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1

Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from a population of treated utility wood poles and crossarms as obtained by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). An ancillary objective was to carefully document a subsampling method in preparing wood samples for tests by the TCLP. Data obtained in this study indicate that PCP-treated utility wood poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of PCP and other organic compounds subject to TCLP analysis were an order of magnitude or more below TC limits in 47 samples of wood derived from three different sections of 13 utility wood poles and from 9 crossarms. Wedge shaped subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of PCP. 4 refs., 3 figs., 10 tab.

Horn, M.E. (Environmental Management Services, Waupaca, WI (USA)); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of cresols (i.e., m-, o- and p-cresol isomers) from a population of creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms by application of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March 1990 (55FR 11798). Data generated in this study indicate that creosote-treated utility poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of total cresols and other semi-volatile organic compounds, from wood subjected to TCLP analysis, were an order of magnitude or more below their current Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory levels. The wood analyzed in this study consisted of 54 samples of wood poles and 6 crossarms. Subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and the resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of cresols and other semi-volatile compounds.

Horn, M.E. (Environmental Management Services, Waupaca, WI (United States)); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests treated with one of five different waterborne chemical preservatives, were leached using 18-h batch- treated wood at concentrations above the U.S. federal toxicity characteristic limit (5 mg/L). All

Florida, University of

4

Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and high ammonia fly ash. Abstract: Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching...

5

Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic {beta}-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability.

Chen, Ying-Liang [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Ko, Ming-Sheng [Institute of Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chunghsiao E. Rd., Taipei City 10608, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Chieh [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Chung-Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chang, Juu-En, E-mail: juuen@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya , Thabet copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

Florida, University of

7

Influence of pH and Redox Conditions on Copper Leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is a regulatory leach test in the RCRA programs. It was developed to determine the leaching potential of landfilled waste in order to assess the hazards associated with the leachates. The test was developed to study concentration of hazardous materials in leachates, under a mismanagement scenario, when they are co-disposed with municipal waste. The test uses leaching of waste at either of two acidic pH values i.e., 2.8 and 4.93. While low pH leachant can extract many metals, some metals soluble at higher pH values are either underestimated or totally unaccounted for. The method also has limitations for application to different waste matrices. The procedure does not take into account the effect of redox conditions on leaching. Leaching studies are, therefore, being conducted to determine the effect of combinations of Eh and pH on the leaching potential of mineral and organic wastes. The goal of this study is to propose alternate methods applicable for a variety of waste matrices. The presentation will discuss the effects of combinations of pH and redox conditions on the leaching behavior of copper from a mineral processing waste.

Kavanaugh, Rathi; Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Purandare, Jaydeep; Allen, Derrick

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. [Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

PEP Support: Laboratory Scale Leaching and Permeate Stability Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents results from a variety of activities requested by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The activities related to caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, permeate precipitation behavior of waste as well as chromium (Cr) leaching are: • Model Input Boehmite Leaching Tests • Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Support Leaching Tests • PEP Parallel Leaching Tests • Precipitation Study Results • Cr Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Tests. Leaching test activities using the PEP simulant provided input to a boehmite dissolution model and determined the effect of temperature on mass loss during caustic leaching, the reaction rate constant for the boehmite dissolution, and the effect of aeration in enhancing the chromium dissolution during caustic leaching. Other tests were performed in parallel with the PEP tests to support the development of scaling factors for caustic and oxidative leaching. Another study determined if precipitate formed in the wash solution after the caustic leach in the PEP. Finally, the leaching characteristics of different chromium compounds under different conditions were examined to determine the best one to use in further testing.

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

11

Copper Toxicity in the San Francisco Bay-Delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reducing the toxicity of copper that continues to leach fromothers to characterize copper bioaccumulation from distinctreview of total dissolved copper and its chemical speciation

Buck, Kristen N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Accelerated leach test development program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In FY 1989, a draft accelerated leach test for solidified waste was written. Combined test conditions that accelerate leaching were validated through experimental and modeling efforts. A computer program was developed that calculates test results and models leaching mechanisms. This program allows the user to determine if diffusion controls leaching and, if this is the case, to make projections of releases. Leaching mechanisms other than diffusion (diffusion plus source term partitioning and solubility limited leaching) are included in the program is indicators of other processes that may control leaching. Leach test data are presented and modeling results are discussed for laboratory scale waste forms composed of portland cement containing sodium sulfate salt, portland cement containing incinerator ash, and vinyl ester-styrene containing sodium sulfate. 16 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs.

Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Analysis of data from leaching concrete samples taken from the TMI-2 reactor building basement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of contaminated concrete from the basement of the reactor building at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2 were tested and analyzed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the potential for decontamination by diffusion-controlled leaching under conditions of full submergence and by forced flow-through leaching of porous concrete block walls. Pertinent physical characteristics of the concrete were measured, and leaching tests were performed. Data were analyzed by established mass transport principles, and predictions of leaching for several years were made. A numerical algorithm was used to model removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr by forced flow-through leaching. Results indicated that forced flow-through leaching would require only a few days, whereas complete decontamination by submerged, diffusion-only methods would require several years. 9 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Collins, E.D.; Box, W.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Scott, T.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solidification/stabilization of toxic metal wastes using coke and coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of a special rubber waste, NISCO Cyclone Ash (NCA), which contains substantial calcium oxide and calcium sulfites/sulfates for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of toxic metal wastes. The mineralogical compositions of the NCA and a class ``C`` fly ash have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrated mixtures of these wastes have been examined by XRD and found to form ettringite. Low concentrations of As (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Ba (500 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Pb (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), and Zn (1,000 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}) were added to these hydrated mixtures and found to be successfully immobilized and solidified, as determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). In addition, the mineralogy, chemistry and leaching characteristics of these combined waste products and their interactions with toxic metals are discussed.

Vempati, R.K.; Mollah, M.Y.A.; Chinthala, A.K.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States); Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

The energy transition Gerald Leach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy transition Gerald Leach The paper considers the substitution of tradition. The In the context of energy policy and planning, the paper concludes with a review of the reasons why transition. In the IS THE TRANSITION HAPPENING? poorest developing countries biomass fuels account for 60-95% of total energy use

Kammen, Daniel M.

17

Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5 M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5 M HCl at 90 Degree-Sign C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1 M nitric acid at 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10 g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: maniskrjha@gmail.com [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Lee, Jae-chun, E-mail: jclee@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Vinay [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Jeong, Jinki [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

RESEARCH ARTICLE Assessment of metal contaminations leaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH ARTICLE Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles syntheses, partic- ularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. Methodology In this study, leaching

Short, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Surface and bulk studies of leached and unleached fly ash using XPS, SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effective chemical utilization of fly ash in environmental applications requires a detailed knowledge of the surface and bulk changes induced by leaching in acid solutions. The surface and bulk characteristics of fly ash from the combustion of Texas lignite have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of leaching with acid solutions commonly used in environmental studies have been documented using these techniques. The results of these studies reveal that the fly ash particles are relatively resistance to either chemical or physical changes due to attack by acidic leaching solutions.

Yousuf, M.; Mollah, A.; Hess, T.R.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Gill Chair of Chemistry

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization - 13400  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. The goal of this campaign was to study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the encapsulated FBSR product in a geo-polymer monolith. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory. (authors)

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Peterson, Reid A.; Brown, Christopher F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Determining the leaching characteristics of solidified/stabilized wastes using constant pH leaching tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solidification/Stabilization treatment using Portland cement is an established procedure in the management of hazardous wastes. The technology is relatively simple, cheap, and highly reliable in prohibiting the migration of hazardous contaminants...

Sofjan, Indratjahja

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Nutrient leaching characteristics of vegetation common to Texas reservoir sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Surinam (5), LH, thin 3 to 4 weeks after filling, there was zero DO below 3 to 4 meters and a serious hydro- gen sulfide problem in the deeper parts of the lake. It was stated that the low pH and anaerobic condit1ons prob- ably prevented the decay...

Weldon, Clark Pierce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

27

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Leaching Chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaching chambers distribute treated wastewater into the soil. This publication lists the advantages and disadvantages of leaching chamber systems, explains how to maintain them and gives estimates of costs....

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2000-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

28

Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUREG-1569 Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium Extraction License Applications Final Washington, DC 20555-0001 #12;NUREG-1569 Standard Review Plan for In Situ Leach Uranium Extraction License OF A STANDARD REVIEW PLAN (NUREG­1569) FOR STAFF REVIEWS FOR IN SITU LEACH URANIUM EXTRACTION LICENSE

29

Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaching of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into mineral water Szilvia April 2009 Available online 21 May 2009 Keywords: Antimony Water Leaching Polyethylene terephthalate SODIS The Sb leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) package material into 10 different brands

Short, Daniel

31

Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyk s #12;#12;Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyks Ph.D. Thesis Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Cover: Torben Dolin & Julie Camilla Middleton Printed by: Vester

32

COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

HARRINGTON SJ

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash leaching methods Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 18 Leaching of Dioxins from Municipal Waste Combustor Residues Summary: Leaching of DioxinsFurans from...

34

Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Effects of various uranium leaching procedures on soil: Short-term vegetation growth and physiology. Progress report, April 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant volumes of soil containing elevated levels of uranium exist in the eastern United States. The contamination resulted from the development of the nuclear industry in the United States requiring a large variety of uranium products. The contaminated soil poses a collection and disposal problem of a magnitude that justifies the development of decontamination methods. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program to address the problem. The fundamental goal of the USID task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than what can be done using current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics and without generating waste that is difficult to manage and/or dispose of. However, procedures developed for removing uranium from contaminated soil have involved harsh chemical treatments that affect the physicochemical properties of the soil. The questions are (1) are the changes in soil properties severe enough to destroy the soil`s capacity to support and sustain vegetation growth and survival? and (2) what amendments might be made to the leached soil to return it to a reasonable vegetation production capacity? This study examines the vegetation-support capacity of soil that had been chemically leached to remove uranium. The approach is to conduct short-term germination and phytotoxicity tests for evaluating soils after they are subjected to various leaching procedures followed by longer term pot studies on successfully leached soils that show the greatest capacity to support plant growth. This report details the results from germination and short-term phytotoxicity testing of soils that underwent a variety of leaching procedures at the bench scale at ORNL and at the pilot plant at Fernald.

Edwards, N.T.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

PEP Support Laboratory Leaching and Permeate Stability Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A and B, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic.

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

38

Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine ({sup 125}I), carbon ({sup 14}C), technetium ({sup 99}Tc), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), strontium ({sup 85}Sr), americium ({sup 241}Am), and plutonium ({sup 238}Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested.

Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Legore, V.L.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and high  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity Involvement and MakingYersiniae.Shewanella genus

40

Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid leaching process Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sand (S) were repeatedly incubated aerobi- cally at 28 (C and leached with synthetic acid rainwater... , each consisting of 7.6 d incubation followed by leaching with synthetic ......

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-pollution-control residues leaching...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

leaching Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air-pollution-control residues leaching Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Solid Residues from...

43

Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens forests in the southeastern United States. It can climb, overtop, and subsequently kill new seedlings or mature trees. Herbicides are commonly used to control kudzu; however, eradication might require retreatment for 3 to 10 yr in young stands and 7 to 10 yr for mature stands. Clopyralid, picloram, triclopyr, metsulfuron, and tebuthiuron exert various degrees of control, depending on soil type, meteorological conditions, herbicide formulation, seasonal application, characteristics of the kudzu stand, and frequency and number of herbicide. Field residue data for soil or leachate are lacking for all of these herbicides when they are used in actual forest regeneration programs in the Coastal Plain. These data are needed to assess the relative potential for the herbicides to leach into groundwater or to move off-site into sensitive ecological areas of the Coastal Plain in which sandy soils predominate and the groundwater tends to be shallow. As part of an integrated pest management program to control kudzu on forest regeneration areas at the Savannah River Site near New Ellenton, SC, five herbicides were evaluated from the standpoints of herbicide leaching, kudzu control, and plant community development. Three herbicide chemical families were represented. This included pyridinecarboxylic acid herbicides (clopyralid, picloram 1 2,4-D, and triclopyr), a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron), and a substituted urea herbicide (tebuthiuron).

Berisford, Yvette, C.; Bush, Parshall, B.; Taylor, John, W.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Original article Nutrient leaching from soil amended with apple waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Nutrient leaching from soil amended with apple waste Anne-Marie de COCKBORNE December 2000) Abstract ­ Among the possibilities for disposing of overproduction of apple, land application is flexible and inexpensive. Six soil columns receiving 0, 200 or 500 Mg of apple wasteha­1 were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank S-110 Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Hanford Tank S-110 sludge caustic leaching test conducted in FY 2001 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The data presented here can be used to develop the baseline and alternative flowsheets for pretreating Hanford tank sludge. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the work through the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP; EM?50).

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carson, Katharine J.; Darnell, Lori P.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoopes, Francis V.; Sell, Richard L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, John J.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

A comparison of three learning methods to predict N2O fluxes and N leaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leaching; the first indicator is a powerful greenhouse gas and the second one is an important source

Boyer, Edmond

47

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

48

Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. (Carbohydrate Nutrition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, MD (United States))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Leaching scale effect for radioactive wastes encapsulated in cement, bitumen or polymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An effective method to determine of the radioactive waste package s acceptable for a final disposal and in accordance with the requirements is by leaching tests. For many reasons the leaching tests are conducted on small size samples rather than full scale blocks. Nevertheless, it is necessary to demonstrate that laboratory or cored samples are representative of real form-scale embedding (in accordance with the specific activity, the chemical composition of the waste, the matrix and structure) for the leaching tests. This paper gives the results of studies on the leaching behavior of waste embeddings in three different cases (hydraulic binder, bitumen and polymer matrices). For cesium, even if no scale effect on its leaching mechanism has been shown, it is difficult to prove before testing that small samples are representative of the real waste forms. For cobalt, results on bitumen or polymer embedded waste show no scale effect on its leaching mechanism.

Nomine, J.C.; Ferriot, J.F. [CEA Centre d`Etude de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Girard, J.; Montigon, J.F. [CEA Centre d`Etude de Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammoniacal leaching media Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and the contamination of groundwater via leaching. While organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins) might be a concern, heavy... and acceptable risk. The potential risk of ground water...

53

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous phase leaching Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and the contamination of groundwater via leaching. While organic pollutants (e.g. dioxins) might be a concern, heavy... and acceptable risk. The potential risk of ground water...

54

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

order rate constants for americium leaching from sludgeT.V. Hydrolysis of Americium(III). J Radioanal. Nucl.I.G. Hydroxides of Pentavalent Americium. Translated from

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material...

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Leaching induced concentration profiles in the solid phase of cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of the solid phase of portland cement specimens by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry before and after leaching provided elemental profiles within the cement. Releases of potassium were calculated from the solid phase profiles and were compared to releases determined from leachate analyses of potassium and cesium-137. The fraction of potassium released in the leachate was found to correlate closely to that of cesium-137 under varying time and temperature conditions, despite the different manner in which each was originally contained in the cement. Agreement was obtained among potassium releases as determined from the solid, potassium in the leachate and cesium-137 in the leachate. These correlations allowed the use of potassium as an analog for cesium-137 in cement. Profiles of potassium in the solid showed varying degrees of depletion. A specimen, sectioned immediately after leaching for 471 days, showed complete removal of potassium to 9 mm depth from the specimens surface. From 9 mm to the center of the specimen, an apparently linear increase in concentration was observed. Specimens that had been air dried prior to sectioning had profiles that were produced by evaporative transport of dissolved species toward the surface. Carbonation of the surface appears to have retarded migration of the dissolved material. This prevented it from reaching the outer edge and resulted in increased potassium concentrations several mm inside the surface. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

2000-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

59

PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.”(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

60

Title of the article MODELLING OF METAL POLLUTANT LEACHING THROUGH A SMECTITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as heavy metals, in soil constitutes a potential source of groundwater pollution. In the literature, some1 Title of the article MODELLING OF METAL POLLUTANT LEACHING THROUGH A SMECTITE Authors Chantal as the clay CEC. Keywords Leaching; metals; clay; copper; kinetic; modelling; CEC insu-00665250,version1-9May

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Concrete calcium leaching at variable temperature: experimental data and numerical model inverse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, concrete porous solution is very basic (pH around 13) and several ionic species are highly concentrated [1Concrete calcium leaching at variable temperature: experimental data and numerical model inverse/DSU/SSIAD/BERIS, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France Abstract A simplified model for calcium leaching in concrete is presented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH Waste Management (in source such as municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration ash, requires a knowledge of the so is proposed. Key words: Leaching, Waste, Incineration ash, Chromium, L/S ratio, Modelling. hal-00656672

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH the stabilization of petroleum- contaminated soils (PCSs) using another recycled material, high carbon content fly; however, the level of petroleum contamination has a significant effect on the leaching properties

Aydilek, Ahmet

64

Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted vadose zone. Ã? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Over 100 million tons of fly ash

Aydilek, Ahmet

65

Convergence of a MFEFV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convergence of a MFE­FV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores in porous media, with applications to heap leaching of copper ores. These approximations are based on mixed

Sepúlveda, Mauricio

66

The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act, revised significantly in 2006, seeks to mitigate the use of toxic substances and the production of toxic byproducts through reporting requirements as well as resource conservation plans...

68

Toxic Pollution Prevention Act (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the purpose of this Act to reduce the disposal and release of toxic substances which may have adverse and serious health and environmental effects, to promote toxic pollution prevention as...

69

Toxic Substances Control Act  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

Not Available

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to dissolve solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct steam injection to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

71

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

72

Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

74

Improving Permeability and Salt Leaching in Irrigated Sports Fields: Exploratory Testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of most turf grass species. The study reported here was preformed for evaluating various mechanical means of improving soil permeability for enhancing salt leaching. Observation included two municipal parks consisting of sandy alluvial soils, five sports...

Miyamoto, S; Martinez, Ignacio; Luna, Francisco; Tirre, David

75

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus...

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

76

EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

78

Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3} leaching of the W-25 sludge.

Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The physical and chemical aspects of the leaching behavior of metals from portland cement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT A Thesis by RICARDO CORYE DAVIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemistry THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT A Thesis by RICARDO CORYE DAVIS Approved as to style and content by: David L. Cocke (Co...

Davis, Ricardo Corye

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Flowsheet for shear/leach processing of N Reactor fuel at PUREX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document was originally prepared to support the restart of the PUREX plant using a new Shear/Leach head end process. However, the PUREX facility was shutdown and processing of the remaining N Reactor fuel is no longer considered an alternative for fuel disposition. This document is being issued for reference only to document the activities which were investigated to incorporate the shear/leach process in the PUREX plant.

Enghusen, M.B.

1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

82

Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

Barrera Godinez, J.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

84

Surface studies of coal, oil, and coal-oil-mixture ash using auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by the combustion of coal, oil, and a coal-oil mixture have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques. The Auger data indicate that the surface concentration of the metal ions Na, Fe, Mg, Ni, V, and Al as well as S and C increases on going from coal to coal-oil mixture and oil ash. The relative surface enrichments of oil and coal-oil-mixture ash are consistent with a simple model of the ash-formation process, and the results confirm that several toxic metals are significantly enriched on the surface of the ash particles. The Auger data are compared to HCl and tris buffer leachate composition analyses, and in neither case does the leachate give an accurate representation of the surface composition. HCl apparently dissolves large oxide deposits and thus overestimates the surface concentrations of Fe, Al, and V. Conversely, several metallic ions are essentially insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, so their surface concentration is underestimated by the tris leachate.

