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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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1

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

McCall, Jr. http:www.em.doe.govffaaortsca.html 4252001 Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agree.. Page 12 of 26 Deputy Assistant...

2

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toxic Substance Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (TSCA-UE- FFCA), February 20, 1992 State Kentucky Agreement Type Compliance Agreement Legal...

3

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toxic Substance Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (TSCA-UE- FFCA), February 20, 1992 State Ohio Agreement Type Compliance Agreement Legal...

4

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III  

SciTech Connect

A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Toxic Substances Toxic Substances Control Jump to: navigation, search Name California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control Place Sacramento, California Website http://www.dtsc.ca.gov Coordinates 38.5815719°, -121.4943996° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.5815719,"lon":-121.4943996,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

6

Speciality conference on: toxic substances in the air environment  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented are divided into the following categories: toxic substances legislation; arsenic; vinyl chloride; and emerging problems in toxic emission. Seven papers were abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB. (JGB)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Incentive-based approaches to regulating toxic substances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applying incentive-based strategies to toxic substance regulation can be complicated. Potential risks to health and the environment can occur at many stages in the life cycle of a toxic substance, and the risks vary among different products and uses of products containing toxic substances. Thus researchers at Resources for the Future recommend that regulatory intervention be focused on specific stages in the life cycle of toxic substances, but warn that intervention must be broad enough to mitigate incentives to adopt production processes and products that could pose greater risks than the processes and products they replace . Despite this and other potential pitfalls, they find that incentive-based strategies such as product labeling and deposit-refund schemes may be desirable for regulating certain stages of the life cycle of some chemicals.

Macauley, M.K.; Palmer, K.L.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200{degrees}C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs.

Shor, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures (1200{degrees}C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)). Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs.

Shor, J.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

K-1435 Wastewater Treatment System for the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Wastewater at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will discuss the design and performance of a wastewater treatment system installed to support the operation of a hazardous waste incinerator. The Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator (TSCAI), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), is designed and permitted to treat Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes including characteristic and listed wastes and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated mixed waste. The incinerator process generates acidic gases and particulates which consist of salts, metals, and radionuclides. These off-gases from the incinerator are treated with a wet off-gas scrubber system. The recirculated water is continuously purged (blow down), resulting in a wastewater to be treated. Additional water sources are also collected on the site for treatment, including storm water that infiltrates into diked areas and fire water from the incinerator's suppression system. To meet regulatory requirements for discharge, a wastewater treatment system (WWTS) was designed, constructed, and operated to treat these water sources. The WWTS was designed to provide for periodic fluctuation of contaminant concentrations due to various feed streams to the incinerator. Blow down consists of total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), encompassing metals, radionuclide contamination and trace organics. The system design flow rate range is 7.95 to 17 cubic meters per hour (m3/hr) (35 to 75 gallons per minute; gpm). The system is designed with redundancy to minimize time off-line and to reduce impacts to the TSCAI operations. A novel treatment system uses several unit operations, including chemical feed systems, two-stage chemical reaction treatment, micro-filtration, sludge storage and dewatering, neutralization, granular activated carbon, effluent neutralization, and a complete programmable logic controller (PLC) and human-machine interface (HMI) control system. To meet the space requirements and to provide portability of the WWTS to other applications, the system was installed in three, over-the-road semi trailers, and interconnected with piping and power. Trailers were oriented on a small site footprint to facilitate ease of installation. A remote sump pump skid was provided to convey water from two holding sumps adjacent to the treatment process. An accumulation tank and pump were also provided to receive miscellaneous wastewaters for treatment if they meet the waste acceptance criteria. The paper will include details of the technology used in the design, the requirements for compliance, and the initial performance demonstration and jar testing results. The WWTS successfully allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment with compliant discharge to off-site surface water. (authors)

Beck, Ch.A. [Senior Project Manager, Golder Associates Inc. (United Kingdom); Tiepel, E.W. [Principal, Golder Associates Inc. (United Kingdom); Swientoniewski, M.D. [P.E. Senior Project Engineer, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (United States); Crow, K.R. [P.E., Project Manager, CDM (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

K-1435 Wastewater Treatment System for the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Wastewater at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design and performance of a wastewater treatment system installed to support the operation of a hazardous waste incinerator. The Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator (TSCAI), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), is designed and permitted to treat Resource ConservatioN and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes including characteristic and listed wastes and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated mixed waste. the incinerator process generates acidic gases and particulates which consist of salts, metals, and radionuclides. These off-gases from the incinerator are treated with a wet off-gas scrubber system. The recirculated water is continuously purged (below down), resulting in a wastewater to be treated. Additional water sources are also collected on the site for treatment, including storm water that infiltrates into diked areas and fire water from the incinerator's suppression system. To meet regulatory requirements for discharge, a wastewater treatment system (WWTS) was designed, constructed, and operated to treat these water sources. The WWTS was designed to provide for periodic fluctuation of contaminant concentrations due to various feed streams to the incinverator. Blow down consists of total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), encompassing metals, radionuclide contamination and trace organics. The system design flow rate range is 35 to 75 gallons per minute (gpm). The system is designed with redundancy to minimize time off-line and to reduce impacts to the TSCAI operations. A novel treatment system uses several unit operations, including chemical feed systems, two-stage chemical reaction treatment, microfiltration, sludge storage and dewatering, neutralization, granular activated carbon, effluent neutralization, and a complete programmable logic controller (PLC) and human-machine interface (HMI) control system. To meet the space requirements and to provide portability of the WWTS to other applications, the system was installed in three, over-the-road semi trailers, and interconnected with piping and power. Trailers were oriented on a small site footprint to facilitate ease of installation. A remote sump pump skid was provided to convey water from two holding sumps adjacent to the treatment process. An accumulation tank and pump were also provided to receive miscellaneous wastewaters for treatment if they meet the waste acceptance criteria. The paper includes details of the technology used in the design, the requirements for compliance, and the initial performance demonstration and jar testing results. The WWTS successfully allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment with compliant discharge to off-site surface water.

Swientoniewski M.D.

2008-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

12

Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Using economic incentives to regulate toxic substances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the mid- to late 1960s, economists at Resources for the Future and elsewhere have sounded a common theme when discussing environmental regulation. Specifically, they have recommended that, wherever possible, so-called command-and-control regulation (for instance, requirements that manufacturers install specific types of pollution control equipment) be replaced by the use of economic incentives such as the imposition of taxes on pollutant emissions or the introduction of a system of marketable permits limiting the amount of pollution that can be discharged during some specified period of time. In demonstrating the considerable advantages of incentive-based approaches--most importantly, the cost savings they make possible--environmental economists have almost always used as examples air and water pollutants that are discharged from easily identifiable smokestacks or outfall pipes at which continuous monitoring of emissions is at least conceivable if not already currently practiced.

Macauley, M.K.; Bowes, M.D.; Palmer, K.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Department of Toxic Substances Control Jump to: navigation, search Name California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control Place Sacramento,...

15

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1999 to 30 September 1999. During this period the MIT INAA procedures were revised to improve the quality of the analytical results. Two steps have been taken to reduce the analytical errors. A new nitric acid leaching procedure, modified from ASTM procedure D2492, section 7.3.1 for determination of pyritic sulfur, was developed by USGS and validated. To date, analytical results have been returned for all but the last complete round of the four-step leaching procedure. USGS analysts in Denver have halted development of the cold vapor atomic fluorescence technique for mercury analysis procedure in favor of a new direct analyzer for Hg that the USGS is in the process of acquiring. Since early June, emphasis at USGS has been placed on microanalysis of clay minerals in project coals in preparation for use of the Stanford/USGS SHRIMP RG Ion Microprobe during August 1999. The SHRIMP-RG data confirm that Cr is present at concentrations of about 20 to 120 ppm, just below the electron microprobe detection limits (100 to 200 ppm), as suspected from Phase 1 microprobe work and previous studies of clay mineral separates. The University of Utah has started trial runs on the drop tube furnace to ensure that the gas analysis system is working properly and that the flow pattern within the furnace is laminar and direct. A third set of ASTM samples will be prepared at the University of Utah for the Phase 1 and Phase 2 coals. This time the INAA counting time will be optimized for the elements in which the authors are interested, guided by the results from the first two samples. The iodated charcoal which was used by MIT for vapor phase Hg collection was tested to see whether it collected other vapor phase metals. A second set of tests were performed at PSI using the entrained flow reactor (EFR). The University of Arizona's pilot-scale downflow laboratory combustion furnace was used to test the partitioning of toxic metals in the baseline experiments for the Phase 2 North Dakota lignite and the Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal at baghouse inlet sampling conditions. In addition, baseline data were collected on combustion of the Phase 1 Kentucky Elkhorn/Hazard bituminous coal. Emphasis at the University of Kentucky was placed on (1) collection of new Hg XAFS data for various sorbents, and (2) on collection of XAFS and other data for arsenic, sulfur, chromium and selenium in two baseline ash samples from the University of Arizona combustion unit. A preliminary interpretation of the mercury data is given in this report. Revision was made to the matrix for the initial experiments on mercury-ash interactions to be conducted at EERC. The overall goal of this effort is to collect data which will allow one to model the interactions of mercury and fly ash (specifically, adsorption of Hg{sup 0} and Hg{sup +2} and oxidation of Hg{sup 0}) in the air heater and particulate control dev

C.L. Senior; T. Panagiotou; F.E. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F Sarofim; J. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowsky; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Photographer: Unknown Prepared by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

serves the public by using the best science, taking responsive public health actions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances. You may contact ATSDR toll free at 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryForeword: ATSDRs National Asbestos Exposure Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

now know that this vermiculite, which was shipped to many locations around the U.S. for processing, contained asbestos. The National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) is a project of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ATSDR is working with other federal, state, and local environmental, and public health agencies to evaluate public health impacts at sites that processed Libby vermiculite. The evaluations focus on the processing sites and on human health effects that might be associated with possible past or current exposures. They do not consider commercial or consumer use of the products of these facilities. The sites that processed Libby vermiculite will be evaluated by (1) identifying ways people could have been exposed to asbestos in the past and ways that people could be exposed now and (2) determining whether the exposures represent a public health hazard. ATSDR will use the information gained from the site-specific investigations to recommend further public health actions as needed. Site evaluations are progressing in two phases: Phase 1: ATSDR has selected 28 sites for the first phase of reviews on the basis of the following

Vermiculite Northwest

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Prevention, Abatement, and Control of Hazardous Substance Release (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Natural Resources is authorized to establish rules regarding the prevention and mitigation of hazardous substance release. These sections contain information on the notification...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Management Permits are required to construct, install, or modify any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum quantity for that contaminant. Minimum quantities are specified in Table III of these regulations. Permits will be granted based in part on the impact of the projected emissions of the stationary source on acceptable ambient levels

22

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on three tasks associated with the EPRI project, Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems. The first task is an investigation of the factors that influence and control the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at which a limestone forced oxidation FGD system operates. Both a literature review and a numerical analysis of full-scale wet FGD data were conducted. Results from this task are presented and discussed in Section 2 of the ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan  

SciTech Connect

Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Toxic Pollution Prevention Act (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the purpose of this Act to reduce the disposal and release of toxic substances which may have adverse and serious health and environmental effects, to promote toxic pollution prevention as...

