO{sub 3}were made. The leaching of Au and Ag with alternative reagents: Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3,} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} in 0.1 M concentration with the addition of CuSO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}OH, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, was also studied. The results show that the digestion with aqua regia was efficient to characterize the metals present in the PCBs of mobile phones. However, the best method to solubilize silver was by digesting the sample with nitric acid. The leaching process using sodium thiosulfate was more efficient when an additional concentration of 0.015 and 0.030 M of the CuSO{sub 4} was added.

  15. PEP Integrated Test D Run Report Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes" of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario (Test B and D) has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario (Test A) has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In Test D, 19M sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic) was added to the waste slurry in the UFP VSL T02 vessel after the solids were concentrated to ~20% undissolved solids. The NaOH was added to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by heating to 85°C using direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. The main difference of Test D compared to Test B is that the leach temperature is 85°C for 24 hrs as compared to 100°C for 12 hours. The other difference is the Test D simulant had Cr in the simulant from the start of processing and Test B had Cr added to adjust the simulant composition after aluminum leaching. Following the caustic leach, the UFP-VSL-T02A vessel contents are cooled using the vessel cooling jacket. The slurry was then concentrated to 17 wt% undissolved solids and washed with inhibited water to remove NaOH and other soluble salts. Next, the slurry was oxidatively leached using sodium permanganate to solubilize chrome. The slurry was then washed to remove the dissolved chrome and concentrated.

  16. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tostar, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.tostar@chalmers.se [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal [Department of Material and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Foreman, Mark R. St. J. [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • We have proposed a method to recover antimony from electronic plastics. • The most efficient acid solution was sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide. • Gamma irradiation did not influence the antimony leaching ability. - Abstract: There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5 M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23 °C and heated to ca. 105 °C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  17. Investigation of stabilization/solidification for treatment of electric arc furnace dust: Dynamic leaching of monolithic specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laforest, Guylaine [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton, Departement de Geologie et de Genie Geologique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Qc, G1K 7P4 (Canada)], E-mail: guylaine.laforest.1@ulaval.ca; Duchesne, Josee [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton, Departement de Geologie et de Genie Geologique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Qc, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffusion-controlled leaching of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) from electric arc furnace dust treated with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was evaluated. Monolithic specimens were evaluated under dynamic leaching conditions for 84 days with periodic leachant renewal. The influence of leaching time, nature of the leachant, binder type and the water/solid ratio of the monoliths were investigated. Results obtained showed both binders can immobilize heavy metals in the monoliths under dynamic leaching conditions, with cumulative quantity of leached metal under 0.138 mg (Cr). Alkaline leachant increased metal release from specimens and reducing the water/solid ratio of the monolith allowed for a decrease in the cumulative mass of metals leached. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations indicated that the metals were evenly distributed throughout the specimens for both binders. Decalcification was observed on the OPC monolith border following leaching. This decrease in Ca corresponded to an altered zone (20 {mu}m), identified by scanning electron microscopy. The GGBFS sample did not show an altered zone.

  18. Toxic Remediation System And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Stephen M. (Alameda County, CA); Schonberg, Russell G. (Santa Clara County, CA); Fadness, David R. (Santa Clara County, CA)

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  19. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility Compliance Agreement Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility Compliance Agreement Toxic...

  1. Leaching of BTEX from Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils: Experimental and Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally assumed that soil properties such as organic matter content, porosity, and mineral surface area have a significant effect on the bioavailability and leachability of aged petroleum hydrocarbons. In order to test this hypothesis, nine model soils or sorbents (i.e., fine and coarse quartz sand, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay, peat, 60? and 150? silica gel, a loam soil, and non-porous glass beads) were spiked with a crude oil, aged for 27 months in the laboratory, and transferred to glass columns for the performance of continuous flow leaching experiments. The column effluents were periodically sampled for 43 days and analyzed for BTEX. A one-dimensional flow model for predicting the dissolution and dispersion of individual hydrocarbons from a multi-component NAPL such as crude oil was used to fit the leaching data (i.e., the BTEX concentration versus time curves) by adjusting the equilibrium oil-leachate partitioning coefficient (Kol) for each respective hydrocarbon. The Peclet number, which is a measure of dispersion and a required modeling parameter, was measured in separate chloride tracer experiments for each soil column. Results demonstrate that soil properties did not significantly affect the leaching kinetics of BTEX from the columns. Instead, BTEX leaching curves could be successfully fitted with the one-dimensional NAPL dissolution flow model for all sorbents with the exception of montmorillonite clay. The fitting parameter Kol for each hydrocarbon was found to be similar to the Kol values that were independently measured for the same crude oil by Rixey et al. (Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 65: 137-156, 1999). In addition, the fitted Kol values were very similar for BTEX leaching from aged compared to freshly spiked loam soil. These findings indicate that leaching of BTEX in the aged soils that are contaminated with crude oil at the high concentrations commonly found in the environment (i.e., >20,000 mg/kg) was not affected by soil properties or aging but rather was governed by the equilibrium dissolution of these hydrocarbons from the crude oil NAPL that is coating the soil particles.

  2. Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow UNL Extension Educator, Water Quality Algae is a microscopic plant that occurs in all water. However, only certain conditions bring algae to the surface, making it toxic to animals, especially humans and dogs. Toxic algae often are naturally occurring from high

  3. The Use of Remotely Sensed Bioelectric Action Potentials to Evaluate Episodic Toxicity Events and Ambient Toxicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, W. Tom; Acevedo, Miguel F.; Allen, H. J.; Schwalm, F. U.

    The exposure of an organism to a toxicant is defined by the magnitude, duration, and frequency with which the organism(s) interact with the toxicant(s). Predicting the exposure of organisms to toxicants during episodic events such as those resulting...

  4. The Use of Remotely Sensed Bioelectric Action Potentials to Evaluate Episodic Toxicity Events and Ambient Toxicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, W. Tom; Acevedo, Miguel F.; Allen, H. J.; Schwalm, F. U.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exposure of an organism to a toxicant is defined by the magnitude, duration, and frequency with which the organism(s) interact with the toxicant(s). Predicting the exposure of organisms to toxicants during episodic events such as those resulting...

  5. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  6. c Copyright 2009. W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

    c° Copyright 2009. W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School. If the MOSFET is in the pinch-off region, the following equations for ID hold: ID = K (VGS - VT H)2 (5) 2 #12

  7. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L. [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were {sup 85}Sr, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period.

  8. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  9. A multi-component partitioning model to predict organic leaching from stabilized/solidified oily wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Cleirigh, Declan Ronan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    42 44 44 Figure 12. 3 Pseudo-Component Model using Modified K values, j = 1 Figure 13. TOC Leaching Rate from a Solidified Oily Waste, . ????, 46 50 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Composition of Ordinary Portland Cement Table 2. Basic Hydration.... Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and flyash are common binders of choice as they are inexpensive, stable against damage and fire, and methods of mixing and processing them are well understood. Poor treatment efficiencies have been found when solidifying...

  10. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

  11. Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, Albert; Kovarskaya, Elena N. [RosAtom, 'V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute' (KRI), 2-nd Murinsky str., 28, Saint Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Harbour, John R.; Langton, Christine A.; Holtzscheiter, E. William [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

  12. Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

    2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

  13. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  14. Biogenic radon emission from uranium mine tailings: A consequence of microbial leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, W. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two uranium mine waste heaps near Ronneburg, Germany, were investigated for the occurrence of lithotrophic and chemoorganotrophic leach bacteria. The evaluation of 162 samples (= to 5m depth) resulted in the finding that Thiobacillus (T.) ferrooxidans dominated up to a depth of about 1.5m. Below, T. intermedius/neapolitanus were the most abundant lithotrophs. Pyrite, however, was the only nutrient source in the heaps. Consequently, the latter lithotrophs must have had another source of nutrient. We recently demonstrated leaching to proceed only via the indirect mechanism with thiosulfate and ferrous hexahydrate as the first degradation products. Thiosulfate is the best nutrient for T. intermedius/neapolitanus. In addition, the highest emission of radon, measured as radioactivity 1m above the heap surface, correlated with the highest cell counts of T. Ferrooxidans. Considering the diagenesis of the ore (precipitation of uranite followed by pyrite) a leach pore model was hypothesized explaining the correlation. Accordingly, the biological removal of pyrite allows the trapped radon to escape from the pore.

  15. Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

  16. PRETREATMENT OF TC CONTAINING WASTE AND ITS EFFECT ON 99 TC LEACHING FROM GROUTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix.

  17. Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

  18. Systematic Evaluation of Nanomaterial Toxicity: Utility of Standardize...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systematic Evaluation of Nanomaterial Toxicity: Utility of Standardized Materials and Rapid Assays. Systematic Evaluation of Nanomaterial Toxicity: Utility of Standardized...

  19. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL modified IAEA method. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test was conducted on the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu and various stable elements were measured at 25 and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The SPCF leaching results were compared with results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). Elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition were established. The LLNL and PNL leach test results appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements. 23 figures, 12 tables.

  20. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  1. Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. (Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Elk Grove, CA (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Experimental Study and Monte Carlo Modeling of Calcium Borosilicate Glasses Leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arab, Mehdi; Cailleteau, Celine; Angeli, Frederic [CEA/DTCD/SECM/Laboratoire d'etudes du Comportement a Long Terme, CEA Centre Valrho, BP 17171, Bagnols-sur-ceze, 30207 (France); Devreux, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, 91128 (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During aqueous alteration of glass an alteration layer appears on the glass surface. The properties of this alteration layer are of great importance for understanding and predicting the long-term behavior of high-level radioactive waste glasses. Numerical modeling can be very useful for understanding the impact of the glass composition on its aqueous reactivity and long-term properties but it is quite difficult to model these complex glasses. In order to identify the effect of the calcium content on glass alteration, seven oxide glass compositions (57SiO{sub 2} 17B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (22-x)Na{sub 2}O{sub x}CaO 4ZrO{sub 2}; 0 < x < 11) were investigated and a Monte Carlo model was developed to describe their leaching behavior. The specimens were altered at constant temperature (T = 90 deg. C) at a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume (SA/V) ratio of 15 cm-1 in a buffered solution (pH 9.2). Under these conditions all the variations observed in the leaching behavior are attributable to composition effects. Increasing the calcium content in the glass appears to be responsible for a sharp drop in the final leached boron fraction. In parallel with this experimental work, a Monte Carlo model was developed to investigate the effect of calcium content on the leaching behavior especially on the initial stage of alteration. Monte Carlo simulations performed with this model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The dependence of the alteration rate on the calcium content can be described by a quadratic function: fitting the simulated points gives a minimum alteration rate at about 7.7 mol% calcium. This value is consistent with the figure of 8.2 mol% obtained from the experimental work. The model was also used to investigate the role of calcium in the glass structure and it pointed out that calcium act preferentially as a network modifier rather than a charge compensator in this kind of glasses. (authors)

  3. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  4. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, Russell L. (Richland, WA); Gee, Glendon W. (Richland, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  5. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  6. Chronic Toxicity and Reproduction Studies of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    as an unwanted by-product of certain processes associated with the chlorination of hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to assess the potential long-term toxicity of HCBD. In a reproduction study conducted in rats, dose levels of 20 or 2.0 mg/kg-day of HCBD induced slight maternal toxicity

  7. Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Toxic Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic plants can cause serious losses to livestock, but with the information in this leaflet producers will know how to manage grazing to minimize the danger of toxic plants. It is important to recognize problems early and know how to deal with them....

  8. Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Toxic Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic plants can cause serious losses to livestock, but with the information in this leaflet producers will know how to manage grazing to minimize the danger of toxic plants. It is important to recognize problems early and know how to deal with them....

  9. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  10. Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

  11. Effects of temperature and radiation on the nuclear waste glass product consistency leach test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous leach studies carried out with monolithic glass samples have shown that glass dissolution rates increase with increasing temperature and may or may not increase on exposure to external gamma radiolysis. In this study we have investigated the effects of temperature (70--1200[degrees]C) and radiation on the dissolution of simulated radioactive waste glasses using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The PCT is a seven day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water that is carried out at 9OO[degrees]C. To date our results indicate no significant effect of external Co--60 gamma radiation when testing various simulated waste glasses at 90[degrees]C in a wellinsulated compartment within a Gammacell 220 irradiation unit. The temperature dependence for glass dissolution clearly exhibits Arrheniustype behavior for two of the three glasses tested. For the third glass the dissolution decreases at the higher temperatures, probably due to saturation effects. Actual radioactive waste glasses will be investigated later as part of this study.

  12. Effects of temperature and radiation on the nuclear waste glass product consistency leach test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous leach studies carried out with monolithic glass samples have shown that glass dissolution rates increase with increasing temperature and may or may not increase on exposure to external gamma radiolysis. In this study we have investigated the effects of temperature (70--1200{degrees}C) and radiation on the dissolution of simulated radioactive waste glasses using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The PCT is a seven day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water that is carried out at 9OO{degrees}C. To date our results indicate no significant effect of external Co--60 gamma radiation when testing various simulated waste glasses at 90{degrees}C in a wellinsulated compartment within a Gammacell 220 irradiation unit. The temperature dependence for glass dissolution clearly exhibits Arrheniustype behavior for two of the three glasses tested. For the third glass the dissolution decreases at the higher temperatures, probably due to saturation effects. Actual radioactive waste glasses will be investigated later as part of this study.

  13. Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of Composite K East Canister Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KECDVSR24H-2) produced during a 20- to 24-hr dissolution of a composite K East (KE) Basin canister sludge in 95 C 6 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KECDVSR24H-2, contains radionuclides at concentrations which exceed the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for TRU by about a factor of 70, for {sup 239}Pu by a factor of 200, and for {sup 241}Am by a factor of 50. The solids also exceed the ERDF criterion for {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 2 and uranium by a factor of 5. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am (both components of TRU) and then uranium and {sup 137}Cs.

  14. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Bates, J.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT) is a glass leach test that was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to routinely confirm the durability of nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a 7 day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90{degree}C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2--5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment.

  15. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  16. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Toxic Range Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic plants can pose a major threat to livestock during a drought. This publication explains the importance of knowing which plants are toxic, keeping the range healthy, and preventing toxic plant problems....

  17. Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Toxic Range Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic plants can pose a major threat to livestock during a drought. This publication explains the importance of knowing which plants are toxic, keeping the range healthy, and preventing toxic plant problems....

  18. acute organ toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    toxic properties (more) Pessala, Piia 2008-01-01 29 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  19. Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; T. Panagiotou; F.E. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F Sarofim; J. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowsky; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1999 to 30 September 1999. During this period the MIT INAA procedures were revised to improve the quality of the analytical results. Two steps have been taken to reduce the analytical errors. A new nitric acid leaching procedure, modified from ASTM procedure D2492, section 7.3.1 for determination of pyritic sulfur, was developed by USGS and validated. To date, analytical results have been returned for all but the last complete round of the four-step leaching procedure. USGS analysts in Denver have halted development of the cold vapor atomic fluorescence technique for mercury analysis procedure in favor of a new direct analyzer for Hg that the USGS is in the process of acquiring. Since early June, emphasis at USGS has been placed on microanalysis of clay minerals in project coals in preparation for use of the Stanford/USGS SHRIMP RG Ion Microprobe during August 1999. The SHRIMP-RG data confirm that Cr is present at concentrations of about 20 to 120 ppm, just below the electron microprobe detection limits (100 to 200 ppm), as suspected from Phase 1 microprobe work and previous studies of clay mineral separates. The University of Utah has started trial runs on the drop tube furnace to ensure that the gas analysis system is working properly and that the flow pattern within the furnace is laminar and direct. A third set of ASTM samples will be prepared at the University of Utah for the Phase 1 and Phase 2 coals. This time the INAA counting time will be optimized for the elements in which the authors are interested, guided by the results from the first two samples. The iodated charcoal which was used by MIT for vapor phase Hg collection was tested to see whether it collected other vapor phase metals. A second set of tests were performed at PSI using the entrained flow reactor (EFR). The University of Arizona's pilot-scale downflow laboratory combustion furnace was used to test the partitioning of toxic metals in the baseline experiments for the Phase 2 North Dakota lignite and the Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal at baghouse inlet sampling conditions. In addition, baseline data were collected on combustion of the Phase 1 Kentucky Elkhorn/Hazard bituminous coal. Emphasis at the University of Kentucky was placed on (1) collection of new Hg XAFS data for various sorbents, and (2) on collection of XAFS and other data for arsenic, sulfur, chromium and selenium in two baseline ash samples from the University of Arizona combustion unit. A preliminary interpretation of the mercury data is given in this report. Revision was made to the matrix for the initial experiments on mercury-ash interactions to be conducted at EERC. The overall goal of this effort is to collect data which will allow one to model the interactions of mercury and fly ash (specifically, adsorption of Hg{sup 0} and Hg{sup +2} and oxidation of Hg{sup 0}) in the air heater and particulate control dev

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON THERMOWELL PIPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Oji, L.; Martino, C.; Wilmarth, B.

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Video inspection of the tank showed that a film of solid material adhered to the tank internal walls and structures between 69 inch and 150 inch levels. From the video inspection, the solid film thickness was estimated to be 1mm, which corresponds to {approx}33 kg of TPB salts (as 20 wt% insoluble solids) (1). This film material is expected to be easily removed by single-rinse, slurry pump operation during Tank 48H TPB disposition via aggregation processing. A similar success was achieved for Tank 49H TPB dispositioning, with slurry pumps operating almost continuously for approximately 6 months, after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids - Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate, aka: Trona), Al(OH){sub 3} (Aluminum Hydroxide, aka: Gibbsite), NaTPB (Sodium Tetraphenylborate), NaNO{sub 3} (Sodium Nitrate) and NaNO{sub 2} (Sodium Nitrite) (2). Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. There is a risk that material on the internal surfaces of Tank 48H could not be easily removed. As a risk mitigation activity, the chemical composition and leachability of the Tank 48H film are being evaluated prior to initiating tank aggregation. This task investigated the dissolution characteristics of Tank 48H solid film deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, SRNL received four separate 23-inch long thermowell-conductivity pipe samples which were removed from the tank 48H D2 risers in order to determine: (1) the thickness of the solid film deposit, (2) the chemical composition of the film deposits, and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid film deposit in inhibited water (IW) and in DWPF recycle simulant (3).