Stinespring, C.D.; Harris, W.R.; Cook, J.M.; Casleton, K.H.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Leaching of metals from ores. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the extraction of metals from ores by leaching. Topics include leaching of metals from ore heaps, mine tailings, smelter wastes, and sea nodules. Metals covered include gold, uranium, copper, nickel, silver, manganese, and cobalt. Bacterio-electric, biological-acid, and hydrogen peroxide leaching are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO/sub 2/), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established.

Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.; Bell, N.E.; Martin, W.J.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

88

California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Toxic Substances Control Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control Place: Sacramento, California Website:...

89

pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

SPR salt wall leaching experiments in lab-scale vessel : data report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During cavern leaching in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), injected raw water mixes with resident brine and eventually interacts with the cavern salt walls. This report provides a record of data acquired during a series of experiments designed to measure the leaching rate of salt walls in a labscale simulated cavern, as well as discussion of the data. These results should be of value to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models used to simulate leaching applications. Three experiments were run in the transparent 89-cm (35-inch) ID diameter vessel previously used for several related projects. Diagnostics included tracking the salt wall dissolution rate using ultrasonics, an underwater camera to view pre-installed markers, and pre- and post-test weighing and measuring salt blocks that comprise the walls. In addition, profiles of the local brine/water conductivity and temperature were acquired at three locations by traversing conductivity probes to map out the mixing of injected raw water with the surrounding brine. The data are generally as expected, with stronger dissolution when the salt walls were exposed to water with lower salt saturation, and overall reasonable wall shape profiles. However, there are significant block-to-block variations, even between neighboring salt blocks, so the averaged data are considered more useful for model validation. The remedial leach tests clearly showed that less mixing and longer exposure time to unsaturated water led to higher levels of salt wall dissolution. The data for all three tests showed a dividing line between upper and lower regions, roughly above and below the fresh water injection point, with higher salt wall dissolution in all cases, and stronger (for remedial leach cases) or weaker (for standard leach configuration) concentration gradients above the dividing line.

Webb, Stephen Walter; O'Hern, Timothy John; Hartenberger, Joel David

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Salt-stone Oxidation Study: Leaching Method - 13092  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cementitious waste forms can be designed to chemically stabilize selected contaminants, such as Tc{sup +7} and Cr{sup +6}, by chemically reduction to lower valance states, Tc{sup +4} and Cr{sup +3}, respectively, and precipitation of these species in alkaline media as low solubility solid phases. Data for oxidation of this type of cementitious waste form cured under field conditions as a function of time is required for predicting the performance of the waste form and disposal facility. The rate of oxidation (oxidation front advancement) is an important parameter for predicting performance because the solubilities of some radionuclide contaminants, e.g., technetium, are a function of the oxidation state. A non-radioactive experiment was designed for quantifying the oxidation front advancement using chromium, as an approximate redox-sensitive surrogate (Cr{sup +6} / Cr{sup +3}) for technetium (Tc{sup +7} / Tc{sup +4}). Nonradioactive cementitious waste forms were prepared in the laboratory and cured under both laboratory and 'field conditions'. Laboratory conditions were ambient temperature and sealed sample containers. Field conditions were approximated by curing samples in open containers which were placed inside a plastic container stored outdoors at SRS. The container had a lid and was instrumented with temperature and humidity probes. Sub-samples as thin as 0.2 mm were taken as a function of distance from the exposed surface of the as-cast sample. The sub-samples were leached and the leachates were analyzed for chromium, nitrate, nitrite and sodium. Nitrate, nitrite, and sodium concentrations were used to provide baseline data because these species are not chemically retained in the waste form matrix to any significant extent and are not redox sensitive. 'Effective' oxidation fronts for Cr were measured for samples containing 1000, 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr added as soluble sodium chromate, Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. For a sample cured for 129 days under field conditions, leachable Cr (assumed to be the oxidized form, i.e., Cr{sup +6} was detected in the top 15 to 20 mm of the sample spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr. Below about 20 mm, the Cr concentrations in leachates were below the detection limit (< 0.010 mg/L) which indicates that the oxidation as the result of exposure to air was limited to the top 20 mm of the sample after exposure for 129 days and that the bulk of the waste form was not affected, i.e., the Cr was stabilized and insoluble. For samples cured in the laboratory, leachable Cr was detected in the top 8 mm of the Cr 1000 sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days. Between 8 and 14 mm, the concentration Cr in the leachate dropped by a factor of about 20 to just above the detection limit. These depth of penetration results indicate that the rate of advancement of the oxidation front for samples spiked with 1000 mg/kg Cr cured under 'field conditions' for 129 days is less than that for the sample cured in the laboratory for 37 days, i.e., 0.156 and 0.216 mm/day, respectively. Additional data are presented for samples spiked with 500 and 20 mg/kg Cr. In summary, cementitious waste forms are porous solids with a network of interconnected pores ranging in diameter from 10 E-10 m to greater than a few mm. The oxidation process is assumed to occur as the result of oxygen transport through the interconnected porosity which may be filled with air, aqueous salt solution, or both. Upon oxidation, the Cr becomes soluble and can be transported in solution through aqueous pore fluid or leachate. (authors)

Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

94

Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 7591 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 75­91 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching

Florida, University of

95

Soil Tillage Influences on Soil Mineral Nitrogen and Nitrate Leaching in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil Tillage Influences on Soil Mineral Nitrogen and Nitrate Leaching in Swedish Arable Soils Åsa Myrbeck Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Soil and Environment Uppsala field experiment, Paper III. (photo: J. Arvidsson) #12;Soil Tillage Influences on Soil Mineral Nitrogen

96

Growth of New Guinea impatiens under no-leach drip irrigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the same fertility rate. In post-production studies following both experiments, all plants continued to grow and flower. In a third experiment, plants were grown under a no leach irrigation regime and the 12-3-4 fertility rate with six different media (peat...

Pannkuk, Timothy Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Evaluation of Foaming and Antifoam Effectiveness During the WTP Oxidative Leaching Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using a Hanford waste simulant subjected to air sparging during oxidative leaching. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated by SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming studies and in small scale air sparger studies. The commercial antifoam, Dow Corning Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators and in vessel equipped with pulse jet mixers and air spargers. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels (HLP-VSL-00027A/B), the Ultrafiltration Vessels (UFP-VSL-00002A&B), and the HLW Feed Blend Vessel (HLPVSL-00028) to assist the performance of the Pulse Jet Mixers (PJM). The previous air sparger antifoam studies conducted by SRNL researchers did not evaluate the hydrogen generation rate expected from antifoam additions or the effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching or oxidative leaching. The fate of the various antifoam components and breakdown products in the WTP process under prototypic process conditions (temperature & radiation) was also not investigated. The effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching, expected hydrogen generation rate associated with antifoam addition, and the fate of various antifoam components are being conducted under separate SRNL research tasks.

Burket, P. R.; Jones, T. M.; White, T. L.; Crawford, C. L.; Calloway, T. B

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

98

Temperature and Microbial Activity Effects on Trace Element Leaching from Metalliferous Peats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature and Microbial Activity Effects on Trace Element Leaching from Metalliferous PeatsDue to geochemical processes, peat soils often have elevated con- sulfides (Cannon, 1955). The maximum Zn concentra as high as 10 g kg 1 . Theperatures to vary microbial activity in two metalliferous peats (M7 acidic peat

Walter, M.Todd

99

Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

100

Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

Chriswell, Colin D. (Slater, IA); Kaushik, Surender M. (Socorro, NM); Shah, Navin D. (Houston, TX); Markuszewski, Richard (Ames, IA)

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

Evaluation of gold and silver leaching from printed circuit board of cellphones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Printed circuit boards (PCB) of mobile phones have large amounts of metals with high economic value such as gold and silver. • Dissolution of gold was done with a cyanide-based reagent and silver with nitric acid. • Leaching of PCB with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to examine the feasibility of using these reagents was done. - Abstract: Electronic waste has been increasing proportionally with the technology. So, nowadays, it is necessary to consider the useful life, recycling, and final disposal of these equipment. Metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Sn and Ni can be found in the printed circuit boards (PCB). According to this, the aims of this work is to characterize the PCBs of mobile phones with aqua regia; obtaining “reference” values of leaching, to gold and silver, with cyanide and nitric acid, respectively; and study the process of leaching of these metals in alternative leaching with sodium thiosulfate and ammonium thiosulfate. The metals were characterized by digesting the sample with aqua regia for 1 and 2 h at 60 °C and 80 °C. The leaching of Au with a commercial reagent (cyanide) and the Ag with HNO{sub 3}were made. The leaching of Au and Ag with alternative reagents: Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3,} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} in 0.1 M concentration with the addition of CuSO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}OH, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, was also studied. The results show that the digestion with aqua regia was efficient to characterize the metals present in the PCBs of mobile phones. However, the best method to solubilize silver was by digesting the sample with nitric acid. The leaching process using sodium thiosulfate was more efficient when an additional concentration of 0.015 and 0.030 M of the CuSO{sub 4} was added.

Petter, P.M.H., E-mail: patymhp@yahoo.com.br; Veit, H.M.; Bernardes, A.M.

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

PEP Integrated Test D Run Report Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes" of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario (Test B and D) has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario (Test A) has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In Test D, 19M sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic) was added to the waste slurry in the UFP VSL T02 vessel after the solids were concentrated to ~20% undissolved solids. The NaOH was added to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by heating to 85°C using direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. The main difference of Test D compared to Test B is that the leach temperature is 85°C for 24 hrs as compared to 100°C for 12 hours. The other difference is the Test D simulant had Cr in the simulant from the start of processing and Test B had Cr added to adjust the simulant composition after aluminum leaching. Following the caustic leach, the UFP-VSL-T02A vessel contents are cooled using the vessel cooling jacket. The slurry was then concentrated to 17 wt% undissolved solids and washed with inhibited water to remove NaOH and other soluble salts. Next, the slurry was oxidatively leached using sodium permanganate to solubilize chrome. The slurry was then washed to remove the dissolved chrome and concentrated.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

104

Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility Compliance Agreement Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facility Compliance Agreement Toxic...

106

An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs.

Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

108

Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

1998-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

109

Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A multi-component partitioning model to predict organic leaching from stabilized/solidified oily wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

42 44 44 Figure 12. 3 Pseudo-Component Model using Modified K values, j = 1 Figure 13. TOC Leaching Rate from a Solidified Oily Waste, . ????, 46 50 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Composition of Ordinary Portland Cement Table 2. Basic Hydration.... Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and flyash are common binders of choice as they are inexpensive, stable against damage and fire, and methods of mixing and processing them are well understood. Poor treatment efficiencies have been found when solidifying...

O'Cleirigh, Declan Ronan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Testing for Toxic Algae By Tadd Barrow UNL Extension Educator, Water Quality Algae is a microscopic plant that occurs in all water. However, only certain conditions bring algae to the surface, making it toxic to animals, especially humans and dogs. Toxic algae often are naturally occurring from high

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

112

Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

.A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

114

Biogenic radon emission from uranium mine tailings: A consequence of microbial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two uranium mine waste heaps near Ronneburg, Germany, were investigated for the occurrence of lithotrophic and chemoorganotrophic leach bacteria. The evaluation of 162 samples (= to 5m depth) resulted in the finding that Thiobacillus (T.) ferrooxidans dominated up to a depth of about 1.5m. Below, T. intermedius/neapolitanus were the most abundant lithotrophs. Pyrite, however, was the only nutrient source in the heaps. Consequently, the latter lithotrophs must have had another source of nutrient. We recently demonstrated leaching to proceed only via the indirect mechanism with thiosulfate and ferrous hexahydrate as the first degradation products. Thiosulfate is the best nutrient for T. intermedius/neapolitanus. In addition, the highest emission of radon, measured as radioactivity 1m above the heap surface, correlated with the highest cell counts of T. Ferrooxidans. Considering the diagenesis of the ore (precipitation of uranite followed by pyrite) a leach pore model was hypothesized explaining the correlation. Accordingly, the biological removal of pyrite allows the trapped radon to escape from the pore.

Sand, W. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

PRETREATMENT OF TC CONTAINING WASTE AND ITS EFFECT ON 99 TC LEACHING FROM GROUTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix.

Harbour, J

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

116

Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

Aloy, Albert; Kovarskaya, Elena N. [RosAtom, 'V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute' (KRI), 2-nd Murinsky str., 28, Saint Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Harbour, John R.; Langton, Christine A.; Holtzscheiter, E. William [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Mechanism of Phosphorus Removal from Hanford Tank Sludge by Caustic Leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two experiments were conducted to explore the mechanism by which phosphorus is removed from Hanford tank sludge by caustic leaching. In the first experiment, a series of phosphate salts were treated with 3 M NaOH under conditions prototypic of the actual leaching process to be performed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The phosphates used were aluminum phosphate, bismuth phosphate, chromium(III) phosphate, and ?-tri-calcium phosphate; all of these phases have previously been determined to exist in Hanford tank sludge. The leachate solution was sampled at selected time intervals and analyzed for the specific metal ion involved (Al, Bi, Ca, or Cr) and for P (total and as phosphate). The solids remaining after completion of the caustic leaching step were analyzed to determine the reaction product. In the second experiment, the dependence of P removal from bismuth phosphate was examined as a function of the hydroxide ion concentration. It was anticipated that a plot of log[phosphate] versus log[hydroxide] would provide insight into the phosphorus-removal mechanism. This report describes the test activities outlined in Section 6.3.2.1, Preliminary Investigation of Phosphate Dissolution, in Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, Rev.1. The objectives, success criteria, and test conditions of Section 6.3.2.1 are summarized here.

Lumetta, Gregg J.

2008-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

118

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Washing and alkaline leaching of Hanford tank sludges: A status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the assumed high cost of high-level waste (HLW) immobilization and disposal, pretreatment methods are being developed to minimize the volume of HLW requiring vitrification. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating several options for pretreating the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The pretreatment methods under study for the tank sludges include: (1) simply washing the sludges with dilute NaOH, (2) performing caustic leaching (as well as washing) to remove certain wash components, and (3) dissolving the sludges in acid and extracting key radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions. The data collected in this effort will be used to support the March 1998 decision on the extent of pretreatment to be performed on the Hanford tank sludges. This document describes sludge washing and caustic leaching tests conducted in FY 1994. These tests were performed using sludges from single-shell tanks (SST) B-201 and U-110. A summary is given of all the sludge washing and caustic leaching studies conducted at PNL in the last few years.

Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Use of Remotely Sensed Bioelectric Action Potentials to Evaluate Episodic Toxicity Events and Ambient Toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The exposure of an organism to a toxicant is defined by the magnitude, duration, and frequency with which the organism(s) interact with the toxicant(s). Predicting the exposure of organisms to toxicants during episodic events such as those resulting...

Waller, W. Tom; Acevedo, Miguel F.; Allen, H. J.; Schwalm, F. U.

123

Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

Treat, Russell L. (Richland, WA); Gee, Glendon W. (Richland, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) System Integration Project. Topical report for test circuit operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of the results obtained from the operation of an integrated test circuit for the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The objectives of operational testing of the 20 pounds of coal per hour integrated MCL test circuit are: (1) to demonstrate the technical capability of the process for producing a demineralized and desulfurized coal that meets New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); (2) to determine the range of effective process operation; (3) to test process conditions aimed at significantly lower costs; and (4) to deliver product coal.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Lidocaine Toxicity Misinterpreted as a Stroke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxicity Misinterpreted as a Stroke Benjamin Bursell, MDdysfunction, manifested as a stroke, occurred acutely in andeterioration suggesting stroke. We will review the dosing,

Bursell, Benjamin; Smally, Alan J; Ratzan, Richard M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Radionuclide Leaching from Residual Solids Remaining after Acid Dissolution of Composite K East Canister Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory tests were performed to examine mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid leach treatments for decontaminating dissolver residual solids (KECDVSR24H-2) produced during a 20- to 24-hr dissolution of a composite K East (KE) Basin canister sludge in 95 C 6 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The scope of this testing has been described in Section 4.5 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basin Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the residual solids generated in the K Basin sludge treatment process can restrict disposal of this solid to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The starting dissolver residual solid for this testing, KECDVSR24H-2, contains radionuclides at concentrations which exceed the ERDF Waste Acceptance Criteria for TRU by about a factor of 70, for {sup 239}Pu by a factor of 200, and for {sup 241}Am by a factor of 50. The solids also exceed the ERDF criterion for {sup 137}Cs by a factor of 2 and uranium by a factor of 5. Therefore, the radionuclides of greatest interest in this leaching study are first {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am (both components of TRU) and then uranium and {sup 137}Cs.

Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Fadeff, S.K.

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

128

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Toxic hazards of underground excavation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Chronic Toxicity and Reproduction Studies of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as an unwanted by-product of certain processes associated with the chlorination of hydrocarbons. Studies were conducted to assess the potential long-term toxicity of HCBD. In a reproduction study conducted in rats, dose levels of 20 or 2.0 mg/kg-day of HCBD induced slight maternal toxicity

unknown authors

131

Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Toxic Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxic plants can cause serious losses to livestock, but with the information in this leaflet producers will know how to manage grazing to minimize the danger of toxic plants. It is important to recognize problems early and know how to deal with them....

Hart, Charles R.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

Hohreiter, D.W.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: From Cluster Ions to Toxic metal Ions in Biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation focused on using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study cluster ions and toxic metal ions in biology. In Chapter 2, it was shown that primary, secondary and quarternary amines exhibit different clustering characteristics under identical instrument conditions. Carbon chain length also played a role in cluster ion formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, the effects of solvent types/ratios and various instrumental parameters on cluster ion formation were examined. It was found that instrument interface design also plays a critical role in the cluster ion distribution seen in the mass spectrum. In Chapter 5, ESI-MS was used to investigate toxic metal binding to the [Gln{sup 11}]-amyloid {beta}-protein fragment (1-16). Pb and Cd bound stronger than Zn, even in the presence of excess Zn. Hg bound weaker than Zn. There are endless options for future work on cluster ions. Any molecule that is poorly ionized in positive ion mode can potentially show an increase in ionization efficiency if an appropriate anion is used to produce a net negative charge. It is possible that drug protein or drug/DNA complexes can also be stabilized by adding counter-ions. This would preserve the solution characteristics of the complex in the gas phase. Once in the gas phase, CID could determine the drug binding location on the biomolecule. There are many research projects regarding toxic metals in biology that have yet to be investigated or even discovered. This is an area of research with an almost endless future because of the changing dynamics of biological systems. What is deemed safe today may show toxic effects in the future. Evolutionary changes in protein structures may render them more susceptible to toxic metal binding. As the understanding of toxicity evolves, so does the demand for new toxic metal research. New instrumentation designs and software make it possible to perform research that could not be done in the past. What was undetectable yesterday will become routine tomorrow.

Nicholas B. Lentz

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Rangeland Drought Management for Texans: Toxic Range Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxic plants can pose a major threat to livestock during a drought. This publication explains the importance of knowing which plants are toxic, keeping the range healthy, and preventing toxic plant problems....