27

Multiple sample characterization of coals and other substances by controlled-atmosphere programmed temperature oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace with two hot zones holds multiple analysis tubes. Each tube has a separable sample-packing section positioned in the first hot zone and a catalyst-packing section positioned in the second hot zone. A mass flow controller is connected to an inlet of each sample tube, and gas is supplied to the mass flow controller. Oxygen is supplied through a mass flow controller to each tube to either or both of an inlet of the first tube and an intermediate portion between the tube sections to intermingle with and oxidize the entrained gases evolved from the sample. Oxidation of those gases is completed in the catalyst in each second tube section. A thermocouple within a sample reduces furnace temperature when an exothermic condition is sensed within the sample. Oxidized gases flow from outlets of the tubes to individual gas cells. The cells are sequentially aligned with an infrared detector, which senses the composition and quantities of the gas components. Each elongated cell is tapered inward toward the center from cell windows at the ends. Volume is reduced from a conventional cell, while permitting maximum interaction of gas with the light beam. Reduced volume and angulation of the cell inlets provide rapid purgings of the cell, providing shorter cycles between detections. For coal and other high molecular weight samples, from 50% to 100% oxygen is introduced to the tubes.

LaCount, Robert B. (403 Arbor Ct., Waynesburg, PA 15370)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

LBNL Controlled Substance Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hazardous Waste Req Hazardous Waste Schedule ISM ISM-related Documents ISM - Safety at LBNL IT Systems (EHS) Job Hazards Analysis (JHA) Laser Mgmt. System Laser Safety Lessons...

29

Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics  

SciTech Connect

The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rittman, P.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

32

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ATSDR health consultation is a verbal or written response from ATSDR to a specific request for information about health risks related to a specific site, a chemical release, or the presence of hazardous material. In order to prevent or mitigate exposures, a consultation may lead to specific actions, such as restricting use of or replacing water supplies; intensifying environmental sampling; restricting site access; or removing the contaminated material. In addition, consultations may recommend additional public health actions, such as conducting health surveillance activities to evaluate exposure or trends in adverse health outcomes; conducting biological indicators of exposure studies to assess exposure; and providing health education for health care providers and community members. This concludes the health consultation process for this site, unless additional information is obtained by ATSDR which, in the Agencys opinion, indicates a need to revise or append the conclusions previously issued.

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A health consultation is a verbal or written response from ATSDR or ATSDRs Cooperative Agreement Partners to a specific request for information about health risks related to a specific site, a chemical release, or the presence of hazardous material. In order to prevent or mitigate exposures, a consultation may lead to specific actions, such as restricting use of or replacing water supplies; intensifying environmental sampling; restricting site access; or removing the contaminated material. In addition, consultations may recommend additional public health actions, such as conducting health surveillance activities to evaluate exposure or trends in adverse health outcomes; conducting biological indicators of exposure studies to assess exposure; and providing health education for health care providers and community members. This concludes the health consultation process for this site, unless additional information is obtained by ATSDR or ATSDRs Cooperative Agreement Partner which, in the Agencys opinion, indicates a need to revise or append the conclusions previously issued.

Borit Asbestos Site

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A health consultation is a verbal or written response from ATSDR or ATSDRs Cooperative Agreement Partners to a specific request for information about health risks related to a specific site, a chemical release, or the presence of hazardous material. In order to prevent or mitigate exposures, a consultation may lead to specific actions, such as restricting use of or replacing water supplies; intensifying environmental sampling; restricting site access; or removing the contaminated material. In addition, consultations may recommend additional public health actions, such as conducting health surveillance activities to evaluate exposure or trends in adverse health outcomes; conducting biological indicators of exposure studies to assess exposure; and providing health education for health care providers and community members. This concludes the health consultation process for this site, unless additional information is obtained by ATSDR or ATSDRs Cooperative Agreement Partner which, in the Agencys opinion, indicates a need to revise or append the conclusions previously issued.

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Smoke and toxic species analyses from controlled combustion of wood impregnated with guayule resin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dominant commercial treatments currently used for wood preservation are pentachlorophenols (PCP), creosote, and chromium copper arsenicals. These wood preservatives present many studied and documented environmental and toxicological problems with both use of the products themselves, and with the production of secondary reaction contaminants. Furthermore, several of these preservatives are considered priority pollutants according to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and are heavily regulated. The need for an environmentally benign combined fire/rot retardant treatment for wood that will effectively reduce both fire and decay is clearly evident. Guayule resin, a co-by-product during rubber extraction from the guayule shrub, is being explored by us as a natural, biodegradable wood rot and fire retardant with potential commercial applications. Wood impregnated with guayule resin has survived over eight years in tropical soils, free of rot, decay, and insect infestations. This study qualitatively analyzed the treated and untreated wood samples for ignitability, flame spread, toxic fumes, and smoke generation. Ignitability of the wood sample of fixed geometry was quantified by measuring the time required for ignition of treated samples vs. untreated samples. Flame spread was measured after ignition with a propane flame by a simple stopwatch-ruler technique. Smoke mass was determined in an Arapahoe Smoke Chamber as per ASTM D-4100. Analysis of the fumes involved continuous CO, C02, NOx, SOx, and 02 analyses using the Bacharach Instrument Model 300. Cascade impaction was used to determine the particle size distribution of the smoke and for smoke mass determination. Respirable particles were assessed by utilizing the Anderson 2000 Inc. 1 AFCM Ambient Particle Fractionating Sampler. Inflections of guayule-impregnated and untreated pine are indeed minor with respect to all aspects investigated. Ignition data indicated guayule-impregnated pine did not ignite as quickly as untreated pine. Evidence conveys favorable consideration for further research of wood preservation with guayule resin.

Smith, Lonnie

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems: 2013 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With proposed changes in current emissions regulations and recent EPA initiatives, most power producers have concluded that tighter limits on mercury, NOx, SO2, and primary particulates are inevitable. Likewise, more stringent controls for power plant emissions emphasize the need for more cost-effective pollutant reduction approaches. This report provides an update on results from an ongoing EPRI project directed at enhancing co-benefit capture of mercury and ...

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

37

Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay south to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum products such as gasoline and/or diesel) combustion as source inputs of combustion by-products to the atmosphere of the region and subsequently to the waters of Puget Sound.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Crecelius, Eric A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Gill, Gary A.; Garland, Charity R.; Williamson, J. B.; Dhammapala, R.

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

38

Soluble Substances and Evaporation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soluble Substances and Evaporation Soluble Substances and Evaporation Name: JD Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: FL Country: New Zealand Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Do soluble substances evaporate with the water? Replies: JD, As a general rule, no. If the soluble substance is a solid, then its boiling point is well above that of water, so it cannot possibly boil off. If the substance is a liquid, it may have a boiling point that is below that of water and will boil off at a lower temperature than water. If the boiling point is higher than that of water, than it will boil off after the water has evaporated. Some substances, like ethanol for example, form an "azeotrope" with water. The combination of ethanol and water form a tight intermolecular connection that makes the two substances boil off at the same time.

39

Toxic Hazard  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... cu the zones at each or tll(' ve-nts lx-twccn ... The ani- mal test for acute toxicity would then ... of the needed data would be provided by analytical testing. ...

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

40

A question of substance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the week of January 27th to February 2nd, 1986 a design symposium was held in the Department of Architecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This symposium, entitled "An Architecture of Substance" was ...

Gitlin, Jane M

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Evaluation of toxic emissions and residues from the controlled combustion of selected polystyrene, polyoelfins, and polyester materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth of the plastic industry over the past ten years has more than doubled and has been a significant factor in the growing Municipal Solid Waste disposal problems. The objective of this research was to identify toxic species that may be present in selected cellular plastics that could prove harmful to health and environment once disposed. An experimental procedure was established that would simulate foamed plastics in an open burning situation. The data collected is indicative of a incinerator situation, a method of disposal that is becoming more popular as landfills are more restrictive. To determine the possible release and effect of toxic species during combustion four analyses, were conducted. An Arapahoe Smoke Chamber was utilized to determine the smoke mass from selected materials in accordance with ASTM 4100-D, Standard Gravimetric Determination of Smoke Particulates from Combustion of Plastic Materials. Combustion analysis to determine the concentration (ppm) of NO, and S02 was conducted through the use of a Bacharach combustion analyzer model 300 NSX combustion analyzer. It was observed that the greatest releases of the by-products was from the materials that were characterized as sponges. The 6 lb/ ft2 carpet padding had the highest concentration of NOX with 346.03ppm/m while undergoing combustion in an enclosed environment. This material also had the greatest concentration of S02 at 97.20 ppm/mg. An Anderson 2000 Inc. 1 ACFM Ambient Particle Sizing Sampler (9 stage cascade impactor) was utilized to determine the percent particles that were respirable. The smoke generated during combustion produced particles that were 9195% respirable. The final analyses conducted was the determination of heavy metals content in the cellular plastic materials. Results from the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis indicated that there was a significant concentration of Tin, Aluminum, and Zinc in most of the plastics.