  1. c Copywright 2008. W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

    c° Copywright 2008. W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School mode or the saturation region when vDS vGS - VTO, where VTO is the threshold or pinch-off voltage parameter which accounts for the change in with drain-source voltage. Because iG ' 0 in the pinch

  2. AMOUNT AND LEACHING POTENTIAL OF HEAVY METALS IN BARK MULCH AND COMPOST USED ON THE UNIVERSITY OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AMOUNT AND LEACHING POTENTIAL OF HEAVY METALS IN BARK MULCH AND COMPOST USED ON THE UNIVERSITY mulch and compost, determine whether or not either of these substances could be significant contributors the presence of heavy metals in fresh bark mulch, soil (used in compost mixtures) and compost being used at UBC

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  4. Hanford Tank 241-S-112 Residual Waste Composition and Leach Test Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization and testing of two samples (designated 20406 and 20407) of residual waste collected from tank S-112 after final waste retrieval. These studies were completed to characterize the residual waste and assess the leachability of contami¬nants from the solids. This is the first report from this PNNL project to describe the composition and leach test data for residual waste from a salt cake tank. All previous PNNL reports (Cantrell et al. 2008; Deutsch et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) describing contaminant release models, and characterization and testing results for residual waste in single-shell tanks were based on samples from sludge tanks.

  5. Effect Of Oxidation On Chromium Leaching And Redox Capacity Of Slag-Containing Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almond, P. M.; Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases [Shuh, et al., 1994, Shuh, et al., 2000, Shuh, et al., 2003]. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in simulated waste form samples. Depth discrete subsamples were cut from material exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) ''field cured'' conditions. The subsamples were prepared and analyzed for both reduction capacity and chromium leachability. Results from field-cured samples indicate that the depth at which leachable chromium was detected advanced further into the sample exposed for 302 days compared to the sample exposed to air for 118 days (at least 50 mm compared to at least 20 mm). Data for only two exposure time intervals is currently available. Data for additional exposure times are required to develop an equation for the oxidation front progression. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method, which is a measurement of the ability of a material to chemically reduce Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in solution) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium (i.e., effective Cr oxidation front). Exposure to oxygen (air or oxygen dissolved in water) results in the release of chromium through oxidation of Cr(III) to highly soluble chromate, Cr(VI). Residual reduction capacity in the oxidized region of the test samples indicates that the remaining reduction capacity is not effective in re-reducing Cr(VI) in the presence of oxygen. Consequently, this method for determining reduction capacity may not be a good indicator of the effective contaminant oxidation rate in a relatively porous solid (40 to 60 volume percent porosity). The chromium extracted in depth discrete samples ranged from a maximum of about 5.8 % at about 5 mm (118 day exposure) to about 4 % at about 10 mm (302 day exposure). The use of reduction capacity as an indicator of long-term performance requires further investigation. The carbonation front was also estimated to have advanced to at least 28 mm in 302 days based on visual observation of gas evolution during acid addition during the reduction capacity measurements. Depth discrete sampling of materials exposed to realistic conditions in combination with short term leaching of crushed samples has potential for advancing the understanding of factors influencing performance and will support conceptual model development.

  6. Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

  7. Staff summary of Issues & Recommendations Toxic Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effects caused by the hydropower system. In particular, investigate whether exposure to toxics and operation of the federal hydropower system: "Fishery resources are clearly affectedby the development and operation of the federal hydropower system. Dam presence can beassociatedwith the accumulation

  8. Differences in growth and toxicity of Karenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neely, Tatum Elizabeth

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico are primarily caused by dense aggregations of the dinoflagellate species, Karenia brevis. Karenia brevis produces a highly toxic neurotoxin, brevetoxin which has been shown to cause Neurotoxic...

  9. Differences in growth and toxicity of Karenia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neely, Tatum Elizabeth

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico are primarily caused by dense aggregations of the dinoflagellate species, Karenia brevis. Karenia brevis produces a highly toxic neurotoxin, brevetoxin which has been shown to cause Neurotoxic...

  10. Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

  11. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University... ................... ...... ... 6 BehaviorModification.................................. 7 Management Techniques forReducingToxic Plant Losses... 8 LiteratureCited........................................ 9 Poisonous Plants ofTexas...............................10 Editor: Judy Winn...

  12. Toxicity of Bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for Sheep.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boughton, I. B (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, RFCAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 552 AUGUST, 1937 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE TOXICITY OF BI'FTERWEED" FOR SHEEP (*Actinea odorata) AGRICULTURAL... AND MECHANICMIJ COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Previous feeding tests and field observations* have established the toxicity of bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for sheep. The experi- ments reported herein prove that the minimum lethal dose of the fresh...

  13. Residual Toxicities of Insecticides to Cotton Insects.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hightower, B. G.; Gaines, J. C.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary Results of experiments conducted to determine leafworm, the salt-marsh caterpillar and the garden the effect of natural or simulated climatic conditions webworm. on the residual toxicities of several chlorinated hydro- carbon... variety of weathering conditions. Based on residual properties alone, toxaphene and dieldrin ranked with endrin and Sevin, but the initial toxicities of dieldrin and endrin to the boll weevil were appreciably greater than those of toxaphene...

  14. Residual Toxicities of Insecticides to Cotton Insects. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hightower, B. G.; Gaines, J. C.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary Results of experiments conducted to determine leafworm, the salt-marsh caterpillar and the garden the effect of natural or simulated climatic conditions webworm. on the residual toxicities of several chlorinated hydro- carbon... variety of weathering conditions. Based on residual properties alone, toxaphene and dieldrin ranked with endrin and Sevin, but the initial toxicities of dieldrin and endrin to the boll weevil were appreciably greater than those of toxaphene...

  15. Toxicity of Bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for Sheep. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boughton, I. B (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, RFCAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 552 AUGUST, 1937 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE TOXICITY OF BI'FTERWEED" FOR SHEEP (*Actinea odorata) AGRICULTURAL... AND MECHANICMIJ COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Previous feeding tests and field observations* have established the toxicity of bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for sheep. The experi- ments reported herein prove that the minimum lethal dose of the fresh...

  16. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University... ................... ...... ... 6 BehaviorModification.................................. 7 Management Techniques forReducingToxic Plant Losses... 8 LiteratureCited........................................ 9 Poisonous Plants ofTexas...............................10 Editor: Judy Winn...

  17. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

  18. Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Nancy J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM anda mar- ket-based emissions trading program called theimpacts cre- ated by emissions trading programs that affect

  19. Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Charles

    1 Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E. Management of exposure to oxygen toxicity myself using the good ole' FORTRAN programming language, I found that incorporating oxygen toxicity for others. Background Two oxygen toxicity parameters are typically "tracked" in technical diving

  20. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

  1. Caustic Leaching of SRS Tank 12H Sludge With and Without Chelating Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study was to measure the effect of adding triethanolamine (TEA) to caustic leaching solutions to improve the solubility of aluminum in actual tank-waste sludge. High-level radioactive waste sludge that had a high aluminum assay was used for the tests. This waste, which originated with the processing of aluminum-clad/aluminum-alloy fuels, generates high levels of heat because of the high {sup 90}Sr concentration and contains hard-to-dissolve boehmite phases. In concept, a chelating agent, such as TEA, can both improve the dissolution rate and increase the concentration in the liquid phase. For this reason, TEA could also increase the solubility of other sludge components that are potentially problematic to downstream processing. Tests were conducted to determine if this were the case. Because of its relatively high vapor pressure, process design should include methods to minimize losses of the TEA. Sludge was retrieved from tank 12H at the Savannah River Site by on-site personnel, and then shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the study. The sludge contained a small quantity of rocky debris. One slate-like flat piece, which had approximate dimensions of 1 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/8 in., was recovered. Additional gravel-like fragments with approximate diameters ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 in. were also recovered by sieving the sludge slurry through a 1.4-mm square-pitch stainless steel mesh. These particles ranged from a yellow quartz-like material to grey-colored gravel. Of the 32.50 g of sludge received, the mass of the debris was only 0.89 g, and the finely divided sludge comprised {approx}97% of the mass. The sludge was successfully subdivided into uniform aliquots during hot-cell operations. Analytical measurements confirmed the uniformity of the samples. The smaller sludge samples were then used as needed for leaching experiments conducted in a glove box. Six tests were performed with leachate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 m NaOH, 0 to 3.0 m TEA and 0 to 2.9 m NaNO{sub 3}. Figure ES.1 illustrates the leaching of aluminum in all six tests. One test was performed at an operating temperature of 80 C to obtain baseline data, and the remaining five tests were all performed at 60 C. A leaching solution of 3.0 m NaOH was used for the test performed at 80 C and for one of the tests performed at 60 C. These results indicated that more aluminum entered the solution at the higher temperature, though equilibrium was achieved at both temperatures within {approx}10 days. The addition of TEA significantly increased the concentration of aluminum in the leachate, and the concentration continued to increase even after 11 days of processing. The fraction of aluminum dissolved at 60EC increased from {approx}35% using 3.0 m NaOH alone to {approx}87% using a combination of 3.0 m NaOH and 3.0 m TEA. The high-nitrate, low-hydroxide solutions did not significantly dissolve the aluminum, because aluminate ion could not be produced. A small addition of TEA had no effect on this process. The use of TEA also increased the solubility of some other sludge components. The fractions of copper, nickel, and iron that were dissolved increased to 72, 13, and 52%, respectively. However, the original fractions of these metals were only 0.055, 0.72, and 3.1%, respectively, of the dry mass of the sludge and therefore represent minor constituents. The presence of nickel in the leachate did have a dramatic effect on its color, which changed from light yellow to deep green as the nickel concentration increased. By comparison, the baseline leaching with 3.0 m NaOH at 60 C removed {approx}14% of the copper; iron and nickel were below the detectable limit.

  2. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  3. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toussaint, M.W. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shedd, T.R. [Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States); Schalie, W.H. van der [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Leather, G.R. [Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  4. Combined toxicity of four toxicants (Cu, Cr, oil, oil dispersant) to Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Milliou, E.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In sea waters multicontaminant pollution appears to be the rule rather than the exception. For a realistic approach to pollution effects it is essential to estimate the combined toxicity of two or more chemicals. There is a need to understand the mechanisms of quantify the effects of multiple toxicity in order to provide responsible authorities with rational estimate of the effects of chemical mixtures. Thus the potential toxic effects of mixtures of toxicants has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest. In this paper the authors have tried to estimate the joint toxicity of some pollutants commonly found in nearshore polluted waters: two metals, copper and chromium; an oil (Tunesian crude oil zarzaitine type); and an oil dispersant (Finasol OSR-2).

  5. DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

  6. An inexpensive apparatus for toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo Pinto, R.W.; Santelli, J. [Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An inexpensive apparatus was fabricated to monitor and record changes in the motility patterns of small aquatic invertebrates, such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, during acute toxicity tests. Within hours of exposure to a range toxicant concentrations the motility patterns change in a way that predicts the EC50. The work to date suggests there is a correlation between the EC50 following a 60 hour exposure, and motility data collected within the first 40 minutes of the test. The apparatus may be useful to speed range finding tests and for shortening the duration of acute toxicity tests of an effluent or receiving water. The apparatus may also be used to quantify erratic swimming in surviving organisms when a test is terminated.

  7. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  8. Effect of irradiance spectra on the photoinduced toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, S.A.; Mount, D.R.; Burkhard, L.P.; Ankley, G.T.; Makynen, E.A.; Leonard, E.N.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light received. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events underlying phototoxicity. This suggests that variation in light spectra present in natural waters, arising from variation in dissolved organic carbon composition, is an important determinant of phototoxicity risk in specific, PAH-contaminated waterbodies. To quantify the effect of environmentally realistic variation in light spectra on toxicity, brine shrimp (Artemia salina) assays were conducted under various light spectra and with three PAHs (pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) of known phototoxicity potential. In these spectral assays, the total ultraviolet light present was equivalent; only the spectral characteristics varied. Based on the absorbance spectra of these PAHs, it was predicted that toxicity, quantified using immobilization as the endpoint, would vary significantly among light spectra in pyrene assays, but not in anthracene assays, and that variation in toxicity in fluoranthene assays would be intermediate. The results supported these assumptions. In the pyrene exposures, the glass filter time to 50% population immobilization (IT50) (39.5 min) was 117% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (18.2 min). In the fluoranthene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (49.5 min) was 27% longer than the KCr filter IT50 (39.1 min). In the anthracene exposures, the glass filter IT50 (62.2 min) was not statistically different from the KCr filter IT50 (63.8 min). Comparison of these results with the results of assays conducted under neutral-density filters (that change intensity but not spectral distribution) demonstrate that multiplying spectral intensity by wavelength-specific absorbance accurately predicts relative photoinduced toxicity among the experimental treatments. These results indicate that quantifying the spectral characteristics of PAH-contaminated aquatic environments may be an important component of risk assessment at these sites.

  9. Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thorium (IV) content in industrial residue produced from rare earth elements production industry is one of the challenges to Malaysian environment. Separation of thorium from the lanthanide concentrate (LC) and Water Leach Purification (WLP) residue from rare earth elements production plant is described. Both materials have been tested by sulphuric acid and alkaline digestions. Th concentrations in LC and WLP were determined to be 1289.7 ± 129 and 1952.9±17.6 ppm respectively. The results of separation show that the recovery of Th separation from rare earth in LC after concentrated sulphuric acid dissolution and reduction of acidity to precipitate Th was found 1.76-1.20% whereas Th recovery from WLP was less than 4% after concentrated acids and alkali digestion processes. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine Th concentrations in aqueous phase during separation stages. This study indicated that thorium maybe exists in refractory and insoluble form which is difficult to separate by these processes and stays in WLP residue as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM)

  10. Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching mechanisms of nuclear waste forms, May 19-21, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel, J.E. (comp.)

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of the second workshop on the leaching mechanism of nuclear waste forms, which was held at Geithersburg, Maryland, May 19-21, 1982. The first session of the workshop was devoted to progress reports by participants in the leaching mechanisms program. These progress reports, as prepared by the participants, are given in Section 3.0. The goal of the remainder of the workshop was to exchange information on the development of repository-relevant leach testing techniques, often called interactions testing. To this end, a wide spectrum of investigators, many of whose work is sponsored by DOE's Nuclear Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) project, made presentations at the workshop. These presentations were a significant and beneficial part of the workshop and are summarized in Sections 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 according to the workshop agenda topics. In many cases, the presenters provided a written version of their presentation which has been included verbatim; in the other cases, the workshop chairman has supplied a brief synopsis. Twenty-one papers have been abstracted and indexed for inclusion in the data base.

  11. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

  12. Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oikari, A.O.J.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

  13. Survey of Geothermal Solid Toxic Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darnell, A.J.; Gay, R.L.; Klenck, M.M.; Nealy, C.L.

    1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an early survey and analysis of the types and quantities of solid toxic wastes to be expected from geothermal power systems, particularly at the Salton Sea, California. It includes a literature search (48 references/citations), descriptions of methods for handling wastes, and useful quantitative values. It also includes consideration of reclaiming metals and mineral byproducts from geothermal power systems. (DJE 2005)

  14. Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. Keywords: SustainableHuman Toxicity Potential (HTP) is used for the human healthassessment of toxic chemicals. HTP is a computed weighting

  15. "Human Health Impact Characterization of Toxic Chemicals for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human toxicity potential (HTP), proposed by Guinée andassessment of toxic chemicals. HTP is a computed weightingmodel environment [5]. The HTP values of toxic chemicals are

  16. Schematic Characterization of Human Health Impact of Toxic Chemicals for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris Y.; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. With an explicitHuman toxicity potential (HTP), proposed by Guinée andassessment of toxic chemicals. HTP is a computed weighting

  17. Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, Erica Dawn

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Risk assessment procedures for mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a problem due to the lack of available potency and toxicity data on mixtures and individual compounds. This study examines the toxicity of parent compound...

  18. Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Samples Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute...

  19. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Apopka, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  20. REVIEW Open Access Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, Graeme

    REVIEW Open Access Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning in the British isles: history The relationship between toxic marine microalgae species and climate change has become a high profile and well examine the current state of toxic microalgae species around the UK, in two ways: first we describe

  1. Toxic Contaminants and Their Effects on Resident Fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science-Policy Exchange September 10, 2009 #12;Take-away themes Toxic contaminants are present are source areas for toxic contaminants for multiple fish stocks A better understanding of the effects and restore fish and ecosystem health #12;Take-away themes Toxic contaminants are present in the Columbia

  2. Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress Researchers at the University of Nebraska of toxic blue-green algae before the bacteria that produce it can grow into a full-scale bloom. Now UNL and monitor in real-time, the water-borne agents that can cause toxic blue- green algae to flourish and become

  3. The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merkl, Marvin Eugene

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO COTTON PESTS A Dissertation 5y MARVIN EUGENE MERKL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of CouBlttee Head of Departnent May 19*3 THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED... .....................................................78 CONCLUSIONS............................................... ..81 BIBLIOGRAPHI .............................................. ..82 Pag? FIGURES 1* Dosage-?ortality curve for the toxicity of endrin to aphids...

  4. The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merkl, Marvin Eugene

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO COTTON PESTS A Dissertation 5y MARVIN EUGENE MERKL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of CouBlttee Head of Departnent May 19*3 THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED... .....................................................78 CONCLUSIONS............................................... ..81 BIBLIOGRAPHI .............................................. ..82 Pag? FIGURES 1* Dosage-?ortality curve for the toxicity of endrin to aphids...

  5. Utilization of a duckweed bioassay to evaluate leaching of heavy metals in smelter contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngman, A.L.; Lydy, M.J. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Williams, T.L. [Laidlaw Environmental Services, Wichita, KS (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a duckweed bioassay could be used to evaluate the downward migration of heavy metals in smelter soils. The duckweed bioassay was initially used to evaluate elutriates prepared from samples of smelter soils. These initial tests verified that the elutriates would elicit toxic responses. Elutriate testing was followed with an evaluation of leachate from untreated soil cores or soil cores that had been amended with organic matter either unplanted or planted to a grass-forb seed mixture. There was an inverse linear relationship between heavy-metal concentrations in leachate and NOEC and IC{sub 50} values expressed as percentages among all soil cores. Based on these preliminary duckweed bioassays, there were no differences between soil types or organic amended or non-amended soil, but leachate from vegetated soil cores were less toxic than were leachates from non-vegetated soil cores. Overall, the duckweed bioassays were useful in detecting heavy metal availability in elutriate and leachate samples from smelter soils.