Hart, Charles R.; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2001-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

135

Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

136

ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON THERMOWELL PIPES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Video inspection of the tank showed that a film of solid material adhered to the tank internal walls and structures between 69 inch and 150 inch levels. From the video inspection, the solid film thickness was estimated to be 1mm, which corresponds to {approx}33 kg of TPB salts (as 20 wt% insoluble solids) (1). This film material is expected to be easily removed by single-rinse, slurry pump operation during Tank 48H TPB disposition via aggregation processing. A similar success was achieved for Tank 49H TPB dispositioning, with slurry pumps operating almost continuously for approximately 6 months, after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids - Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate, aka: Trona), Al(OH){sub 3} (Aluminum Hydroxide, aka: Gibbsite), NaTPB (Sodium Tetraphenylborate), NaNO{sub 3} (Sodium Nitrate) and NaNO{sub 2} (Sodium Nitrite) (2). Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. There is a risk that material on the internal surfaces of Tank 48H could not be easily removed. As a risk mitigation activity, the chemical composition and leachability of the Tank 48H film are being evaluated prior to initiating tank aggregation. This task investigated the dissolution characteristics of Tank 48H solid film deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, SRNL received four separate 23-inch long thermowell-conductivity pipe samples which were removed from the tank 48H D2 risers in order to determine: (1) the thickness of the solid film deposit, (2) the chemical composition of the film deposits, and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid film deposit in inhibited water (IW) and in DWPF recycle simulant (3).

Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Oji, L.; Martino, C.; Wilmarth, B.

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Effect Of Oxidation On Chromium Leaching And Redox Capacity Of Slag-Containing Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases [Shuh, et al., 1994, Shuh, et al., 2000, Shuh, et al., 2003]. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in simulated waste form samples. Depth discrete subsamples were cut from material exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) ''field cured'' conditions. The subsamples were prepared and analyzed for both reduction capacity and chromium leachability. Results from field-cured samples indicate that the depth at which leachable chromium was detected advanced further into the sample exposed for 302 days compared to the sample exposed to air for 118 days (at least 50 mm compared to at least 20 mm). Data for only two exposure time intervals is currently available. Data for additional exposure times are required to develop an equation for the oxidation front progression. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method, which is a measurement of the ability of a material to chemically reduce Ce(IV) to Ce(III) in solution) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium (i.e., effective Cr oxidation front). Exposure to oxygen (air or oxygen dissolved in water) results in the release of chromium through oxidation of Cr(III) to highly soluble chromate, Cr(VI). Residual reduction capacity in the oxidized region of the test samples indicates that the remaining reduction capacity is not effective in re-reducing Cr(VI) in the presence of oxygen. Consequently, this method for determining reduction capacity may not be a good indicator of the effective contaminant oxidation rate in a relatively porous solid (40 to 60 volume percent porosity). The chromium extracted in depth discrete samples ranged from a maximum of about 5.8 % at about 5 mm (118 day exposure) to about 4 % at about 10 mm (302 day exposure). The use of reduction capacity as an indicator of long-term performance requires further investigation. The carbonation front was also estimated to have advanced to at least 28 mm in 302 days based on visual observation of gas evolution during acid addition during the reduction capacity measurements. Depth discrete sampling of materials exposed to realistic conditions in combination with short term leaching of crushed samples has potential for advancing the understanding of factors influencing performance and will support conceptual model development.

Almond, P. M.; Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Hanford Tank 241-S-112 Residual Waste Composition and Leach Test Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of laboratory characterization and testing of two samples (designated 20406 and 20407) of residual waste collected from tank S-112 after final waste retrieval. These studies were completed to characterize the residual waste and assess the leachability of contami¬nants from the solids. This is the first report from this PNNL project to describe the composition and leach test data for residual waste from a salt cake tank. All previous PNNL reports (Cantrell et al. 2008; Deutsch et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) describing contaminant release models, and characterization and testing results for residual waste in single-shell tanks were based on samples from sludge tanks.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling the role of bacteria in leaching of low-grade ores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A robustious structural model is developed to describe the role of bacteria in the leaching process of low-grade ores under conditions controlled by intraparticle diffusion. The main impetus behind developing this model is to provide an insight into such systems, together with a suitable framework for interpreting experimental data. The model is derived in detail with respect to reaction chemistry and the role of bacteria in catalyzing these reactions, specifically the synergism of chemistry, physics and biology in determining the overall behavior of the system. The model is used to simulate the atmospheric oxidation of iron disulfide contained in porous solids in the presence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T. ferrooxidans). The experimental data are predicted well by the model, which demonstrates its applicability and supports the view that the rate of intraparticle diffusion is the controlling mechanism for this system.

Batarseh, K.I.; Stiller, A.H. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

AMOUNT AND LEACHING POTENTIAL OF HEAVY METALS IN BARK MULCH AND COMPOST USED ON THE UNIVERSITY OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AMOUNT AND LEACHING POTENTIAL OF HEAVY METALS IN BARK MULCH AND COMPOST USED ON THE UNIVERSITY mulch and compost, determine whether or not either of these substances could be significant contributors the presence of heavy metals in fresh bark mulch, soil (used in compost mixtures) and compost being used at UBC

142

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a SolidFluid Elastic Rock Salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a Solid-filled cylindrical cavern of circular cross section in a homogeneous infinite fluid-saturated polycristalline salt pressure. The fluid in the cavern and in the mixture is treated as ideal and the solid as elastic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins...

144

Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy Metals: The Next Generation of Personal Exposure Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy...

145

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1999 to 30 September 1999. During this period the MIT INAA procedures were revised to improve the quality of the analytical results. Two steps have been taken to reduce the analytical errors. A new nitric acid leaching procedure, modified from ASTM procedure D2492, section 7.3.1 for determination of pyritic sulfur, was developed by USGS and validated. To date, analytical results have been returned for all but the last complete round of the four-step leaching procedure. USGS analysts in Denver have halted development of the cold vapor atomic fluorescence technique for mercury analysis procedure in favor of a new direct analyzer for Hg that the USGS is in the process of acquiring. Since early June, emphasis at USGS has been placed on microanalysis of clay minerals in project coals in preparation for use of the Stanford/USGS SHRIMP RG Ion Microprobe during August 1999. The SHRIMP-RG data confirm that Cr is present at concentrations of about 20 to 120 ppm, just below the electron microprobe detection limits (100 to 200 ppm), as suspected from Phase 1 microprobe work and previous studies of clay mineral separates. The University of Utah has started trial runs on the drop tube furnace to ensure that the gas analysis system is working properly and that the flow pattern within the furnace is laminar and direct. A third set of ASTM samples will be prepared at the University of Utah for the Phase 1 and Phase 2 coals. This time the INAA counting time will be optimized for the elements in which the authors are interested, guided by the results from the first two samples. The iodated charcoal which was used by MIT for vapor phase Hg collection was tested to see whether it collected other vapor phase metals. A second set of tests were performed at PSI using the entrained flow reactor (EFR). The University of Arizona's pilot-scale downflow laboratory combustion furnace was used to test the partitioning of toxic metals in the baseline experiments for the Phase 2 North Dakota lignite and the Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal at baghouse inlet sampling conditions. In addition, baseline data were collected on combustion of the Phase 1 Kentucky Elkhorn/Hazard bituminous coal. Emphasis at the University of Kentucky was placed on (1) collection of new Hg XAFS data for various sorbents, and (2) on collection of XAFS and other data for arsenic, sulfur, chromium and selenium in two baseline ash samples from the University of Arizona combustion unit. A preliminary interpretation of the mercury data is given in this report. Revision was made to the matrix for the initial experiments on mercury-ash interactions to be conducted at EERC. The overall goal of this effort is to collect data which will allow one to model the interactions of mercury and fly ash (specifically, adsorption of Hg{sup 0} and Hg{sup +2} and oxidation of Hg{sup 0}) in the air heater and particulate control dev

C.L. Senior; T. Panagiotou; F.E. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F Sarofim; J. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowsky; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in people who work in pulp and paper mills, at hazardous waste sites, municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, and those involved in production, use, and disposal of chlorinated pesticides and herbicides. The most toxic of the PCDDs, 2...

Naspinski, Christine S.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

150

Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and wildlife tissues were collected from four National Priority List Superfund sites within the United States. In general, chemical analysis was not always predictive of mixture toxicity. Although biodegradation reduced the concentration of total...

Gillespie, Annika Margaret

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Differences in growth and toxicity of Karenia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico are primarily caused by dense aggregations of the dinoflagellate species, Karenia brevis. Karenia brevis produces a highly toxic neurotoxin, brevetoxin which has been shown to cause Neurotoxic...

Neely, Tatum Elizabeth

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

152

Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the atmospheric degradation of several hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, trifluoroacetate (TFA) will be formed. Through precipitation, TFA will enter aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the impact on the aquatic environment, an aquatic toxicity testing program was carried out with sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA). During acute toxicity tests, no effects of NaTFA on water fleas (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio retrio) were found at a concentration of 1,200 mg/L. A 7-d study with duckweed (Lemna gibba Ge) revealed a NOEC of 300 mg/L. On the basis of the results of five toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum, they determined a NOEC of 0.12 mg/L. However, algal toxicity tests with NaTFA and Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus subspicatus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Eugelan gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Navicula pelliculosa, Skeletonema costatum, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Microcystis aeruginosa resulted in EC50 values that were all higher than 100 mg/L. The toxicity of TFA to S. capricornutum could be due to metabolic defluorination to monofluoroacetate (MFA), which is known to inhibit the citric acid cycle. A toxicity test with MFA and S. capricornutum revealed it to be about three orders of magnitude more toxic than TFA. However, a bioactivation study revealed that defluorination of TFA was less than 4%. On the other hand, S. capricornutum exposed to a toxic concentration of NaTFA showed a recovery of growth when citric acid was added, suggesting that TFA (or a metabolite of TFA) interferes with the citric acid cycle. A recovery of the growth of S. capricornutum was also found when TFA was removed from the test solutions. Therefore, TFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum. On the basis of the combined results of the laboratory tests and a previously reported semi-field study, they can consider a TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L as safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

Berends, A.G.; Rooij, C.G. de [Solvay S.A., Brussels (Belgium); Boutonnet, J.C. [Elf Atochem, Levallois-Perret (France); Thompson, R.S. [Zeneca Ltd., Devon (United Kingdom). Brixham Environmental Lab.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Residual Toxicities of Insecticides to Cotton Insects.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the effects of simulated wind and rain on the residues. Tempera- ture and humidity conditions incident to the holding period were sufficient to destroy most of the residual toxicity of this material. Effect of Simulated Wind Among the chlorinated... hydrocarbon insecticides, there was little difference between the effects of simu- lated wind and rain on residual toxicities. However, it is likely that under field conditions the effects of rain would be more noticeable. Simulated wind was less damaging...

Hightower, B. G.; Gaines, J. C.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Toxicity of Bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for Sheep.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, RFCAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 552 AUGUST, 1937 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE TOXICITY OF BI'FTERWEED" FOR SHEEP (*Actinea odorata) AGRICULTURAL... AND MECHANICMIJ COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Previous feeding tests and field observations* have established the toxicity of bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for sheep. The experi- ments reported herein prove that the minimum lethal dose of the fresh...

Boughton, I. B (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1937-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stormwater runoff from highways and commercial, industrial, and residential areas contains a wide spectrum of pollutants including heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, sediment, and nutrients. Recent efforts to reduce the impacts of urbanization on natural wetlands and other receiving waters have included the construction of stormwater treatment ponds and wetlands. These systems provide flood control and improve water quality through settling, adsorption, and precipitation of pollutants removing up to 95% of metals, nutrients and sediment before discharged from the site. The design of stormwater ponds to provide habitat for aquatic wildlife has prompted concern over the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these contaminants. Aquatic sediments concentrate a wide array of organic and inorganic pollutants. Although water quality criteria may not be exceeded, organisms living in or near the sediments may be adversely affected. The availability of chemicals in sediments depends strongly on the prevailing chemistry. Physical conditions of the sediment and water quality characteristics including pH, redox potential and hardness, also influence contaminant availability. Studies have shown that heavy metals and nutrients carried by runoff concentrate in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Although several investigations have assessed the toxicity of sediments in streams receiving urban runoff, there have been few studies of the toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to aquatic organisms. This study was part of a large-scale assessment of the contaminant hazards of stormwater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments and water from stormwater ponds over a 10-d period to juvenile Hyalella azteca. Bioassay results were related to concentrations of acid volatile sulfides and metals of the tested sediments. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Karouna-Renier, N.K. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States); [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sparling, D.W. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)] [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen Toxicity Calculations by Erik C. Baker, P.E. Management of exposure to oxygen toxicity myself using the good ole' FORTRAN programming language, I found that incorporating oxygen toxicity for others. Background Two oxygen toxicity parameters are typically "tracked" in technical diving

Read, Charles

157

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

158

Characteristic Evolution and Matching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to current 3D black codes that simulate binary black holes. A prime application of characteristic evolution is Cauchy-characteristic matching, which is also reviewed.

J. Winicour

2001-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated leach tests Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were... characteristics of berm soils with high Pb contamination were identified using rainwater and water ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University...

160

Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thorium (IV) content in industrial residue produced from rare earth elements production industry is one of the challenges to Malaysian environment. Separation of thorium from the lanthanide concentrate (LC) and Water Leach Purification (WLP) residue from rare earth elements production plant is described. Both materials have been tested by sulphuric acid and alkaline digestions. Th concentrations in LC and WLP were determined to be 1289.7 ± 129 and 1952.9±17.6 ppm respectively. The results of separation show that the recovery of Th separation from rare earth in LC after concentrated sulphuric acid dissolution and reduction of acidity to precipitate Th was found 1.76-1.20% whereas Th recovery from WLP was less than 4% after concentrated acids and alkali digestion processes. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine Th concentrations in aqueous phase during separation stages. This study indicated that thorium maybe exists in refractory and insoluble form which is difficult to separate by these processes and stays in WLP residue as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM)

AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A field test of electromagnetic geophysical techniques for locating simulated in situ mining leach solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Bureau of Mines, The University of Arizona, Sandia National Laboratories, and Zonge Engineering and Research Organization, Inc., conducted cooperative field tests of six electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods to compare their effectiveness in locating a brine solution simulating in situ leach solution or a high-conductivity plume of contamination. The brine was approximately 160 m below the surface. The testsite was the University's San Xavier experimental mine near Tucson, AZ. Geophysical surveys using surface and surface-borehole, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) induction; surface controlled-source audiofrequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT); surface-borehole, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FEM) induction; crosshole FEM; and surface magnetic field ellipticity were conducted before and during brine injection. The surface TEM data showed a broad decrease in resistivity. CSAMT measurements with the conventional orientation did not detect the brine, but measurements with another orientation indicated some decrease in resistivity. The surface-borehole and crosshole methods located a known fracture and other fracture zones inferred from borehole induction logs. Surface magnetic field ellipticity data showed a broad decrease in resistivity at depth following brine injection.

Tweeton, D.R.; Hanson, J.C.; Friedel, M.J.; Sternberg, B.K.; Dahl, L.J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.

Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H.; Stepan, D.J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching mechanisms of nuclear waste forms, May 19-21, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of the second workshop on the leaching mechanism of nuclear waste forms, which was held at Geithersburg, Maryland, May 19-21, 1982. The first session of the workshop was devoted to progress reports by participants in the leaching mechanisms program. These progress reports, as prepared by the participants, are given in Section 3.0. The goal of the remainder of the workshop was to exchange information on the development of repository-relevant leach testing techniques, often called interactions testing. To this end, a wide spectrum of investigators, many of whose work is sponsored by DOE's Nuclear Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) project, made presentations at the workshop. These presentations were a significant and beneficial part of the workshop and are summarized in Sections 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 according to the workshop agenda topics. In many cases, the presenters provided a written version of their presentation which has been included verbatim; in the other cases, the workshop chairman has supplied a brief synopsis. Twenty-one papers have been abstracted and indexed for inclusion in the data base.

Mendel, J.E. (comp.)

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

Oikari, A.O.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;AEROBIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN WASTEWATER DOE FRAP 1997-15 Prepared for in both domestic and industrial wastewater. The release of these compounds during wastewater treatment to predict the mass of the VOCs in the wastewater treated by biotransformation and the mass stripped

168

Survey of Geothermal Solid Toxic Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is an early survey and analysis of the types and quantities of solid toxic wastes to be expected from geothermal power systems, particularly at the Salton Sea, California. It includes a literature search (48 references/citations), descriptions of methods for handling wastes, and useful quantitative values. It also includes consideration of reclaiming metals and mineral byproducts from geothermal power systems. (DJE 2005)

Darnell, A.J.; Gay, R.L.; Klenck, M.M.; Nealy, C.L.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Effect of trifluoperazine on toxicity, HIF-1? induction and hepatocyte regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity in mice  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are important mechanisms in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. The MPT inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) reduced MPT, oxidative stress, and toxicity in freshly isolated hepatocytes treated with APAP. Since hypoxia inducible factor-one alpha (HIF-1?) is induced very early in APAP toxicity, a role for oxidative stress in the induction has been postulated. In the present study, the effect of TFP on toxicity and HIF-1? induction in B6C3F1 male mice treated with APAP was examined. Mice received TFP (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) prior to APAP (200 mg/kg IP) and at 7 and 36 h after APAP. Measures of metabolism (hepatic glutathione and APAP protein adducts) were comparable in the two groups of mice. Toxicity was decreased in the APAP/TFP mice at 2, 4, and 8 h, compared to the APAP mice. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences in toxicity between the two groups. TFP lowered HIF-1? induction but also reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of hepatocyte regeneration. TFP can also inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and cytosolic and secretory PLA{sub 2} activity levels were reduced in the APAP/TFP mice compared to the APAP mice. TFP also lowered prostaglandin E{sub 2} expression, a known mechanism of cytoprotection. In summary, the MPT inhibitor TFP delayed the onset of toxicity and lowered HIF-1? induction in APAP treated mice. TFP also reduced PGE{sub 2} expression and hepatocyte regeneration, likely through a mechanism involving PLA{sub 2}. -- Highlights: ? Trifluoperazine reduced acetaminophen toxicity and lowered HIF-1? induction. ? Trifluoperazine had no effect on the metabolism of acetaminophen. ? Trifluoperazine reduced hepatocyte regeneration. ? Trifluoperazine reduced phospholipase A{sub 2} activity and prostaglandin E{sub 2} levels.

Chaudhuri, Shubhra, E-mail: SCHAUDHURI@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States) [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); McCullough, Sandra S., E-mail: mcculloughsandras@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hennings, Leah, E-mail: lhennings@uams.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States) [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Brown, Aliza T., E-mail: brownalizat@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Shun-Hwa [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Simpson, Pippa M., E-mail: psimpson@mcw.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Hinson, Jack A., E-mail: hinsonjacka@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); James, Laura P., E-mail: jameslaurap@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity due Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic mode-of-action Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute testis toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity results Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... not cause overt fetal or maternal toxicity, but not rats...

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic encephalopathy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

176

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute renal toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

177

E-Print Network 3.0 - acutely toxic hepatitis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

178

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute urinary toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute liver toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic hepatitis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity syndromes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute toxicity: CNS depression...

182

Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. Keywords: SustainableHuman Toxicity Potential (HTP) is used for the human healthassessment of toxic chemicals. HTP is a computed weighting

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

"Human Health Impact Characterization of Toxic Chemicals for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human toxicity potential (HTP), proposed by Guinée andassessment of toxic chemicals. HTP is a computed weightingmodel environment [5]. The HTP values of toxic chemicals are

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Schematic Characterization of Human Health Impact of Toxic Chemicals for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. With an explicitHuman toxicity potential (HTP), proposed by Guinée andassessment of toxic chemicals. HTP is a computed weighting

Yuan, Chris Y.; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program chemicals of concern that may impact the estuary's ecosystem. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE identified weak associations between mortality and bulk-phase chlordane and silver concentrations at Redwood

186

Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risk assessment procedures for mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a problem due to the lack of available potency and toxicity data on mixtures and individual compounds. This study examines the toxicity of parent compound...