Bertrand, Charlotte Marie

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif_khan@rwjuh.edu [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)] [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Goyal, Sharad [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)] [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States)] [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States) [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Global warming. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and Environmental Oversight of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, December 10, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Scientists and public officials testified at a hearing held to explore the evidence and speculation that a warming trend is changing the global environment that was the conclusion of a 29-nation conference of private and government scientists. The witnesses described the potential environmental destruction caused by the greenhouse effect, but also noted that technological solutions in the form of controlling gases and reforestation are available. A consensus has emerged in recent years that gases formed under the greenhouse effect will have a greater effect on climate than any other factor. The witnesses included Ralph Circerone of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Syukuro Manage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Carl Sagan of Cornell. Two additional statements submitted for the record follow the testimony of the six witnesses.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

High-Dose Radiotherapy With or Without Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Cancer Control and Toxicity Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of short-course androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on cancer control outcomes and toxicity in intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (high-dose radiotherapy [HDRT]). Methods and Materials: Demographic, disease, and treatment characteristics of prostate cancer patients at 2 institution consortiums were charted. Of 296 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (defined as {>=}T2b, prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL, or Gleason score [GS] of 7, with none of the following: {>=}T3, prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, GS {>=}8, or positive nodes) treated with HDRT to a dose of 72 Gy or greater, 123 received short-course ADT and 173 did not. Univariate and multivariate analyses on biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) (including subset analysis by disease factors) and on overall survival (OS) were performed, as were comparisons of gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates. Results: For the whole group, the median dose was 75.6 Gy; the minimum follow-up was 2 years, and the median follow-up was 47.4 months. For ADT vs. no ADT, the 5-year BFFS rate was 86% vs. 79% (p = 0.138) and the 5-year OS rate was 87% vs. 80% (p = 0.159). On multivariate analysis, percent positive cores (PPC) (p = 0.002) and GS (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with BFFS, with ADT showing a trend (p = 0.055). The impact of ADT was highest in the subsets with PPC greater than 50% (p = 0.019), GS 4+3 (p = 0.078), and number of risk factors greater than 1 (p = 0.022). Only intensity-modulated radiotherapy use (p = 0.012) and GS (p = 0.023) reached significance for OS, and there were no significant differences in GU or GI toxicity. Conclusions: Although the use of ADT with HDRT did not influence BFFS, our study suggests a benefit in patients with PPC greater than 50%, GS 4+3, or multiple risk factors. No OS benefit was shown, and ADT was not associated with additional radiotherapy-related GI or GU toxicity.

Edelman, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rossi, Peter J.; Cooper, Sherrie [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jani, Ashesh B., E-mail: abjani@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Oil and Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota) Oil and Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota) Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural...

46

Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis.

Lipfert, F.W.; DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

Microsoft Word - LLNLControlledSubstancesFinal Report Cover 02032011 ws  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management of Controlled Management of Controlled Substances at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory INS-O-11-01 February 2011 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 February 10, 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, LIVERMORE SITE OFFICE FROM: Sandra D. Bruce Assistant Inspector General for Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Management of Controlled Substances at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory" BACKGROUND As part of its national defense mission, the Department of Energy's (Department) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore) actively engages in scientific, engineering, and environmental research activities. Livermore is managed and operated under contract by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration

48

Substances of Abuse and Work  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE AND WORK Mary L. Doyle, MPH, RN, COHN-5/CM DOE Headquarters January 16, 2002 Americans 12 Years and Older Using Dru s or Alcohol in the Past Month 1915 1995 1999 Substance Abuse in Industry * Drug use - associated with higher rates of )>absenteeism )>injury l> medical care utilization )> involuntary separation l> health care costs * Alcohol use in the workplace associated with l> absenteeism l> performance on specific tasks ::... mixed data on other outcomes Americans Over 12 Years Reporting Lifetime (Ever Used) Drug Use "'.11---------11--------l * Aloobol *Airf.Udruc 50.11---------11--------l * Mari- ODd ........ 40.11---------11----&.---l * Cocaiae *llalaciaogoal * Horoia Substance Abuse and Work

49

Emission Factors Handbook: Guidelines for Estimating Trace Substance Emissions from Fossil Fuel Steam Electric Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "Emission Factors Handbook" provides a tool for estimating trace substances emissions from fossil-fuel-fired power plants. The suggested emission factors are based on EPRI and Department of Energy (DOE) field measurements conducted at over 50 power plants using generally consistent sampling and analytical protocols. This information will help utility personnel estimate air toxic emissions for permitting purposes.

2002-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

50

Safe Handling Of Nuclear Substances Undergraduate Laboratories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safe Handling Of Nuclear Substances Undergraduate Laboratories There are three main hazards associated with working with unsealed sources of nuclear substances. These are: 1. Skin contamination and/or deposition of the nuclear substance in the body 2. Spread of contamination 3. External radiation In teaching

Beaumont, Christopher

51

Complementarity of Process and Substance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process Philosophy endeavours to replace the classical ontology of substances by a process ontology centered on notions of changes and transitions. We argue, that the substantial and processual approach are mutually complementary. Here, complementarity is to be understood in the sense of a "Generalized Quantum Theory", which is not restricted to physical phenomena. From this point of view, restricting oneself to either substance or process ontology would be as ill-advised as exclusively relying on position or momentum observables in physics. A new view on Zeno's paradox lends itself. The meaning of an "internal energy observable", complementary to inner time, and its relationship to "akategorial states" of the human mind will also be discussed.

Hartmann Roemer

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

52

Nanoparticle toxicity testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoparticle toxicity testing Nanoparticle toxicity testing 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Nanoparticle toxicity testing Assessing the potential health hazards of nanotechnology March 25, 2013 Robot In the search for more accurate and efficient techniques to evaluate the health hazards of nanoparticles, Los Alamos researchers are developing artificial human tissues and organs to replace animal test subjects. A new approach to toxicity testing under development at Los Alamos uses artificial tissue and artificial organs instead of animal testing Manufactured nanoparticles such as buckyballs and carbon nanotubes, used in products ranging from sunscreens to solar panels, are proliferating so quickly that safety testing for potential health hazards-similar to those

53

Emission Factors Handbook Addendum 2: Guidelines for Estimating Trace Substance Emissions from Fossil Fuel Steam Electric Power Plan ts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook provides a tool for estimating trace substances emissions from fossil-fuel-fired power plants. The suggested emission factors are based on EPRI and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) field measurements conducted at 51 power plants using generally consistent sampling and analytical protocols. This information will help utility personnel estimate air toxic emissions for permitting purposes.

2000-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Relating nanomaterial properties and microbial toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanomaterials are meeting diverse needs in consumer and industrial products. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are among the most commonly used materials and their potential for adversely affecting environmental systems raises concern. Complex microbial consortia underlie environmental processes, and the potential toxicity of nanoparticles to microbial systems, and the consequent impacts on trophic balances, is particularly worrisome. The diverse array of metal and metal oxides, the different sizes and shapes that can be prepared and the variety of possible surface coatings complicate toxicity assessments. Further complicating toxicity interpretations are the diversity of microbial systems and their metabolic capabilities. Here, we review various studies focused on nanoparticle-microbial interactions in an effort to correlate the physical-chemical properties of engineered metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to their biological response. Gaining a predictive understanding of nanoparticle toxicity, based on the physical-chemical properties of the material, will be key to the design and responsible use of nanotechnologies. General conclusions regarding the parent material of the nanoparticle and nanoparticle s size and shape on potential toxicity can be made. However, the surface coating of the material, which can be altered significantly by environmental conditions, can ameliorate or promote microbial toxicity. Understanding nanoparticle transformations and how the nanoparticle surface can be designed to control toxicity represents a key area for further study. Additionally, the vast array of microbial species and their intrinsic metabolic capabilities complicates extrapolations of nanoparticle toxicity. A molecular-based understanding of the various microbial responses to nanoparticle-induced stress is needed. Ultimately, to interpret the effect and eventual fate of engineered materials in the environment, an understanding of the relationship between nanoparticle properties and microbial response will be essential.

Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Extremely Hazardous Substances Risk Management Act (Delaware)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This act lays out provisions for local governments to implement regulations and standards for the management of extremely hazardous substances, which are defined and categorized as follows:

58

TRI (Toxic Chemical Release Inventory) for Power Plants RY2012 Version 1.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TRI for Power Plants is a powerful, user-friendly tool for estimating, tracking, and reporting releases of chemicalsprimarily trace substancesfrom fossil-fired steam electric plants. The spreadsheet-like tool has been applied by numerous energy companies to increase the efficiency and reduce the costs of Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)-related analyses while enhancing compliance ...

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

Substance Abuse Testing Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » New Employee Orientation » Substance Abuse Testing Services » New Employee Orientation » Substance Abuse Testing Program Substance Abuse Testing Program Executive Order 12564, Drug-Free Federal Workplace, states in part that "the use of illegal drugs or the use of legal drugs illegally by Federal employees impairs the efficiency of Federal Agencies, jeopardizes public health and safety, and violates the public trust." Substance abuse increases the burden on other employees who do not use illegal drugs and also is an economic problem due to lost productivity in the workplace, insurance claims, sick benefits, accidents, and theft. Abusers endanger all who rely on them for their well being and safety. The Department's Substance Abuse Testing Program covers all Federal employees of the Department of Energy. Authorization for this program comes

60

APPLICATION FOR NUCLEAR SUBSTANCE USER PERMIT 1. a) Principal Investigator: ________________________  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION FOR NUCLEAR SUBSTANCE USER PERMIT 1. a) Principal Investigator-Mail: ____________________________________ 2. Previous experience in nuclear substance work by applicant: ________________________________________________________________________ 3. List all rooms where nuclear substances will be used or stored

Beaumont, Christopher

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NK1 (substance P) receptor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nuclear factor- kappaB (NF-kB) and leads to the productionits expression is controlled by NF-kB (Patel et al. 2005;

Goldsmith, Laura E; Kwatra, Madan M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Developmental trajectories into substance use inadolescence.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal developmental characteristics of the association between mental health and substance use. N=1182 adolescents aged between 11 and 20 (more)

McAloon, Thomas John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part 1. Flammability and Toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or 'bio-oil', is coming into the market. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for specifications and supporting documentation. Bio-oil is different from conventional liquid fuels, and therefore must overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. A comprehensive Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required, backed with independent testing and certification. In order to standardise bio-oil quality specifications are needed. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM (D7544) was approved in 2009. CEN standardisation has been initiated in Europe. In the EU a new chemical regulation system, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) is being applied. Registration under REACH has to be made if bio-oil is produced or imported to the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under TOSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act). In this paper the state of the art on standardisation is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

Oasmaa, Anja; Kalli, Anssi; Lindfors, Christian; Elliott, Douglas C.; Springer, David L.; Peacocke, Cordner; Chiaramonti, David

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process. 4 figs.