  6. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black spacetime. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to compute waveforms via Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

  7. Toxic species evolution from guayule fireplace logs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soderman, Kristi Lee

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and cellulosic material from bagasse are generated as co-products of rubber extraction. The cellulosic material uses which are favored at this time require combustion. Bagasse affords the potential for use as biomass fuel in the production of process steam... of chromium, if present in the hexavalent state, no unusually toxic constituents were found in the smoke particulates, gaseous state or as condensible liquids for flaming and smoldering combustion of guayule fireplace logs. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a...

  8. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  9. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  10. Preliminary Expected Performance Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capabilities. To facilitate discussion of the scientific impact and design optimization of such a lattice, this document describes the expected performance characteristics...

  11. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  12. Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

  13. Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

  14. Chemical composition of esophageal-fistula forage samples as influenced by drying method, salivary leaching and sample preparation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acosta-Gonzalez, Rafael Aristides

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of YASTER OF' SCI"'NCE, De"ember 1g76 CHEJJICAL COY!POSITION OF ESOPHAGEAL-FISTULA FORAGF SA(vPLES AS INFLUENCED BY DRYING I'METHOD, SALIVARY LEACHING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION A Thesis RAFAEL... ARISTIDES ACOS A-GONZALEZ Approved as to style and content by! (Cha rman o Committee) ((iced of Department) ( I'~iamb r ) Yemb r ) Dcc: mb~+~g~n'jrr ABSTRACT Chemical Composition of Esophageal-Fistula Forage Samples as Influenced by Drying Nethod...

  15. Prediction of Chest Wall Toxicity From Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephans, Kevin L., E-mail: stephak@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Djemil, Toufik; Tendulkar, Rahul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Robinson, Cliff G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Reddy, Chandana A.; Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine patient, tumor, and treatment factors related to the development of late chest wall toxicity after lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: We reviewed a registry of 134 patients treated with lung SBRT to 60 Gy in 3 fractions who had greater than 1 year of clinical follow-up and no history of multiple treatments to the same lobe (n = 48). Patients were treated as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0236 without specific chest wall avoidance criteria. The chest wall was retrospectively contoured. Thirty-two lesions measured less than 3 cm, and sixteen measured 3 to 5 cm. The median planning target volume was 29 cm{sup 3}. Results: With a median follow-up of 18.8 months, 10 patients had late symptomatic chest wall toxicity (4 Grade 1 and 6 Grade 2) at a median of 8.8 months after SBRT. No patient characteristics (age, diabetes, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, or body mass index) were predictive for toxicity, whereas there was a trend for continued smoking (p = 0.066; odds ratio [OR], 4.4). Greatest single tumor dimension (p = 0.047; OR, 2.63) and planning target volume (p = 0.040; OR, 1.04) were correlated with toxicity, whereas distance from tumor edge to chest wall and gross tumor volume did not reach statistical significance. Volumes of chest wall receiving 30 Gy (V30) through 70 Gy (V70) were all highly significant, although this correlation weakened for V65 and V70 and maximum chest wall point dose only trended to significance (p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis, tumor volume was no longer correlated with toxicity and only V30 through V60 remained statistically significant. Conclusions: Tumor size and chest wall dosimetry are correlated to late chest wall toxicity. Only chest wall V30 through V60 remained significant on multivariate analysis. Restricting V30 to 30 cm{sup 3} or less and V60 to 3 cm{sup 3} or less should result in a 10% to 15% risk of late chest wall toxicity or lower.

  16. Characteristic Evolution and Matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey Winicour

    2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

  17. HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlapentokh, Alexandra

    HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic Alexandra Shlapentokh East Carolina University April 2012 #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Prologue Outline 1 Prologue 2 Fields of Positive Function Fields of Positive Characteristic 7 p-th Powers #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Prologue

  18. Housing characteristics 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  19. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  20. Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wayne Briner

    Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  1. Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  2. The toxicity of different emulsions of toxaphene to cotton insects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selby, James Winford

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity tests ~ . LS 5. Analysis of cotton bolL weevil control data ob- tained in the laboratory and field teste ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20 4 ~ Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity test in the Laboratorye ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 6 Summary of the saltish caterpillar toxicity tests ~ ~ ~ eo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 22 6 ~ Vedian lethal dosage {KID) of the test materials as obtained fran the Laboratory...

  3. Identification of toxic components in beechwood and petroleum creosotes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okaygun, Mehmet S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the formulation of mixtures which confer wood preservation properties but which minimize health risks. Before a chemical can be used in the industry, whole animal toxicity testing is required. This consists of acute toxicity testing, repeated dose toxicity...-induced rat liver homogenate (S-9 fraction) for activation. Dose related increases in mutation frequencies were reported for both test chemicals following metabolic acti- vation. However, without metabolic activation, the mutagenic frequency...

  4. Studies on Toxic Substances of Locoweeds, Astragalus earlei and Others. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wender, S. H. (Simon Harold); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. S. FRAPS and S. H. WENDER Division of Chemistry TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. R. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 650 JUNE 1944 STUDIES ON TOXIC SUBSTANCES OF LOCOWEEDS, ASTRAGALUS EARLEI AND OTHERS... AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRIST, President D-19-744-1500 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] The concentrated toxic preparation of the loco weed contains several closely related toxic substances. The compounds precipi- tated...

  5. The toxicity of different emulsions of toxaphene to cotton insects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selby, James Winford

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity tests ~ . LS 5. Analysis of cotton bolL weevil control data ob- tained in the laboratory and field teste ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20 4 ~ Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity test in the Laboratorye ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 6 Summary of the saltish caterpillar toxicity tests ~ ~ ~ eo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 22 6 ~ Vedian lethal dosage {KID) of the test materials as obtained fran the Laboratory...

  6. alleviates ammonium toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinomycetes. When... Morales-Bermudez, Marciano 2012-06-07 115 In vitro toxicity assessment of chitosan nanoparticles. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary:...

  7. agent toxicity testing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tristan Behrens, Koen Hindriks, Jomi Hbner, Mehdi Dastani Abstract It is our goal Zachmann, Gabriel 5 766 Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Chemical Toxicants Tested against...

  8. acute toxicity assessment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in this technology, and the products constructed from nanoparticulates is an emerging area in toxicology and health risk assessment. The development of toxicity data sets and...

  9. acetaminophen toxicity evidence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - No national standards - Less Bertini, Robert L. 17 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

  10. acute toxic radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vole Population genetics Comparative Baker, Robert J. 39 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  11. acute urinary toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    they generally lack sufficient dis Cunningham, Ian 39 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  12. acute acetaminophen toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conduct, may therefore underestimate Rosenheim, Jay A. 36 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  13. acute toxic encephalopathy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conduct, may therefore underestimate Rosenheim, Jay A. 42 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  14. acute toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conduct, may therefore underestimate Rosenheim, Jay A. 27 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  15. acute acrolein toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conduct, may therefore underestimate Rosenheim, Jay A. 36 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  16. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  17. Life in Challenge Mills, Yuba County, California, 18751915 After Leach went broke and no one was present to maintain the flume or to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    23 Life in Challenge Mills, Yuba County, California, 1875­1915 After Leach went broke and no one and a tender, construction number 7362, were ordered from the Baldwin Locomotive Works by R.E. Woodward ordinary ability," noted a newspaper article, and probably responsible for the engineering and construction

  18. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  19. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  20. Assessing the potential toxicity of resuspended sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnet, C.; Babut, M.; Ferard, J.F.; Martel, L.; Garric, J.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two moderately contaminated freshwater sediments (Sorel Harbour, St. Lawrence River, Canada) were subjected to a suspension event. The objective was to assess the environmental impact of the disposal of dredged material in water, in particular, the short-term effects of dumping on the water column and the long-term effects of dredged sediment deposits. In a series of microcosms, the sediments were left to stand for 25 d under flow-through conditions. In a second series of microcosms, sediments were vigorously suspended for 15 min before being left to settle and were submitted to the same treatment as reference sediments during the following 25 d. Physicochemical and biological parameters (Daphnia magna and Hydra attenuata survival) were measured in overlying water throughout the experiment. Sediment toxicity was assessed with Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca exposed to sediments collected at both the beginning and end of the 25-d period. Pore-water toxicity was evaluated with D. magna. During the suspension process, in the Sorel Harbour mixed sediment overlying water, the authors observed effects on H. attenuata survival and ammonia and metals (chromium, copper, and zinc) releases. Meanwhile, in reference (nonmixed) and mixed sediments as well as in associated pore waters, there were no significant chemical modifications no biological effects after the 25-d experiments. The developed approach, which attempts to simulate a dumping process, aims at allowing the assessment of the short- and long-term hazards resulting from a resuspension process in overlying water and in resettled sediments using both chemical and biological measurements.

  1. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ?3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Robyn, E-mail: robynbanerjee@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ?3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ?3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ?3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ?3 acute toxicity.

  2. acute toxicity test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    toxicity test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The weaker points of fish acute toxicity...

  3. Evaluation of Sediment Toxicity Using a Suite of Assessment Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Matthew A

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of sediment toxicity. The goal of this research was to provide information which could help increase the accuracy with which predictions of toxicity could be made at hazardous sites. A calibration study was conducted using model PAHs, PCBs, a binary PAH...

  4. A Strategy for Designing Inhibitors of -Amyloid Toxicity*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiessling, Laura

    patients (1, 2). The deposition of A in the form of amyloid fibrils is believed by many to be causally aggregated into amyloid fibrils, the peptide is toxic to neuronal cells. Here, an approach to the design of amyloid fibril formation is not necessary for abrogation of toxicity. -Amyloid peptide (A )1 is the major

  5. Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Broom, Belt, Carpet) Shot Peened Exposed Aggregate Porous (Pervious) Concrete Milled HMA and SurfaceImproving Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Pooled Fund TPF-5(139) National Concrete do with this knowledge? #12;Better Design and Construction Practices for Texturing Concrete Pavement

  6. Aquatic Toxicity Information Retrieval Data Base (ACQUIRE). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of Acquire is to provide scientists and managers quick access to a comprehensive, systematic, computerized compilation of aquatic toxicity data. Scientific papers published both nationally and internationally on the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms and plants are collected and reviewed for ACQUIRE. Independently compiled data files that meet ACQUIRE parameter and quality assurance criteria are also included. Selected toxicity test results and related testing information for any individual chemical from laboratory and field aquatic toxicity effects are included for tests with freshwater and marine organisms. The total number of data records in ACQUIRE is now over 105,300. This includes data from 6000 references, for 5200 chemicals and 2400 test species. A major data file, Acute Toxicity of Organic Chemicals (ATOC), has been incorporated into ACQUIRE. The ATOC file contains laboratory acute test data on 525 organic chemicals using juvenile fathead minnows.

  7. Characterist Passenger Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LaCrescent CityofMorris LincolnCounty RiverRiderPublicTransitSystem ClayCounty Semcac WatonwanCounty Tri-CountyActionProgram,Inc RedLakeBandofChippewaIndians HubbardCounty BeckerCountyTransit Tri-ValleyOpportunityCouncil,Inc. Mille1 #12;2 #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 #12;6 #12;7 #12;8 #12;9 #12;10 County Population Characterist ics Future

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  9. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

  10. The subchronic toxicity of Roridin A in sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thormahlen, Keller Andrew

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE SUBCKKNIC TOXICITY OF BORIDIN A IN SHEEP A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Toxicology THE SDBC...(BKKIC TOXICITY OF RORIDIN A IN SHEEP A Thesis Approved as to style and content by: E. 1. Bailey, Jr (Chairman of Committee) Bennie J. (~) z. P Timo y D. Hu. llips (~) J. D. McCrady (Head of Department) August 1988 The Subchronic Toxicity of Roridin A...

  11. The subchronic toxicity of Roridin A in sheep 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thormahlen, Keller Andrew

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE SUBCKKNIC TOXICITY OF BORIDIN A IN SHEEP A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Toxicology THE SDBC...(BKKIC TOXICITY OF RORIDIN A IN SHEEP A Thesis Approved as to style and content by: E. 1. Bailey, Jr (Chairman of Committee) Bennie J. (~) z. P Timo y D. Hu. llips (~) J. D. McCrady (Head of Department) August 1988 The Subchronic Toxicity of Roridin A...

  12. HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlapentokh, Alexandra

    HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic Alexandra Shlapentokh East Carolina University October 2007 #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Table of Contents 1 A Brief History of Diophantine Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Models HTP over a Field vs. HTP over a Subring 3 A Brief History of HTP over

  13. HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlapentokh, Alexandra

    HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic Alexandra Shlapentokh East Carolina University November 2007 #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Table of Contents 1 A Brief History are Done Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Models HTP over a Field vs. HTP over a Subring 3 A Brief History

  14. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22- Air Toxics (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Permits are required to construct, install, or modify any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum...

  15. acid toxicity tolerance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dimensions into chains 60 Some factors in liquid supplements affecting urea toxicity Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: in ruminants. Sheep and cattle were drenched with...

  16. air toxic emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Topic Index 1 Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, "Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventory of Air Toxics for Jacksonville, FL," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste...

  17. air toxics emission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Topic Index 1 Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, "Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventory of Air Toxics for Jacksonville, FL," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste...

  18. air toxics emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Topic Index 1 Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, "Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventory of Air Toxics for Jacksonville, FL," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste...

  19. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  20. Toxicity studies with Sesbania spp. in domestic and laboratory animals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whall, Jeffrey DePass

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    May 1982 Major Subject: Veterinary Toxicology TOXICITY STUDIES WITH SESBANIA SPP. IN DOMESTIC AND LABORATORY ANIMALS A Thesis by JEFFREY DEPASS WHALL Approved as to style and content by: (- ~ -) Chy an of Comm ttee) Head f Depar t) (Member...

  1. Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reporting ``Qs & As``. Environmental Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document offers guidance on toxic chemical release inventory reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) at DOE sites.

  2. Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano Scale Zerovalent Iron to E. coli Z H. Here we assess the effect that adsorbed synthetic polymers and natural organic matter

  3. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  4. acute lethal toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

  5. acute regional toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    injection or rapid (more) Litonius, Erik 2012-01-01 34 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  6. acute skin toxicity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carcinogenic Hexavalent Cr(VI) is most toxic and most soluble Induces (depleted uranium) 4 oxidation states (+4, +6 most common) U(VI) water-soluble, U(IV)...

  7. acute toxicity sensitivity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Morel; Er Complexing; Faust Steemann Nielsen 1978-01-01 37 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

  8. adriamycin induced toxic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carcinogenic Hexavalent Cr(VI) is most toxic and most soluble Induces (depleted uranium) 4 oxidation states (+4, +6 most common) U(VI) water-soluble, U(IV)...

  9. air toxics exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Top Three Toxic Air Pollutants in Oregon 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12 12;Sources of Air Pollution 12;Air Pollutants Criteria Pollutants - Short list - National...

  10. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  11. Drilling fluids and reserve pit toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuterman, A.J.J.; Jones, F.V.; Chandler, J.E. (M-I Drilling Fluids Co. (US))

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling fluids are now classified as exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste laws. Since 1986, however, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been studying reserve pit contents to determine whether oilfield wastes should continue under this exemption. Concerns regarding reserve pit contents and disposal practices have resulted in state and local governmental regulations that limit traditional methods of construction, closure, and disposal of reserve pit sludge and water. A great deal of attention and study has been focused on drilling fluids that eventually reside in reserve pits. In-house studies show that waste from water-based drilling fluids plays a limited role (if any) in possible hazards associated with reserve pits. Reserve pit water samples and pit sludge was analyzed and collated. Analyses show that water-soluble heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn and Mn) in reserve pits are generally undetectable or, if found in the total analysis, are usually bound to clays or organics too tightly to exceed the limitations as determined by the EPA toxicity leachate test. The authors' experience is that most contamination associated with reserve pits involves high salt content from produced waters and/or salt formations, lead contamination from pipe dope, or poorly designed pits, which could allow washouts into surface waters or seepage into groundwater sources. The authors' analyses show that reserve its associated with water-based drilling fluid operations should not be classified as hazardous; however, careful attention attention should be paid to reserve pit construction and closure to help avoid any adverse environmental impact.

  12. Chemomechanics of calcium leaching of cement-based materials at different scales : the role of CH-dissolution and C-S-H degradation on strength and durability performance of materials and structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heukamp, Franz H. (Franz Hoyte), 1973-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcium leaching is a durability threat for cement-based materials employed in critical infrastructures, such as Nuclear Waste Storage Systems. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the material and structural ...

  13. Isolation and identification of a toxic metabolite of Phomopsis sp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samples, Daniel Robert

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A TOXIC MEl'ABOLITE OF PHOMOPSIS SP. A Thesis by DANIEL ROBERT SAMPLES Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas A&B University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... MAY 1982 Major Subject~ Veterinary Toxicology ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A TOXIC METABOLITE OF PHOMOPSIS SP. A Thesis by DANIEL ROBERT SAMPLES Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Membe (Mem ) (Head of Departme t...

  14. The recognition of toxic contaminants in sea water by bioassay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duke, Thomas Wade

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA WATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis By THOMAS WADE DUKE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1960 Major Subject: Biological Oceanography THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA li'ATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis THOMAS O'ADE DUKE Approved as to style and content by: ( airman o emmy ee wi, ( ea of Depar me...

  15. Evaluating guayule resin fractions for mutagenicity and toxicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avirett, Donald Baker

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR NUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR MUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  16. The recognition of toxic contaminants in sea water by bioassay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duke, Thomas Wade

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA WATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis By THOMAS WADE DUKE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1960 Major Subject: Biological Oceanography THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA li'ATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis THOMAS O'ADE DUKE Approved as to style and content by: ( airman o emmy ee wi, ( ea of Depar me...

  17. A golden opportunity: Researchers making progress in understanding toxic algae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers making progress in understanding toxic algae A golden opportunity tx H2O | pg. 21 have examined the organism in coastal, saline environments. ?Our research team represents one of the few in the world that is focused on the dynamics... throughout Texas. Although it can exist in waters without being harmful, the algae has caused major fish kills in five of the state?s river systems. When this algae has explosive increases in its population, called ?blooms,? it secretes toxic chemicals...

  18. Isolation and identification of a toxic metabolite of Phomopsis sp. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samples, Daniel Robert

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A TOXIC MEl'ABOLITE OF PHOMOPSIS SP. A Thesis by DANIEL ROBERT SAMPLES Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas A&B University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... MAY 1982 Major Subject~ Veterinary Toxicology ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A TOXIC METABOLITE OF PHOMOPSIS SP. A Thesis by DANIEL ROBERT SAMPLES Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Membe (Mem ) (Head of Departme t...

  19. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake... of water and the presence of pathogens. These E. coli sources can be from sewage overflows, polluted stormwater runoff, or malfunctioning septic systems. Toxic golden algae blooms have killed fish in Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney, downstream...