Bruce, Erica Dawn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Utilization of a duckweed bioassay to evaluate leaching of heavy metals in smelter contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a duckweed bioassay could be used to evaluate the downward migration of heavy metals in smelter soils. The duckweed bioassay was initially used to evaluate elutriates prepared from samples of smelter soils. These initial tests verified that the elutriates would elicit toxic responses. Elutriate testing was followed with an evaluation of leachate from untreated soil cores or soil cores that had been amended with organic matter either unplanted or planted to a grass-forb seed mixture. There was an inverse linear relationship between heavy-metal concentrations in leachate and NOEC and IC{sub 50} values expressed as percentages among all soil cores. Based on these preliminary duckweed bioassays, there were no differences between soil types or organic amended or non-amended soil, but leachate from vegetated soil cores were less toxic than were leachates from non-vegetated soil cores. Overall, the duckweed bioassays were useful in detecting heavy metal availability in elutriate and leachate samples from smelter soils.

Youngman, A.L.; Lydy, M.J. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Williams, T.L. [Laidlaw Environmental Services, Wichita, KS (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Samples Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute...

189

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

190

Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics...

191

Toxic Contaminants and Their Effects on Resident Fish  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science-Policy Exchange September 10, 2009 #12;Take-away themes Toxic contaminants are present are source areas for toxic contaminants for multiple fish stocks A better understanding of the effects and restore fish and ecosystem health #12;Take-away themes Toxic contaminants are present in the Columbia

192

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress Researchers at the University of Nebraska of toxic blue-green algae before the bacteria that produce it can grow into a full-scale bloom. Now UNL and monitor in real-time, the water-borne agents that can cause toxic blue- green algae to flourish and become

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

193

REVIEW Open Access Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW Open Access Toxic marine microalgae and shellfish poisoning in the British isles: history The relationship between toxic marine microalgae species and climate change has become a high profile and well examine the current state of toxic microalgae species around the UK, in two ways: first we describe

Hays, Graeme

194

The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO COTTON PESTS A Dissertation 5y MARVIN EUGENE MERKL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of CouBlttee Head of Departnent May 19*3 THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED... .....................................................78 CONCLUSIONS............................................... ..81 BIBLIOGRAPHI .............................................. ..82 Pag? FIGURES 1* Dosage-?ortality curve for the toxicity of endrin to aphids...

Merkl, Marvin Eugene

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Long-term leaching of trace elements in a heavily sludge-amended silty clay loam soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis by ICP-MS of shallow groundwater collected at a field site in New York that had been heavily loaded with sewage sludge more than 15 years earlier revealed elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sr, Rb, Mo, Cd, As, Cr, Ni, Sb, W, Ag, Hg, and Sn compared with a nearby control site. Enhanced leaching of some elements from this near-neutral, fine-textured (silty clay loam) soil could be explained by exchange of soil-bound elements by components of the added sludge. For most of the heavy metals, however, increased leaching was a response to the high metal loadings in the soil, probably facilitated by higher dissolved organic matter in the leachate. Laboratory-determined distribution coefficients, K{sub D}, for the metals in newly prepared sludge/soil mixtures were lower than K{sub D} values of the field-aged sludge-treated soil, suggesting that metal mobility may have been substantially higher shortly after sludge application than many years later. Cumulative losses of certain trace elements from the topsoil have been estimated relative to Cr, a comparatively immobile element. These suggest that relative long-term losses range from 20 to 80%, with the order being: Sr, Mo, Sb {gt} Ni, Cd, Cu {gt} Zn, Ag. Generally, those elements with the smallest K{sub D} values (most soluble) measured recently in the soil had the largest loss estimates. However, present leaching loss rates are too slow to explain the estimated relative losses of several of these elements from the topsoil over the 15 or more years since sludge application.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Research priorities for mobile air toxics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Health Effects Institute, a cooperative effort of the auto industry and the EPA, whose mission is to provide health effects information to ensure that motor vehicle emissions do not pose unreasonable risks, recently undertook a project to define priorities for research that would decrease uncertainties in risk assessments for mobile air toxics. At a workshop held in December 1992, scientists from academia, industry, and government worked to identify uncertainties in understanding the potential risk of exposure to mobile air toxics, including methanol, an important potential alternate fuel. Although cancer risk was the primary concern regarding most compounds, there was also much discussion of non-cancer effects of potential importance. Participants discussed research priorities for scientific issues that apply across all compound groups, such as dosimetry, high-to-low dose extrapolation, exposure assessment, and molecular biology approaches.

Not Available

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

198

Chemical composition of esophageal-fistula forage samples as influenced by drying method, salivary leaching and sample preparation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of YASTER OF' SCI"'NCE, De"ember 1g76 CHEJJICAL COY!POSITION OF ESOPHAGEAL-FISTULA FORAGF SA(vPLES AS INFLUENCED BY DRYING I'METHOD, SALIVARY LEACHING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION A Thesis RAFAEL... ARISTIDES ACOS A-GONZALEZ Approved as to style and content by! (Cha rman o Committee) ((iced of Department) ( I'~iamb r ) Yemb r ) Dcc: mb~+~g~n'jrr ABSTRACT Chemical Composition of Esophageal-Fistula Forage Samples as Influenced by Drying Nethod...

Acosta-Gonzalez, Rafael Aristides

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

202

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Housing characteristics 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic Alexandra Shlapentokh East Carolina University April 2012 #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Prologue Outline 1 Prologue 2 Fields of Positive Function Fields of Positive Characteristic 7 p-th Powers #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Prologue

Shlapentokh, Alexandra

205

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

The Toxicity of the Ripe Fruit of Blackbrush or Tarbrush (Flourensia cernua) for Sheep and Goats.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Serious losses in sheep and goats as a result of grazing the ripe fruit of F_laurensia-cernua hm-kern observed on three ranches during the months of January and February. The characteristic pathological... to the plant. When sheep and goats have continuous access to the plant and are not subjected to-handling during the winter months,there is no evidence that this p&k'of the ~lant is grazed in sufficient amounts to cause toxic effects. The plant has not been...

Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

Wayne Briner

209

Studies on Toxic Substances of Locoweeds, Astragalus earlei and Others.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G. S. FRAPS and S. H. WENDER Division of Chemistry TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. R. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 650 JUNE 1944 STUDIES ON TOXIC SUBSTANCES OF LOCOWEEDS, ASTRAGALUS EARLEI AND OTHERS... AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRIST, President D-19-744-1500 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] The concentrated toxic preparation of the loco weed contains several closely related toxic substances. The compounds precipi- tated...

Wender, S. H. (Simon Harold); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

The toxicity of different emulsions of toxaphene to cotton insects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity tests ~ . LS 5. Analysis of cotton bolL weevil control data ob- tained in the laboratory and field teste ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20 4 ~ Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity test in the Laboratorye ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 6 Summary of the saltish caterpillar toxicity tests ~ ~ ~ eo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 22 6 ~ Vedian lethal dosage {KID) of the test materials as obtained fran the Laboratory...

Selby, James Winford

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Broom, Belt, Carpet) Shot Peened Exposed Aggregate Porous (Pervious) Concrete Milled HMA and SurfaceImproving Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Pooled Fund TPF-5(139) National Concrete do with this knowledge? #12;Better Design and Construction Practices for Texturing Concrete Pavement

212

Investigations of Sediment Elutriate Toxicity at Three Estuarine Stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigations of Sediment Elutriate Toxicity at Three Estuarine Stations in San Francisco Bay.............................................................................................. 8 Sediment-Water Interface Exposures................................................................................. 9 August 1997 Sediment-Water Interface Exposures

213

Salicylate Toxicity from Ingestion and Continued Dermal Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of salicylate dermal absorption and toxicity. REFERENCESand Continued Dermal Absorption Rachel L. Chin, MD*, Kent R.bases in the percutaneous absorption of salicylates II. J

Chin, Rachel L; Olson, Kent R; Dempsey, Delia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

acetaminophen toxicity evidence: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- No national standards - Less Bertini, Robert L. 17 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

215

acute acetaminophen toxicity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conduct, may therefore underestimate Rosenheim, Jay A. 36 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

216

Life in Challenge Mills, Yuba County, California, 18751915 After Leach went broke and no one was present to maintain the flume or to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23 Life in Challenge Mills, Yuba County, California, 1875­1915 After Leach went broke and no one and a tender, construction number 7362, were ordered from the Baldwin Locomotive Works by R.E. Woodward ordinary ability," noted a newspaper article, and probably responsible for the engineering and construction

Standiford, Richard B.

217

Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

218

Characterist Passenger Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LaCrescent CityofMorris LincolnCounty RiverRiderPublicTransitSystem ClayCounty Semcac WatonwanCounty Tri-CountyActionProgram,Inc RedLakeBandofChippewaIndians HubbardCounty BeckerCountyTransit Tri-ValleyOpportunityCouncil,Inc. Mille1 #12;2 #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 #12;6 #12;7 #12;8 #12;9 #12;10 County Population Characterist ics Future

Minnesota, University of

219

Chemistry 330 / Study Guide 217 Toxic Heavy Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry 330 / Study Guide 217 Unit 7 Toxic Heavy Metals Overview In ancient Rome wine was stored. Metals--especially heavy metals--pose a unique environmental pollution problem. Heavy metals are especially toxic because their ions are water-soluble and readily taken up by the body. Once in the body

Short, Daniel

220

A Strategy for Designing Inhibitors of -Amyloid Toxicity*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

patients (1, 2). The deposition of A in the form of amyloid fibrils is believed by many to be causally aggregated into amyloid fibrils, the peptide is toxic to neuronal cells. Here, an approach to the design of amyloid fibril formation is not necessary for abrogation of toxicity. -Amyloid peptide (A )1 is the major

Kiessling, Laura

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

acute toxicity test: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The weaker points of fish acute toxicity...

222

Industrial wastewater analysis: A toxicity-directed approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of toxicity-directed analysis have been developed for the characterization and identification of toxic organic constituents in industrial wastewater. Sequential solid-phase extraction is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation or by automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography fractionation (AMD-TLC) of the toxic extracts. Toxic fractions were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity was detected before each of the analytical steps by the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, which was performed on microtiter plates and on the developed TLC plates. While sequential extraction broadens the polarity range of the procedure, the new variants of the luminescence test make the method very versatile and fast. The potential of this kind of toxicity-directed analysis with respect to resolution and polarity of analytes is discussed and applications to partial effluents of a tannery, to molasses wastewater and a spent dyeing bath are presented. A variety of benzothiazoles and more polar organics were identified as major toxic compounds in tannery effluents. It is shown that the procedures are well suited to detect individual toxic components in complex industrial wastewaters. The use of LC-MS is proposed to extend the polarity range of the final identification step.

Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M. [Technical Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Water Quality Control] [Technical Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Water Quality Control

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 6 were identified as significant contributors to national emissions of hazardous air pollutants EPA Mobile Source Air Toxics Rules March 2001 rule relied on existing control programs (Tier 2March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis for FHWA Projects Jeff Houk FHWA Resource Center

Minnesota, University of

224

VINYL CHLORIDE ACUTE TOXICITY THRESHOLDS IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTROLLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The "irreversible effects threshold" is the maximum concentration of pollutant in the air for a given exposure timeVINYL CHLORIDE ACUTE TOXICITY THRESHOLDS IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTROLLING URBAN DEVELOPMENT OR LAND of vinyl Chloride , the french procedure to set acute toxicity thresholds in the context of controlling

Boyer, Edmond

225

Aquatic Toxicity Information Retrieval Data Base (ACQUIRE). Data file  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of Acquire is to provide scientists and managers quick access to a comprehensive, systematic, computerized compilation of aquatic toxicity data. Scientific papers published both nationally and internationally on the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms and plants are collected and reviewed for ACQUIRE. Independently compiled data files that meet ACQUIRE parameter and quality assurance criteria are also included. Selected toxicity test results and related testing information for any individual chemical from laboratory and field aquatic toxicity effects are included for tests with freshwater and marine organisms. The total number of data records in ACQUIRE is now over 105,300. This includes data from 6000 references, for 5200 chemicals and 2400 test species. A major data file, Acute Toxicity of Organic Chemicals (ATOC), has been incorporated into ACQUIRE. The ATOC file contains laboratory acute test data on 525 organic chemicals using juvenile fathead minnows.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010Barrels)Buildings Characteristics 1992

227

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87 1967-2010Barrels)Buildings Characteristics

228

HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic Alexandra Shlapentokh East Carolina University October 2007 #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Table of Contents 1 A Brief History of Diophantine Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Models HTP over a Field vs. HTP over a Subring 3 A Brief History of HTP over

Shlapentokh, Alexandra

229

HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HTP in Positive Characteristic HTP in Positive Characteristic Alexandra Shlapentokh East Carolina University November 2007 #12;HTP in Positive Characteristic Table of Contents 1 A Brief History are Done Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Models HTP over a Field vs. HTP over a Subring 3 A Brief History

Shlapentokh, Alexandra

230

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

(1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

231

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

232

The subchronic toxicity of Roridin A in sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE SUBCKKNIC TOXICITY OF BORIDIN A IN SHEEP A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Toxicology THE SDBC...(BKKIC TOXICITY OF RORIDIN A IN SHEEP A Thesis Approved as to style and content by: E. 1. Bailey, Jr (Chairman of Committee) Bennie J. (~) z. P Timo y D. Hu. llips (~) J. D. McCrady (Head of Department) August 1988 The Subchronic Toxicity of Roridin A...

Thormahlen, Keller Andrew

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute cadmium toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cortisol levels were... -113 1. Introduction Cadmium (Cd) is a widely distributed heavy metal, toxic to terrestrial and aquatic... of the toxicant are acutely lethal, the rise in...

234

Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

235

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute oral toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology 9 Chemistry Department Standard Operating Procedure Title: Acutely Toxic Chemicals Summary: Chemistry Department Standard Operating Procedure Title: Acutely Toxic...

236

Nutrition Can Modulate the Toxicity of Environmental Pollutants: Implications in Risk Assessment and Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental chemical toxicity and associated diseases.environmental pollutants can be chronic throughout life, thus providing oppor- tunities for toxic chemicals to contribute to disease

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics volume Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

designed to remove the acutely toxic chemicals before the air is discharged into the environment. Acutely... Chemistry Department Standard Operating Procedure Title: Acutely Toxic...

238

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute organ toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity between chemicals and between organisms... . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely... to...

239

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute systemic toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12... that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute ... Source: Kane, Andrew S. -...

240

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute skin toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... skin Reproductive effects of not seen with glycols...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic potency Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... Hydrocarbons Benzene Acute ... Source: Kane, Andrew S. -...

242

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute methanol toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... ) to acetaldehyde to acetate to acetyl CoA Methanol ...

243

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute silver toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Membrane of Rainbow Trout Gills Summary: that are the primary site for acute heavy metal toxicity (Mc- Donald and Wood, 1993). The toxic action of silver... and chloride...

244

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute copper toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with additional metals analyses. Because copper concentrations were within the range toxic to bivalves and sample... -six hour acute toxicity tests were conducted using...

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxic regulations Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AQPM air quality program manager ARP accidental release prevention ATCM air toxic control... -volatile organic compound TAC toxic air contaminant TCA trichloroethane TCE...

246

GR via Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

247

Wafer characteristics via reflectometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

248

The Crystallization Behavior of Porous PLA Prepared by Modified Solvent Casting/Particulate Leaching Technique for Potential Use of Tissue Engineering Scaffold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The porous PLA foams potential for tissue engineering usage are prepared by a modified solvent casting/particulate leaching method with different crystallinity. Since in typical method the porogens are solved in the solution and flow with the polymers during the casting and the crystallinity behavior of PLA chains in the limited space cannot be tracked, in this work the processing is modified by diffusing the PLA solution into a steady salt stack. With a thermal treatment before leaching while maintaining the stable structure of the porogens stack, the crystallinity of porous foams is made possible to control. The characterizations indicate the crystallization of porous foams is in a manner of lower crystallibility than the bulk materials. Pores and caves of around 250{\\mu}m size are obtained in samples with different crystallinity. The macro-structures are not much impaired by the crystallization nevertheless the morphological effect of the heating process is still obvious.

Ran Huang; Xiaomin Zhu; Haiyan Tu; Ajun Wan

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

249

Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

250

Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Chemomechanics of calcium leaching of cement-based materials at different scales : the role of CH-dissolution and C-S-H degradation on strength and durability performance of materials and structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Calcium leaching is a durability threat for cement-based materials employed in critical infrastructures, such as Nuclear Waste Storage Systems. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the material and structural ...

Heukamp, Franz H. (Franz Hoyte), 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Drilling fluids and reserve pit toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drilling fluids are now classified as exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste laws. Since 1986, however, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been studying reserve pit contents to determine whether oilfield wastes should continue under this exemption. Concerns regarding reserve pit contents and disposal practices have resulted in state and local governmental regulations that limit traditional methods of construction, closure, and disposal of reserve pit sludge and water. A great deal of attention and study has been focused on drilling fluids that eventually reside in reserve pits. In-house studies show that waste from water-based drilling fluids plays a limited role (if any) in possible hazards associated with reserve pits. Reserve pit water samples and pit sludge was analyzed and collated. Analyses show that water-soluble heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn and Mn) in reserve pits are generally undetectable or, if found in the total analysis, are usually bound to clays or organics too tightly to exceed the limitations as determined by the EPA toxicity leachate test. The authors' experience is that most contamination associated with reserve pits involves high salt content from produced waters and/or salt formations, lead contamination from pipe dope, or poorly designed pits, which could allow washouts into surface waters or seepage into groundwater sources. The authors' analyses show that reserve its associated with water-based drilling fluid operations should not be classified as hazardous; however, careful attention attention should be paid to reserve pit construction and closure to help avoid any adverse environmental impact.

Leuterman, A.J.J.; Jones, F.V.; Chandler, J.E. (M-I Drilling Fluids Co. (US))

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reporting ``Qs & As``. Environmental Guidance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document offers guidance on toxic chemical release inventory reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) at DOE sites.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

acute lethal toxicity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

255

acute regional toxicity: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

injection or rapid (more) Litonius, Erik 2012-01-01 34 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental...

256

adriamycin induced toxic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

carcinogenic Hexavalent Cr(VI) is most toxic and most soluble Induces (depleted uranium) 4 oxidation states (+4, +6 most common) U(VI) water-soluble, U(IV)...

257

air toxics emission: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page Topic Index 1 Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, "Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventory of Air Toxics for Jacksonville, FL," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste...

258

air toxics emissions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page Topic Index 1 Zhao, Y., and H.C. Frey, "Development of Probabilistic Emission Inventory of Air Toxics for Jacksonville, FL," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste...

259

Evaluating guayule resin fractions for mutagenicity and toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR NUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR MUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Avirett, Donald Baker

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The recognition of toxic contaminants in sea water by bioassay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA WATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis By THOMAS WADE DUKE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1960 Major Subject: Biological Oceanography THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA li'ATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis THOMAS O'ADE DUKE Approved as to style and content by: ( airman o emmy ee wi, ( ea of Depar me...

Duke, Thomas Wade

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Isolation and identification of a toxic metabolite of Phomopsis sp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A TOXIC MEl'ABOLITE OF PHOMOPSIS SP. A Thesis by DANIEL ROBERT SAMPLES Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas A&B University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... MAY 1982 Major Subject~ Veterinary Toxicology ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A TOXIC METABOLITE OF PHOMOPSIS SP. A Thesis by DANIEL ROBERT SAMPLES Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Membe (Mem ) (Head of Departme t...