Schweighardt, F.K.

1986-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The toxicity of X material  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses toxicity (largely chemical) of Manhattan Project materials from the point of worker protection. Known chemical toxicities of X material (uranium), nitrous fumes, fluorine, vanadium, magnesium, and lime are described followed by safe exposure levels, symptoms of exposure, and treatment recommendations. The report closes with an overview of general policy in a question and answer format.

Ferry, J.L.

1943-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

LARK-TRIPP RY2007 Version 1.1 update, A Toxic Release Inventory Estimation Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LARK-TRIPP RY2007, Version 1.1, is a software tool that estimates manufacture and release of toxic chemicals for reporting under EPA Toxics Release Inventory Program. This version replaces Version 1.0, product 1015610. Companies that do not fund Program 59 are required to purchase annual membership in a LARK-TRIPP Users Group. Descripton LARK-TRIPP is a powerful, user-friendly tool for estimating, tracking and reporting releases of chemicals primarily trace substances from fossil-fired steam electric pla...

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Oil shale: potential environmental impacts and control technology. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio (IERL-Ci) has performed research related to oil shale processing and disposal since 1973. This research is in support of the Clean Air Act, The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Potential environmental impacts from oil shale development activities have been identified and potential control technologies are being evaluated through a combination of laboratory and field tests on actual oil shale waste streams. This paper discusses recent results from this program. Included are field test results on control of sulfur gases at Occidental Oil Shale's Logan Wash Site and Geokinetic's Kamp Kerogen Site, wastewater treatability studies on retort water and gas condensate at Logan Wash, and results of laboratory and field testing on raw and retorted oil shales.

Bates, E.R.; Liberick, W.W.; Burckle, J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Control of Reproductive Hazards in the Workplace: A Prescription for Prevention  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As workers become more aware that occupational exposure to toxic substances can impair their ability to bring healthy children into the world. they will begin to focus on legal mechanisms for reducing reproductive hazards ...

Ashford, Nicholas

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

Not Available

1994-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

72

Risk Assessment of Toxic Pollutants From Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities operating coal-fired power plants must weigh the cost of controlling toxic releases against the risk of adverse human health effects. An EPRI-developed analytic framework offers guidance for such assessments, outlining mathematical modeling procedures for tracking pollutants in the environment and for estimating potential health risks to nearby populations.

1987-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

73

System and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating presence of substance  

SciTech Connect

A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

Smith, Maurice (Kansas City, MO); Lusby, Michael (Kansas City, MO); Van Hook, Arthur (Lotawana, MO); Cook, Charles J. (Raytown, MO); Wenski, Edward G. (Lenexa, KS); Solyom, David (Overland Park, KS)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

74

System and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating presence of substance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

Smith, Maurice (Kansas City, MO); Lusby, Michael (Kansas City, MO); Van Hook, Arthur (Lake Lotawana, MO); Cook, Charles J. (Raytown, MO); Wenski, Edward G. (Lenexa, KS); Solyom, David (Overland Park, KS)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

System And Method For Identifying, Reporting, And Evaluating Presence Of Substance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for identifying, reporting, and evaluating a presence of a solid, liquid, gas, or other substance of interest, particularly a dangerous, hazardous, or otherwise threatening chemical, biological, or radioactive substance. The system comprises one or more substantially automated, location self-aware remote sensing units; a control unit; and one or more data processing and storage servers. Data is collected by the remote sensing units and transmitted to the control unit; the control unit generates and uploads a report incorporating the data to the servers; and thereafter the report is available for review by a hierarchy of responsive and evaluative authorities via a wide area network. The evaluative authorities include a group of relevant experts who may be widely or even globally distributed.

Smith, Maurice (Kansas City, MO); Lusby, Michael (Kansas City, MO); Hook, Arthur Van (Lake Lotawana, MO); Cook, Charles J. (Raytown, MO); Wenski, Edward G. (Lenexa, KS); Solyom, David (Overland Park, KS)

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

FAMILY ENVIRONMENT AND SUBSTANCE USE IN ADOLESCENT MALES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between several aspects of family environment and adolescent substance use. Participants included 372 (M = (more)

Brechting, Emily H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Investigation on Modified Humic Substances Based Binders for Iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Investigation on Modified Humic Substances Based Binders for Iron ... An Electron Microscopy Study of Nanoscale Surface and Sub-Surface...

78

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2Z Z - + Z + E 0 -2.8V A Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery -+- -+- Components Compound Z Tetraethylammonium Tetrafluoroborate (TEA-BF 4 )...

79

Toxicity of chemical compounds used for enhanced oil recovery. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this report is to assess the toxicological nature of compounds used in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies so that the Department of Energy (DOE) can delineate the possible constraints to EOR commercialization that the toxicity of these substances could pose. In addition, research priorities are recommended to the DOE so that these constraints can be overcome in as safe and expedient manner as possible. In evaluating the toxicity of EOR chemicals, priority is given to the many chemicals which are now available commercially and are being used in a significant fashion in current EOR field tests. Specific attention has been paid to those chemicals which are used most extensively and to the human health effects data that are associated with them. These data are presented in Chapter Two. Information on toxicological concepts and a glossary of terms is presented in a separate appendix. Long-term environmental effects are not addressed in this document, but the possibility of impacts due to the toxic properties of certain chemicals is discussed briefly in the research recommendations. A table of aquatic toxicity data is included as Appendix C. The toxicity of EOR chemicals used is given for each of the following major secondary and tertiary recovery methods: micellar/polymer flooding technology; miscible carbon dioxide technology; in situ combustion technology; alkaline flooding and preflush technologies; and steam soak and steam drive technologies.

Silvestro, E.; Crocker, M.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Toxic combustion by-products: Generation, separation, cleansing, containment  

SciTech Connect

Focus of this paper is on diagnosis, control, and containment of potentially toxic combustion byproducts when mixed wastes are treated at elevated temperatures. Such byproducts fall into several categories: acid gases, particulates, metals, organics. Radionuclides are treated as a subset of metals, while organics are divided into two subclasses: products of incomplete combustion, and principal organic hazardous constituents. An extended flue gas cleaning system is described which can be used to contain potentially toxic organic emissions and recycle the hazrdous materials for further treatment; it uses oxygen rather than air to reduce total quantities of emissions, improve efficiency of oxidation, and minimize NOx emissions. Flue gas recycling is used for cooling and for containing all potentially toxic emissions. Three thermal treatment unit operations are used in series for more effective process control; three emission separation and containment unit operations are also used in series in the toxic emission containment system. Real time diagnostic hardware/software are used. Provision is made for automatic storage, separation of hazardous materials, commodity regeneration, and recycling of potentially harmful constituents. The greenhouse gas CO2 is recovered and not emitted to the atmosphere.

Kephart, W.; Eger, K. [Foster-Wheeler Environmental Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelo, F. [Resource Energy Corp., Fort Smith, AR (United States); Clemens, M.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

EO 12088: Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

088-Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards 088-Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards SOURCE: The provisions of Executive Order 12088 of October 13,1978, appear at 43 FR 47707, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, unless otherwise noted. By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, including Section 22 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2621), Section 313 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1323), Section 1447 of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300j-6), Section 118of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7418(b)), Section 4 of the Noise Control Act of 1972 (42 U.S.C. 4903), Section 6001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6961), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United

82

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional...

83

Resource Management Services: Water Regulation, Parts 595-599: Hazardous Substances (New York)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations aim to prevent the release of hazardous substances into surface water and groundwater resources. They contain guidance for facilities which store and process hazardous substances,...

84

Toxic Chemical Agent Decontamination Emulsions, Their ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This invention is related to decontaminating agents and amethod for the decontamination of ... which have been contaminated with toxic chemical agents ...

85

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions. ... (PVC or vinyl) products have a wide range of chlorine that ... and also the plasticizers in ...

86

URANIUM PROJECT WATER-SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES IN KVANEFJELD LUJAVRITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

URANIUM PROJECT WATER-SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES IN KVANEFJELD LUJAVRITE NOVEMBER 1982 Emil S0rensen #12 a sample of 14.000 tonnes was mined from a 900 m long tunnel about 150 m below surface level. During

87

Page 9, Department of Energy Substance Abuse Testing Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 of 11 Previous Page DOE Substance Abuse Testing Program Executive Order 12564, Drug-Free Federal Workplace, states in part that "the use of illegal drugs or the use of legal...

88

Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 9, 2007, the EPA released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70 percent of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

Information Center

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

89

Science first - Contributions of a university-industry toxic substances research and teaching program to economic development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

here is that the state funding led to new grants that wouldThe fo- cused state funding led to a rapid multiplication of

Bradshaw, T K; Kennedy, K M; Davis, P R; Lloyd, L L; Gwebu, N; Last, Jerold A

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications  

SciTech Connect

Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

92

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Yes Implementing Sector StateProvince Program Administrator Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Primary Website http:www.dem.ri.govpubsregsregsair...