  20. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake... of water and the presence of pathogens. These E. coli sources can be from sewage overflows, polluted stormwater runoff, or malfunctioning septic systems. Toxic golden algae blooms have killed fish in Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney, downstream...

  1. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses through long-term testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison of glass reactivity between radioactive sludge based and simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of both glass types for SRL 165, SRL 131, and SRL 200 frit compositions. The data demonstrate that for time periods through 280 days, differences in elemental release to solution up to 400% are observed. However, in general, differences in glass reactivity as measured by the release of boron, lithium, and sodium are less than a factor of two. The differences in reactivity are not large enough to alter the order of glass durability for the different compositions or to change the controlling glass dissolution mechanism. A radiation effect exists, mainly in the influence on the leachate pH, which in turn affects the glass reaction mechanism and rate. The differences in reactivity between fully radioactive and the simulated glasses can be reasonably explained if the controlling reaction mechanism is accounted for. Those differences are glass composition and leaching mechanism dependent. Lithium is found to have the highest elemental release in an ion-exchange dominated glass reaction process, while lithium has a lower release than boron and sodium in a matrix dissolution dominated process, where boron and sodium are usually among the most concentrated solution species.

  2. r e v i e w OrganicAnswers toToxic Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    disasters--gasoline leaking into groundwater from under- ground storage tanks or toxic chemicals from

  3. Wafer characteristics via reflectometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

  4. Sensor array for toxic gas detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Penrose, William R. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting and identifying a hazardous component in air or other gas including an array of small sensors which upon exposure to the gas from a pattern of electrical responses, a source of standard response patterns characteristic of various components, and microprocessor means for comparing the sensor-formed response pattern with one or more standard patterns to thereby identify the component on a display. The number of responses may be increased beyond the number of sensors by changing the operating voltage, temperature or other condition associated with one or more sensors to provide a plurality of responses from each of one or more of the sensors. In one embodiment, the instrument is capable of identifying anyone of over 50-100 hazardous components.

  5. Exploring Cyberbullying and Other Toxic Behavior in Team Competition Online Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Haewoon; Han, Seungyeop

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we explore cyberbullying and other toxic behavior in team competition online games. Using a dataset of over 10 million player reports on 1.46 million toxic players along with corresponding crowdsourced decisions, we test several hypotheses drawn from theories explaining toxic behavior. Besides providing large-scale, empirical based understanding of toxic behavior, our work can be used as a basis for building systems to detect, prevent, and counter-act toxic behavior.

  6. NanoSIMS Imaging Alternation Layers of a Leached SON68 Glass Via A FIB-made Wedged Crater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi-Chung; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Zhu, Zihua; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, nuclear wastes are commonly immobilized into glasses because of their long-term durability. Exposure to water for long periods of time, however, will eventually corrode the waste form and is the leading potential avenue for radionuclide release into the environment. Because such slow processes cannot be experimentally tested, the prediction of release requires a thorough understanding the mechanisms governing glass corrosion. In addition, due to the exceptional durability of glass, much of the testing must be performed on high-surface-area powders. A technique that can provide accurate compositional profiles with very precise depth resolution for non-flat samples would be a major benefit to the field. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling is an excellent tool that has long been used to examine corrosion layers of glass. The roughness of the buried corrosion layers, however, causes the corresponding SIMS depth profiles to exhibit erroneously wide interfaces. In this study, NanoSIMS was used to image the cross-section of the corrosion layers of a leached SON68 glass sample. A wedged crater was prepared by a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to obtain a 5× improvement in depth resolution for NanoSIMS measurements. This increase in resolution allowed us to confirm that the breakdown of the silica glass network is further from the pristine glass than a second dissolution front for boron, another glass former. The existence of these two distinct interfaces, separated by only ~20 nm distance in depth, was not apparent by traditional ToF-SIMS depth profiling but has been confirmed also by atom probe tomography. This novel sample geometry will be a major benefit to efficient NanoSIMS sampling of irregular interfaces at the nanometer scale that would otherwise be obscured within ToF-SIMS depth profiles.

  7. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  8. Characteristics Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  9. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  10. Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senior, C.L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shan, N.; Yap, N.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Seames, W.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Swenson, S.; Lighty, J.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.; Palmer, C.; Mroczkowski, S.; Helble, J.; Mamani-Paco, R.; Sterling, R.; Dunham, G.; Miller, S.

    2000-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The final program review meeting of Phase II was held on June 22 in Salt Lake City. The goals of the meeting were to present work in progress and to identify the remaining critical experiments or analyses, particularly those involving collaboration among various groups. The information presented at the meeting is summarized in this report. Remaining fixed bed, bench-scale experiments at EERC were discussed. There are more ash samples which can be run. Of particular interest are high carbon ash samples to be generated by the University of Arizona this summer and some ash-derived sorbents that EERC has evaluated on a different program. The use of separation techniques (electrostatic or magnetic) was also discussed as a way to understand the active components in the ash with respect to mercury. XAFS analysis of leached and unleached ash samples from the University of Arizona was given a high priority. In order to better understand the fixed bed test results, CCSEM and Moessbauer analyses of those ash samples need to be completed. Utah plans to analyze the ash from the single particle combustion experiments for those major elements not measured by INAA. USGS must still complete mercury analyses on the whole coals and leaching residues. Priorities for further work at the SHRIMP-RG facility include arsenic on ash surfaces and mercury in sulfide minerals. Moessbauer analyses of coal samples from the University of Utah were completed; samples from the top and bottom layers of containers of five different coals showed little oxidation of pyrite in the top relative to the bottom except for Wyodak.

  11. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  12. A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabbard, Joseph L.

    A Taxonomy of Usability Characteristics in Virtual Environments Deliverable to Office of Naval This document can be found at http://csgrad.cs.vt.edu/jgabbard/ve/taxonomy/ #12;#12;A Taxonomy of Usability accomplished, yielding a comprehensive multi-dimensional taxonomy of usability characteristics specifically

  13. Review article Aluminium toxicity in plants: a review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Aluminium toxicity in plants: a review G.R. ROUTa, S. SAMANTARAYb, P. DASb* a Plant Biotechnology Division, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar- 751 015, Orissa, India b Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar- 751 015, Orissa, India (Received 31 May

  14. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu; Abdel Moneim, Soha S. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Eshed, Michal [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shah, Vijay H. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu{sup III}(OH){sub 3}] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  15. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. (Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  16. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

  18. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

  19. Survey of toxicity and carcinogenity of mineral deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, A.; Harding-Barlow, I.

    1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The toxicities and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel are reviewed in some detail, and other trace elements briefly mentioned. These heavy metals are used as a framework within which the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal can be compared. (ACR)

  20. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for Rigid Foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rigid Foam is a chemical delay foam used to completely encapsulate an object or to block access to an area. Prior studies have indicated that the final foam product is essentially non-toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current chemical and toxicological data available on the components of Rigid Foam and to update the information available on the toxicity of the final Rigid Foam product. Since the possibility exists for a partial deployment of Rigid Foam where only one of the components is released, this study also examined the toxicity of its chemical constituents. Rigid Foam is composed of an {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} Component. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} component is primarily a polymeric isocyanate and the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} component is a mixture of polyols. In addition to the primary constituents, dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are present as blowing agents along with catalysts and silicone surfactants necessary for foaming. The pre-deployed {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} components are stored in separate vessels and are brought together in static mixing nozzles for dispersal. The results of this evaluation indicate that a completely deployed Rigid Foam under normal conditions is essentially non-toxic as determined previously. However, in the event of a partial deployment or deployment of an individual component directly at an unprotected individual, the degree of hazard is increased due to the toxic and corrosive nature of the individual constituents. The health hazard would depend on the properties of the material to which the person was exposed.

  1. A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Molly E.

    A mechanism for diversity in warning signals: Conspicuousness versus toxicity in poison frogs natural variation among poison frog species measured with spectral reflectance and toxicity assays, we components using natural variation among poison frog species. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) display some

  2. Integrated Toxic Plant Management Handbook: Livestock Poisoning Plants of the Trans-Pecos Region of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.; McGinty, Allan; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photographs, plant descriptions, and symptoms of poisoning help ranchers identify toxic plants that may be harmful to their livestock in West Texas. There is also information on grazing, livestock management, and toxic plant control....

  3. Integrated Toxic Plant Management Handbook: Livestock Poisoning Plants of the Trans-Pecos Region of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Charles R.; McGinty, Allan; Carpenter, Bruce B.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photographs, plant descriptions, and symptoms of poisoning help ranchers identify toxic plants that may be harmful to their livestock in West Texas. There is also information on grazing, livestock management, and toxic plant control....

  4. Toxicity of oiled wetland sediments influenced by natural and enhanced bioremediation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Danica Christine

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were set aside for petroleum bioremediation studies. Phase I began in December of 1994 and monitored sediment toxicity associated with intrinsic petroleum degradation. Acute toxicity was evaluated using the Microtox 100% Test on sediment elutriates from...

  5. Captain Planet Takes on Hazard Transfer: Combining the Forces of Market, Legal and Ethical Decisionmaking to Reduce Toxic Exports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giampetro-Meyer, Andrea

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    infra Part II; see generally Toxic EXPORTS, supra note 5.82. Toxic EXPORTS, supra note 5. See infra Part II. 83.of California). 31. Toxic EXPORTS, supra note 5, at 9. Clapp

  6. Leaching of radionuclides from furfural-based polymers used to solidify reactor compartments and components disposed of in the Arctic Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEISER,J.H.; SIVINTSEV,Y.; ALEXANDROV,V.P.; DYER,R.S.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the course of operating its nuclear navy, the former Soviet Union (FSU) disposed of reactor vessels and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in three fjords on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya and in the open Kara Sea within the Novaya Zemlya Trough during the period 1965 to 1988. The dumping consisted of 16 reactors, six of which contained SNF and one special container that held ca. 60% of the damaged SNF and the screening assembly from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker Lenin. At the time, the FSU considered dumping of decommissioned nuclear submarines with damaged cores in the bays of and near by the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the Arctic Kara Sea to be acceptable. To provide an additional level of safety, a group of Russian scientists embarked upon a course of research to develop a solidification agent that would provide an ecologically safe barrier. The barrier material would prevent direct contact of seawater with the SNF and the resultant leaching and release of radionuclides. The solidification agent was to be introduced by flooding the reactors vessels and inner cavities. Once introduced the agent would harden and form an impermeable barrier. This report describes the sample preparation of several ``Furfurol'' compositions and their leach testing using cesium 137 as tracer.

  7. Reliability of Quantitative Ultrasonic Assessment of Normal-Tissue Toxicity in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Emi J.; Chen Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Torres, Mylin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Andic, Fundagul [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu Haoyang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen Zhengjia [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Statistics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sun, Xiaoyan [Department of Statistics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We have recently reported that ultrasound imaging, together with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC), can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicity. This study's purpose is to evaluate the reliability of our quantitative ultrasound technology in assessing acute and late normal-tissue toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy. Method and Materials: Our ultrasound technique analyzes radiofrequency echo signals and provides quantitative measures of dermal, hypodermal, and glandular tissue toxicities. To facilitate easy clinical implementation, we further refined this technique by developing a semiautomatic ultrasound-based toxicity assessment tool (UBTAT). Seventy-two ultrasound studies of 26 patients (720 images) were analyzed. Images of 8 patients were evaluated for acute toxicity (<6 months postradiotherapy) and those of 18 patients were evaluated for late toxicity ({>=}6 months postradiotherapy). All patients were treated according to a standard radiotherapy protocol. To assess intraobserver reliability, one observer analyzed 720 images in UBTAT and then repeated the analysis 3 months later. To assess interobserver reliability, three observers (two radiation oncologists and one ultrasound expert) each analyzed 720 images in UBTAT. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability. Ultrasound assessment and clinical evaluation were also compared. Results: Intraobserver ICC was 0.89 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.96 for glandular tissue toxicity. Interobserver ICC was 0.78 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.94 for glandular tissue toxicity. Statistical analysis found significant changes in dermal (p < 0.0001), hypodermal (p = 0.0027), and glandular tissue (p < 0.0001) assessments in the acute toxicity group. Ultrasound measurements correlated with clinical Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity scores of patients in the late toxicity group. Patients with RTOG Grade 1 or 2 had greater ultrasound-assessed toxicity percentage changes than patients with RTOG Grade 0. Conclusion: Early and late radiation-induced effects on normal tissue can be reliably assessed using quantitative ultrasound.

  8. Dose Dependent Response to Cyclodextrin Infusion in a Rat Model of Verapamil Toxicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Allan R.; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model of Verapamil Toxicity Allan R. Mottram, MD* Sean M.Address for Correspondence: Allan R. Mottram, MD, University

  9. Health-Compromising Behaviors characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    , cognitive impairments, 15% of health care costs = Etoh abuse treatment, underestimate of health costsHealth-Compromising Behaviors characteristics substance abuse and dependence ­ opponent process theory ­ incentive salience ­ frontal executive effects alcohol abuse and dependence smoking #12

  10. One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake Final Report Fremont Lake #20 Water-two-three punch to knockout toxic algae and restore water quality in Nebraska's numerous sandpit lakes. "It seems to help rid the too-often toxic algae prone Fremont State Lakes of the oily green scum that can close them

  11. Misonidazole with dexamethasone rescue: an escalating dose toxicity study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanasichuk, H.; Urtasun, R.C.; Fulton, D.S.; Raleigh, J.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neurotoxicity induced by misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has become the dose limiting factor in clinical work. In 1981, the authors reported a preliminary study suggestive that Dexamethasone (DEXA) does have a protective effect against peripheral neuropathies (PN) resulting from toxicity of misonidazole. The authors are presently investigating the use of DEXA, with escalating doses of MISO in an attempt to modify its neurotoxicity. To date, 16 patients have been registered to receive total doses of MISO given in 9 equally divided doses over 3 weeks. DEXA is given 3 days prior to the first dose and continues for the duration of therapy. All patients receive palliative radiation. No toxicity was seen at the total dose of 13.5 gm/M/sub 2/. One grade I PN occurred in the first four patients receiving 15.5 gm/M/sub 2/. Six additional patients were entered at this dose level and no further incidence of PN was observed.

  12. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, C.A. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States); Mayo, R.R. [ENSR Environmental Toxicology Lab., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ``Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,`` required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications.

  13. Characterization and stabilization of arsenic in water treatment residuals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wee, Hun Young

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to be underestimated by the toxicity characteristic leaching test (TCLP) due to the pH of the leachates being favorable for As(V) adsorption. Competitive desorption of arsenic with phosphate was significant because phosphate tends to compete with As(V) on the surface...

  14. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)] [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  15. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  16. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake...?s water quality. Educating citizens about water quality issues affecting Lake Granbury and determining ways to manage the deadly algae are the focus of two Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI) projects. Lake Granbury, a critical water supply...

  17. Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake...?s water quality. Educating citizens about water quality issues affecting Lake Granbury and determining ways to manage the deadly algae are the focus of two Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI) projects. Lake Granbury, a critical water supply...

  18. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  19. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Andrea L., E-mail: andrea.knecht@tanguaylab.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Goodale, Britton C., E-mail: goodaleb@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.truong.888@gmail.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simonich, Michael T., E-mail: mtsimonich@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Swanson, Annika J., E-mail: swansoan@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Matzke, Melissa M., E-mail: melissa.matzke@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Kim A., E-mail: kim.anderson@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: katrina.waters@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely unknown hazard to human health. • We assayed the developmental toxicology of 39 different OPAHs in zebrafish. • The most toxic OPAHs contained adjacent diones or terminal, para-diones. • AHR dependency varied among OPAHs, and oxidative stress influenced their toxicology.

  20. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  1. Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Viskanta, Raymond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. L. Drolen, “Thermal radiation in particulate media withRadiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubblesthermophysical properties and radiation characteristics of

  2. Use of laboratory triaxial-creep data and finite-element analysis to predict observed creep behavior of leached salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preece, D.S.; Stone, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing interest is being shown worldwide in using leached salt caverns to store oil and natural gas. A critical factor in the use of existing caverns and the design of new ones is the creep behavior of the salt surrounding the caverns. An understanding of this behavior is being gained by using laboratory triaxial creep data as material property input to finite element computer programs designed to calculate displacements and stresses due to creep. An important step in verifying these predictive methods is the comparison of field data from existing caverns with finite element analyses which incorporate the material properties and geometry of each site. This comparison has been made for caverns in the Eminence Dome (Mississippi), West Hackberry Dome (Louisiana), and Bayou Chocktaw Dome (Louisiana) with reasonably good correlation being obtained between measured and predicted volumetric response of the caverns. These comparisons are discussed in this paper.

  3. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS* Max Sherman Nance Matson Energy Performance Berkeley, California The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide fresh air and to dilute to provide this ventilation service, either directly for moving the air or indirectly for conditioning

  4. Pharmacokinetic drivers of toxicity for basic molecules: Strategy to lower pKa results in decreased tissue exposure and toxicity for a small molecule Met inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Dolores, E-mail: diaz.dolores@gene.com [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ford, Kevin A. [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Hartley, Dylan P. [Array Biopharma, Boulder, CO (United States)] [Array Biopharma, Boulder, CO (United States); Harstad, Eric B.; Cain, Gary R.; Achilles-Poon, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Peng, Jing; Zheng, Zhong; Merchant, Mark [Translation Oncology, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Translation Oncology, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Sutherlin, Daniel P. [Medicinal Chemistry, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Medicinal Chemistry, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Gaudino, John J.; Kaus, Robert [Array Biopharma, Boulder, CO (United States)] [Array Biopharma, Boulder, CO (United States); Lewin-Koh, Sock C. [Biostatistics, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Biostatistics, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Choo, Edna F.; Liederer, Bianca M. [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Dambach, Donna M. [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)] [Safety Assessment, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several toxicities are clearly driven by free drug concentrations in plasma, such as toxicities related to on-target exaggerated pharmacology or off-target pharmacological activity associated with receptors, enzymes or ion channels. However, there are examples in which organ toxicities appear to correlate better with total drug concentrations in the target tissues, rather than with free drug concentrations in plasma. Here we present a case study in which a small molecule Met inhibitor, GEN-203, with significant liver and bone marrow toxicity in preclinical species was modified with the intention of increasing the safety margin. GEN-203 is a lipophilic weak base as demonstrated by its physicochemical and structural properties: high LogD (distribution coefficient) (4.3) and high measured pKa (7.45) due to the basic amine (N-ethyl-3-fluoro-4-aminopiperidine). The physicochemical properties of GEN-203 were hypothesized to drive the high distribution of this compound to tissues as evidenced by a moderately-high volume of distribution (Vd > 3 l/kg) in mouse and subsequent toxicities of the compound. Specifically, the basicity of GEN-203 was decreased through addition of a second fluorine in the 3-position of the aminopiperidine to yield GEN-890 (N-ethyl-3,3-difluoro-4-aminopiperidine), which decreased the volume of distribution of the compound in mouse (Vd = 1.0 l/kg), decreased its tissue drug concentrations and led to decreased toxicity in mice. This strategy suggests that when toxicity is driven by tissue drug concentrations, optimization of the physicochemical parameters that drive tissue distribution can result in decreased drug concentrations in tissues, resulting in lower toxicity and improved safety margins. -- Highlights: ? Lower pKa for a small molecule: reduced tissue drug levels and toxicity. ? New analysis tools to assess electrostatic effects and ionization are presented. ? Chemical and PK drivers of toxicity can be leveraged to improve safety.