Samples, Daniel Robert

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Safe Handling of Acutely Toxic ChemicalsSafe Handling of Acutely Toxic Chemicals, Mutagens, Teratogens and Reproductive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-term accumulation with delayed emergence 2 #12;Toxic Substances Are All Around Us Pollutants Ci tt k Natural toxins ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) a substance that is suspected to cause cancer NH2H2N benzidine A common

Farritor, Shane

264

Characteristics Data Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

NanoSIMS Imaging Alternation Layers of a Leached SON68 Glass Via A FIB-made Wedged Crater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, nuclear wastes are commonly immobilized into glasses because of their long-term durability. Exposure to water for long periods of time, however, will eventually corrode the waste form and is the leading potential avenue for radionuclide release into the environment. Because such slow processes cannot be experimentally tested, the prediction of release requires a thorough understanding the mechanisms governing glass corrosion. In addition, due to the exceptional durability of glass, much of the testing must be performed on high-surface-area powders. A technique that can provide accurate compositional profiles with very precise depth resolution for non-flat samples would be a major benefit to the field. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling is an excellent tool that has long been used to examine corrosion layers of glass. The roughness of the buried corrosion layers, however, causes the corresponding SIMS depth profiles to exhibit erroneously wide interfaces. In this study, NanoSIMS was used to image the cross-section of the corrosion layers of a leached SON68 glass sample. A wedged crater was prepared by a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to obtain a 5× improvement in depth resolution for NanoSIMS measurements. This increase in resolution allowed us to confirm that the breakdown of the silica glass network is further from the pristine glass than a second dissolution front for boron, another glass former. The existence of these two distinct interfaces, separated by only ~20 nm distance in depth, was not apparent by traditional ToF-SIMS depth profiling but has been confirmed also by atom probe tomography. This novel sample geometry will be a major benefit to efficient NanoSIMS sampling of irregular interfaces at the nanometer scale that would otherwise be obscured within ToF-SIMS depth profiles.

Wang, Yi-Chung; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Zhu, Zihua; Wei, Wei

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Increased intrapulmonary retention of radiolabeled neutrophils in early oxygen toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequential lung injuries, such as oxygen toxicity followed by septicemia, are common during the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As these forms of vascular injury may be mediated in part by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), aberrant interactions between PMN and previously injured pulmonary endothelium are of both theoretical interest and clinical importance. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early oxygen toxicity at a dose that injuries pulmonary endothelium relatively selectively alters intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics. Unanesthetized rats breathing 1.0 atmospheres oxygen for 36 h showed ultrastructural endothelial damage but no edema, injury, or neutrophilic inflammation by histologic criteria. However, in these oxygen-toxic animals, whereas initial accumulation of radiolabeled PMN in lungs was normal, washout of PMN was abnormal at 120 min after infusion, at which point the pulmonary retention of radiolabeled PMN in the lungs of oxygen-treated animals was significantly higher than in control animals (139% of control, p less than 0.0096). Features of our methodology, including avoidance of osmotic stress and use of paired control animals, appear to have greatly enhanced the sensitivity of radiolabeled neutrophils for detecting a subtle abnormality of neutrophil-endothelial interactions. Our studies in the oxygen toxicity model provide the first demonstration in vivo of abnormal intrapulmonary neutrophil kinetics in early oxygen toxicity prior to the onset of histologic evidence of lung injury or inflammation.

Rinaldo, J.E.; English, D.; Levine, J.; Stiller, R.; Henson, J.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

269

New low toxicity corrosion inhibitors for industrial cleaning operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inhibitors are routinely employed in chemical cleaning solvents used for removing scale from electrical power plants and industrial equipment since these cleaning solvents are corrosive to metal surfaces. This paper discusses the development of three new inhibitors developed for the use in hydrochloric acid, ammoniated EDTA or citric acid chemical cleaning solutions. Synthesis procedures used in the production of Mannich derivatives employed in the inhibitors were optimized for maximum corrosion resistance and reduced toxicity. All auxiliary ingredients used in the formulation of final inhibitor products were chosen to give the lowest possible toxicity of these products.

Lindert, A.; Johnston, W.G. [Henkel Surface Technologies, Madison Heights, MI (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The toxicity of two crude oils and kerosine to cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TOXICITY OF TWO CRUDE OILS AND KEROSINE TO CATTLE A Thesis by LOYD DOUGLAS ROWE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major... Subject: Veterinary Toxicology THE TOXICITY OF TWO CRUDE OILS AND KEROSINE TO CATTLE A Thesis by LOYD DOUGLAS ROWE Approved as to style and content by: i (Chairman of Committee) J (Head of De rtment) (Member) (Me er) December 1972 ABSTRACT...

Rowe, Loyd Douglas

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Health-Compromising Behaviors characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, cognitive impairments, 15% of health care costs = Etoh abuse treatment, underestimate of health costsHealth-Compromising Behaviors characteristics substance abuse and dependence ­ opponent process theory ­ incentive salience ­ frontal executive effects alcohol abuse and dependence smoking #12

Meagher, Mary

272

INVENTORY -EDITED SARA TITLE III TOXIC CHEMICALS Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY - EDITED SARA TITLE III TOXIC CHEMICALS Department: Principal Investigator: SARA Reporter) 75-71-8 Dielectric Oil 64742-53-6 Emetine Dihydrochloride 316-42-7 Formaldehyde 50-00-0 Fuel Oil, #2 (Inside) 68476-30-2 Fuel Oil, #4 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #4 (Underground) 68476-31-3 Fuel Oil, #6 68553

Entekhabi, Dara

273

The Transport and Deposition of Persistent Toxic Substances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances, held May 21-22, in Romulus Michigan. The material presented here was collected . . . . . . . u Bruce Kirschner . . . . . b Serge L'Italien . . . . . . c Paul Lioy . . . . . . . . . . a Maris Ratza . . . . . . . . l Orlando Cabrera Rivera k Bruce Rodger . . . . . . . k Joyce Rosenthal . . . . q

274

Toxic Inhalation Fatalities of US Construction Workers, 1990 to 1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

space standard could save lives, particularly among water, sewer, and utility line industry workers. (J numbers of fatalities. The majority of these deaths occurred in confined spaces. Water, sewer, and utility line workers are at increased risk for poisoning fatality. Toxic inhalation fatalities

Illinois at Chicago, University of

275

Survey of toxicity and carcinogenity of mineral deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The toxicities and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel are reviewed in some detail, and other trace elements briefly mentioned. These heavy metals are used as a framework within which the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal can be compared. (ACR)

Furst, A.; Harding-Barlow, I.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

276

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, toxic waste sites, air pollutants and heavy metals, with the strongest evidence found for air pollutants and pesticides. Gestational exposure to methylmercury (through fish retrospective case­control, ecological or prospective cohort studies, although a few had weaker study designs

Cai, Long

277

Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be representative of landfills of differing ages and types of wastes. Each sample was tested through three genetic toxicity bioassays (The Aspergillus diploid assay, the Bacillus DNA repair assay and the Salmonella/microsome assay) to measure the ability of each...

Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

278

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Leaching of radionuclides from furfural-based polymers used to solidify reactor compartments and components disposed of in the Arctic Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the course of operating its nuclear navy, the former Soviet Union (FSU) disposed of reactor vessels and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in three fjords on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya and in the open Kara Sea within the Novaya Zemlya Trough during the period 1965 to 1988. The dumping consisted of 16 reactors, six of which contained SNF and one special container that held ca. 60% of the damaged SNF and the screening assembly from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker Lenin. At the time, the FSU considered dumping of decommissioned nuclear submarines with damaged cores in the bays of and near by the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the Arctic Kara Sea to be acceptable. To provide an additional level of safety, a group of Russian scientists embarked upon a course of research to develop a solidification agent that would provide an ecologically safe barrier. The barrier material would prevent direct contact of seawater with the SNF and the resultant leaching and release of radionuclides. The solidification agent was to be introduced by flooding the reactors vessels and inner cavities. Once introduced the agent would harden and form an impermeable barrier. This report describes the sample preparation of several ``Furfurol'' compositions and their leach testing using cesium 137 as tracer.

HEISER,J.H.; SIVINTSEV,Y.; ALEXANDROV,V.P.; DYER,R.S.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Integrated Toxic Plant Management Handbook: Livestock Poisoning Plants of the Trans-Pecos Region of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photographs, plant descriptions, and symptoms of poisoning help ranchers identify toxic plants that may be harmful to their livestock in West Texas. There is also information on grazing, livestock management, and toxic plant control....

Hart, Charles R.; McGinty, Allan; Carpenter, Bruce B.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Toxicity of oiled wetland sediments influenced by natural and enhanced bioremediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were set aside for petroleum bioremediation studies. Phase I began in December of 1994 and monitored sediment toxicity associated with intrinsic petroleum degradation. Acute toxicity was evaluated using the Microtox 100% Test on sediment elutriates from...

Mueller, Danica Christine

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - amyloid beta toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: amyloid beta toxicity Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Development of Novel Small-Size Peptides...

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - apap toxicity unexpectedly Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

toxicity unexpectedly Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: apap toxicity unexpectedly Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The use of human and...

284

Dose Dependent Response to Cyclodextrin Infusion in a Rat Model of Verapamil Toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model of Verapamil Toxicity Allan R. Mottram, MD* Sean M.Address for Correspondence: Allan R. Mottram, MD, University

Mottram, Allan R.; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in material selection processes for sustainable design andselection process for developing a sustainable materialintegrated sustainable material selection process of toxic

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One-Two-Three Punch Clobbers Toxic Algae, Restores Fremont Lake Final Report Fremont Lake #20 Water-two-three punch to knockout toxic algae and restore water quality in Nebraska's numerous sandpit lakes. "It seems to help rid the too-often toxic algae prone Fremont State Lakes of the oily green scum that can close them

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

287

Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Dele river in Northern France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima to accumulate in sediments at the bottom of the water column; and if toxic levels are reached, metals can affect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Misonidazole with dexamethasone rescue: an escalating dose toxicity study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neurotoxicity induced by misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has become the dose limiting factor in clinical work. In 1981, the authors reported a preliminary study suggestive that Dexamethasone (DEXA) does have a protective effect against peripheral neuropathies (PN) resulting from toxicity of misonidazole. The authors are presently investigating the use of DEXA, with escalating doses of MISO in an attempt to modify its neurotoxicity. To date, 16 patients have been registered to receive total doses of MISO given in 9 equally divided doses over 3 weeks. DEXA is given 3 days prior to the first dose and continues for the duration of therapy. All patients receive palliative radiation. No toxicity was seen at the total dose of 13.5 gm/M/sub 2/. One grade I PN occurred in the first four patients receiving 15.5 gm/M/sub 2/. Six additional patients were entered at this dose level and no further incidence of PN was observed.

Tanasichuk, H.; Urtasun, R.C.; Fulton, D.S.; Raleigh, J.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

290

Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake...?s water quality. Educating citizens about water quality issues affecting Lake Granbury and determining ways to manage the deadly algae are the focus of two Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI) projects. Lake Granbury, a critical water supply...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Toxic and deadly: Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxic and deadly Working to manage algae in Lake Granbury Lake Granbury, located about 33 miles southwest of Fort Worth, is a recreation haven for water enthusiasts. In recent years, however, bacteria and golden algae have threatened the lake...?s water quality. Educating citizens about water quality issues affecting Lake Granbury and determining ways to manage the deadly algae are the focus of two Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI) projects. Lake Granbury, a critical water supply...

Wythe, Kathy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Identification of toxic components in beechwood and petroleum creosotes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in complex mix- tures was successfully set up and may be applied to petroleum creosote. 35 B. Petroleum Creosote Petroleum creosote was fractionated to eight fractions by size exclusion chromatog- raphy and these were analyzed by GC-MS. THF was stripped...IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC COMPONENTS IN BEECHWOOD AND PETROLEUM CREOSOTES A Thesis by MEHMET S. OKAYGUN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Okaygun, Mehmet S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Ross Hazardous and Toxic Materials Handling Facility: Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) owns a 200-acre facility in Washington State known as the Ross Complex. Activities at the Ross Complex routinely involve handling toxic substances such as oil-filled electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organic and inorganic compounds for preserving wood transmission poles, and paints, solvents, waste oils, and pesticides and herbicides. Hazardous waste management is a common activity on-site, and hazardous and toxic substances are often generated from these and off-site activities. The subject of this environmental assessment (EA) concerns the consolidation of hazardous and toxic substances handling at the Complex. This environmental assessment has been developed to identify the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the proposal. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to determine if the proposed action is likely to have a significant impact on the environment. In addition to the design elements included within the project, mitigation measures have been identified within various sections that are now incorporated within the project. This facility would be designed to improve the current waste handling practices and to assist BPA in meeting Federal and state regulations.

URS Consultants, Inc.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely unknown hazard to human health. • We assayed the developmental toxicology of 39 different OPAHs in zebrafish. • The most toxic OPAHs contained adjacent diones or terminal, para-diones. • AHR dependency varied among OPAHs, and oxidative stress influenced their toxicology.

Knecht, Andrea L., E-mail: andrea.knecht@tanguaylab.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Goodale, Britton C., E-mail: goodaleb@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Truong, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.truong.888@gmail.com [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Simonich, Michael T., E-mail: mtsimonich@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Swanson, Annika J., E-mail: swansoan@onid.orst.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Matzke, Melissa M., E-mail: melissa.matzke@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Kim A., E-mail: kim.anderson@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Waters, Katrina M., E-mail: katrina.waters@pnl.gov [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, the Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Use of laboratory triaxial-creep data and finite-element analysis to predict observed creep behavior of leached salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An increasing interest is being shown worldwide in using leached salt caverns to store oil and natural gas. A critical factor in the use of existing caverns and the design of new ones is the creep behavior of the salt surrounding the caverns. An understanding of this behavior is being gained by using laboratory triaxial creep data as material property input to finite element computer programs designed to calculate displacements and stresses due to creep. An important step in verifying these predictive methods is the comparison of field data from existing caverns with finite element analyses which incorporate the material properties and geometry of each site. This comparison has been made for caverns in the Eminence Dome (Mississippi), West Hackberry Dome (Louisiana), and Bayou Chocktaw Dome (Louisiana) with reasonably good correlation being obtained between measured and predicted volumetric response of the caverns. These comparisons are discussed in this paper.

Preece, D.S.; Stone, C.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Characteristics of steel slag under different cooling conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four types of steel slags, a ladle slag, a BOF (basic oxygen furnace) slag and two different EAF (electric arc furnace) slags, were characterized and modified by semi-rapid cooling in crucibles and rapid cooling by water granulation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different cooling conditions on the properties of glassy slags with respect to their leaching and volume stability. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and a standard test leaching (prEN 12457-2/3) have been used for the investigation. The results show that the disintegrated ladle slag was made volume stable by water granulation, which consisted of 98% glass. However EAF slag 1, EAF slag 2 and the BOF slag formed 17%, 1% and 1% glass, respectively. The leaching test showed that the glass-containing matrix did not prevent leaching of minor elements from the modified slags. The solubility of chromium, molybdenum and vanadium varied in the different modifications, probably due to their presence in different minerals and their different distributions.

Tossavainen, M. [Division of Mineral Processing, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Engstrom, F. [Division of Process Metallurgy, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: Fredrik.i.engstrom@ltu.se; Yang, Q.; Menad, N.; Lidstrom Larsson, M.; Bjorkman, B. [Division of Process Metallurgy, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Toxicity of the isolated tannin from Quercus havardi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

present. Rabbits were then fed tannic acid at a level of 1 g/kg of . body weiglt for 40 days which produced symptoms similar to those found in aqueous extracts. From this work, they concluded that the tannins were the toxic principle in the aqueous... 18 5, 6, and 7 tabulate the results. Ellagic acid has been reported present in a number of ~ercus species and a small scale extraction of shin oak with hot water was made in an effort to isolate ellagic acid from the plant. Ellagic acid...

Pigeon, Robert F

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Subchronic toxicity of croton oil (Croton tiglium L.) to sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Charles F. Hall (Member) J. D. cCrady (Head of Department) December 1983 ABSTRACT Subchronic Toxicity of Croton Oil (Croton ti lium L. ) to Sheep (December 1983) Roger B. Harvey, B. S. , Texas A&M University; D. V. M. , Texas A&M University... Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. E. M. Bailey, Jr. Croton oil (Croton ~ti lium L. ) was administered daily via stomach tube to 12 clinically healthy Rambouillet crossbred sheep (2 ewes, 2 wethers per group for 3 groups), 1 to 4 years of age for 60...

Harvey, Roger Bruce

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The impact of conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners on ash characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research initiative focusing on the changes in coal-combustion byproducts that result from the conversion of coal-fired boilers to low-NO{sub x} burners has been implemented at the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER). This paper presents selected results from the first such study, the conversion of East Kentucky Power`s 116 MW, wall-fired unit {number_sign}1 at the John Sherman Cooper Station in Pulaski County, Kentucky. Samples of the coal feedstock and fly ash recovered in several downstream collection vessels were collected prior to and following conversion and extensively analyzed. The results presented in this report include total carbon, petrography, mineralogy, particle size, and leaching characteristics. The major changes noted in the fly-ash properties include an increase in carbon content, a slight increase in particle size, and a decrease in glassy components in the ash following conversion. Those changes induced by the conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners are evaluated in terms of the potential impact on the marketability of the fly ash.

Robi, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Groppo, J.G.; Rathbone, R.F.; Taulbee, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solutin and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY); Gillow, Jeffrey B. (Valley Cottage, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

303

Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Characteristic hypersurfaces in a relativistic superfluid theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By discussing the Cauchy problem, we determine the covariant equation of the characteristic hypersurfaces in a relativistic superfluid theory.

B. Linet

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

Modeling radiation characteristics of semitransparent media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Viskanta8 have proposed a model for the effective radiation characteristics of glass foams. Their analysis

Pilon, Laurent

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetaminophen apap toxicity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(APAP), bromobenzene (BB), and 4... with the toxicity of many electrophiles, and the identification of relevant in vivo protein targets is a desirable... derivative of teucrin...

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous toxic metals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

including selected metals, PAHs and organochlorine pesticides. While toxicity identification... evaluations (TIEs) suggest that metals are the primary cause of sediment...

308

Summary of EPA Final Rules for Air Toxic Standards for Industrial...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Summary of EPA Final Rules for Air Toxic Standards for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional (ICI) Boilers and Process Heaters, February 2013 Summary of EPA Final Rules for Air...

309

E-Print Network 3.0 - alleviates ammonium toxicity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BIOGEOGRAPHY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TOXIN PRODUCING CYANOBACTERIA IN Summary: in Lake Erie. The reasons for the success for these potentially toxic cyanobacteria in Lake Erie......

310

Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthetic systemic toxicity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

British Women Mystery Writers Summary: A Fluorescent Urine Probe for Prostate Cancer Aerogels as Drug Delivery Systems An Investigation of Heavy Metal... Toxic Metal...

312

E-Print Network 3.0 - aflatoxin b1 toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

potent toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites... CROP ROTATION INFLUENCES AFLATOXIN PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH TEXAS... Tucson, AZ Abstract...

313

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient water toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The most Summary: waters of the toxicity test beakers. Immediate collection and analysis of interstitial water... was necessary. Others have recommended interstitial waters...

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute acrolein toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology 43 Anal cancer IMRT A multi-institutional acute gastrointestinal toxicity analysis of anal cancer Summary: Anal cancer IMRT A multi-institutional acute gastrointestinal...