93

Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate CuO and ZnO to Soil Bacterial Communities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing industrial application of metal oxide Engineered Nano-Particles (ENPs) is likely to increase their environmental release to soils. While the potential of metal oxide ENPs as environmental toxicants has been shown, lack of suitable control treatments have compromised the power of many previous assessments. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of ENP (nano) forms of Zn and Cu oxides in two different soils by measuring their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. We could show a direct acute toxicity of nano-CuO acting on soil bacteria while the macroparticulate (bulk) form of CuO was not toxic. In comparison, CuSO4 was more toxic than either oxide form. Unlike Cu, all forms of Zn were toxic to soil bacteria, and the bulk-ZnO was more toxic than the nano-ZnO. The ZnSO4 addition was not consistently more toxic than the oxide forms. Consistently, we found a tight link between the dissolved concentration of metal in solution and the inhibition of bacterial growth. The inconsistent toxicological response between soils could be explained by different resulting concentrations of metals in soil solution. Our findings suggested that the principal mechanism of toxicity was dissolution of metal oxides and sulphates into a metal ion form known to be highly toxic to bacteria, and not a direct effect of nano-sized particles acting on bacteria. We propose that integrated efforts toward directly assessing bioavailable metal concentrations are more valuable than spending resources to reassess ecotoxicology of ENPs separately from

Johannes Rousk; Kathrin Ackermann; Simon F. Curling; Davey L. Jones

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Occupational Medicine in Employee Assistance and Substance Abuse Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Employee Assistance and Substance Abuse Programs Employee Assistance and Substance Abuse Programs Departmental requirements provide for support of both Federal and contractor employees with respect to crisis intervention, assessment, short-term counseling, case management, management consultation, education, and training (and the promotion thereof), and prevention. These include services for all behavioral problems, ensuring that medical evaluations are obtained before or as part of psychiatric evaluations to determine whether behavioral problems are caused by medical conditions. The following policy, guidance, and additional resources may apply. 1. Employee Assistance Programs 2. Substance Abuse Programs 1. Employee Assistance Programs Federal Employees Federal Employee Health Services: Occupational Medicine, Employee Assistance, and Workers' Compensation Programs (DOE O 341.1A, 2007)

95

Forceful Fluid: Scientists Discover a Starchy Substance with Oily  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Forceful Fluid: Scientists Discover a Starchy Substance with Oily Forceful Fluid: Scientists Discover a Starchy Substance with Oily Applications Forceful Fluid: Scientists Discover a Starchy Substance with Oily Applications February 16, 2011 - 5:14pm Addthis At left, highly turbulent behavior as water flows into (clear) oil. At right, all turbulence is suppressed by using cornstarch. | Department of Energy Photo | Courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Public Domain At left, highly turbulent behavior as water flows into (clear) oil. At right, all turbulence is suppressed by using cornstarch. | Department of Energy Photo | Courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Public Domain Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science Bachelor kitchens are rarely known for their cleanliness. One reason is

96

Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

Kirby, John A. (Las Vegas, NV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Evaluation of Sediment Toxicity Using a Suite of Assessment Tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate characterization of risk of adverse ecological effects related to contaminated sediment presents a particularly difficult challenge. A series of studies has been conducted to investigate the utility of various tools for assessment of sediment toxicity. The goal of this research was to provide information which could help increase the accuracy with which predictions of toxicity could be made at hazardous sites. A calibration study was conducted using model PAHs, PCBs, a binary PAH mixture and a coal-tar mixture. This study was a collaborative effort among five university-based Superfund Research Programs (SRPs). Each program, with the help of funding through the NIEHS Superfund Research Program, has developed a chemical-class specific assay to estimate toxicity of contaminants in sediment. This suite of bioassays expands the range of data typically obtained through the use of standard aquatic toxicity assays. A series of caged in situ exposure studies has been conducted using juvenile Chinook salmon and Pacific staghorn sculpin in the Lower Duwamish Waterway. The study aimed to investigate the utility of selected biomarkers in evaluating the relationship between contaminants present in environmental samples and response in receptors following an in situ caged exposure. Results found that DNA adducts detected in exposed fish were significantly higher than controls in 2004 and 2006, and DNA adducts appear to be a reliable indicator of exposure, although no dose-response relationship was present. Western blot analysis of CYP1A1 was not indicative of exposure levels. The final study conducted was concerned with evaluating the utility of using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers in situ to evaluate contaminated sediment. Levels of PAHs and PCBs in sediment often exceeded sediment quality guidelines; however, results from aquatic toxicity bioassays using Hyalella azteca were mostly negative, thus levels of contaminants detected on SPME fibers could not be associated with adverse effects in Hyalella. However, regression analysis of total PAHs present in sediment and levels of PAHs detected in porewater SPME fiber samplers, which were placed 5 cm into the sediment for 30 days, revealed a strongly correlated linear relationship (R2 = .779). Normalization of the sediment data to total organic carbon was performed to determine if the trend would remain present, and the linear relationship was again confirmed (R2 =.709).

Kelley, Matthew A

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method for warning of radiological and chemical substances using detection paints on a vehicle surface  

SciTech Connect

A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

99

DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive evaluation of human health risks from trace substances in electric utility stack plumes was carried out for each of 600 U.S. power plants. Emissions estimates were based on measurements at 43 units. Under realistic assumptions of exposure and plant configuration, inhalation risks were well below one in one million for increased cancer likelihood to all individuals exposed to emissions from power plants. Mercury case studies at four power plants showed health risks lower than federal guide...

1995-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

102

Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report: Volumes 1-4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive evaluation of human health risks from trace substances in electric utility stack plumes was carried out for each of 600 U.S. power plants. Emissions estimates were based on measurements at 43 units. Under realistic assumptions of exposure and plant configuration, inhalation risks were well below one in one million for increased cancer likelihood to all individuals exposed to emissions from power plants. Mercury case studies at four power plants showed health risks lower than federal guide...

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

103

Transformation of the hadronic and subhadronic substances under extreme conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Very dense and/or hot hadronic substance (e.g. the one with energy density greatly exceeding that of a normal nucleus) transforms itself into a subhadronic substance which obeys macroscopic classical physics, in particular suffers phase transitions. The most popular Single Phase Transition Model (SPTM) assumes that the new phase is the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) consisting of deconfined, chiral symmetric, pointlike "current" quarks q and gluons g of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This paper is devoted to another, Double Phase Transition Model (DPTM) according to which hadronic substance (H) and QGP transform one into another via an intermediate phase consisting of deconfined constituent massive quarks Q which for brevity sake we call also equivalently valons (Q, valonic phase) with broken chiral symmetry (plus pions as Goldstone particles). I. e. we consider the phase transformation chain H-Q-QGP instead of usually assumed H-QGP. The phase transition H-Q is the Hagedorn one and corresponds to the Hagedorn temperature. Connection with the relativistic heavy ion collision is discussed. H-Q transformation may take place even at low (e.g. Dubna) energies.

E. L. Feinberg

1997-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

104

Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and HIF-1{alpha} induction in acetaminophen toxicity in mice occurs without hypoxia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HIF-1{alpha} is a nuclear factor important in the transcription of genes controlling angiogenesis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both hypoxia and oxidative stress are known mechanisms for the induction of HIF-1{alpha}. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are mechanistically important in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. MPT may occur as a result of oxidative stress and leads to a large increase in oxidative stress. We previously reported the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in mice with APAP toxicity and have shown that VEGF is important in hepatocyte regeneration following APAP toxicity. The following study was performed to examine the relative contribution of hypoxia versus oxidative stress to the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Time course studies using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole showed no staining for pimonidazole at 1 or 2 h in B6C3F1 mice treated with APAP. Staining for pimonidazole was present in the midzonal to periportal regions at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and no staining was observed in centrilobular hepatocytes, the sites of the toxicity. Subsequent studies with the MPT inhibitor cyclosporine A showed that cyclosporine A (CYC; 10 mg/kg) reduced HIF-1{alpha} induction in APAP treated mice at 1 and 4 h and did not inhibit the metabolism of APAP (depletion of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls and hepatic protein adduct levels). The data suggest that HIF-1{alpha} induction in the early stages of APAP toxicity is secondary to oxidative stress via a mechanism involving MPT. In addition, APAP toxicity is not mediated by a hypoxia mechanism.

Chaudhuri, Shubhra, E-mail: schaudhuri@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); McCullough, Sandra S., E-mail: mcculloughsandras@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hennings, Leah, E-mail: henningsleah@uams.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Letzig, Lynda [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Simpson, Pippa M., E-mail: psimpson@mcw.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Hinson, Jack A., E-mail: hinsonjacka@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); James, Laura P., E-mail: lameslaurap@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Rat liver mitochondrial and microsomal tests for the assessment of quinone toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Short-term toxicity tests using mitochondrial and microsomal metabolism were developed and applied to a series of eight quinones. In the mitochondrial assay, the degree to which test compounds inhibited mitochondrial respiration varied from an effective concentration (EC50) of 9 to 125 [mu]M. In the microsomal assay, the maximum percentage of increase over control oxygen consumption rates elicited by the quinones ranged from 8 to 837%. The ability of the compounds to stimulate microsomal oxygen uptake reflects their capability to redox cycle and form reactive oxygen species. Results of the mitochondrial and microsomal assay were statistically correlated with several quinone physicochemical parameters and qualitatively compared to reduction potential. The biological response observed in both test systems appeared to be most strongly influenced by the reduction potential of the quinone. Biomechanisms of action were suggested on the basis of this relationship. To assess the ability of the mitochondrial and microsomal assays to indicate toxicity of the quinonoid compounds, results were statistically correlated with literature-derived toxicity data. It was concluded that the mitochondrial assay appears to be a valid indicator of acute toxicity, whereas the microsomal assay better portends the potential for chronic toxicity.

Bramble, L.A.; Boardman, G.D.; Dietrich, A.M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Bevan, D.R. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Toxic chemicals and technological society: decision-making strategies when errors can be catastrophic  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainties about chemical dangers are so great that major errors seem inevitable; long lags before feedback may inhibit learning about errors in time to prevent irreversible, catastrophic consequences; the number of chemicals is enourmous, and sensible action requires esoteric knowledge. How have decision makers reponded to this predicament. It is shown that a diverse repertoire of regulatory procedures gradually evolved, encompassing an increasing number of toxics problems, in piecemeal response to poisoning incidents and other negative feedback. Advance testing strategies designed to eliminate lags between introduction of new chemicals and feedback about their dangers are analyzed. Another new regulatory strategy examined is intended to ease the problem of number by focusing attention on especially dangerous substances. Pesticide policy is analyzed. While costly errors occurred using trial and error, diverse forms of feedback led to substitution of less persistent pesticides and to regulatory processes that set priorities, reduce time lag, and use explicit strategies to mitigate the severity of remaining errors. The process by which chemical threats to the ozone layer were diagnosed and acted upon is examined. The author summarizes the analysis, presents a revised conception of decision making on risky technological issues, evaluates the known health effects from toxic chemicals, and suggests additional policy options. Overall, the research reveals surprisingly sensible strategies for preventing and mitigating potentially catastrophic errors; but implementation obstacles are severe.