  5. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  6. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

  7. Characteristics of steel slag under different cooling conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tossavainen, M. [Division of Mineral Processing, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Engstrom, F. [Division of Process Metallurgy, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: Fredrik.i.engstrom@ltu.se; Yang, Q.; Menad, N.; Lidstrom Larsson, M.; Bjorkman, B. [Division of Process Metallurgy, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four types of steel slags, a ladle slag, a BOF (basic oxygen furnace) slag and two different EAF (electric arc furnace) slags, were characterized and modified by semi-rapid cooling in crucibles and rapid cooling by water granulation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different cooling conditions on the properties of glassy slags with respect to their leaching and volume stability. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and a standard test leaching (prEN 12457-2/3) have been used for the investigation. The results show that the disintegrated ladle slag was made volume stable by water granulation, which consisted of 98% glass. However EAF slag 1, EAF slag 2 and the BOF slag formed 17%, 1% and 1% glass, respectively. The leaching test showed that the glass-containing matrix did not prevent leaching of minor elements from the modified slags. The solubility of chromium, molybdenum and vanadium varied in the different modifications, probably due to their presence in different minerals and their different distributions.

  8. The fate of toxic pollutants in contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, R.N. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediments function as sinks for various kinds of contaminants (pollutants and nonpollutants) discharged into the receiving waters. Toxic pollutants in the sediments constitute a significant concern inasmuch as they can infect the waters above the sediment if they are released from the sediments. Hence the persistence and fate of these toxic pollutants need to be determined. At least tow sets of interests can be identified in the contamination of sediments as a whole: (1) assessment of the storage capacity (for contaminants) of the sediments, and the potential for mobilization or release of contaminants into the aqueous environment, particularly into the overlying water, and (2) development of a strategy for removal of the contaminants from the sediments that would be most appropriate (i.e., compatible with the manner in which the contaminants are retained in the sediment) and cost-effective. Both sets of interests require a knowledge of the distribution of the contaminants, i.e., characterization of the contaminants contained in the sediment, and the manner in which these are held within the sediment, i.e., bonded to the various sediment solid fractions (constituents). 56 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

  10. LETTER Colonisation of toxic environments drives predictable life-history evolution in livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlupp, Ingo

    by the presence of toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S). H2S is a widespread natural toxicant at deep-sea hydrothermal sources such as pulp mills or tanner- ies (Bagarinao 1992; Grieshaber & Volkel 1998). H2S is acutely toxic continuously high concentrations of H2S (e.g. Tobler et al. 2008b, 2011; Riesch et al. 2010a; Plath et al. 2013

  11. Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY); Gillow, Jeffrey B. (Valley Cottage, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solutin and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal.

  12. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  13. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  14. Identification and evaluation of the nonradioactive toxic components in LLNL weapon designs, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proper industrial hygiene strategy and response to a weapons accident is dependent upon the nonradioactive toxic materials contained in each weapon system. For example, in order to use the proper sampling and support equipment, e.g., personal protective and air sampling equipment, the Accident Response Group (ARG) Team needs a detailed inventory of nonradioactive toxic and potentially toxic materials in the weapon systems. The DOE Albuquerque Office or Operations funded the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratory to identify and evaluate the nonradioactive toxic components of their respective weapons designs. This report summarizes LLNL`s first year`s activities and results.

  15. On-Line Microbial Whole Effluent Toxicity Monitoring for Industrial Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, S; Hoppes, W; Mascetti, M; Campbell, C G

    2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study a respirometer is tested for its ability to act as an early upset warning device and whole effluent toxicity monitor for industrial discharge. Industrial discharge water quality is commonly evaluated by comparing measured chemical concentrations to target values or regulatory limits established by governmental agencies. Unless the regulatory values are based upon empirical data, the actual effect of the discharge on aquatic systems is unknown. At the same time assessing the environmental toxicology of wastewater discharges is complicated by synergistic relationships among chemical constituents producing greater total toxicity. For example, metals may be more toxic in waters with low total hardness or more soluble at lower pH. An alternative approach that we are investigating is whole effluent toxicity testing. This study investigates the measurement of whole effluent toxicity through an on-line respirometer that measures toxicity to microorganisms comprising activated sludge. In this approach the oxygen uptake rate is monitored and used as an indicator of microbial activity or health. This study investigates the use of an online whole effluent toxicity testing system to provide early upset warning and the consistency of measured response to low pH. Repeated exposure of the microorganisms to low pH results in reduced sensitivity of the microbial population. We investigate whether this reduction in sensitivity results from physiological acclimation or changes in species composition. We identify promising applications, where, with proper calibration, respirometry based toxicity monitoring appear to be well suited for relative comparisons of whole effluent toxicity.

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute liver toxicity Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    injury. When injury is acute, the fibrotic response is taken over by regeneration... to carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity as compared to human ... Source: Groningen,...

  17. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  18. Bacterial chemotaxis towards the extracellular products of the toxic phytoplankton Heterosigma akashiwo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Roman

    Marine bacteria exhibit positive chemotactic responses to the extracellular exudates of the toxic phytoplankton Heterosigma akashiwo. In the environment, this will support bacteria–algae associations with potential ...

  19. Is lead toxicity still a risk to U.S. children?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heneman, Karrie M.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microgchocolate pieces monitoring of lead levels Milk chocolatethe risk Candy-coated of lead toxicity from these chocolate

  20. The impact of conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners on ash characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robi, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Groppo, J.G.; Rathbone, R.F.; Taulbee, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research initiative focusing on the changes in coal-combustion byproducts that result from the conversion of coal-fired boilers to low-NO{sub x} burners has been implemented at the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER). This paper presents selected results from the first such study, the conversion of East Kentucky Power`s 116 MW, wall-fired unit {number_sign}1 at the John Sherman Cooper Station in Pulaski County, Kentucky. Samples of the coal feedstock and fly ash recovered in several downstream collection vessels were collected prior to and following conversion and extensively analyzed. The results presented in this report include total carbon, petrography, mineralogy, particle size, and leaching characteristics. The major changes noted in the fly-ash properties include an increase in carbon content, a slight increase in particle size, and a decrease in glassy components in the ash following conversion. Those changes induced by the conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners are evaluated in terms of the potential impact on the marketability of the fly ash.

  1. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Majid, Amran Ab., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Sarmani, Sukiman, E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and ?-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by ?- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  2. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION AND LEACHING OF A THERMOWELL AND CONDUCTIVITY PROBE PIPE SAMPLE FROM TANK 48H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F

    2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. The material on the Tank 48H internal tank surfaces is estimated to have a total volume of approximately 115 gallons consisting of mostly water soluble solids with approximately 20 wt% insoluble solids (33 Kg TPB). This film is assumed to be readily removable. The material on the internal equipment/surfaces of Tank 48H is presumed to be easily removed by slurry pump operation. For Tank 49H, the slurry pumps were operated almost continuously for approximately 6 months after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids--Na{sub 3}H(CO){sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, NaTPB, NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2}. Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. Depending on when the Recycle material or inhibited water can be added to Tank 48H, the tank may not be allowed to agitate for this same amount of time. The tank will be filled above 150 inches and agitated at least once during the Aggregation process. If the material cannot be removed after completion of these batches, the material may be removed with additional fill and agitation operations. There is a risk that this will not remove the material from the internal surfaces. As a risk mitigation activity, properties of the film and the ease of removing the film from the tank will be evaluated prior to initiating Aggregation. This task will investigate the dissolution of Tank 48H solid deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, tank personnel plan to cut and remove a thermowell pipe from Tank 48H and submit the cut pieces to SRNL for both characterization and leaching behavior. A plan for the removal, packaging and transport of the thermowell pipe has been issued. This task plan outlines the proposed method of analysis and testing to estimate (1) the thickness of the solid deposit, (2) chemical composition of the deposits and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid deposits in inhibited water (IW) and in Tank 48H aggregate solution.

  3. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Cervical and Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Report on Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.Vandecasteele@uzgent.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Tummers, Philippe; Makar, Amin [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Eijkeren, Marc van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Delrue, Louke [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Denys, Hannelore [Department of Medical Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambert, Bieke [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Beerens, Anne-Sophie [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, Rudy [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambein, Kathleen [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Fonteyne, Valerie; De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report on toxicity after postoperative intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for cervical (CC) and endometrial cancer (EC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-four CC and 41 EC patients were treated with postoperative IMAT. If indicated, para-aortic lymph node irradiation (preventive or when affected, PALN) and/or concomitant cisplatin (40 mg/m Superscript-Two , weekly) was administered. The prescribed dose for IMAT was 45 Gy (CC, 25 fractions) and 46 Gy (EC, 23 fractions), followed by a brachytherapeutic boost if possible. Radiation-related toxicity was assessed prospectively. The effect of concomitant cisplatin and PALN irradiation was evaluated. Results: Regarding acute toxicity (n = 65), Grade 3 and 2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in zero and 63% of patients (79% CC, 54% EC), respectively. Grade 3 and 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was observed in 1% and 18% of patients, respectively. Grade 2 (21%) and 3 (12%) hematologic toxicity (n = 41) occurred only in CC patients. Seventeen percent of CC patients and 2% of EC patients experienced Grade 2 fatigue and skin toxicity, respectively. Adding cisplatin led to an increase in Grade >2 nausea (57% vs. 9%; p = 0.01), Grade 2 nocturia (24% vs. 4%; p = 0.03), Grade {>=}2 hematologic toxicity (38% vs. nil, p = 0.003), Grade {>=}2 leukopenia (33% vs. nil, p = 0.009), and a strong trend toward more fatigue (14% vs. 2%; p = 0.05). Para-aortic lymph node irradiation led to an increase of Grade 2 nocturia (31% vs. 4%, p = 0.008) and a strong trend toward more Grade >2 nausea (44% vs. 18%; p = 0.052). Regarding late toxicity (n = 45), no Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity occurred. Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity, genitourinary toxicity, and fatigue occurred in 4%, 9%, and 1% of patients. Neither concomitant cisplatin nor PALN irradiation increased late toxicity rates. Conclusions: Postoperative IMAT for EC or CC is associated with low acute and late toxicity. Concomitant chemotherapy and PALN irradiation influences acute but not late toxicity.

  4. Method and apparatus for diagnosis of lead toxicity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, John F. (Riverside, CT); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Bayside, NY); Wielopolski, Lucian (Shirley, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved methods and apparatus for in vivo measurement of the skeletal lead burden of a patient and for diagnosis of lead toxicity are disclosed. The apparatus comprises an x-ray tube emitting soft low energy x-rays from a silver anode, a polarizer for polarizing the emitted x-rays, and a detector for detecting photons fluoresced from atoms in the patient's tibia upon irradiation by the polarized x-rays. The fluoresced photons are spectrally analyzed to determine their energy distribution. Peaks indicating the presence of lead are identified if the patient has relatively high bone lead content. The data may be compared to data recorded with respect to a similar test performed on patients having also had the conventional EDTA chelation tests performed thereon in order to correlate the test results with respect to a particular patient to the conventionally accepted EDTA chelation test.

  5. Toxic substances form coal combustion--a co prehemsice assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on emission of these pollutants from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling their formation and partition will be needed. A new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) has been developed by a broad consortium to be useful to regulators and utility planners. During the last quarter coal analysis was completed on the final program coal, from the Wyodak Seam of the Powder River Basin, Combustion testing continued, including data collected on the self-sustained combustor. Efforts were directed to identify the governing mechanisms for trace element vaporization from the program coals. Mercury speciation and measurements were continued. Review of the existing trace element and organics emission literature was completed. And, model development was begun.

  6. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Characteristic hypersurfaces in a relativistic superfluid theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    By discussing the Cauchy problem, we determine the covariant equation of the characteristic hypersurfaces in a relativistic superfluid theory.

  9. Modeling radiation characteristics of semitransparent media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    and Viskanta8 have proposed a model for the effective radiation characteristics of glass foams. Their analysis

  10. www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience/ Poison Hemlock The Toxic Parsnip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience/ Poison Hemlock ­ The Toxic Parsnip We often get questions about wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) only to find out that the question is actually about poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Although these two plants may look similar, poison hemlock is toxic to cattle

  11. Sub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass C.D. Suski a,,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suski, Cory David

    . Exposure to 100 M Tamm impaired the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise relative to fishSub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass C.D. Suski a,,1 , J.D. Kieffer b , S.S. Killen a,2 Available online 24 November 2006 Abstract Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined

  12. How much ``weight`` should be assigned to toxicity test results in ecological risk assessment?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, R.N.; Gilron, G.L. [Beak Consultants Ltd., Brampton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxicity tests are an integral part of ecological assessment activities such as Canada`s Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) programs and the USA`s Superfund program. Both of these types of programs encourage the use of the weight-of-evidence approach for the evaluation of ecological risks. This approach uses data from biological surveys, toxicity tests, and ambient media chemical analyses. Currently, there is no guidance available which identifies the relative importance of these different data types in the risk assessment. The quality of the data generated will necessarily determine the ``weight`` assigned to each line of evidence. Decisions often are made on the basis of toxicity test results. However, routine tests are conducted frequently without consideration of their appropriateness (e.g., species sensitivity, ecological relevance). Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine the relative sensitivities of various test methods used to assess toxicity from various industries. Different industries were selected to represent different classes of contaminants. For example, the pulp and paper industry releases organic compounds and the mining sector primarily releases heavy metals. The comparative sensitivities of toxicity tests will be illustrated for two industrial sector case studies. With a better understanding of toxicity test method sensitivity, the ecological risk assessor is better able to assign the appropriate weight to the toxicity test results in a risk characterization. This will allow toxicity testing programs to be focused and increase the confidence in the entire risk assessment and any resulting decisions.

  13. UNDERSTANDING THE GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT EXPOSURE: CHERNOBYL AS A MODEL SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Robert J.

    UNDERSTANDING THE GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT EXPOSURE: CHERNOBYL AS A MODEL to Chernobyl radiation. Our results suggest that genetic diversity in radioactive regions of Ukraine to elucidate the effects of toxicant exposure. Keywords--Chernobyl Bank vole Population genetics Comparative

  14. Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Ian

    Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of takahe on offshore islands? DOC. References 9 #12;4 Jamieson & Easton--Tall fescue-endophytes and takahe reproction on offshore islands Final of Conservation. This paper may be cited as: Jamieson, I.; Sydney Easton, H. 2002: Does a toxic fungal endophyte

  15. Modulation of the Toxicity and Macromolecular Binding of Benzene Metabolites by NAD(P)H:Quinone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Articles Modulation of the Toxicity and Macromolecular Binding of Benzene Metabolites by NAD, San Francisco, California 94143-0560 Received April 17, 1998 Benzene is oxidized in the liver of benzene metabolite toxicity. NQO1 expression reduced a class of hydroquinone- and benzenetriol-induced DNA

  16. Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

  17. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 2, Sample preparation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the interim change notice for sample preparation methods. Covered are: acid digestion for metals analysis, fusion of Hanford tank waste solids, water leach of sludges/soils/other solids, extraction procedure toxicity (simulate leach in landfill), sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy, acid digestion for radiochemical analysis, leach preparation of solids for free cyanide analysis, aqueous leach of solids for anion analysis, microwave digestion of glasses and slurries for ICP/MS, toxicity characteristic leaching extraction for inorganics, leach/dissolution of activated metal for radiochemical analysis, extraction of single-shell tank (SST) samples for semi-VOC analysis, preparation and cleanup of hydrocarbon- containing samples for VOC and semi-VOC analysis, receiving of waste tank samples in onsite transfer cask, receipt and inspection of SST samples, receipt and extrusion of core samples at 325A shielded facility, cleaning and shipping of waste tank samplers, homogenization of solutions/slurries/sludges, and test sample preparation for bioassay quality control program.

  18. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glasses through long-term testing. Part 1, Solution analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison of glass reactivity between radioactive sludge based and simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of both glass types for SRL 165, SRL 131, and SRL 200 frit compositions. The data demonstrate that for time periods through 280 days, differences in elemental release to solution up to 400% are observed. However, in general, differences in glass reactivity as measured by the release of boron, lithium, and sodium are less than a factor of two. The differences in reactivity are not large enough to alter the order of glass durability for the different compositions or to change the controlling glass dissolution mechanism. A radiation effect exists, mainly in the influence on the leachate pH, which in turn affects the glass reaction mechanism and rate. The differences in reactivity between fully radioactive and the simulated glasses can be reasonably explained if the controlling reaction mechanism is accounted for. Those differences are glass composition and leaching mechanism dependent. Lithium is found to have the highest elemental release in an ion-exchange dominated glass reaction process, while lithium has a lower release than boron and sodium in a matrix dissolution dominated process, where boron and sodium are usually among the most concentrated solution species.