315

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity assessment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Before the Senate Committee on Small Business Summary: . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely......

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute aquatic toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ., 1999) and subsequently the rest of the food chain. The acute toxicity of pollutants to rotifers... , suggesting a simi- lar underlying mechanism in each group. No acute...

317

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic response Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Before the Senate Committee on Small Business Summary: . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely......

318

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity sensitivity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Before the Senate Committee on Small Business Summary: . They are examples of known pollutants, albeit ones listed as having low-to-moderate acute toxicities, purposely......

319

Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Glomus Intraradices) Fungus with Tomato Plants grown under Copper Toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the toxic effect of copper. Therefore additionalpotassium, calcium, iron and copper from soil particles, anddifferent concentration of copper. Total protein content

Malekzadeh, Parviz; Khara, Jalil; Farshian, Shadi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxic radiation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Winter K, Purdy JA, et al. Preliminary evalu- ation of low-grade toxicity with conformal radiation... -dose intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer: Early ......

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-staphylococcal toxic shock Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& Environmental Research Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a highly soluble and toxic heavy metal contaminant... chromate exposure. The early response of MR-1 to chromate...

322

A Schematic Method for Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the material selection process for sustainable design andfrom the perspectives of sustainable process design andinte- grated sustainable material selection process of toxic

Yuan, Chris Yingchun; David Dornfeld

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics sources Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Summary: standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July 30 Air Toxics Inventory State Compare......

324

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics regulatory Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Summary: standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July 30 Air Toxics Inventory State Compare......

325

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics control Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air toxics control Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Chemistry Department Standard Operating Procedure Title:...

326

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient air toxics Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indicators Project; CDC, NCEH, EHHE; January 2006 7 Summary: pollutants in ambient air Hazardous or toxic substances released in ambient air Residence in non... Indicators...

327

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics exposure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indicators Project; CDC, NCEH, EHHE; January 2006 7 Summary: pollutants in ambient air Hazardous or toxic substances released in ambient air Residence in non... Indicators...

328

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics compliance Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Summary: standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July 30 Air Toxics Inventory State Compare......

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics releases Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Cu) and lead (Pb) (typically) Toxic chemical release reporting... standards for air pollutants Second semi-annual exceedance report July ... Source: Wechsler, Risa H. - Kavli...

330

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal toxicity testing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: differentiated toxic from nontoxic sam- ples. It is suggested that the RIA test in its present state is useful... administration into appropriate animals....

331

Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and ?-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by ?- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Majid, Amran Ab., E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com; Sarmani, Sukiman, E-mail: walareqi@yahoo.com [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

332

TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION AND LEACHING OF A THERMOWELL AND CONDUCTIVITY PROBE PIPE SAMPLE FROM TANK 48H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. The material on the Tank 48H internal tank surfaces is estimated to have a total volume of approximately 115 gallons consisting of mostly water soluble solids with approximately 20 wt% insoluble solids (33 Kg TPB). This film is assumed to be readily removable. The material on the internal equipment/surfaces of Tank 48H is presumed to be easily removed by slurry pump operation. For Tank 49H, the slurry pumps were operated almost continuously for approximately 6 months after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids--Na{sub 3}H(CO){sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, NaTPB, NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2}. Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. Depending on when the Recycle material or inhibited water can be added to Tank 48H, the tank may not be allowed to agitate for this same amount of time. The tank will be filled above 150 inches and agitated at least once during the Aggregation process. If the material cannot be removed after completion of these batches, the material may be removed with additional fill and agitation operations. There is a risk that this will not remove the material from the internal surfaces. As a risk mitigation activity, properties of the film and the ease of removing the film from the tank will be evaluated prior to initiating Aggregation. This task will investigate the dissolution of Tank 48H solid deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, tank personnel plan to cut and remove a thermowell pipe from Tank 48H and submit the cut pieces to SRNL for both characterization and leaching behavior. A plan for the removal, packaging and transport of the thermowell pipe has been issued. This task plan outlines the proposed method of analysis and testing to estimate (1) the thickness of the solid deposit, (2) chemical composition of the deposits and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid deposits in inhibited water (IW) and in Tank 48H aggregate solution.

Fondeur, F

2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

333

Tier identification (TID) for tiered memory characteristics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tier identification (TID) is to indicate a characteristic of a memory region associated with a virtual address in a tiered memory system. A thread may be serviced according to a first path based on the TID indicating a first characteristic. The thread may be serviced according to a second path based on the TID indicating a second characteristic.

Chang, Jichuan; Lim, Kevin T; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Toxic substances form coal combustion--a co prehemsice assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Coal Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on emission of these pollutants from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling their formation and partition will be needed. A new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) has been developed by a broad consortium to be useful to regulators and utility planners. During the last quarter coal analysis was completed on the final program coal, from the Wyodak Seam of the Powder River Basin, Combustion testing continued, including data collected on the self-sustained combustor. Efforts were directed to identify the governing mechanisms for trace element vaporization from the program coals. Mercury speciation and measurements were continued. Review of the existing trace element and organics emission literature was completed. And, model development was begun.

Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING ON THE INTERNET BY AMERICA'S TOXIC 100: LEGITIMACY AND SELF-PRESENTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Protection Agency's toxics release inventory (TRI) data, to proxy for environmental performance, the 1984 Bhopal Union Carbide poisonous gas leak, and the 1989 Exxon Valdez and 1999 Erika oil spills was the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) program, which requires facilities operating in certain industries1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

UNDERSTANDING THE GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT EXPOSURE: CHERNOBYL AS A MODEL SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNDERSTANDING THE GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANT EXPOSURE: CHERNOBYL AS A MODEL to Chernobyl radiation. Our results suggest that genetic diversity in radioactive regions of Ukraine to elucidate the effects of toxicant exposure. Keywords--Chernobyl Bank vole Population genetics Comparative

Baker, Robert J.

339

Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of takahe on offshore islands? DOC. References 9 #12;4 Jamieson & Easton--Tall fescue-endophytes and takahe reproction on offshore islands Final of Conservation. This paper may be cited as: Jamieson, I.; Sydney Easton, H. 2002: Does a toxic fungal endophyte

Jamieson, Ian

340

ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Aspects of Dioxin Toxicity Are Mediated by Interleukin 1-Like  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Aspects of Dioxin Toxicity Are Mediated by Interleukin 1-Like Cytokines, 2005 ABSTRACT Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) re- sults in a broad spectrum of toxic effects. Most, if not all, of these responses are dependent upon the binding of dioxin to the aryl

Bradfield, Christopher A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Development of dioxin toxicity evaluation method in human milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of dioxin toxicity evaluation method in human milk by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Co. Ltd., Tokyo 105-8528, Japan b Dioxin Research Group, Saitama Institute of Public Health, Saitama, the development of a toxicity evaluation method for dioxins in human milk by enzyme-linked im- munosorbent assay

Hammock, Bruce D.

342

Human Exposure to Toxic Materials The New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)are examplesof toxic chemicals historically produced and used in industry. Air pollution by particulates York-New Jersey met- ropolitan region around New York City are ex- posed to toxic chemicals or elements, such as SO, and NO, and other petroleum combustion products, is pro- duced by the operation of internal

Brookhaven National Laboratory

343

Sub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass C.D. Suski a,,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Exposure to 100 M Tamm impaired the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise relative to fishSub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass C.D. Suski a,,1 , J.D. Kieffer b , S.S. Killen a,2 Available online 24 November 2006 Abstract Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined

Suski, Cory David

344

Aquatic toxicity information on VAX VMS backup (ACQUIRE for VMS). Data file  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of Acquire is to provide scientists and managers quick access to a comprehensive, systematic, computerized compilation of aquatic toxicity data. Scientific papers published both nationally and internationally on the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic organisms and plants are collected and reviewed for ACQUIRE. Independently compiled data files that meet ACQUIRE parameter and quality assurance criteria are also included. Selected toxicity test results and related testing information for any individual chemical from laboratory and field aquatic toxicity effects are included for tests with freshwater and marine organisms. The total number of data records in ACQUIRE is now over 105,300. This includes data from 6000 references, for 5200 chemicals and 2400 test species. A major data file, Acute Toxicity of Organic Chemicals (ATOC), has been incorporated into ACQUIRE. The ATOC file contains laboratory acute test data on 525 organic chemicals using juvenile fathead minnows.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to [approximately]2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

346

Environmental impact assessment of tailings dispersal from a uranium mine using toxicity testing protocols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxicity testing is a means of establishing the environmental risk of uranium tailings release. It is valuable in designing tailings containment structures because it assists in setting acceptable levels of risk of the design. This paper presents details of toxicity tests of the tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results suggest that the non-radiological toxicity of the tailings is low. The environmental risk of a tailings release is more likely to be related to the physical impacts of the tailings, including infilling of billabongs and changes in the sedimentology of riparian ecosystems rather than their biogeochemical impact. Two major results were: (1) water from treatment with washed tailing fines was not toxic to Hydra viridissima, and (2) mixtures of washed tailings fines and natural floodplain sediment (overlying water or elutriates) were not toxic to Hydra viridissima or Moinodaphnia macleayi. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Rippon, G.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Canberra (Australia); Riley, S.J. [Univ. of Western Sydney-Nepean, Kingswood (Australia)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Investigation on Operating Characteristics of RGB LEDs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis seeks to gain a better understanding on operating characteristics of the three primary color light emitting diode (LED). By applying direct, pulse and… (more)

Liao, Chi-nan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River...

350

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy A Consortium to Optimize...

351

Protective effects of lipoic acid on chrysene-induced toxicity on M?ller cells in vitro  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ames BN, Cotman CW, Liu J. Acrolein, a toxicant in cigarette31. Li L, Holian A. Acrolein: a respiratory toxin thatJia et al. reported that acrolein, a toxicant in cigarette

Mansoor, Saffar; Gupta, Navin; Luczy-Bachman, Georgia; Limb, G. Astrid; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Kenney, M. Cristina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Role of aggregation conditions and presence of small heat shock proteins on abeta structure, stability and toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the most toxic ?? species change their structure the most rapidly in denaturant, and that in general, increased toxicity correlated with decreased aggregate stability. In AlzheimerÂ?s disease, even delaying A? aggregation onset or slowing its...

Lee, Sung Mun

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

353

SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the quenched glasses. However, the waste form failed to meet the vapor hydration test criteria listed in the WTP contract. In addition, the waste loading in the phosphate glasses were not as high as other candidate waste forms. Vitrification of HLW waste as borosilicate glass is a proven process; however the HLW and LAW streams at Hanford can vary significantly from waste currently being immobilized. The ccc glasses show lower release rates for B and Na than the quenched glasses and all glasses meet the acceptance criterion of < 4 g/L. Glass samples spiked with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} also passed the PCT test. However, further vapor hydration testing must be performed since all the samples cracked and the test could not be performed. The waste loading of the iron phosphate and borosilicate glasses are approximately 20 and 25% respectively. The steam reforming process produced the predicted waste form for both the high and low aluminate waste streams. The predicted waste loadings for the monolithic samples is approximately 39%, which is higher than the glass waste forms; however, at the time of this report, no monolithic samples were made and therefore compliance with the PA cannot be determined. The waste loading in the geopolymer is approximately 40% but can vary with the sodium hydroxide content in the waste stream. Initial geopolymer mixes revealed compressive strengths that are greater than 500 psi for the low aluminate mixes and less than 500 psi for the high aluminate mixes. Further work testing needs to be performed to formulate a geopolymer waste form made using a high aluminate salt solution. A cementitious waste form has the advantage that the process is performed at ambient conditions and is a proven process currently in use for LAW disposal. The Saltstone/Cast Stone formulated using low and high aluminate salt solutions retained at least 97% of the Re that was added to the mix as a dopant. While this data is promising, additional leaching testing must be performed to show compliance with the PA. Compressive strength tests must also be performed on the Cast Ston

Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Water Purification Using Functional Nanomaterials: Sequestering Toxic Heavy Metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water, and water quality, are issues of critical importance to the future of humankind. Our water supply has been contaminated by a wide variety of industrial, military and natural sources. There is a serious need for technologies to remove toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the world’s water supplies. Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramics condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. These mesoporous architectures can be subsequently functionalized through molecular self-assembly. These functional mesoporous materials offer significant capabilities in terms of removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from groundwater and other liquid media. They are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Their rigid, open pore structure allows for rapid, efficient sorption kinetics. This manuscript provides an overview of the design, synthesis and performance of the sorbent materials.

Fryxell, Glen E.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Evaluation of lithium as a toxicant and the modifying effect of sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Routine compliance tests conducted for a groundwater treatment facility at the Y-12 Plant on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), TN, showed that the effluent was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae. An evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that increased toxicity coincided with increased concentrations of lithium. Lithium is a light, strong metal that is used in DOE operations, including fusion weapons and fission reactors. Little has been published about lithium toxicity. Toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows and C. dubia using lithium chloride and lithium tetraborate. Dilute mineral water (DMW) or the receiving stream water (East Fork Poplar Creek) was used as the dilution water in the toxicity evaluation. A concentration of 1 mg Li/L in DMW reduced the survival of both test species; 0.5 mg Li/L in DMW reduced C. dubia reproduction and minnow growth. Sodium appears to influence the toxicity of Li; the metal was six times more toxic in the low-sodium DMW than in stream water containing 30 mg Na/L. Tests with LiCl in combination with NaCl and NA{sub 2}SO{sub 4} demonstrated that the presence of sodium reduced the toxicity of Li to C. dubia. In laboratory tests with a snail (Elimia clavaeformis) common on the ORR, the feeding rate declined in 0.15 mg Li/L. Because Li has also been demonstrated to be toxic to several plant species, tests with LiCi were also conducted using buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca saliva). The EC{sub 50} for seed growth after 8 d incubation was 37.5 mg Li/L. These findings are significant because of widespread industrial use and potential accumulation of Li in soils.

Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; O`Reilly, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Inner Solar System Characteristics of Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Inner Solar System #12;The Earth #12;Characteristics of Earth A terrestrial, rocky planet floats on mantle · Crust is created and destroyed #12;Characteristics of Earth Today Surface: · 70% water · 30% land Atmosphere: ·77% N2 ·21% O2 ·0.1% H2O ·+Ar, CO2, Ne #12;The Dynamic Earth Molten Core

Walter, Frederick M.

358

5, 37233745, 2005 characteristics of ice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 3723­3745, 2005 Chemical characteristics of ice nuclei in anvil cirrus clouds C. H. Twohy and Physics Discussions Chemical characteristics of ice residual nuclei in anvil cirrus clouds: evidence for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation C. H. Twohy 1 and M. R. Poellot 2 1 College of Oceanic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy as Monotherapy or Post-External Beam Radiotherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Technique, Early Toxicity, and PSA Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy has been established as an excellent monotherapy or after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) boost treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, dosimetric studies have demonstrated the potential for achieving similar dosimetry with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) compared with HDR brachytherapy. Here, we report our technique, PSA nadir, and acute and late toxicity with SBRT as monotherapy and post-EBRT boost for PCa using HDR brachytherapy fractionation. Patients and Methods: To date, 38 patients have been treated with SBRT at University of California-San Francisco with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Twenty of 38 patients were treated with SBRT monotherapy (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4 fractions), and 18 were treated with SBRT boost (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions) post-EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy. PSA nadir to date for 44 HDR brachytherapy boost patients with disease characteristics similar to the SBRT boost cohort was also analyzed as a descriptive comparison. Results: SBRT was well tolerated. With a median follow-up of 18.3 months (range, 12.6-43.5), 42% and 11% of patients had acute Grade 2 gastrourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively, with no Grade 3 or higher acute toxicity to date. Two patients experienced late Grade 3 GU toxicity. All patients are without evidence of biochemical or clinical progression to date, and favorably low PSA nadirs have been observed with a current median PSA nadir of 0.35 ng/mL (range, <0.01-2.1) for all patients (0.47 ng/mL, range, 0.2-2.1 for the monotherapy cohort; 0.10 ng/mL, range, 0.01-0.5 for the boost cohort). With a median follow-up of 48.6 months (range, 16.4-87.8), the comparable HDR brachytherapy boost cohort has achieved a median PSA nadir of 0.09 ng/mL (range, 0.0-3.3). Conclusions: Early results with SBRT monotherapy and post-EBRT boost for PCa demonstrate acceptable PSA response and minimal toxicity. PSA nadir with SBRT boost appears comparable to those achieved with HDR brachytherapy boost.

Jabbari, Siavash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian K. [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Kaprealian, Tania; Hsu, I-Chow; Ma Lijun; Chuang, Cynthia; Descovich, Martina; Shiao, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R., E-mail: AGottschalk@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acrolein, a member of reactive ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including ?-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics index Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

calcium and sulfate as causes of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in a hard rock mining... Received in revised form 2 June 2010 Accepted 8 June 2010 Available online 10 July...

362

Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

Thomas, Samuel William, III

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hydrogen oxidation in soils as a possible toxic-effects indicator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient soil bioassays are needed in a screening array to determine the toxicities of industrial products and wastes. Hydrogen consumption is a common soil microbiological process that we evaluated as a possible soil indicator of toxic effects. Elemental tritium was used as a tracer to determine the H/sub 2/ oxidation rates in soils. The H/sub 2/ bioassay can be completed within 24 h using liquid scintillation counting of the tritium tracer. This test was used to evaluate the effects of known toxic chemicals (e.g., heavy metals, herbicides, and air pollutants), as well as a variety of suspected environmentally harmful compounds (e.g., waste waters, particulates, and sludges from industrial processes) on H/sub 2/ oxidation in soils. This bioassay responded to test compounds at concentrations shown to be toxic in other soil microbiological investigations.

Rogers, R.D. (U.S. EPA, Las Vegas); McFarlane, J.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Application of novel methods using synthetic biology tools to investigate solvent toxicity in bacteria   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxicity of organic solvents to microbial hosts is a major consideration in the economical production of biofuels such as ethanol and especially butanol, with low product concentrations leading to high recovery costs. ...

Fletcher, Eugene Kobina Arhin

2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

365

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute bowel toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

diseases responsible for the death of people are directly linked to our diets and food Summary: (s) of exposure is critical in assessing the acute toxicity of a pesticide...

366

The role of zinc in the treatment of palm kernel cake toxicity in sheep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Palm kernel cake (PKC), a product of the oil palm industryThe role of zinc in the treatment of palm kernel cake toxicity in sheep M Hair-Bejo, AR Alimon, J

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics information Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

leachate, Water Air Soil Pollut., 69, pp. 99... or risks? 2-5 June 2009 Toxicity Analysis and Public Health Aspects of Municipal Landfill Leachate: A Case... of these...

368

E-Print Network 3.0 - air toxics provisions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Center Collection: Physics 64 Assembly Bill No. 118 CHAPTER 750 Summary: air pollutants and air toxics. (j) This act will be implemented in a manner to ensure the fair......

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute toxicity histopathology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

P.O. Box 5786 Summary: ; Fungal culture 3 ; Histopathology 4 ; Neospora IFA 5 ; Toxic heavy metal screen 6 ; Toxoplasma gondii MAT... Parvovirus-2 FA 4 ; Histopathology 5 ; (2)...

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - agent toxicity testing Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mg2+ -citrate transporter CitM on heavy metal toxicity in Bacillus... with the heavy metal ions Zn2+ , Ni2+ and Co2+ . We report on the impact of CitM activity on the...

371

Compatibility and toxicity of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles on mammalian cell systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) produced normal growth curves in the presence of particles. However, the particles do still exhibit some toxicity towards the cells, as the maximum cell density of cells cultured with particles does not reach that ...