Woodhouse, E.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) 1987--1996  

SciTech Connect

The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), published annually by the US EPA, is a valuable source of information about over 300 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released into the environment. Using this information, citizens, businesses, and governments can work together to protect the quality of their land, air and water. The new software used in the 1987--1996 TRI CD-ROM, is flexible and powerful, capable of searching over 200 fields (e.g., by chemical, company, kind of release, or zip code, and across multiple years of data). The CD-ROM also allows users to conduct multiple and complex queries, which are especially useful to those who wish to analyze trends or perform statistical analysis. The following information is found on the TRI CD: facility name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium -- air, land, and water -- annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; and optional information on waste minimization. In addition to the TRI data, the CD-ROM provides a wealth of other TRI information, such as: tutorial, Annual TRI Data Release Book, State Fact Sheets; TRI`s reporting Forms R and A; and Chemical Fact Sheets on many of the TRI chemicals. The 1987--1996 TRI CD-ROM is a user-friendly Windows application that includes LANDVIEW III, a geographic information systems (GIS) package. The GIS package allows the user to locate TRI facilities and other EPA sites in relation to roads, rivers, schools, hospitals and more.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

111

Resiliency factors and substance use among Manitoba First Nation girls living on reserve.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between adversity, resiliency and substance use among Manitoba First Nation girls living on reserve, ages (more)

Campbell, Rhonda Dawn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

EXAMINING THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY, PEERS, AND THE TRANSITION TO COLLEGE ON SUBSTANCE USE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It is well established that there is an increase in substance use among college students. In the literature, this increase in use has been attributed (more)

Bailey, Ursula Louise

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Substance use in bipolar disorder : associations with age at onset, treatment delay and outcome.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between substance use and central aspects of bipolar disorder (BD); the development or onset (more)

Lagerberg, Trine Vik

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Influence of biologically-active substances on {sup 137}Cs and heavy metals uptake by Barley plant  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: When solving the problem of contaminated agricultural lands rehabilitation, most of attention is concentrated on the effective means which allow the obtaining of ecologically safe production. The minimization of radionuclides and heavy metals (HM) content in farm products on the basis of their migration characteristics in agro-landscapes and with the regard for different factors influencing contaminants behavior in the soil-plant system is of great significance. Our investigation has shown that the effect of biologically active substances (BAS) using for seeds treatment on {sup 137}Cs transfer to barley grown on Cd contaminated soil was dependent on their properties and dosage, characteristics of soil contamination and biological peculiarities of plants, including stage of plants development. Seeds treatment by plant growth regulator Zircon resulted in a significant increase in {sup 137}Cs activity in harvest (40- 50%), increase in K concentration and significant reduction in Ca concentration. Increased Cd content in soil reduced {sup 137}Cs transfer to barley plants by 30-60% (p<0,05) and Zircon application further reduced its concentration. Ambiol and El also reduced {sup 137}Cs uptake by roots and Cd and Pb phyto-toxicity. The experimental data do not make it possible to link the BAS effect on inhibition of {sup 137}Cs absorption by plants directly with their influence on HM phyto-toxicity. The dependence of Concentration Ratio of {sup 137}Cs on the Ambiol and El dose was not proportional and the most significant decrease in the radionuclide uptake by plants was reported with the use of dose showing the most pronounced stimulating effect on the barley growth and development. The pre-sowing seed treatment with Ambiol increased Pb absorption by 35-50% and, on the contrary, decreased Cd uptake by plants by 30-40%. (authors)

Kruglov, Stanislav; Filipas, Alexander [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

M. J. Holmes

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

116

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

117

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Advanced Emission Control Development Program.  

SciTech Connect

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Information Collection Request (ICR) Data Analysis to Meet Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), power companies are looking for ways to comply with more stringent limits on emissions. This report summarizes the results of a study to identify trends among the operating parameters of various air pollutant control technologies that could explain differences in the levels of emissions for fine particulate matter, mercury, hydrochloric acid, and total metals reported to the ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

120

ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

Kennedy, J.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Gel entrapment culture of rat hepatocytes for investigation of tetracycline-induced toxicity  

SciTech Connect

This paper aimed to explore three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes for testing drug-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gel entrapped rat hepatocytes were applied for investigation of the tetracycline-induced steatohepatitis, while hepatocyte monolayer was set as a control. The toxic responses of hepatocytes were systematically evaluated by measuring cell viability, liver-specific function, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, adenosine triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results suggested that gel entrapped hepatocytes showed cell death after 96 h of tetracycline treatment at 25 {mu}M which is equivalent to toxic serum concentration in rats, while hepatocyte monolayer showed cell death at a high dose of 200 {mu}M. The concentration-dependent accumulation of lipid as well as mitochondrial damage were regarded as two early events for tetracycline hepatotoxicity in gel entrapment culture due to their detectability ahead of subsequent increase of oxidative stress and a final cell death. Furthermore, the potent protection of fenofibrate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate were evidenced in only gel entrapment culture with higher expressions on the genes related to {beta}-oxidation than hepatocyte monolayer, suggesting the mediation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial damage in tetracycline toxicity. Overall, gel entrapped hepatocytes in three-dimension reflected more of the tetracycline toxicity in vivo than hepatocyte monolayer and thus was suggested as a more relevant system for evaluating steatogenic drugs.

Shen Chong [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Meng Qin [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: mengq@zju.edu.cn; Schmelzer, Eva; Bader, Augustinus [Biotechnological-Biomedical Center, Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cover is important to aquatic habitat and fisheries often try to improve habitats by addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments and to a lesser extent in freshwater and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material benefiting fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have quantified the importance of tire reefs to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are placed in canals. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the past because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are inert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is in the literature. Stone demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. found no harmful substances leached from tire material soaked in fresh water. Because there are few data on toxicity associated with tires, this became the focus of our study. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures developed by the EPA were used to evaluate water quality impacted by tires. 17 refs., 4 figs.

Nelson, S.M.; Mueller, G. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)); Hemphill, D.C. (Lower Colorado Regional Office, Boulder City, NV (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

NETL: Health Effects - Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the potential for adverse cardiopulmonary effects of airborne...

126

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This broader assessment considered 65 different air toxics including metals, PAHs, coke oven emissions, and diesel particulate matter (DPM). Source apportionment yielded...

127

COMPTEURS 010CERENKOV A SUBSTANCES FLUORESCENTES G. COSME, S. JULLIAN et J. LEFRANOIS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

297. COMPTEURS 010CERENKOV A SUBSTANCES FLUORESCENTES G. COSME, S. JULLIAN et J. LEFRAN?OIS, ?cole possibilité d'utiliser des substances fluorescentes dissoutes dans différents radiateurs 010Cerenkov liquidesCerenkov counter. It was found that Popop was the most suitable shifter studied. Ethylene glycol

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Cross-functional environmental initiatives : addressing Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) technical challenges at Sun Microsystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Union (EU) passed the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, effective January 2006, banning the sale of electronics equipment containing lead and five other hazardous substances into EU countries. ...

Greenlaw, Tamara

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Radiation-Induced Cardiac Toxicity After Therapy for Breast Cancer: Interaction Between Treatment Era and Follow-Up Duration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Cardiac toxicity after breast radiotherapy (RT) has been widely described in 'older' RT trials (i.e., using larger fraction sizes, wide RT fields, and orthovoltage energy). The results from more 'modern' RT trials have shown less cardiac toxicity. The comparisons between the 'older' and 'modern' trials are confounded by the longer follow-up time in the 'older' trials. We systematically assessed the effect of treatment era and follow-up duration on the reported rates of cardiac toxicity associated with RT. Methods and Materials: The published data were surveyed using PubMed to identify studies using 'breast cancer,' 'irradiation/radiotherapy,' 'cardiac/heart,' and 'toxicity/morbidity/mortality' in a keyword search. Relevant data were extracted from the identified trials. The trials were defined as 'older' (patient accrual start year before 1980) and 'modern' (patient accrual start year in or after 1980) to segregate the trials and assess the treatment era effect. A 10-year follow-up duration was used as a cutoff to segregate and analyze trials with varying lengths of follow-up. Results: We analyzed 19 published reports of patients treated between 1968 and 2002 (5 randomized controlled trials, 5 single- or multi-institutional studies, and 9 national cancer registry database reviews). In the reviewed trials, all the older trials reported excess cardiac toxicity, typically with a median of >10-15 years of follow-up. However, the vast majority of modern RT trials had shorter median follow-up durations, typically {<=}10 years and did not report an excess toxicity risk. The modern studies lacked longer follow-up. Conclusion: Additional follow-up is needed to ensure that modern methods effectively reduce cardiac toxicity. Continued diligence to minimize cardiac exposure remains prudent.

Demirci, Senem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Nam, Jiho; Hubbs, Jessica L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Nguyen, Thu [Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)], E-mail: marks@med.unc.edu

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Tools for Policy Making Speaker(s): Jennifer Logue Date: October 27, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines air toxics as pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health effects. Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act established 189 chemicals as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants. Large uncertainties still exist regarding exposure, risks, and sources and there has been a heavy reliance on inventories and modeling to determine sources and risks. In January 2002, Carnegie Mellon University in collaboration with the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) embarked on a project to investigate air toxics in Allegheny County. This

131

STResS (Simulated Toxicant-Related Stress) documentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

STResS (Simulated Toxicant-Related Stress) is a program written in DEC FORTRAN v. 6.2. This program can be run either interactively or batch mode. This program is designed to model the effects of toxicant exposure on a simulated population of a specific species, as well as the effects of the toxicant on the demographic and genetic characteristics. The toxic effect on the time-to-death is based on an accelerated failure time model in which the time-to-death depends on size, sex and genotype, toxicant concentration, and frequency and duration of exposure. Sexual, fecundity, and meiotic drive/gametic selection can also be included. Multiple simulations can be run for a user-specified number of gestation periods of user-specified length. The effect of winter can be included, and the exposure duration can be changed once during each simulation, if desired.