  19. Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  20. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

  1. Aquatic toxicity information on VAX VMS backup (ACQUIRE for VMS). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of Acquire is to provide scientists and managers quick access to a comprehensive, systematic, computerized compilation of aquatic toxicity data. Scientific papers published both nationally and internationally on the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms and plants are collected and reviewed for ACQUIRE. Independently compiled data files that meet ACQUIRE parameter and quality assurance criteria are also included. Selected toxicity test results and related testing information for any individual chemical from laboratory and field aquatic toxicity effects are included for tests with freshwater and marine organisms. The total number of data records in ACQUIRE is now over 105,300. This includes data from 6000 references, for 5200 chemicals and 2400 test species. A major data file, Acute Toxicity of Organic Chemicals (ATOC), has been incorporated into ACQUIRE. The ATOC file contains laboratory acute test data on 525 organic chemicals using juvenile fathead minnows.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of tailings dispersal from a uranium mine using toxicity testing protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rippon, G.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Canberra (Australia); Riley, S.J. [Univ. of Western Sydney-Nepean, Kingswood (Australia)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxicity testing is a means of establishing the environmental risk of uranium tailings release. It is valuable in designing tailings containment structures because it assists in setting acceptable levels of risk of the design. This paper presents details of toxicity tests of the tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results suggest that the non-radiological toxicity of the tailings is low. The environmental risk of a tailings release is more likely to be related to the physical impacts of the tailings, including infilling of billabongs and changes in the sedimentology of riparian ecosystems rather than their biogeochemical impact. Two major results were: (1) water from treatment with washed tailing fines was not toxic to Hydra viridissima, and (2) mixtures of washed tailings fines and natural floodplain sediment (overlying water or elutriates) were not toxic to Hydra viridissima or Moinodaphnia macleayi. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  4. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work.

  5. Protective effects of lipoic acid on chrysene-induced toxicity on M?ller cells in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansoor, Saffar; Gupta, Navin; Luczy-Bachman, Georgia; Limb, G. Astrid; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Kenney, M. Cristina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames BN, Cotman CW, Liu J. Acrolein, a toxicant in cigarette31. Li L, Holian A. Acrolein: a respiratory toxin thatJia et al. reported that acrolein, a toxicant in cigarette

  6. Role of aggregation conditions and presence of small heat shock proteins on abeta structure, stability and toxicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sung Mun

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to the most toxic ?? species change their structure the most rapidly in denaturant, and that in general, increased toxicity correlated with decreased aggregate stability. In AlzheimerÂ?s disease, even delaying A? aggregation onset or slowing its...

  7. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  8. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  9. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

  10. The toxicity of Nerium oleander in the monkey (Cebus apella): a pathologic study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, William Lewis

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of chewing the flowers. Oleander produces dermatitis in 5, 11 certain humans upon contact with the skin ' Spontaneous and experimental oleander toxicity has been reported in many species 5, 8, 11, 30)36, 49, 53 . 11 7, 9, 11, 49 including humans... of Department Member (Member) August 1970 ABSTRACT The Toxicity of Nerium oleander in the Monkey (Cebus ~a ella): A Pathologic Study (August 1970) William Lewis Schwartz, B Sc , D. V M. The Ohio State Vniversity Directed by: Dr. W. W- Bay The toxic...

  11. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy as Monotherapy or Post-External Beam Radiotherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Technique, Early Toxicity, and PSA Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jabbari, Siavash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian K. [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Kaprealian, Tania; Hsu, I-Chow; Ma Lijun; Chuang, Cynthia; Descovich, Martina; Shiao, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R., E-mail: AGottschalk@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy has been established as an excellent monotherapy or after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) boost treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, dosimetric studies have demonstrated the potential for achieving similar dosimetry with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) compared with HDR brachytherapy. Here, we report our technique, PSA nadir, and acute and late toxicity with SBRT as monotherapy and post-EBRT boost for PCa using HDR brachytherapy fractionation. Patients and Methods: To date, 38 patients have been treated with SBRT at University of California-San Francisco with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Twenty of 38 patients were treated with SBRT monotherapy (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4 fractions), and 18 were treated with SBRT boost (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions) post-EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy. PSA nadir to date for 44 HDR brachytherapy boost patients with disease characteristics similar to the SBRT boost cohort was also analyzed as a descriptive comparison. Results: SBRT was well tolerated. With a median follow-up of 18.3 months (range, 12.6-43.5), 42% and 11% of patients had acute Grade 2 gastrourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively, with no Grade 3 or higher acute toxicity to date. Two patients experienced late Grade 3 GU toxicity. All patients are without evidence of biochemical or clinical progression to date, and favorably low PSA nadirs have been observed with a current median PSA nadir of 0.35 ng/mL (range, <0.01-2.1) for all patients (0.47 ng/mL, range, 0.2-2.1 for the monotherapy cohort; 0.10 ng/mL, range, 0.01-0.5 for the boost cohort). With a median follow-up of 48.6 months (range, 16.4-87.8), the comparable HDR brachytherapy boost cohort has achieved a median PSA nadir of 0.09 ng/mL (range, 0.0-3.3). Conclusions: Early results with SBRT monotherapy and post-EBRT boost for PCa demonstrate acceptable PSA response and minimal toxicity. PSA nadir with SBRT boost appears comparable to those achieved with HDR brachytherapy boost.

  12. Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Fatal Toxic Exposures: A Poison Center’s Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weerasuriya, Dilani; Sheikh, Sophia; Morgan, Brent W

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Fatal Toxic Exposures: A Poison Center’s Review DilaniAtlanta, Georgia Georgia Poison Control, Atlanta, GeorgiaISE) patient using the Regional Poison Control Center (RPCC)

  13. Compatibility and toxicity of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles on mammalian cell systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kral, Kelly M., 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) produced normal growth curves in the presence of particles. However, the particles do still exhibit some toxicity towards the cells, as the maximum cell density of cells cultured with particles does not reach that ...

  14. Toxicity of oiled wetland sediments influenced by natural and enhanced bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Danica Christine

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gene System (RGS), Toxi-ChromoPad and Salmonella/microsome assays. Significant toxicity was detected (Microtox*) in all plots that were oiled followed by a rapid decrease that was correlated to petroleum losses. Amphipod mortality was initially high...

  15. Application of novel methods using synthetic biology tools to investigate solvent toxicity in bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Eugene Kobina Arhin

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxicity of organic solvents to microbial hosts is a major consideration in the economical production of biofuels such as ethanol and especially butanol, with low product concentrations leading to high recovery costs. ...

  16. Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Samuel William, III

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

  17. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  18. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acrolein, a member of reactive ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including ?-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

  19. Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected automotive rubber components 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalkowski, Mark Henry

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED AUTOMOTIVE RUBBER COMPONENTS A Thesis by MARK HENRY SHALKOWSKI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Safety Engineering TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED AUTOMOTIVE RUBBER COMPONENTS A Thesis by MARK HENRY SHALKOWSKI Approved as to style and content by: // John...

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal landfill leachates were determined to have mean estimated cumulative cancer risks on the same order of magnitude (10 4) as leachates from co-disposal and hazardous waste landfills. The use of a battery of acute and chronic toxicity bioassays..., chemical analysis, and an estimated cancer risk calculation resulted in data providing evidence that municipal solid waste landfill leachates are as acutely and chronically toxic as co-disposal and hazardous waste landfill leachates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

  1. Critical elements in the design of piping systems for toxic fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getz, R.C. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While releases of hazardous/toxic fluids from pressurized pipelines are infrequent, the potential for a catastrophic event resulting from such a release warrants extraordinary care of the hazardous/toxic piping systems containing these fluids, during the entire plant life cycle. System identification, segregation, material and component selection, construction techniques, and preventative maintenance programs all contribute to improved system reliability, and are discussed herein. Methods to mitigate damages in the event of a failure are also discussed.

  2. Comparative toxicity studies of sulphur acaricides on two species of spider mites attacking cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallmark, Kenzy Donovan

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONPARATIVE TOXICITY STUDIES OF SULFUH ACAHICIDES ON TWO SPECIE OF SPIDEH NITES ATTACKING COTTON KENZY DONOVAN HALLI&AHK A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School oi' the Agricultural and 14echanlcal College of Texas in partial fulfillment... Ovotran- 13 Procedure Culturing technique- Dusting apparatus 1B 18 19 Spraying appsratus- Treatment procedure ?- Determination ef results ? - ? --- ? ? ? -?- hesults Conclusions- Literature Cited- 47 50 1 Results of laboratortJ' toxicity...

  3. The effect of climatic factors on the toxicity of certain organic insecticides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistric, Walter Joseph

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES A Dissertation By MILTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR, Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ?7*(Head Df Department) May THEF L IB R A R Y A & M... COLLEGE OF TEXAS. THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES By HALTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

  4. Developmental toxicity and structure-activity relationships of ochratoxin A and related compounds in Hydra attenuata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Monica Ann

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF OCHRATOXIN A AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HYDRA ATTENUATA A Thesis by MONICA ANN TAYLOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF OCHRATOXIN A AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN ~HY R ATTENUATA A Thesis by MONICA ANN TAYLOR...

  5. Comparative toxicity studies of sulphur acaricides on two species of spider mites attacking cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallmark, Kenzy Donovan

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONPARATIVE TOXICITY STUDIES OF SULFUH ACAHICIDES ON TWO SPECIE OF SPIDEH NITES ATTACKING COTTON KENZY DONOVAN HALLI&AHK A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School oi' the Agricultural and 14echanlcal College of Texas in partial fulfillment... Ovotran- 13 Procedure Culturing technique- Dusting apparatus 1B 18 19 Spraying appsratus- Treatment procedure ?- Determination ef results ? - ? --- ? ? ? -?- hesults Conclusions- Literature Cited- 47 50 1 Results of laboratortJ' toxicity...

  6. The effect of climatic factors on the toxicity of certain organic insecticides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistric, Walter Joseph

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES A Dissertation By MILTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR, Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ?7*(Head Df Department) May THEF L IB R A R Y A & M... COLLEGE OF TEXAS. THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES By HALTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

  7. Developmental toxicity and structure-activity relationships of ochratoxin A and related compounds in Hydra attenuata 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Monica Ann

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF OCHRATOXIN A AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HYDRA ATTENUATA A Thesis by MONICA ANN TAYLOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF OCHRATOXIN A AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN ~HY R ATTENUATA A Thesis by MONICA ANN TAYLOR...

  8. Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO LARVAE OF THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACR OBRACHIUM R OSENBERGI I A Thesis by JOSE ALVAREZ LLOBRERA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO LARVAE OF THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACR OBRACHIUM ROSENBERGI I A Thesis JOSE ALVAREZ LLOBRERA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE AS DETERMINED WITH BIOASSAYS AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A Thesis by GREGORY ERNST SCHRAB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Soil Science ACUTF AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE AS DETERMINED WITH BIOASSAYS AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A Thesis by GREGORY ERNST SCHRAB Approved as to style...

  10. Housing Characteristics and Socio-Economic Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Housing Characteristics and Socio-Economic Status ROCOG's Environmental Justice Protocol Phil to show relationships between housing characteristics and household income ·! Local real property data with survey-based SES data #12;Housing Type & EJ Populations Type of Residence Total Pupils Pupils Eligible

  11. The Inner Solar System Characteristics of Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Inner Solar System #12;The Earth #12;Characteristics of Earth A terrestrial, rocky planet floats on mantle · Crust is created and destroyed #12;Characteristics of Earth Today Surface: · 70% water · 30% land Atmosphere: ·77% N2 ·21% O2 ·0.1% H2O ·+Ar, CO2, Ne #12;The Dynamic Earth Molten Core

  12. 5, 37233745, 2005 characteristics of ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 3723­3745, 2005 Chemical characteristics of ice nuclei in anvil cirrus clouds C. H. Twohy and Physics Discussions Chemical characteristics of ice residual nuclei in anvil cirrus clouds: evidence for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation C. H. Twohy 1 and M. R. Poellot 2 1 College of Oceanic

  13. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed Phase II testing was to determine longer term ESP performance and mercury capture improvements with the above enhancements for a range of low-sulfur coals currently fired by utilities. Unanticipated cost growth in readying the Pilot Plant for shipment and during slipstream construction at the utility host site resulted in the issuance of a preemptive stop work order from ABB until a detailed technical and budgetary review of the project could be completed. Four program recovery scenarios were developed and presented to the DOE. After careful review of these options, it was decided to terminate the program and although the Pilot Plant installation was essentially completed, no testing was performed. The Pilot Plant was subsequently decommissioned and the host site returned to its preprogram condition.

  14. 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  15. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  16. Leach Capping | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:Landowners and Wind EnergyIndiana: Energy Resources JumpPrataHill,

  17. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  18. A novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist (monascin) attenuates the toxicity of methylglyoxal and hyperglycemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Chang, Yu-Ying [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ya-Wen [SunWay Biotechnology Company, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pan, Tzu-Ming, E-mail: tmpan@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic-glucose metabolite and a major precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). MG has been reported to result in inflammation by activating receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We recently found that Monascus-fermented metabolite monascin acts as a novel natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist that improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes in MG-treated Wistar rats treated with oral administration of monascin or rosiglitazone. Monascin (a novel PPAR? agonist) activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated hyperinsulinmia in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Monascin was able to elevate glyoxalase-1 expression via activation of hepatic Nrf2, hence, resulting in MG metabolism to D-lactic acid and protected from AGEs production in MG-treated rats. Rosiglitazone did not activate Nrf2 nor glyoxalase expression to lower serum and hepatic AGEs levels. Monascin acts as a novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist activity were confirmed by Nrf2 and PPAR? reporter assays in Hep G2 cells. These findings suggest that monascin acts as an anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative stress agent to a greater degree than rosiglitazone and thus may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of diabetes. - Highlights: • Monascin acts as a PPARgamma agonist. • Monascin activates Nrf2 and AMPK. • Monascin promotes MG metabolism into D-lactic acid. • Monascin attenuates inflammation and diabetes in vivo.

  19. Market characteristics of future oil tanker operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willemann, Simmy Dhawan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work analyzes the market characteristics of future oil tanker operations with a particular emphasis on those aspects which will have a potential impact on the design of future vessels. The market analysis model used ...

  20. Contractual form, retail price and asset characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Andrea

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictions derived from a principal-agent analysis of the manufacturer-retailer relationship are derived and tested using microdata on contractual form, outlet characteristics and retail prices for gasoline stations in ...

  1. Power Characteristics of Industrial Air Compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, C.; Kissock, K.

    The power draw characteristics of air compressors are primarily determined by the type of compressor control and the relationship between the compressor's output capacity and the compressed air demand in the plant. In this paper, we review the most...

  2. Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    changes in two different climate scenarios. In the Mediterranean region, precipitation amount, frequencyChanges in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss with climate change, with potentially severe impacts on human society and ecosystems. This study analyses

  3. Future characteristics of Offshore Support Vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Robin Sebastian Koske

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to examine trends in Offshore Support Vessel (OSV) design and determine the future characteristics of OSVs based on industry insight and supply chain models. Specifically, this thesis focuses ...

  4. ON THE EULER CHARACTERISTIC. JIMMY DILLIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillies, Jimmy

    ON THE EULER CHARACTERISTIC. JIMMY DILLIES 1. Planar graphs A planar graph is a graph that can Platonic solids. Figure 1. Stereographic projection 1 #12;2 JIMMY DILLIES Figure 2. The Platonic Solids

  5. Program Characteristics that Predict Improved Learner Outcomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Margaret; Mellard, Daryl

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics that predict improved learner outcomes through statistical analyses of data across four years in a single state. Data indicate that, collectively, several ...

  6. Mechanical characteristics of a flanged prosthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Tatiana Ivonne

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A FLF':ED PROSTHESIS A Thesis by TATIANA IVONNE ARAUJO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Flajot... Subfect: gioengineering MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A FLANGED PROSTHESIS A Thesis by TATIANA IVONNE ARAUJO Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co ittee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head of Department) August 1982 ABST. RACT...

  7. Experimental plan for the assessment of air toxic emissions from a pilot-scale combustion unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, R.A.; Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of a 500-pound-per-hour pilot-scale combustion unit will be characterized in terms of the formation, distribution, and fate of toxic substances. The coal fired during the air toxics testing will be the same coal batch that had been fired in a full-scale utility boiler during a recent assessment of air toxic emissions. A description of the pilot unit and expected operating conditions during the air toxics testing is provided, along with a summary of the test plan. This test plan is designed to obtain the necessary data on the concentration of trace elements associated with the vapor phase, particulate phase, and particulate size fraction enabling a comparison of these results form the pilot unit and the full-scale utility. Calculation of material balances around the pilot combustion unit, the baghouse, and the overall system as well as baghouse removal efficiencies will be performed. Based on the results of this air toxics characterization effort, an assessment will be made of the value of the pilot unit as a facility for the evaluation of sampling and analytical improvements, development of continuous emissions monitors, and future control systems evaluations.

  8. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hand, Julie J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberts, Mark P. (Arco, ID)

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  9. Expanded High-Level Waste Glass Property Data Development: Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Lang, Jesse B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Raszewski, F. C.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Best, D. R.; Reamer, Irene A.; Riley, W. T.; Simmons, P. T.; Workman, R. J.

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Two separate test matrices were developed as part if the EM-21 Glass Matrix Crucible Testing. The first matrix, developed using a single component-at-a-time design method and covering glasses of interest primarily to Hanford, is addressed in this data package. This data package includes methods and results from glass fabrication, chemical analysis of glass compositions, viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, canister centerline cooling, product consistency testing, and the toxicity characteristic leach procedure.

  10. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  11. 1997 toxic chemical release inventory -- Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 313

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaloudek, D.E.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two listed toxic chemicals were used at the Hanford Site above established activity thresholds: phosphoric acid and chlorine. Because total combined quantities of chlorine released, disposed, treated, recovered through recycle operations, co-combusted for energy recovery, and transferred to off-site locations for the purpose of recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and/or disposal, amounted to less than 500 pounds, the Hanford Site qualified for the alternate one million pound threshold for chlorine. Accordingly, this Toxic Chemical Release Inventory includes a Form A for chlorine, and a Form B for phosphoric acid.

  12. The Toxicity of the Ripe Fruit of Blackbrush or Tarbrush (Flourensia cernua) for Sheep and Goats.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the plant. When sheep and goats have continuous access to the plant and are not subjected to-handling during the winter months,there is no evidence that this p&k'of the ~lant is grazed in sufficient amounts to cause toxic effects. The plant has not been... associated with similar losses in cattle. 1 The toxicity of the ripe fruit was demonstrated by experimental i feeding to sheep and goats. o In this wark a marked variation in the ~ueceptihility of different iddividuals was observed, as well as a nar...

  13. Comparison of stomach and contact toxicities of toxaphene and guthion to two species of lepidopterous larvae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Hugo Danilo

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPARISON GF STOMACH AND CONTACT TOXICITIES OF TOXAPHENE AND GKH ION By HUGO D. MARTIN A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of T!sxas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER GF SCIENCE May 1957 Ms/or Sub)cot: ENTOMOLOGY COMPARISON GF STOMACH AND CONTACT TOXICITIES OF TO~ AND GUTHIGN TNO SPECIES OF LEPROUS LARVAE HUGO D. MARTIN Approved as to style and content by: irjasn of Committee ead o the Department lhe...