Kral, Kelly M., 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Smoke and toxic species analyses from combustion of guayule bagasse modified fiberboards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The determination of particle size distribution. 3. The identification of heavy metals in the smoke and ash phases. 4. The identification of other major smoke components. These tests will also be performed on normal, untreated fiberboard samples so... and untreated fiberboards were less than 10 microns in size and were, therefore, respirable to humans. Toxic species identification through the use of the gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy identified no unusually toxic chemical species within the smoke...

Paris, Lisa Danielle

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Critical elements in the design of piping systems for toxic fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While releases of hazardous/toxic fluids from pressurized pipelines are infrequent, the potential for a catastrophic event resulting from such a release warrants extraordinary care of the hazardous/toxic piping systems containing these fluids, during the entire plant life cycle. System identification, segregation, material and component selection, construction techniques, and preventative maintenance programs all contribute to improved system reliability, and are discussed herein. Methods to mitigate damages in the event of a failure are also discussed.

Getz, R.C. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

municipal landfill leachates were determined to have mean estimated cumulative cancer risks on the same order of magnitude (10 4) as leachates from co-disposal and hazardous waste landfills. The use of a battery of acute and chronic toxicity bioassays..., chemical analysis, and an estimated cancer risk calculation resulted in data providing evidence that municipal solid waste landfill leachates are as acutely and chronically toxic as co-disposal and hazardous waste landfill leachates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

Schrab, Gregory Ernst

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Comparative toxicity studies of sulphur acaricides on two species of spider mites attacking cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONPARATIVE TOXICITY STUDIES OF SULFUH ACAHICIDES ON TWO SPECIE OF SPIDEH NITES ATTACKING COTTON KENZY DONOVAN HALLI&AHK A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School oi' the Agricultural and 14echanlcal College of Texas in partial fulfillment... Ovotran- 13 Procedure Culturing technique- Dusting apparatus 1B 18 19 Spraying appsratus- Treatment procedure ?- Determination ef results ? - ? --- ? ? ? -?- hesults Conclusions- Literature Cited- 47 50 1 Results of laboratortJ' toxicity...

Hallmark, Kenzy Donovan

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The effect of climatic factors on the toxicity of certain organic insecticides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES A Dissertation By MILTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR, Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ?7*(Head Df Department) May THEF L IB R A R Y A & M... COLLEGE OF TEXAS. THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES By HALTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

Mistric, Walter Joseph

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Developmental toxicity and structure-activity relationships of ochratoxin A and related compounds in Hydra attenuata  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF OCHRATOXIN A AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN HYDRA ATTENUATA A Thesis by MONICA ANN TAYLOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF OCHRATOXIN A AND RELATED COMPOUNDS IN ~HY R ATTENUATA A Thesis by MONICA ANN TAYLOR...

Taylor, Monica Ann

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Leach Capping | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington:Lakeville, MN)Lauderhill,5. ItLea Hill, Washington:

379

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Market characteristics of future oil tanker operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work analyzes the market characteristics of future oil tanker operations with a particular emphasis on those aspects which will have a potential impact on the design of future vessels. The market analysis model used ...

Willemann, Simmy Dhawan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

24 October 2012 ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.D. Director of University of Minnesota Food Industry Center Koller Endowed Professor in Agribusiness specific characteristics that are different from industrial manufacturing and service supply chains from food manufacturers downstream to food retailers · Globalization of agriculture and agrifood supply

Levinson, David M.

382

Measuring value added characteristics in feeder cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to quantify. The objective of this research was to measure the value of characteristics of feeder cattle sold through auction markets and special source verified feeder cattle sales, specifically the value of participating in these value added programs. Data...

Mathews, Crystal Dawn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

ON THE EULER CHARACTERISTIC. JIMMY DILLIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON THE EULER CHARACTERISTIC. JIMMY DILLIES 1. Planar graphs A planar graph is a graph that can Platonic solids. Figure 1. Stereographic projection 1 #12;2 JIMMY DILLIES Figure 2. The Platonic Solids

Dillies, Jimmy

384

Contractual form, retail price and asset characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predictions derived from a principal-agent analysis of the manufacturer-retailer relationship are derived and tested using microdata on contractual form, outlet characteristics and retail prices for gasoline stations in ...

Shepard, Andrea

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

changes in two different climate scenarios. In the Mediterranean region, precipitation amount, frequencyChanges in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss with climate change, with potentially severe impacts on human society and ecosystems. This study analyses

Allan, Richard P.

386

Future characteristics of Offshore Support Vessels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this thesis is to examine trends in Offshore Support Vessel (OSV) design and determine the future characteristics of OSVs based on industry insight and supply chain models. Specifically, this thesis focuses ...

Rose, Robin Sebastian Koske

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Liquefaction characteristics of a fine sand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIQUEFACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINE SAND A Thesis by DONALD TIMOTHY BRANDON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering LIQUEFACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A FINE SAND A Thesis by DONALD TIMOTHY BRANDON Approved as to style and content by: airman o Commi ee) ead of Depar ent) (Member) ( ber) ABSTRACT LIQUEFACTION CEARACTERISTICS OF A FINE SAND...

Brandon, Donald Timothy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed Phase II testing was to determine longer term ESP performance and mercury capture improvements with the above enhancements for a range of low-sulfur coals currently fired by utilities. Unanticipated cost growth in readying the Pilot Plant for shipment and during slipstream construction at the utility host site resulted in the issuance of a preemptive stop work order from ABB until a detailed technical and budgetary review of the project could be completed. Four program recovery scenarios were developed and presented to the DOE. After careful review of these options, it was decided to terminate the program and although the Pilot Plant installation was essentially completed, no testing was performed. The Pilot Plant was subsequently decommissioned and the host site returned to its preprogram condition.

David K. Anderson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

Ecology and Air Quality Group

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

A novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist (monascin) attenuates the toxicity of methylglyoxal and hyperglycemia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic-glucose metabolite and a major precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). MG has been reported to result in inflammation by activating receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We recently found that Monascus-fermented metabolite monascin acts as a novel natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist that improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes in MG-treated Wistar rats treated with oral administration of monascin or rosiglitazone. Monascin (a novel PPAR? agonist) activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated hyperinsulinmia in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Monascin was able to elevate glyoxalase-1 expression via activation of hepatic Nrf2, hence, resulting in MG metabolism to D-lactic acid and protected from AGEs production in MG-treated rats. Rosiglitazone did not activate Nrf2 nor glyoxalase expression to lower serum and hepatic AGEs levels. Monascin acts as a novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist activity were confirmed by Nrf2 and PPAR? reporter assays in Hep G2 cells. These findings suggest that monascin acts as an anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative stress agent to a greater degree than rosiglitazone and thus may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of diabetes. - Highlights: • Monascin acts as a PPARgamma agonist. • Monascin activates Nrf2 and AMPK. • Monascin promotes MG metabolism into D-lactic acid. • Monascin attenuates inflammation and diabetes in vivo.

Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Chang, Yu-Ying [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ya-Wen [SunWay Biotechnology Company, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pan, Tzu-Ming, E-mail: tmpan@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Learner characteristics involved in distance learning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Role of soil in Rhizobacteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract- Our surrounding is filled up with a large number of toxicants in different forms. They contaminate our water, land and atmosphere where we live. Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes. Phytoremediation of toxic heavy metals could be carried out by using specific metallophytes. Green plants are the lungs of nature with unique ability to purifying impure air by photosynthesis and remove or minimize heavy metals toxicity from soil and water ecosystem by absorption, accumulation and biotransformation process. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal toxicity in contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from Rhizosphere of plants growing metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes. Index Terms- Environmental, heavy metal toxicity,

Rajendra Prasad Bharti; Abhilasha Shri Vastava; Kishor Soni; Asha Tiwari; Shivbhanu More

395

OPTIMIZATION OF OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHOTBLASTING TURBINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A parametric study has been performed in order to optimize the operational characteristics of shotblasting turbine used for surface cleaning of metal products in foundries. The study has been focused on four main parameters: shot velocity, shot distribution, shot mass flow and turbine efficiency. Different turbine designs were experimentally studied which enabled the influence factors to be identified and then quantified by means of comparison of original and modified turbine characteristics. The step-by-step optimization was then performed which resulted in redesigned shotblasting turbine with improved operational characteristics. Up to 35 % higher maximum massflow rate of shot particles has been achieved and turbine efficiency has been improved by more than 6 %. Just slight reduction of shot flow velocity was observed (only 2 %), which confirms an important improvement of shotblasting potentials of new turbine.

Aleš Hribernik; Bojan A?ko; Gorazd Bombek

396

Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) 10581065 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods a complex array of toxic substances such as heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs Personal computer Heavy metal Dynamic leaching Environment a b s t r a c t A dynamic leaching test (DLT

Short, Daniel

397

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of...

400

Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance in the nano-flow regime. Electrospray characteristic curves: in pursuit of improved performance in the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion...

402

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for...

403

THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

404

Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

Vecera, D.R.

1993-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

405

Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was constrained by specific requirements in the CSPA, the intent of this work was to identify HPCs and CHCCs that might guide future regulatory actions and inform chemical management policies, aimed at protecting children's health.

Stone, Alex, E-mail: alst461@ecy.wa.go [Washington State Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600 (United States); Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: ddel461@ecy.wa.go [Washington State Department of Ecology, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

408

Measurements of Smoke Characteristics in HVAC Ducts   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The characteristics of smoke traveling in an HVAC duct have been observed along with the response of selected duct smoke detectors. The simulated HVAC system consists of a 9 m long duct, 0.45 m in diameter. An exhaust fan is placed at one end...

Wolin, Steven D; Ryder, Noah L; Leprince, Frederic; Milke, James; Mowrer, Frederick; Torero, Jose L

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

F. G. WALTON SMITH PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variable Pitch Electrical Twin 80kw generators 208 vac, 3 phase, 110/120 vac, single phase UPSF. G. WALTON SMITH PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS The Rosenstiel School operates a state reach speeds of over 12 knots and has a draft of only 5-1/2 feet. In its ten staterooms the vessel can

Miami, University of

410

Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).

Casey J. Handmer; Béla Szilágyi; Jeffrey Winicour

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

Original article Preconditioning treatment maintains taste characteristic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`September Sun' peach following cold storage Rodrigo Infante,1 * Claudio Meneses1 & Carlos H. Crisosto2 1 fruits immediately after harvest and prior to cold storage at 20 °C for 24­48 h in special chambers aimed preconditioned and transferred to cold storage for 12, 26 and 40 days and evaluated for sensory characteristic

Crisosto, Carlos H.

412

Comparison of stomach and contact toxicities of toxaphene and guthion to two species of lepidopterous larvae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPARISON GF STOMACH AND CONTACT TOXICITIES OF TOXAPHENE AND GKH ION By HUGO D. MARTIN A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of T!sxas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER GF SCIENCE May 1957 Ms/or Sub)cot: ENTOMOLOGY COMPARISON GF STOMACH AND CONTACT TOXICITIES OF TO~ AND GUTHIGN TNO SPECIES OF LEPROUS LARVAE HUGO D. MARTIN Approved as to style and content by: irjasn of Committee ead o the Department lhe...

Martin, Hugo Danilo

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

Becker, Marion Carol

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The toxic levels of Microcide, a chlorine compound, for selected fishes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TOXIC LEVELS OF M)CROCIDE, A CHLORINE COMPOUND, FOR SELECTED FISHES A Thesis by Michael A. Champ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A=M University in partial fultillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... !9S9 Majot Subject; Biology THE TOXIC LEVELS OF MICROCIDE, A CHLORIHE COMPOUND, FOR SELECTED FISHES A Thesis by MICHAEL A. CHAMP Approved as to style and content by: Ciairman of mmittee (Member j (He~mb r May 1&6& n ~~. n E&r;~ri ABSTRACT...

Champ, Michael Augustus

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Dangerous Waste Characteristics of Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed Wastes from the Hanford Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes existing analytical data from samples taken from the Hanford tanks designated as potentially containing transuranic mixed process wastes. Process knowledge of the wastes transferred to these tanks has been reviewed to determine whether the dangerous waste characteristics now assigned to all Hanford underground storage tanks are applicable to these particular wastes. Supplemental technologies are being examined to accelerate the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission and accomplish waste treatment safely and efficiently. To date, 11 Hanford waste tanks have been designated as potentially containing contact-handled (CH) transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes. The CH-TRUM wastes are found in single-shell tanks B-201 through B-204, T-201 through T-204, T-104, T-110, and T-111. Methods and equipment to solidify and package the CH-TRUM wastes are part of the supplemental technologies being evaluated. The resulting packages and wastes must be acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The dangerous waste characteristics being considered include ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity arising from the presence of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol at levels above the dangerous waste threshold. The analytical data reviewed include concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, cyanide, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, total organic carbon, and oxalate; the composition of the tank headspace, pH, and mercury. Differential scanning calorimetry results were used to determine the energetics of the wastes as a function of temperature.

Tingey, Joel M.; Bryan, Garry H.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Disposable remote zero headspace extractor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

Hand, Julie J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberts, Mark P. (Arco, ID)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

417

Expanded High-Level Waste Glass Property Data Development: Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two separate test matrices were developed as part if the EM-21 Glass Matrix Crucible Testing. The first matrix, developed using a single component-at-a-time design method and covering glasses of interest primarily to Hanford, is addressed in this data package. This data package includes methods and results from glass fabrication, chemical analysis of glass compositions, viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, canister centerline cooling, product consistency testing, and the toxicity characteristic leach procedure.

Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Lang, Jesse B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Raszewski, F. C.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Best, D. R.; Reamer, Irene A.; Riley, W. T.; Simmons, P. T.; Workman, R. J.

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern Maine, a strongly tidally mixed coastal region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental links to interannual variability in shellfish toxicity in Cobscook Bay and eastern e i n f o Keywords: Harmful algal blooms Gulf of Maine Cobscook Bay Shellfish toxicity a b s t r a c of Cobscook Bay, where strong tidal mixing tends to reduce seasonal variability in oceanographic properties

Townsend, David W.

419

Cell-based measurements to assess physiological status of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, a1 toxic diatom2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.resmic.2011.06.005 #12;2 Abstract11 Diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia are potentially toxic microalgae at the beginning of the22 exponential phase, when lipid storage was high, which provided a metabolic energy source toxic.42 Tools to assess the physiological status of microalgae are still fairly scarce. Photosynthetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Toxic Microcystis is Widespread in Lake Erie: PCR Detection of Toxin Genes and Molecular Characterization of Associated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial Ecology Toxic Microcystis is Widespread in Lake Erie: PCR Detection of Toxin Genes reoccurred in the Laurentian Great Lakes, most commonly in the western basin of Lake Erie. Whereas the western basin is the most impacted by toxic Microcystis in Lake Erie, there has historically been little

Ouellette, Anthony J. A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Identification of Zebrafish ARNT1 Homologs: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Toxicity in the Developing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of Zebrafish ARNT1 Homologs: 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Toxicity,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) developmental toxicity, it is essential to know which proteins are involved proteins in mediating these responses. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins are lipophilic, persis- tent

Tullos, Desiree

422

Inhibition of systemic onset of post-transcriptional gene silencing by non-toxic concentrations of cadmium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clearing virus (TVCV), is inhibited by treating the host plants with non-toxic levels of the heavy metal±plant interactions. To better understand this process, the heavy metal cadmium was identi®ed as a speci®c inhibitor of cadmium do not represent a general property of toxic metal ions because two other such elements

Citovsky, Vitaly

423

Single-step multiplex detection of toxic metal ions by Au nanowires-on-chip sensor using reporter elimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-step multiplex detection of toxic metal ions by Au nanowires-on-chip sensor using reporter sensitively detect multiple toxic metal ions. Most importantly, the reporter elimination method simplified by using this sensor. 1. Introduction Heavy metal ions such as mercury (Hg2+ ), silver (Ag+ ), and lead (Pb

Kim, Bongsoo

424

Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document, and its associated appendices and microcomputer (PC) data bases, constitutes the reference OCRWM data base of physical and radiological characteristics data of radioactive wastes. This Characteristics Data Base (CDB) system includes data on spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste (HLW), which clearly require geologic disposal, and other wastes which may require long-term isolation, such as sealed radioisotope sources. The data base system was developed for OCRWM by the CDB Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various principal or official sources of these data provided primary information to the CDB Project which then used the ORIGEN2 computer code to calculate radiological properties. The data have been qualified by an OCRWM-sponsored peer review as suitable for quality-affecting work meeting the requirements of OCRWM`s Quality Assurance Program. The wastes characterized in this report include: light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized HLW.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

TOXICITY OF SEDIMENTS As water quality has improved over the past three decades in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T TOXICITY OF SEDIMENTS Overview As water quality has improved over the past three decades in North America, diffuse sources of pollution such as storm- water runoff and sediments are now recognized as long-term, widespread pollutant sources to aquatic systems. Substantial impacts on the ecosystem from sediment

427

Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influences of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of lead to Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia in gasoline and from Pb-based paints. Although such applications were phased out beginning in the 1970s to natural variability in receiving water chemistry that can differentially impact its chemical speciation

Grosell, Martin

428

Geochemistry, toxicity, and sorption properties of contaminated sediments and pore waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waters have neutralized on mixing with neutral-pH lake water, producing fine-grained, metal- richGeochemistry, toxicity, and sorption properties of contaminated sediments and pore waters from two Acid mine waters from the Iron Mountain Superfund Site, Shasta County, California, flow through Spring

429

Bioavailability of Sediment-Associated Toxic Organic Contaminants Primary Investigator: Peter Landrum -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioavailability of Sediment-Associated Toxic Organic Contaminants Primary Investigator: Peter the bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants to benthic organisms. In this past year, specific measurements of desorption for three Lake Michigan sediments and measurements of concentrations in Diporeia

430

Paraquat toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of the herbicide paraquat on humans and animals. Topics include clinical and pathological findings, biochemical mechanisms, effects of oxygen, pulmonary effects of exposure, and effects on freshwater and marine organisms. The contamination of marijuana plants with paraquat is also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) selective filtration promoted toxic Microcystis blooms in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and Lake Erie Henry A. Vanderploeg, James R. Liebig, Wayne W. Carmichael, Megan A with other algae. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that zebra mussels promoted blooms of toxic M. aeruginosa in Saginaw Bay, western Lake Erie, and other lakes through selective rejection in pseudofeces

433

Identification and treatment of lithium as the primary toxicant in a groundwater treatment facility effluent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{sup 6}Li is used in manufacturing nuclear weapons, shielding, and reactor control rods. Li compounds have been used at DOE facilities and Li-contaminated waste has historically been land disposed. Seep water from burial grounds near Y-12 contain small amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons, traces of PCBs, and 10-19 mg/L Li. Seep treatment consists of oil-water separation, filtration, air stripping, and carbon adsorption. Routine biomonitoring tests using fathead minnows and {ital Ceriodaphnia}{ital dubia} are conducted. Evaluation of suspected contaminants revealed that toxicity was most likely due to Li. Laboratory tests showed that 1 mg Li/L reduced the survival of both species; 0.5 mg Li/L reduced {ital Ceriodaphnia} reproduction and minnow growth. However, the toxicity was greatly reduced in presence of sodium (up to 4 mg Li/L, Na can fully negate the toxic effect of Li). Because of the low Na level discharged from the treatment facility, Li removal from the ground water was desired. SuperLig{reg_sign} columns were used (Li-selective organic macrocycle bonded to silica gel). Bench-scale tests showed that the material was very effective for removing Li from the effluent, reducing the toxicity.