Greene, K.D.; Newman, M.C.; Jagoe, R.H.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

NUCLEAR SUBSTANCE LABORATORY SELF-AUDIT CHECKLIST Office of Environmental Health and Safety Title: Radiation Safety Self-Audit Checklist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEAR SUBSTANCE LABORATORY SELF-AUDIT CHECKLIST Office of Environmental Health and Safety Title for Handling Packages Containing Nuclear Substances" posters posted. Storage area signed, included 24 hour contact information Nuclear Substance Permit and all attachments posted (eg. Conditions ­ general, special

Beaumont, Christopher

133

A Comparison of the Effects of Petroleum Substances on the Settlement of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Galveston Bay, Texas, the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is found throughout the bay both intertidal along mudflats and subtidal where their self-built reefs extend vertically deeper. The eastern oyster is an important ecological and economical resource and as such has led to studies regarding their community structure to permit effective creation of artificially built reefs and restoration of existing ones. The presence of the oil and gas industry coupled with increased oyster mortality led to investigations to determine the effects of petroleum substances on the setting, growth, and mortality of the eastern oyster. Many of those studies indicated increased settlement and increased growth of oysters on substrate coated with oil. A field conducted experiment was used to assess the settlement of oyster larvae on cleaned oyster shells coated with two different types of petroleum substances (mineral oil and motor oil), comparing viscosities, in a shallow bayou in Galveston, Texas, where the eastern oyster dominates the intertidal zone. Oyster shells were used as cultch material and divided into three groups; a non-treated control group, mineral oil treated group, and a motor oil treated group. Nekton assemblages, distributions of the ivory barnacle, Balanus eberneus, and Dermo disease infection were assessed. Settlement of oyster larvae occurred in all three groups with no significant difference of preference; algae and sediment present on the shells coupled with the presence of predators most likely caused reduced numbers of spat settlement. Species richness was equal among the groups but varied in evenness of individual species.

Alsept, Karen Sue

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Alleviation of aluminum toxicity by phosphogypsum  

SciTech Connect

Effects of phosphogypsum (PG) on subsoil solution properties and aluminum (Al) speciation were evaluated in this study. A subsoil sample from the Appling series (Typic Hapludults) was treated with either increasing levels of PG (2, 5, and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG), reagent-grade CaSo{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}), or CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) and incubated (22 {plus minus} 2{degree}C) at {minus}0.01 MPa moisture potential. Soil solution pH was 5.67 in untreated soil, while increasing application of PG from 2 to 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} decreased the soil solution pH from 5.08 to 4.47. The soil solution pH was higher in soils treated with similar rates of PG or CaSO{sub 4} {center dot}2H{sub 2}O than CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O. Increasing levels of PG increased the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Si, Mn, F and SO{sub 4} in the soil solution. The concentration of total Al in soil solution was 0.02, 1.95 and 5,25 ppm in soils treated with 2, 5 and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG, respectively. However, Al speciation predicted by the GEOCHEM computer program revealed that at the 5 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, 99% and 0.6% of total Al was complexed with F and SO{sub 4}, respectively, while only 0.3% was in Al{sup 3+} form. At the 10T ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, although 10% of total Al was in Al{sup 3+} form, the activity of Al{sup 3+} was only 0.11 ppm. Therefore, an increase in concentrations of F and SO{sub 4} in soil solution in PG treated soils may alleviate Al toxicity by formation of less phytotoxic Al-F and Al-SO{sub 4} complexes. The toxicity of Al may be further decreased by further by a reduction in activity of Al{sup 3+} due to an increase in soil solution ionic strength in PG treated soils.

Alva, A.K.; Sumner, M.E.; Noble, A.D. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Marijuana Use Among Clinic-Referred Hispanic American Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders: Gender Differences in Predictors of Growth Trajectory Parameters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study was undertaken to evaluate gender differences in predictors of substance use in clinic-referred, Hispanic American adolescents with substance use disorders. Individual (disruptive behavior (more)

Kaczynski, Karen Jill

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

(1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

137

Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances (a) In general The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and on-going medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of the exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such empIoyment. (b) Implementation of program ( I ) The Secretary shall, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, issue regulations under which the Secretary shall implement the program. Such regulations shall, to the extent practicable, provide for a process to- (A) identify the hazardous substances and radioactive substances to which

138

Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 50 CHAPTER 42 SUBCHAPTER VI Part C 5 2733 Program to monitor Department of Energy workers exposed to hazardous and radioactive substances (a) In general The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and on-going medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of the exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such empIoyment. (b) Implementation of program ( I ) The Secretary shall, with the concurrence of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, issue regulations under which the Secretary shall implement the program. Such regulations shall, to the extent practicable, provide for a process to- (A) identify the hazardous substances and radioactive substances to which

139

Modification of the Khler Equation to Include Soluble Trace Gases and Slightly Soluble Substances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generalized reformulation of the Khler theory to include the effect of soluble gases and slightly soluble aerosol substances is presented. A single equation is derived that takes into account 1) the Kelvin effect; 2) the Raoult effect caused ...

Ari Laaksonen; Pekka Korhonen; Markku Kulmala; Robert J. Charlson

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

10 CFR 707 - Contractor Workplace Substance Abuse Program at DOE Sites |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10 CFR 707 - Contractor Workplace Substance Abuse Program at DOE 10 CFR 707 - Contractor Workplace Substance Abuse Program at DOE Sites 10 CFR 707 - Contractor Workplace Substance Abuse Program at DOE Sites 10 CFR 707, Federal Register, July 22, 1992 Amendment to 10 CFR 707, January 23, 2008 Executive Order 12564 10 CFR 707 Safety Advisory Implementation Assistance Frequently Asked Questions Implementation Dates 10 CFR 707 Public Forums - Video Conference Presentations Rulemaking Request for Information July 30, 2010 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Economic Assessment Questionnaire Policy Memorandum Secretary of Energy's Decision Memorandum Regarding Drug Testing for DOE Positions That Require Access Authorizations, September 14, 2007 Tools Department of Health and Human Services: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's web site link(Click "Federal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

142

Hazardous Air Pollutant Controls Workshop Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop was held in response to a request during the February 2012 advisory meetings by members of the Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRIs) Program 75, Integrated Environmental Controls, for a consolidated summary of control technologies that they could use to comply with the newly finalized Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS). The members asked that the summary be provided by June 2012, as many companies were facing control selection decision dates in the ...

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

143

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Review and evaluation of contingency plans for oil and hazardous substances in the upper Great Lakes region. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to update and supplement a contingency plan review conducted for the Corps in 1979 by the St. Lawrence-Eastern Ontario Commission for handling oil and hazardous-substance spills on the upper Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Special attention was given to cleanup and control methods described for ice conditions that may exist in the region in winter. The report identifies existing contingency plans in the study area; tabulates amounts, types, and locations of equipment and manpower that exist to implement the plans; describes methods to contain and recover oil in ice conditions; describes spill-mitigation plans and techniques to protect natural resources; describes techniques of deflecting oil in swift flowing waters; and describes disposal plans identified in the contingency plans.

Gundlach, E.R.; Murday, M.; Fanning, W.L.

1986-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Indoor Plumes Speaker(s): David J. Wilson Date: October 19, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Why have people been able to get away with ignoring intermittency (periods of zero concentration or zero turbulent temperature difference) in heat and mass transfer for the past century? Why is intermittency crucially important in toxic load estimates for biological exposure? We will explore how a simple back-of-the-envelope model can be constructed for the respiration toxicology of concentration fluctuations at a fixed receptor (for example; your lungs). This simple model will show the origin of the toxic load exponent n=2.0 for concentration C in L=Cnt. An extensive set of

147

Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reporting ``Qs & As``. Environmental Guidance  

SciTech Connect

This document offers guidance on toxic chemical release inventory reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) at DOE sites.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Chemical and Radiological Toxicity of Uranium and Its Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of uranyl nitrate required to deliver the radiation dose limit for soluble uranium compounds is larger than the toxicity-based concentration limits. Therefore, for soluble uranium compounds, health consequences of exposure are primarily due to their chemical toxicity. For insoluble compounds of uranium, health consequences (e.g., fibrosis and/or carcinogenesis of the lung) are primarily due to irradiation of pulmonary tissues from inhaled respirable particles.

Tansky, R.R.

2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

149

Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel  

SciTech Connect

The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels.

Mattie, David R., E-mail: david.mattie@wpafb.af.mil [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RHPB Bldg. 837, 2729 R Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-5707 (United States); Sterner, Teresa R. [HJF, AFRL/RHPB Bldg 837, 2729 R Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-5707 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex chemical mixtures may be released into the environment from a variety of sources including hazardous waste sites. Components of chemical mixtures and their metabolites may be genotoxic leading to cancer and heritable gene mutations. Chemical analysis alone does not always provide the most accurate information from which to estimate the risk of adverse effects associated with exposure to mixtures. Current methods to estimate the human health risk for complex mixtures assume additive effects of the components. Although it is assumed that this approach is protective of human and ecological health, it is also recognized that chemical mixtures may induce a variety of interactions including potentiation, synergism, and antagonism. A combined testing protocol, using chemical analysis coupled with a battery of in vitro, in vivo, and in situ bioassays, provides the most accurate information from which to estimate risk. Such a combined testing protocol provides information to describe the major organic and inorganic constituents, as well as the pharmacokinetics and potential interactions of chemical mixtures. This research was conducted to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of complex chemical mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated aromatics (PCA) using microbial bioassays (Salmonella/microsome assay and the E. coli prophage induction assay), the 32P-postlabeling assay in mice, and in situ measurements of genotoxicity using flow cytometry. Samples of environmental media and wildlife tissues were collected from four National Priority List Superfund sites within the United States. In general, chemical analysis was not always predictive of mixture toxicity. Although biodegradation reduced the concentration of total and carcinogenic PAHs in soils and groundwater, the genotoxicity of extracts from environmental media did not display a corresponding reduction. Mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) extracted from sediments were found to inhibit the genotoxicity of PAH mixtures when administered dermally to rodents. This inhibition exhibited a dose-response relationship, with the adduct frequency reduced at increasing doses of sediment extract. Finally, PAH concentrations in environmental media and tissues were found to correlate with DNA damage in wildlife receptors. An integrated approach, combining in vitro and in vivo methods to characterize genotoxicity provides more accurate information from which to estimate uptake and risk associated with exposure to complex mixtures and should be considered in both the human and ecological risk assessment process.