  14. Potential hazards of compound 1080 to selected nontarget wildlife when used in the toxic collar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eastland, Warren George

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    POTENTIAL NA7ARDS OF COMPOUND 1080 TO SELECTED NONTARGET WI~ DLIFE WHEN USED IN TliE TOXIC COLLAR A Thesis by WARREN GEORGE EASTLAND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AfM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Wild'life and Fisheries Sciences POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF COMPOUND 1080 TO SELECTED NONTARGET WILDLIFE WHEN USED IN THE TOXIC COLLAR A Thesis by WARREN GEORGE EASTLAND Approved as to style...

  15. The toxic levels of Microcide, a chlorine compound, for selected fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Champ, Michael Augustus

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TOXIC LEVELS OF M)CROCIDE, A CHLORINE COMPOUND, FOR SELECTED FISHES A Thesis by Michael A. Champ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A=M University in partial fultillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... !9S9 Majot Subject; Biology THE TOXIC LEVELS OF MICROCIDE, A CHLORIHE COMPOUND, FOR SELECTED FISHES A Thesis by MICHAEL A. CHAMP Approved as to style and content by: Ciairman of mmittee (Member j (He~mb r May 1&6& n ~~. n E&r;~ri ABSTRACT...

  16. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Marion Carol

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

  17. Detection of toxic factors after gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihabi, Zakariya Kamel

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'scorned Tke mox'taixty of the chlpJf's vas used 88 a cx'lte. '. icn foe tne presence of toxic substances produced by irradiation. 20 Ch ek s er atosoa. The same procedure vas used for the collection and ths bioassay with chicken spermatosea as described t...DETECTION QF TOXIC FACTORS AFTER GAMMA-IRRADIATION ~ V~IO AND IN VIVO A Thesis By Zaksriya K. Shihabi Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  18. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Marion Carol

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

  19. Detection of toxic factors after gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihabi, Zakariya Kamel

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETECTION QF TOXIC FACTORS AFTER GAMMA-IRRADIATION ~ V~IO AND IN VIVO A Thesis By Zaksriya K. Shihabi Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Biochemistry snd Nutrition DETECTIOE OF TOXIC FACTORS AFTER GAMMA-IRRADIATIOE gf. ~ AND g[ ~ By Zakariya K. Shihabi Approved as to ~le and content by& 8 j &"';Dr j J j R~ Couch . G. N i. se Dr. M. L r. C. R...

  20. Comparison of stomach and contact toxicities of toxaphene and guthion to two species of lepidopterous larvae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Hugo Danilo

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPARISON GF STOMACH AND CONTACT TOXICITIES OF TOXAPHENE AND GKH ION By HUGO D. MARTIN A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of T!sxas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER GF SCIENCE May 1957 Ms/or Sub)cot: ENTOMOLOGY COMPARISON GF STOMACH AND CONTACT TOXICITIES OF TO~ AND GUTHIGN TNO SPECIES OF LEPROUS LARVAE HUGO D. MARTIN Approved as to style and content by: irjasn of Committee ead o the Department lhe...

  1. The toxic levels of Microcide, a chlorine compound, for selected fishes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Champ, Michael Augustus

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TOXIC LEVELS OF M)CROCIDE, A CHLORINE COMPOUND, FOR SELECTED FISHES A Thesis by Michael A. Champ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A=M University in partial fultillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... !9S9 Majot Subject; Biology THE TOXIC LEVELS OF MICROCIDE, A CHLORIHE COMPOUND, FOR SELECTED FISHES A Thesis by MICHAEL A. CHAMP Approved as to style and content by: Ciairman of mmittee (Member j (He~mb r May 1&6& n ~~. n E&r;~ri ABSTRACT...

  2. Potential hazards of compound 1080 to selected nontarget wildlife when used in the toxic collar 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eastland, Warren George

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    POTENTIAL NA7ARDS OF COMPOUND 1080 TO SELECTED NONTARGET WI~ DLIFE WHEN USED IN TliE TOXIC COLLAR A Thesis by WARREN GEORGE EASTLAND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AfM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Wild'life and Fisheries Sciences POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF COMPOUND 1080 TO SELECTED NONTARGET WILDLIFE WHEN USED IN THE TOXIC COLLAR A Thesis by WARREN GEORGE EASTLAND Approved as to style...

  3. The Toxicity of the Ripe Fruit of Blackbrush or Tarbrush (Flourensia cernua) for Sheep and Goats. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the plant. When sheep and goats have continuous access to the plant and are not subjected to-handling during the winter months,there is no evidence that this p&k'of the ~lant is grazed in sufficient amounts to cause toxic effects. The plant has not been... associated with similar losses in cattle. 1 The toxicity of the ripe fruit was demonstrated by experimental i feeding to sheep and goats. o In this wark a marked variation in the ~ueceptihility of different iddividuals was observed, as well as a nar...

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHOTBLASTING TURBINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleš Hribernik; Bojan A?ko; Gorazd Bombek

    A parametric study has been performed in order to optimize the operational characteristics of shotblasting turbine used for surface cleaning of metal products in foundries. The study has been focused on four main parameters: shot velocity, shot distribution, shot mass flow and turbine efficiency. Different turbine designs were experimentally studied which enabled the influence factors to be identified and then quantified by means of comparison of original and modified turbine characteristics. The step-by-step optimization was then performed which resulted in redesigned shotblasting turbine with improved operational characteristics. Up to 35 % higher maximum massflow rate of shot particles has been achieved and turbine efficiency has been improved by more than 6 %. Just slight reduction of shot flow velocity was observed (only 2 %), which confirms an important improvement of shotblasting potentials of new turbine.

  5. Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance in the nano-flow regime. Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance in the...

  6. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines 2012...

  7. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for...

  8. Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend Level Differences in the Physical Characteristics of Diesel PM with Increasing Biofuel Blend...

  9. Design and operating characteristics of a transient kinetic analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    operating characteristics of a transient kinetic analysis catalysis reactor system employing in situ transmission Design and operating characteristics of a transient kinetic...

  10. An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel...

  11. Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, David W.

    Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern e i n f o Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Gulf of Maine Cobscook Bay Shellfish toxicity a b s t r a c of Cobscook Bay, where strong tidal mixing tends to reduce seasonal variability in oceanographic properties

  12. A DNA hybridization assay to identify toxic dinoflagellates in coastal waters: detection of Karenia brevis in the Rookery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A DNA hybridization assay to identify toxic dinoflagellates in coastal waters: detection of Karenia Abstract A DNA hybridization assay was developed in microtiter plate format to detect the presence of toxic colorimetric results, used a single hybridization temperature, and conserved the amount of genomic DNA utilized

  13. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  14. Cell-based measurements to assess physiological status of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, a1 toxic diatom2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .resmic.2011.06.005 #12;2 Abstract11 Diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia are potentially toxic microalgae at the beginning of the22 exponential phase, when lipid storage was high, which provided a metabolic energy source toxic.42 Tools to assess the physiological status of microalgae are still fairly scarce. Photosynthetic

  15. Dangerous Waste Characteristics of Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed Wastes from the Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Bryan, Garry H.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes existing analytical data from samples taken from the Hanford tanks designated as potentially containing transuranic mixed process wastes. Process knowledge of the wastes transferred to these tanks has been reviewed to determine whether the dangerous waste characteristics now assigned to all Hanford underground storage tanks are applicable to these particular wastes. Supplemental technologies are being examined to accelerate the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission and accomplish waste treatment safely and efficiently. To date, 11 Hanford waste tanks have been designated as potentially containing contact-handled (CH) transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes. The CH-TRUM wastes are found in single-shell tanks B-201 through B-204, T-201 through T-204, T-104, T-110, and T-111. Methods and equipment to solidify and package the CH-TRUM wastes are part of the supplemental technologies being evaluated. The resulting packages and wastes must be acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The dangerous waste characteristics being considered include ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity arising from the presence of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol at levels above the dangerous waste threshold. The analytical data reviewed include concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, cyanide, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, total organic carbon, and oxalate; the composition of the tank headspace, pH, and mercury. Differential scanning calorimetry results were used to determine the energetics of the wastes as a function of temperature.

  16. Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Toxicity cutoff of aromatic hydrocarbons for luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri So Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons a b s t r a c t Effects of individual petroleum hydrocarbons hydrocarbons, including benzene and its derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were chosen

  17. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gould, L. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Botros, P. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  18. Bivalve embryo bioassay to assess the potential toxicity of dredged material before dumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiniou, F. [IFREMER Brest, Plouzane (France)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredged harbor sediments frequently contain a wide spectrum of contaminants in addition to a significant percentage of organic matter. Also, dredging and dumping activities into sea water, of these highly contaminated soil may induce a harmful effect on the environment. In France, in accordance with Oslo convention guidelines, a working group on dredging activities and environment (GEODE) created since 1991 decided to set up a pilot research program to assess the intrinsic toxicity of four harbor sludges. Intrinsic toxicity of harbor muds were tested by solid phase (whole sediment) and aqueous extract bioassays (sea water elutriates) using the sublethal toxicity test bivalve embryo bioassay (Crassostrea gigas). Elutriates enable them to detect the toxicity of contaminants which may be released in the soluble form into the water column during dredging operations. While, whole sediment integrate the synergistic effects of all the contaminants (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) including pore water. Bioassays results, correlated to chemical analysis, are compared to contaminant levels determined by French working group GEODE and Canadian sediment quality criteria.

  19. Toxicity of density separation media to Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium strain PC01

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    Toxicity of density separation media to Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium strain PC01 studied how various density separation media affected the viability of Escherichia coli to quantify and the Environment, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08854, USA c Institute of Marine

  20. Evaluation of the atmospheric deposition of toxic contaminants to Puget Sound, appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document contains the appendices for the report 'Evaluation of the Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Contaminants to Puget Sound', (PB93-122208). Contents include Literature Survey; Meteorological Data; Laboratory Results - Six-Month Aerosol and Deposition Study; Emission Inventory; Laboratory Results--18-Day Receptor Modeling Field Study; Diffusion/Transport Modeling; Integration of Results; Supporting Documents.

  1. Toxicity of nickel to the earthworm and the applicability of the neutral red retention assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkin, Steve

    Toxicity of nickel to the earthworm and the applicability of the neutral red retention assay JANECK of nickel on survival, growth, and reproduction of Eisenia veneta were investigated following 4 weeks of exposure to a nickel-chloride spiked loamy sand soil. The ability of a simple earthworm biomarker

  2. Toxicity of Nickel to a Soil-Dwelling Springtail, Folsomia metaria (Collembola: Isotomidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkin, Steve

    Toxicity of Nickel to a Soil-Dwelling Springtail, Folsomia ¢metaria (Collembola: Isotomidae) Janeck. to nickel via soil caused signi®cant mortality and reduced growth and reproductive output. Nickel may and important organisms in the soil ecosystem, the eect of nickel has not previously been studied

  3. Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia in gasoline and from Pb-based paints. Although such applications were phased out beginning in the 1970s to natural variability in receiving water chemistry that can differentially impact its chemical speciation

  4. Br J Nutr . Author manuscript Calcium carbonate suppresses haem toxicity markers without calcium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Br J Nutr . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Calcium carbonate suppresses haem toxicity markers without-term studies in rats identified calcium carbonate as the most effective calcium salt to bind haem in vitro demonstrated that a diet containing 100 mol/g calcium carbonate did not promote aberrant crypt foci

  5. Examining the effect of sterol carrier protein-2 on phytanic acid toxicity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cynthia

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    acid. Phytanic acid accumulates to toxic levels in patients with defective or deficient numbers of peroxisomes, but little is known about how phytanic acid is taken up into the cell and incorporated into the peroxisome. Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE MODELS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE CO2 RELEASES TOXIC EFFECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the global warming due to high concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, in case of massive accidental to specific properties regarding its triple point. Then, this CO2 flakes creation may be followed1 ASSESSMENT OF THE MODELS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE CO2 RELEASES TOXIC EFFECTS Frédéric Antoine

  7. Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Jacqueline E.

    Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2, and population biomass of poison ivy. The CO2 growth stimulation exceeds that of most other woody species in Central America, parts of Asia, Bermuda, and the Bahama Islands (5). It has been introduced in Europe (6

  8. EFFECTS OF BENZENE (A TOXIC COMPONENT OF PETROLEUM) ON SPAWNING PACIFIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS PALLASI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF BENZENE (A TOXIC COMPONENT OF PETROLEUM) ON SPAWNING PACIFIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS and larvae through yolk absorption, 43%. Exposure to benzene also induced premature spawning and resulted-labeled benzene and/or metabolites in ovarian eggs (14 times initial concentration in water in 24-48 h; 1.4 ILlig

  9. Hair Cell Differentiation in Chick Cochlear Epithelium after Aminoglycoside Toxicity: In Vivo and In Vitro Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Hair Cell Differentiation in Chick Cochlear Epithelium after Aminoglycoside Toxicity: In Vivo ear epithelia of mature birds regenerate hair cells after ototoxic or acoustic insult. The lack of progenitor cells has hampered the iden- tification of cellular and molecular interactions that regulate hair

  10. Role of resuspended sediments in the transport and bioaccumulation of toxic organic contaminants in nearshore marine environment. Annual report, 1 Jun 91-31 May 92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latimer, J.S.; Quinn, J.G.

    1992-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The resuspension - deposition continuum plays a significant part in the distribution of fine grained sediments and associated organic pollutants in aquatic systems. The chemistry of resuspension was investigated during a year long study by submitting a variety of sediments, including relatively contaminated homogenized dredge spoils and moderately contaminated stratigraphically intact sediments, to artificial resuspension using a particle entrainment simulator. Fine grained sediments were entrained into the test cylinder under conditions that are similar to the resuspension energy that would be expected in a typical estuary. Samples of the resuspended material were collected under a variety of experimental conditions, for the evaluation of organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (typically associated with oil pollution as well as petrogenically derived) and PCBs (a mixture of toxic organic constituents associated with industrial pollution) as well as for geotechnical parameters such as grain size and particle number and organic carbon content. Results thus far indicate that the volume weighted resuspended sediment load is proportional to the shear stress energy applied for any given core. Moreover, each core has a relatively characteristic erodibility pattern, apparently depending upon the distinctive characteristics of the sediment, for example, grain size composition, biological density, homogeneity, etc.

  11. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (?75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ?2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ?3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ?2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ?3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ?3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ?2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ?3 (P=.015) but not grade ?2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  12. Original article Preconditioning treatment maintains taste characteristic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    `September Sun' peach following cold storage Rodrigo Infante,1 * Claudio Meneses1 & Carlos H. Crisosto2 1 fruits immediately after harvest and prior to cold storage at 20 °C for 24­48 h in special chambers aimed preconditioned and transferred to cold storage for 12, 26 and 40 days and evaluated for sensory characteristic

  13. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

  14. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (E. Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  15. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (East Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  16. Measurements of Smoke Characteristics in HVAC Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolin, Steven D; Ryder, Noah L; Leprince, Frederic; Milke, James; Mowrer, Frederick; Torero, Jose L

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of smoke traveling in an HVAC duct have been observed along with the response of selected duct smoke detectors. The simulated HVAC system consists of a 9 m long duct, 0.45 m in diameter. An exhaust fan is placed at one end...

  17. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  18. Analyzing Characteristics of Incremental Lifecycle by using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    of increments #12;2006-10-02 5/18 Background(1/2) Incremental lifecycle Divide software product into piecesAnalyzing Characteristics of Incremental Lifecycle by using Simulation 2006.09.13 #12;2006-10-02 2 contribution Research plan #12;2006-10-02 3/18 Motivation(1/2) Flexible lifecycle model has difficulty

  19. Dependability characteristics and safety criteria for an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Roger

    in centralized control. Such systems are referred to as Automatic Train Control (ATC) systems [1]. For simplicityDependability characteristics and safety criteria for an embedded distributed brake control system distributed brake control system in railway freight trains ROGER JOHANSSON1 Department of Electrical

  20. Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey J. Handmer; Béla Szilágyi; Jeffrey Winicour

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).

  1. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roedel, Erik Q., E-mail: Erik.Roedel@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Cafasso, Danielle E., E-mail: Danielle.Cafasso@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Lee, Karen W.M., E-mail: Karen.W.Lee@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Pierce, Lisa M., E-mail: Lisa.Pierce@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ? Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ? W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ? W–Ni–Co induces a greater oxidative burst response than W–Ni–Fe in lung macrophages.

  2. Self-Calibration of Neutrino Detectors using characteristic Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Kopp; Manfred Lindner; Alexander Merle

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the possibility to use characteristic natural neutrino backgrounds, such as Geoneutrinos (\\bar{\

  3. Characteristics of fluorinated nitroazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibamoto, Y.; Nishimoto, S.; Shimokawa, K.; Hisanaga, Y.; Zhou, L.; Wang, J.; Sasai, K.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M.; Kagiya, T.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Types of 2-nitroimidazoles and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles bearing one or two fluorine atoms on their side chains were synthesized to evaluate their physicochemical properties, radiosensitizing effects, and toxicity. The reduction potential of the compounds containing one fluorine was similar to that of misonidazole (MISO), whereas that of the difluorinated compounds was slightly higher. Both mono- and difluorinated compounds had an in vitro sensitizing activity comparable to or slightly higher than that of MISO. The fluorinated 3-nitrotriazoles were almost as efficient as the 2-nitroimidazoles with the same substituent. In vivo, some of the compounds were up to twice more efficient than MISO, whereas others were as efficient as MISO. Toxicity in terms of LD50/7 in mice was quite variable depending on the side-chain structure; the amide derivatives were less toxic than MISO, whereas the alcohol and ether derivatives were more toxic. In view of the radiosensitizing effect and toxicity in vivo, at least one compound, KU-2285 (a 2-nitroimidazole with an N1-substituent of: CH2CF2CONHCH2CH2OH) has been found to be as useful a hypoxic cell sensitizer as SR-2508.

  4. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  5. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

  6. Shrinkage - cracking characteristics of structural lightweight concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKeen, Robert Gordon

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1969 ABSTRACT Shrinkage-Cracking Characteristics of Structural Lightweight Concrete (August 1969) B. S. C. E. , Texas AERY University Directed by: if. B. Ledbetter Tests were conducted to det. trains the effect of coarse. s -gre- gate type...'csults indicated that both unrestrained shrinkage and concret. c water loss relate to restrained shrinkage stress. Unrestrained shrinks e did not indicate. cracking ter. dency while we+ er loss provided an indi cati on of cr cking tendency. ACRRO!Jr. ROOD. i...