Kszos, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crow, K.R. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils M. Dall limiting performance of alfalfa (Medicago saliva L.) in many parts of the world, but neither an effective different screening methods for selection of acid soil tolerant alfalfa germplasms in the greenhouse during

Parrott, Wayne

435

National Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from exposure to environmental chemicals and selected other diseases that require advanced laboratoryNational Center for Environmental Health Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry CS234527 environmental chemicals in blood and urine (5-year grants). · Newborn screening quality testing for more than

436

Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

Chu, P.; Epstein, M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gould, L. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Botros, P. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

437

(Published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research) Potentially toxic element fractionation in technosoils using two  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research) Potentially toxic element fractionation elements (Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb) in contaminated technosoils of two former smelting and mining areas using. Surface soils were samples from a waste landfill contaminated with Zn, Pb, and Cd located at Mortagne

Boyer, Edmond

438

Feeding experiments of Crassostrea virginica on two forms of Pseudonitzschia pungens: behavior and toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was placed on oyster feeding behavior, tissue toxicity, and deputation. Crassostrea virginica readily fed on cell concentrations greater than natural blooms. The calculated filtration rate, ranging from 0.01 to 2.02 liters hr-1, and shell openness were...

Roelke, Daniel Lee

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Hair Cell Differentiation in Chick Cochlear Epithelium after Aminoglycoside Toxicity: In Vivo and In Vitro Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hair Cell Differentiation in Chick Cochlear Epithelium after Aminoglycoside Toxicity: In Vivo ear epithelia of mature birds regenerate hair cells after ototoxic or acoustic insult. The lack of progenitor cells has hampered the iden- tification of cellular and molecular interactions that regulate hair

Rubel, Edwin

440

Experimental production characteristics of anticlinal reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The production characteristics of an anticlinal model reservoir have been studied. The results show the effects of production rate, structural well location, well density, and fluid properties on the oil and gas recovery. The results of this study indicate... the need to shut in high gas- oil ratio wells in order to achieve maximum recovery. An increase in well density increased recovery significantly for both upstructure and downstructure wells. An increase in the production rate appeared to increase re...

Williams, Charles David

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Characteristics and storage stability of sorghum extrudates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are precooking and gelatinization of the starch, providing a desired shape to the product, and giving the food an expanded, crisp, and pleasing characteristic (Harper, 1981). Starch products from a number of generic sources are currently being used in snack..., 1970; Sacharow, 1974; 1976). Cabral et al. (1979) examined the keeping quality of potato chips, when different packaging films were used. Under accelerated condi- tions, products packed in OPP, K Cello/OPP, and metallized polyester (IIPET) pouches...

Cheng, Tai-Yau

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Documentation of toxicity testing results on increased supernate treatment rate of 2700 gallons/batch. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February 1991, Reactor Materials increased the rate of supernate treatment in the M-Area Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF) from 1800 gallons to {approximately}2700 gallons of supernate per 36,000 gallon dilute wastewater batch. The first release of the treated effluent began on March 3, 1991. A series of whole effluent toxicity tests was conducted on the DETF effluent to determine if the increased supernate concentration would result in any chronic toxicity affects in the receiving stream (Tims Branch). The toxicity tests were conducted at instream concentrations equivalent to DETF release rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 gallons/min. The test results, based on 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia chronic toxicity, indicated no toxicity effects at any concentration tested. Supernate treatment in DETF continued at the higher concentration.

Pickett, J.B.

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

443

Acute toxicity of toluene, hexane, xylene, and benzene to the rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large number of studies on the biological effects of oil pollution in the aquatic environment deal with the effects of whole crude or refined oils or their water-soluble fractions. However, low boiling, aromatic hydrocarbons, which are probably the most toxic constituents of oil, have until now not been examined in sufficient detail. Toluene, benzene and xylene, constitute a major component of various oils. They may be readily lost by weathering but are toxic in waters that are relatively stagnant and are chronically polluted. Korn et al. have stated that toluene is more toxic than many other hydrocarbons such as benzene, though the latter are more water-soluble. Report of the effects of exposure to organic solvents like hexane or toluene are still limited although organic solvents are a well-known group of neurointoxicants. Various benzene derivates continue to be used as chemical intermediates, solvents, pesticides, so on, in spite of incomplete knowledge of their chronic toxicity. The majority of toxicity studies about the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms under controlled conditions have used either fish or the cladoceran Daphnia magna and there are few studies reported using rotifers. The effects of herbicides on population variables of laboratory rotifer cultures have been investigated. Rotifers are one of the main sources of zooplankton production and they have an important ecological significance in the aquatic environment. The present work was designed to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to some petroleum derivates which might be expected to occur immediately under an oil-slick, on freshwater and brackish environment rotifers. 18 refs., 1 tab.

Ferrando, M.D.; Andreu-Moliner, E. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ? Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ? W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ? W–Ni–Co induces a greater oxidative burst response than W–Ni–Fe in lung macrophages.

Roedel, Erik Q., E-mail: Erik.Roedel@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Cafasso, Danielle E., E-mail: Danielle.Cafasso@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Lee, Karen W.M., E-mail: Karen.W.Lee@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Pierce, Lisa M., E-mail: Lisa.Pierce@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Characteristics of fluorinated nitroazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Types of 2-nitroimidazoles and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles bearing one or two fluorine atoms on their side chains were synthesized to evaluate their physicochemical properties, radiosensitizing effects, and toxicity. The reduction potential of the compounds containing one fluorine was similar to that of misonidazole (MISO), whereas that of the difluorinated compounds was slightly higher. Both mono- and difluorinated compounds had an in vitro sensitizing activity comparable to or slightly higher than that of MISO. The fluorinated 3-nitrotriazoles were almost as efficient as the 2-nitroimidazoles with the same substituent. In vivo, some of the compounds were up to twice more efficient than MISO, whereas others were as efficient as MISO. Toxicity in terms of LD50/7 in mice was quite variable depending on the side-chain structure; the amide derivatives were less toxic than MISO, whereas the alcohol and ether derivatives were more toxic. In view of the radiosensitizing effect and toxicity in vivo, at least one compound, KU-2285 (a 2-nitroimidazole with an N1-substituent of: CH2CF2CONHCH2CH2OH) has been found to be as useful a hypoxic cell sensitizer as SR-2508.

Shibamoto, Y.; Nishimoto, S.; Shimokawa, K.; Hisanaga, Y.; Zhou, L.; Wang, J.; Sasai, K.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M.; Kagiya, T.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

Specht, W.L.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Carcass and Meat Characteristics of Nilgai Antelope.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

character- istics related to tenderness. METHODS I reatment of Carcasses Three nilgai-one adult male, one adult female and one subadult male-were collected on King Ranch, Inc. Tlie carcasses were weighed, field dressed, re- weighed and transported... Characteristics of NiIgai Ante SI'MIIARY: Nilgai antelope (Eoselaphus tragocamelus) sccin to be a potential source of meats acceptable to the conslrn~er public. Carcasses dress out at approx- irnatt!y 50 percent of live weight and have less than I pcrt on...

Ables, E. D.; Carpenter, Z. L.; Quarrier, Lynn; Sheffield, W. J.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A heat engine with unique characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A heat engine which operates with one heat reservoir is described. The engine transforms the heat input completely into work by using a compressed fluid from a resource of the environment. For this reason the engine is not a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. The characteristics of the engine are analyzed, and the ways for achieving the most economic use of the compressed fluid are described. The principle of operation of the engine shows that the concepts of phenomenological thermodynamics regarding heat and its transformation in other forms of energy are not true.

Baranescu, G.S. [ATR Corp., Western Springs, IL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the underground coal gasification field test at the Hoe Creek site No. 2, Wyoming, helium pulses were introduced to develop information to characterize the flow field, and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Quantitative analysis of the tracer response curves shows an increasing departure from a plug flow regime with time because of the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex non-uniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model. 17 refs.

Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003 - Major Characteristics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1CubicMajor Characteristics of All

451

{open_quotes}Fine particulate control and air toxics{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tables 1-4 give an overview of current TSP control capabilities of fabric filters on some applications. Very little data is available as to the control of PM{sub 10} and under. Most air toxic limitations will require much higher control as can be seen in Tables 5 and 6. The control of most air toxics is definitely related to the control of TSP and PM{sub 10}, however it appears that meeting current limits of TSP do not ensure meeting the desired air toxic limits. Since TSP is desired to be used as a surrogate and is all that is routinely monitored through opacity or other stack CEM systems, lower TSP limits would have to be met which opens the question of how accurate we can monitor TSP or PM{sub 10} on a continuous basis. Tables 3 and 4 provide some insight as to the uniformity of TSP results between identical operating units and over time at two NSW installation. Except for the 9/10/91 test, the baghouses were inspected for failing bags prior to testing. Tables 7 and 8 show the impact of TSP and air toxic metals of a plant upset. In this case it took up to one day for the emissions to return to normal following a 30 minute complete shutdown of the incinerator and three baghouse systems being tested. Table 9 describes the impact of broken bags on emissions for a typical size baghouse. As emission levels become tighter in attempts to control air toxics, response to broken bags will take on new importance. More importantly, system design changes to promote longer bag life and better emission monitoring will be needed. Once continuous monitoring of outlet particulate is required, the industry will be challenged. Until then it will be business as usual with designs aimed at passing a one time or yearly stack test with the baghouse primed for peak performance. This won`t do much to protect the environment from air toxics to the proposed units.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Greiner, G.P. [ETS International, Inc., Roanoke, VA (United States); Harrison, W. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States); Nichols, G.B. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Gasification characteristics of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is evaluating the gasification characteristics of Eastern oil shales as a part of a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and HYCRUDE Corporation to expand the data base on moving-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification of shale fines will improve the overall resource utilization by producing synthesis gas or hydrogen needed for the hydroretorting of oil shale and the upgrading of shale oil. Gasification characteristics of an Indiana New Albany oil shale have been determined over temperature and pressure ranges of 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Carbon conversion of over 95% was achieved within 30 minutes at gasification conditions of 1800/sup 0/F and 15 psig in a hydrogen/steam gas mixture for the Indiana New Albany oil shale. This paper presents the results of the tests conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor to obtain reaction rate data and in a continuous mini-bench-scale unit to obtain product yield data. 2 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR...

455

Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest Oregon Watershed Following  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--------------------------------------------- Soil Hydraulic Characteristics of a Small Southwest by a high-intensity burn over areas of steep topography. The areal distribution of soil hydraulic of infiltration capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil moisture characteristics. Also, measures

Standiford, Richard B.

456

Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions...

457

THE CHARACTERISTIC VARIETY OF A GENERIC FOLIATION JORGE VITORIO PEREIRA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CHARACTERISTIC VARIETY OF A GENERIC FOLIATION JORGE VIT´ORIO PEREIRA Abstract. We confirm. characteristic foliation, invariant variety, D-modules. 1 #12;2 JORGE VIT ´ORIO PEREIRA F is non

Pereira, Jorge Vitório

458

Power Signatures as Characteristics of Commercial and Related Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics and building physical characteristics is seen as an important area for improvement of analytical tools for commercial and related buildings. Knowledge of the causes of variations in energy use, and the expected relative impacts of different...

MacDonald, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Attempt to estimate measurement uncertainty in the Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model is a Gaussian puff dispersion model that predicts plumes, concentrations, and hazard distances of toxic chemical spills. A measurement uncertainty propagation formula derived by Freeman et al. (1986) is used within AFTOX to estimate resulting concentration uncertainties due to the effects of data input uncertainties in wind speed, spill height, emission rate, and the horizontal and vertical Gaussian dispersion parameters, and the results are compared to true uncertainties as estimated by standard deviations computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The measurement uncertainty uncertainty propagation formula was found to overestimate measurement uncertainty in AFTOX-calculated concentrations by at least 350 percent, with overestimates worsening with increasing stability and/or increasing measurement uncertainty.

Zettlemoyer, M.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals. [Final report, September 4, 1990--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ``dioxins`` and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxicity characteristic leaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Toxicity of ammonia to larvae of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to larval and juvenile shrimps (Armstrong et al. , 1976; Wickins, 1976) and to fish (Russo et al. , 1974", Smith and Williams, 1974", Smith and Russo' 1975; Crawford and Allen, 1977; Thurston et al. , 1978; Wedemeyer and Yasutake, 1978) and can.... Although the toxicity of ammonia to freshwater shrimp larvae has been reported by Armstrong et al. (1978), other aspects require further investigation before a reliable estimate of safe concentrations can be esta'blished. This study, which examines...

Llobrera, Jose Alvarez

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Toxic Substances Control Act. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

Not Available

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Toxicity of herbicides. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational surveys, clinical investigations, and laboratory analyses pertaining to the toxic effects of herbicides. Topics include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem responses, regulatory aspects, transport and metabolism, and registration standards and procedures. The detection of specific compounds and their effects on selected species are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected automotive rubber components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the types of anti-pollution control methods utilized on the incinerator. B. Smoke Analysis An Arapahoe smoke chamber was used to generate smoke for this research, in accordance with ASTM D4100, Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Smoke... the criteria pollutants, incinerators also emit small amounts of trace organics and trace metals, which are classified as toxic pollutants. Trace organics such as dioxins (polychlorinated p-dibenzodioxins-PCDDs) and furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans...

Shalkowski, Mark Henry

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Identifying Biomarkers and Mechanisms of Toxic Metal Stress with Global Proteomics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hg is a wide-spread contaminant in the environment and is toxic in all of its various forms. Data suggest that RHg+ and Hg2+ are toxic in two ways. At low levels, Hg species appear to disrupt membrane-bound respiration causing a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that further damage the cell. At higher Hg concentrations, RHg+ and Hg2+ may form adducts with cysteine- and selenocysteine-containing proteins in all cellular compartments resulting in their inactivation. Although these mechansims for toxicity are generally accepted, the most sensitive targets associated with these mechanisms are not well understood. In this collaborative project involving three laboratories at three institutions, the overall goal was to develop of a mass spectrometry-based global proteomics methodology that could be used to identify Hg-adducted (and ideally, ROS-damaged) proteins in order to address these types of questions. The two objectives of this overall collaborative project were (1) to identify, quantify, and compare ROS- and Hg-damaged proteins in cells treated with various Hg species and concentrations to test this model for two mechanisms of Hg toxicity, and (2) to define the cellular roles of the ubiquitous bacterial mercury resistance (mer) locus with regards to how the proteins of this pathway interact to protect other cell proteins from Hg damage. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the Miller lab in this project included: (1) Development of algorithms for analysis of the Hg-proteomic mass spectrometry data to identify mercury adducted peptides and other trends in the data. (2) Investigation of the role of mer operon proteins in scavenging Hg(II) from other mer pathway proteins as a means of protecting cellular proteins from damage.

Miller, Susan M.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

466

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) study, Ambient water toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) personnel and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) personnel conducted a study during the week of January 25-February 1, 1994, as described in the Statement of Work (SOW) document. The organisms specified for testing were larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, and the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Surface water samples were collected by TVA Field Engineering personnel from Clinch River Mile 9.0, Poplar Creek Mile 1.0, and Poplar Creek Mile 2.9 on January 24, 26, and 28. Samples were partitioned (split) and provided to the CR-ERP and TVA toxicology laboratories for testing. Exposure of test organisms to these samples resulted in no toxicity (survival or growth) to fathead minnows; however, toxicity to daphnids (significantly reduced reproduction) was demonstrated in undiluted samples from Poplar Creek Mile 1.0 in testing conducted by TVA based on hypothesis testing of data. Point estimation (IC{sub 25}) analysis of the data, however, showed no toxicity in PCM 1.0 samples.

Simbeck, D.J.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The reversibility of the glutathionyl-quercetin adduct spreads oxidized quercetin-induced toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quercetin is one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants. During its antioxidant activity, quercetin becomes oxidized into its o-quinone/quinone methide QQ. QQ is toxic since it instantaneously reacts with thiols of, e.g., proteins. In cells, QQ will initially form an adduct with glutathione (GSH), giving GSQ. We have found that GSQ is not stable; it dissociates continuously into GSH and QQ with a half life of 2 min. Surprisingly, GSQ incubated with 2-mercapto-ethanol (MSH), a far less reactive thiol, results in the conversion of GSQ into the MSH-adduct MSQ. A similar conversion of GSQ into relatively stable protein thiol-quercetin adducts is expected. With the dithiol dihydrolipoic acid (L(SH){sub 2}), quercetin is formed out of GSQ. These results indicate that GSQ acts as transport and storage of QQ. In that way, the initially highly focussed toxicity of QQ is dispersed by the formation of GSQ that finally spreads QQ-induced toxicity, probably even over cells.

Boots, Agnes W. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.boots@farmaco.unimaas.nl; Balk, Jiska M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Bast, Aalt [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Haenen, Guido R.M.M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

469

Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate during the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10–5 ?g g–1 to 9.5 × 10–5 ?g g–1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.

Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

Diebold, J.P. [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

476

Viscoelastic DampingViscoelastic Damping Characteristics of Indium-Tin/Characteristics of Indium-Tin/SiCSiC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Viscoelastic DampingViscoelastic Damping Characteristics of Indium-Tin/Characteristics of Indium-Tin Approach: · Based on past experience, indium-tin has well- characterized stiffness/damping. · Fabricate

Swan Jr., Colby Corson

477

3) What makes a species invasive? Is it characteristics of the species or characteristics of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traits (Chapter 3 of NRC 2002) 1. Reproductive system · Dioecious vs. Monoecious · Self-incompatible Life History Traits (Chapter 3 of NRC 2002) 1. Reproductive system · Dioecious vs. Monoecious · Self-incompatible pollen vs. Self-compatible pollen #12;3) What makes a species invasive? Species characteristics: Plant

Nowak, Robert S.

478

Combustion characteristics of 24 lignite samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the combustion characteristics such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTGA), burning profile, ignition temperature, and peak temperature were analyzed for 24 lignite samples from different areas of Turkey. The samples were heated up to 900{sup o}C at a constant rate of 10{sup o} C/min in a 5 mL/min flow of dry air. The burning profiles of the samples studied, combined with proximate, sulfur analysis and calorimetry results, contribute to a clearer identification of lignite samples' structure and a better understanding of the coalification process. The lignite samples have been tested with particle size of 0-0.05 mm. Ignition temperatures of the samples have been determined from their burning profiles.

Sensogut, C.; Ozsen, H.; Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the Hoe Creek No. 2 (Wyoming) underground-coal-gasification field test, researchers introduced helium pulses to characterize the flow field and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Flow models such as the axial-dispersion and parallel tanks-in-series models allowed interpretation of the in situ combustion flow field from the residence time distribution of the tracer gas. A quantitative analysis of the Hoe Creek tracer response curves revealed an increasing departure from a plug-flow regime with time, which was due to the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex nonuniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery, and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model.

Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox provides a parsimonious and transparent tool for human health and ecosystem CF estimates. Based on a referenced database, it has now been used to calculate CFs for several thousand substances and forms the basis of the recommendations from UNEP-SETAC's Life Cycle Initiative regarding characterization of toxic impacts in Life Cycle Assessment. Recommendations and Perspectives. We provide both recommended and interim (not recommended and to be used with caution) characterisation factors for human health and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. After a process of consensus building among stakeholders on a broad scale as well as several improvements regarding a wider and easier applicability of the model, USEtox will become available to practitioners for the calculation of further CFs.

Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

2008-02-03T23:59:59.000Z