  7. Experimental production characteristics of anticlinal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Charles David

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production characteristics of an anticlinal model reservoir have been studied. The results show the effects of production rate, structural well location, well density, and fluid properties on the oil and gas recovery. The results of this study indicate... the need to shut in high gas- oil ratio wells in order to achieve maximum recovery. An increase in well density increased recovery significantly for both upstructure and downstructure wells. An increase in the production rate appeared to increase re...

  8. Aerosol collection characteristics of ambient aerosol samplers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Carlos A

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are contained in Appendix C. Dichotomous Sam ler The basic principle of operation of the dichotomous, Figure 9, is that aerosol particles are passed through an acceleration nozzle where the particle velocity is increased to a speed V. at the nozzle exit... AEROSOL COLLECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF AMBIENT AEROSOL SAMPLERS A Thesis by CARLOS A. ORTIZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978...

  9. Evaluation of the atmospheric deposition of toxic contaminants to Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A growing recognition of the potential for transfer of pollutants from air to water prompted the study of the contribution of airborne toxic contaminants to water quality problems in Puget Sound. The study objectives were: (1) to develop a better understanding of the relative contribution of atmospheric deposition to toxic contaminants in Commencement Bay and (2) to develop efficient and cost-effective tools which could be used for assessing the question in other Puget Sound reaches and embayments. Commencement Bay was selected to represent a 'worst case' test area in Puget Sound because it is heavily industrialized, having a complex mix of air pollution sources and high concentrations of chemicals in the bay sediments. The study design included sampling and analysis for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and nutrients. Several mathematical models were created or modified for the study.

  10. Identifying Biomarkers and Mechanisms of Toxic Metal Stress with Global Proteomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Susan M.

    2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hg is a wide-spread contaminant in the environment and is toxic in all of its various forms. Data suggest that RHg+ and Hg2+ are toxic in two ways. At low levels, Hg species appear to disrupt membrane-bound respiration causing a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that further damage the cell. At higher Hg concentrations, RHg+ and Hg2+ may form adducts with cysteine- and selenocysteine-containing proteins in all cellular compartments resulting in their inactivation. Although these mechansims for toxicity are generally accepted, the most sensitive targets associated with these mechanisms are not well understood. In this collaborative project involving three laboratories at three institutions, the overall goal was to develop of a mass spectrometry-based global proteomics methodology that could be used to identify Hg-adducted (and ideally, ROS-damaged) proteins in order to address these types of questions. The two objectives of this overall collaborative project were (1) to identify, quantify, and compare ROS- and Hg-damaged proteins in cells treated with various Hg species and concentrations to test this model for two mechanisms of Hg toxicity, and (2) to define the cellular roles of the ubiquitous bacterial mercury resistance (mer) locus with regards to how the proteins of this pathway interact to protect other cell proteins from Hg damage. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the Miller lab in this project included: (1) Development of algorithms for analysis of the Hg-proteomic mass spectrometry data to identify mercury adducted peptides and other trends in the data. (2) Investigation of the role of mer operon proteins in scavenging Hg(II) from other mer pathway proteins as a means of protecting cellular proteins from damage.

  11. The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, Marcia Wagner

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    symptoms of atelectasis, pulmonary edema, congestion and consolidation of the lungs, alveoli filled with a granular fibrillar exudate, and a general pneumonic condition. Therefore, pulmonary pathology associated with oxygen toxicity has been termed... the epithelial cells of the lungs are in direct contact with the changes in partial pressures of oxygen. Exposure to oxygen at increased partial pressures has had some dramatic effects on the circulatory system, such as increased osmotic fragility (96, 105...

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  13. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  14. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  15. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate during the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 ?g g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 ?g g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.

  16. Simultaneous gas-chromatographic determination of four toxic gases generally present in combustion atmospheres. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endecott, B.R.; Sanders, D.C.; Chaturvedi, A.K.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of combustion gases produced by burning aircraft cabin materials poses a continuing limitation for smoke toxicity research. Since toxic effects of gases depend on both their concentrations and duration of exposures, frequent atmosphere sampling is necessary to define the concentration-time curve. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analyses of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The method utilized an MTI M200 dual-column gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with 4-m molecular sieve-5A and 8-m PoraPlot-U capillary columns and two low-volume, high-sensitivity thermal conductivity detectors. Detectability (ppm)/retention times (seconds) for the gases were: CO (100/28); H2S (50/26); SO2 (125/76); HCN (60/108). The method was effective for determining these gases in mixtures and in the combustion atmospheres generated by burning wool (CO, HCN, and H2S) and modacrylic (CO and HCN) fabrics. Common atmospheric gaseous or combustion products (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and other volatiles) did not interfere with the analyses. However, filtration of the combustion atmospheres was necessary to prevent restriction of the GC sampling inlet by smoke particulates. The speed, sensitivity, and selectivity of this method make it suitable for smoke toxicity research and for evaluating performance of passenger protective breathing equipment.

  17. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L. [Lumitox Gulf L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus.

  18. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate duringmore »the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 ?g g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 ?g g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.« less

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  20. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2008-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox provides a parsimonious and transparent tool for human health and ecosystem CF estimates. Based on a referenced database, it has now been used to calculate CFs for several thousand substances and forms the basis of the recommendations from UNEP-SETAC's Life Cycle Initiative regarding characterization of toxic impacts in Life Cycle Assessment. Recommendations and Perspectives. We provide both recommended and interim (not recommended and to be used with caution) characterisation factors for human health and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. After a process of consensus building among stakeholders on a broad scale as well as several improvements regarding a wider and easier applicability of the model, USEtox will become available to practitioners for the calculation of further CFs.

  1. A heat engine with unique characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranescu, G.S. [ATR Corp., Western Springs, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat engine which operates with one heat reservoir is described. The engine transforms the heat input completely into work by using a compressed fluid from a resource of the environment. For this reason the engine is not a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. The characteristics of the engine are analyzed, and the ways for achieving the most economic use of the compressed fluid are described. The principle of operation of the engine shows that the concepts of phenomenological thermodynamics regarding heat and its transformation in other forms of energy are not true.

  2. Psychological characteristics of voluntarily childless individuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Claudia Helt

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Study, Total Sample (N = 160) 4 F-Values Comparing Those Who Do Not Want Children With a Group That Does on Age, Sex, Education, and Marital Status. 23 24 26 27 PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLUNTARILY CHILDLESS INDIVIDUALS In recent years... but in accord with research predictions, the neuroticism-stability scale revealed no significant dif- ferences among the four groups (mean scores were 9 . 4, 9 . 6, 9. 6, and 9. 2, each p&. 5). Thus it does not appear that voluntarily childless individuals...

  3. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the underground coal gasification field test at the Hoe Creek site No. 2, Wyoming, helium pulses were introduced to develop information to characterize the flow field, and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Quantitative analysis of the tracer response curves shows an increasing departure from a plug flow regime with time because of the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex non-uniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model. 17 refs.

  4. High Throughput, Low Toxic Processing of Very Thin, High Efficiency CIGSS Solar Cells: Final Report, December 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhere, N. G.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work carried out during this project presents the use of diethylselenium or other organometallic precursors as low-toxicity alternative selenium sources for preparing a high-quality absorber.

  5. Toxic waste sites may cause health problems for millions1 By Erin Wayman for www.sciencenews.org2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bohemia, University of

    , identified the toxic waste sites, such as lead15 battery recycling centers and former tanneries. For each percent of the lost healthy years. The team estimates that22 the three countries could house an additional

  6. The androgen receptor independent mechanism of toxicity of the novel anti-tumor agent 11[beta]-dichloro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedele?, Bogdan I

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by the toxicity mechanism of cisplatin in testicular cancer, a series of bi-functional genotoxicants has been designed that supplement their DNA damaging properties with the ability to interact with tumor specific ...

  7. Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale-waste lands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale and total Al concentrations showed a significant decrease after planting S. cumini plantation onto the shale

  8. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K., E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ?0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ?2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ?2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ?3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ?2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a larger patient cohort are warranted.

  9. Nitzschia pungens Grunow f. multiseries Hasle: growth phases and toxicity of clonal cultures isolated from Galveston, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reap, Maureen Elizabeth

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NITZSCHIA PUNGE1VS GRUNOW F. MULTISERIES HASLE: GROWTH PHASES AND TOXICITY OF CLONAL CULTURES ISOLATED FROM GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by MAUREEN ELIZABETH REAP Submitted to the Once of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Oceanography NITZSCHIA PUNGENS GRUNOW F. MUITISERIES HASLE: GROWTH PHASES AND TOXICITY OF CLONAL CULTURES ISOLATED FROM GALVESTON) TEXAS A Thesis by MAUREEN...

  10. Plant oils and mineral oils: effects as insecticide additives and direct toxicity to Heliothis virescens (F.) and Musca domestica L. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochou, Germain Ochou

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis by GERMAIN OCHOU OCHOU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Entomology PLANT OILS AND MINERAL OILS: EFFECTS AS INSECTICIDE ADDITIVES AND DIRECT TOXICITY TO HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (F. ) AND MUSCA DOMESTICA L. A Thesis...

  11. Temperature/toxicity relationships of formulated permethrin (Pounce) and methamidophos (Monitor) with susceptible diamondback moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magaro, Jude Joseph

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEMPERATURE/TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FORMULATED PERMETHRIN (POUNCE) AND METHAMIDOPHOS (MONITOR) WITH SUSCEPTIBLE DIAMONDBACK MOTH LARVAE (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE) A Thesis by JUDE JOSEPH MAGARO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1994 Major Subject: Entomology TEMPERATURE/TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS OF FORMULATED PERMETHRIN (POUNCE) AND METHAMIDOPHOS (MONITOR...

  12. Characteristic structure of star-forming clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Philip C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a new way to diagnose the star-forming potential of a molecular cloud region from the probability density function of its column density (N-pdf). It gives expressions for the column density and mass profiles of a symmetric filament having the same N-pdf as a filamentary region. The central concentration of this characteristic filament can distinguish regions and can quantify their fertility for star formation. Profiles are calculated for N-pdfs which are pure lognormal, pure power law, or a combination. In relation to models of singular polytropic cylinders, characteristic filaments can be unbound, bound, or collapsing depending on their central concentration. Such filamentary models of the dynamical state of N-pdf gas are more relevant to star-forming regions than are models of spherical collapse. The star formation fertility of a bound or collapsing filament is quantified by its mean mass accretion rate when in radial free fall. For a given mass per length, the fertility increases with the ...

  13. Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions...

  14. Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest Oregon Watershed Following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    --------------------------------------------- Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest by a high-intensity burn over areas of steep topography. The areal distribution of soil hydraulic of infiltration capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil moisture characteristics. Also, measures

  15. Characteristics of a corona discharge with a hot corona electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M.; Niyazaliev, I. A.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the temperature of the corona electrode on the electrical characteristics of a corona discharge was studied experimentally. A modified Townsend formula for the current-voltage characteristic of a one-dimensional corona is proposed. Gasdynamic and thermal characteristics of a positive corona discharge in a coaxial electrode system are calculated. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  16. MENTOR READINESS ASSESSMENT Effective and Ineffective Characteristics of a Mentor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    MENTOR READINESS ASSESSMENT Effective and Ineffective Characteristics of a Mentor The ten characteristics below serve as a measure for determining your readiness to be a mentor. There are five effective Characteristics 1. Spot the Potential & Believe in Others Effective mentors have a positive view of others

  17. Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

  18. Ris-R-1472(EN) Database on Wind Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1472(EN) Database on Wind Characteristics Contents of Database Bank, revision I Gunner C on Wind Characteristics Contents of the database, revision I Abstract The main objective of IEA R&D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers

  19. Ris-R-1473(EN) Database on Wind Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1473(EN) Database on Wind Characteristics Analyses of Wind Turbine Design Loads Gunner C R&D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind #12;IEA Annex XVII, Database on Wind Characteristics Analyses of W Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers and researchers, as well

  20. Ris-R-1301(EN) Database on Wind Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1301(EN) Database on Wind Characteristics Contents of Database Bank Gunner C. Larsen Risø XVII, Database on Wind Characteristics - Contents of the database Abstract The main objective of IEA R&D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - is to provide wind energy planners and designers

  1. Viscoelastic DampingViscoelastic Damping Characteristics of Indium-Tin/Characteristics of Indium-Tin/SiCSiC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swan Jr., Colby Corson

    1 Viscoelastic DampingViscoelastic Damping Characteristics of Indium-Tin/Characteristics of Indium-Tin Approach: · Based on past experience, indium-tin has well- characterized stiffness/damping. · Fabricate

  2. Characteristics of transverse waves in chromospheric mottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Jess, D. B.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Center, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Verth, G.; Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Center (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morton, R. J. [Mathematics and Information Science, Northumbria University, Camden Street, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Christian, D. J., E-mail: dkuridze01@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using data obtained by the high temporal and spatial resolution Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument on the Dunn Solar Telescope, we investigate at an unprecedented level of detail transverse oscillations in chromospheric fine structures near the solar disk center. The oscillations are interpreted in terms of propagating and standing magnetohydrodynamic kink waves. Wave characteristics including the maximum transverse velocity amplitude and the phase speed are measured as a function of distance along the structure's length. Solar magnetoseismology is applied to these measured parameters to obtain diagnostic information on key plasma parameters (e.g., magnetic field, density, temperature, flow speed) of these localized waveguides. The magnetic field strength of the mottle along the ?2 Mm length is found to decrease by a factor of 12, while the local plasma density scale height is ?280 ± 80 km.

  3. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Hoe Creek No. 2 (Wyoming) underground-coal-gasification field test, researchers introduced helium pulses to characterize the flow field and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Flow models such as the axial-dispersion and parallel tanks-in-series models allowed interpretation of the in situ combustion flow field from the residence time distribution of the tracer gas. A quantitative analysis of the Hoe Creek tracer response curves revealed an increasing departure from a plug-flow regime with time, which was due to the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex nonuniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery, and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model.

  4. Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5

  5. Drilling fluids and the arctic tundra of Alaska: assessing contamination of wetlands habitat and the toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fish (journal version)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, D.F.; Snyder-Conn, E.; Riley, R.G.; Garland, T.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling for oil on the North Slope of Alaska results in the release of large volumes of used drilling fluids into arctic wetlands. These releases usually come from regulated discharges or seepage from reserve pits constructed to hold used drilling fluids. A study of five drill sites and their reserve pits showed an increase in common and trace elements and organic hydrocarbons in ponds near to and distant from reserve pits. Ions elevated in water were Ba, Cl, Cr, K, SO4 and Zn. Concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, and Si in sediments were higher in near and distant ponds than in control ponds. The predominant organics in drill-site waters and sediments consisted of aromatic and paraffinic hydrocarbons characteristic of petroleum or a refined product of petroleum. In 96-hr exposures in the field, toxicity to Daphnia Middendorffiana was observed in water from all reserve pits, and from two of five near ponds, but not from distant ponds. In laboratory tests with Daphnia magna, growth and reproduction were reduced in dilutions of 2.5% drilling fluid (2.5 drilling fluid: 97.5 dilution water) from one reserve pit, and 25% drilling fluid from a second.

  6. Evaluation of exposure limits to toxic gases for nuclear reactor control room operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Sasser, L.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have evaluated ammonia, chlorine, Halon (actually a generic name for several halogenated hydro-carbons), and sulfur dioxide for their possible effects during an acute two-minute exposure in order to derive recommendations for maximum exposure levels. To perform this evaluation, we conducted a search to find the most pertinent literature regarding toxicity in humans and in experimental animals. Much of the literature is at least a decade old, not an unexpected finding since acute exposures are less often performed now than they were a few years ago. In most cases, the studies did not specifically examine the effects of two-minute exposures; thus, extrapolations had to be made from studies of longer-exposure periods. Whenever possible, we gave the greatest weight to human data, with experimental animal data serving to strengthen the conclusion arrived at from consideration of the human data. Although certain individuals show hypersensitivity to materials like sulfur dioxide, we have not attempted to factor this information into the recommendations. After our evaluation of the data in the literature, we held a small workshop. Major participants in this workshop were three consultants, all of whom were Diplomates of the American Board of Toxicology, and staff from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Our preliminary recommendations for two-minute exposure limits and the rationale for them were discussed and consensus reached on final recommendations. These recommendations are: (1) ammonia-300 to 400-ppm; (2) chlorine-30 ppm; (3) Halon 1301-5%; Halon 1211-2%; and (4) sulfur dioxide-100 ppm. Control room operators should be able to tolerate two-minute exposures to these levels, don fresh-air masks, and continue to operate the reactor if the toxic material is eliminated, or safely shut down the reactor if the toxic gas remains. 96 refs., 9 tabs.

  7. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Iowa, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  8. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Delaware, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  9. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Colorado, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  10. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Massachusetts, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Illinois, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  12. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Florida, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  13. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Wisconsin, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  14. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Kentucky, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off-site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  15. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Connecticut, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility; the first nine digit alphanumeric number a facility holds under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems.

  16. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Ohio, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  17. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Utah, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  18. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Hawaii, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99- 499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  19. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Missouri, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.

  20. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), Minnesota, 1991 and 1992 (in Dbase III plus) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) data gives annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment for the area indicated. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (also known as Title III) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) requires EPA to establish an inventory of toxic chemical emissions from certain facilities. Section 313 informs the public of the presence of chemicals in their communities and releases of these chemicals into the community. With this information, States and communities, working with industrial facilities required to comply with this law, will be better able to protect public health and the environment. The TRI data on diskette includes (1) the names, addresses, counties, and public contacts of facilities manufacturing, processing or using the reported chemicals; (2) the SIC code for the plants; (3) the chemical involved; and (4) the estimated quantity emitted into the air (point and non-point emissions), discharged into bodies of water, injected underground, released to land, or released to publicly owned treatment works. Beginning with the 1991 reports, facilities also are required to provide information about pollution prevention and source reduction activities. New data elements include quantities of the listed chemical recycled and used for energy recovery on-site; quanties transferred off- site for recycling and energy recovery. Source reduction activities, and methods used to indentify those activities. All releases are in pounds per year. Also provided is the FIPS code corresponding to the facility state and county; the unique ID number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to the parent company of the reporting facility as well as the name of the corporation or other business entity that owns or controls the reporting facility.