Gillespie, Annika Margaret

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

Hickey, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Title Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Salminen, Justin, Nicolas Papaiconomou, Anand R. Kumar, Jong-Min Lee, John B. Kerr, John S. Newman, and John M. Prausnitz Journal Fluid Phase Equilibria Volume 261 Pagination 421-426 Keywords hydrophobic, ionic liquids, piperidinium, properties, pyrrolidinium, safety, toxicity Abstract Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]+, 1-methyl-1-octyl pyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]+ and 1-methyl-1-octyl piperidinium [MOPip]+ cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

153

Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risk assessment procedures for mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a problem due to the lack of available potency and toxicity data on mixtures and individual compounds. This study examines the toxicity of parent compound PAHs and binary mixtures of PAHs in order to bridge the gap between component assessment and mixture assessment. Seven pure parent compound PAHs and four binary mixtures of PAHs were examined in the Salmonella/Microsome Mutagenicity Assay, a Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) assay and the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay (EROD). These assays were chosen for their ability to measure specific toxic endpoints related to the carcinogenic process (i.e. initiation, promotion, progression). Data from these assays was used in further studies to build Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) to estimate toxic endpoints and to test the additive assumption in PAH mixtures. These QSAR models will allow for the development of bioassay based potential potencies (PPB) or toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) that are derived not only from bioassay data, but also from structure, activity, and physical/chemical properties. These models can be extended to any environmental media to evaluate risk to human health from exposures to PAHs.

Bruce, Erica Dawn

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}8, July 1--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in Babcock and Wilcox`s state-of-the-art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; and establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

Evans, A.P.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Effects of a Corn Root Defense Substance on Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte Larvae.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of hydroxamic acids, a group of corn root defense substances on western corn rootworm (Diabrotica (more)

Zhao, Zixiao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Impact of timing of alcohol use initiation and depressed mood on risky substance use among urban minority adolescents.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The current study involved the investigation of two research areas: (1) the effect of timing of alcohol use initiation on risky substance use in mid-adolescence, (more)

Boohar, Ellen Moore

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Speaker(s): Buvana Jayaraman Date: December 8, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 I investigate three applications related to toxic exposure in buildings and demonstrate the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to address important issues: 1. Improving containment of airborne hazardous materials in an existing room containing a downdraft table. CFD is used to find a ventilation configuration that ensures better containment of the hazardous material and hence improved worker safety. 2. Modeling gas transport in a large indoor space. The goal of this study is to understand how the level of detail of the CFD model affects its accuracy. Comparison of predictions with experimental data will be presented. 3. Understanding

158

Oxidation reactions of solid carbonaceous and resinous substances in supercritical water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent kinetic studies, particularly those by means of shadowgraphy and X-ray radiography, for supercritical water oxidation of solid carbonaceous and resinous substances have revealed the importance of the O{sub 2} mass transfer process over the intrinsic surface reaction at higher temperatures. The mass transfer processes, internal and external one, should be incorporated in designing SCWO processes for solid substances and related processes such as catalytic SCWO. Some model calculation efforts of late are briefly described. Finally, fundamental information required for future development is itemed.

Koda, S. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Material and Life Science

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TESTING THE PRESENCE OF SPECIFIC ATOMIC ELEMENTS IN A SUBSTANCE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Detection of specific atomic elements in a substance and particularly the applicability to well logging are discussed. The principal novelty resides in the determination of several of the auxiliary energy peaks in addition to the main energy peak of the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a substance and comparison of such peaks to the spectrum of the specific atomic element being tested for. thus resulting in identification of same. The invention facilitates the identification of specific elements even when in the presence of other elements having similar gamma energy spectra as to the main energy peaks.

Putman, J.L.

1960-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

160

List of Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins Acrylonitr ile Aniline Arsenic and its compounds Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Beryllium Boric acid (Boron) Cadmium and its compounds Carbon monoxide Chlordecone (Kepone) Chloroform Chloroprene Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Dioxane Epichlorohydrin Ethylene Dibromide Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Oxide Fluorocarbons Formaldehyde Formamides Lead (Organic) Manganese and its compounds Mercury and its compounds (Inorganic) Methyl n-butyl ketone Methyl chloroform Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone Platinum and its compounds Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) Polychlorinated bipenyls (PCB) Selenium and its compounds Styrene Tellurium and its compounds Tetr achloroethylene

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Dream controller  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity  

SciTech Connect

L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

Dever, Joseph T. [Department of Comparative Biosciences and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Elfarra, Adnan A. [Department of Comparative Biosciences and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)], E-mail: aelfarra@wisc.edu

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Self-filling and self-purging apparatus for detecting spontaneous radiation from substances in fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a radiation detector providing for the in situ automatic sampling of fluids containing substances emitting radiation, especially Cerenkov radiation. The detector permits sampling within well casings and is self-purging such that no additional provisions must be established for the storage and disposal of contaminated fluids.

Larson, I. Lauren (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN); Miller, V. Clint (Concord, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for passenger vehicles, and evap standards for gas cans. #12;Other Recent Developments EPA's National Air Toxics that we will be performing for projects 2) EPA has expressed interest in dispersion modeling for some in a dispersion model (or the remaining steps of the risk assessment process). #12;Dispersion Modeling FHWA has

Minnesota, University of

165

Survey of toxicity and carcinogenity of mineral deposits  

SciTech Connect

The toxicities and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel are reviewed in some detail, and other trace elements briefly mentioned. These heavy metals are used as a framework within which the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal can be compared. (ACR)

Furst, A.; Harding-Barlow, I.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

166

The bipyridyl herbicide paraquat-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: relevance to dopaminergic pathogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paraquat (PQ) is a cationic non-selective bipyridyl herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds and grasses. Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to pesticides can be a risk factor in the incidence of Parkinson`s disease (PD). A strong correlation has been reported between exposure to paraquat and PD incidence in Canada, Taiwan, and United States. This correlation is supported by animal studies showing that paraquat produces toxicity in dopaminergic neurons of the rat and mouse brain. However, it is unclear how paraquat triggers toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Based on the previous reports, it was hypothesized that paraquat may induce oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunction-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. To explore this possibility, dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with paraquat, and several biomarkers of oxidative stress or proteasomal dysfunction were investigated. First, a specific dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909 significantly protected SY5Y cells against the toxicity of paraquat, indicating that paraquat exerts its toxicity by a mechanism involving the dopamine transporter (DAT). Second, paraquat increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SY5Y cells, but decreased the levels of glutathione. Third, paraquat inhibited glutathione peroxidase activity, but did not affect glutathione reductase activity. On the other hand, paraquat increased GST activity by 24 hr, after which GST activity returned to the control value at 48 hr. Fourth, paraquat decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Fifth, paraquat produced the increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls, as well as DNA fragmentation, indicating oxidative damage to major cellular components. Sixth, paraquat decreased proteasomal activity, the activities of mitochondrial complex I and V, and intracellular ATP levels, but increased the activities of caspase 3 and 9, indicating that proteasomal inhibition is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied by the activation of apoptotic signaling pathway. Seventh, paraquat increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), p53, Bax, ?±-synuclein and ubiquitinated proteins. Eighth, paraquat induced nuclear condensation. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that paraquat produces oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunctionmediated toxicity in SY5Y cells. Thus, current findings suggest that paraquat may induce the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurons through oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunction.

Yang, Wonsuk

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Control of Combustion Processes in an Internal Combustion Engine by Low-Temperature Plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of operation of internal combustion engines enhances power and reduces fuel consumption and exhaust toxicity. Low-temperature plasma control combines working processes of thermal engines and steam machines into a single process.

E. A. Olenev

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

AVESTAR® - Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control AVESTAR control system efforts are focused on development of computational approaches for simulation and advanced controls for energy systems. Power generation technologies are growing more sophisticated and require control strategies and systems to be updated to allow plant owners to take full advantage of their increased capabilities. A well designed control system can provide the ability to hit and maintain setpoints without oscillation for optimum power plant operation. Implementation of complex control systems developed through advanced computational approaches will increase efficiency and reduce emissions. The AVESTAR team is focusing on the following three areas of process control research: 1) Plant-wide control system design, 2) Advanced regulatory control, and 3) Advanced process control. Process control models, methods, and tools are developed and applied to a wide variety of energy systems ranging from smart plant to smart grid.

170

Toxicity of shale oil to freshwater algae: comparisons with petroleum and coal-derived oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The toxicities of various water-soluble fractions of Paraho/SOHIO shale oils and coal liquefaction products to the algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Microcystis aeruginosa are investigated. Photosynthetic inhibition is the criterion of toxicity. A secondary objective of the algal bioassay is determination of the range of toxic concentrations. (ACR)

Giddings, J.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ``Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.`` To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste.

Ragaini, R.C.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

An inexpensive fathead minnow egg incubation and toxicant exposure system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods have been developed for bulk hatching of fathead minnow eggs for laboratory and commercial culture. These methods generally involve placing whole, egg-laden breeding substrates in an aeration or water-flow device, or manually removing eggs from breeding substrates. Eggs removed from substrates are then hatched in Downing or McDonald jar hatching devices or are agitated in cylindrical vessels from which larvae are manually removed. These methods are difficult to incorporate into toxicity tests involving determination of hatching success in replicate systems. Both require either continuous water flow to individual hatching chambers or frequent static renewal, which adds to the labor of separating larvae from unhatched eggs. The authors report on an inexpensive, easily constructed system for hatching fathead minnow eggs and maintaining hatched larvae for growth and survivorship studies. Data are presented to illustrate the use of the system for toxicant exposures. This system has applications for both field and laboratory studies.

Diamond, S.A.; Oris, J.T.; Guttman, S.I. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes which comprises intermixing the erythrocytes with an effective anti-sickling amount of a water-soluble imidoester of the formula RC(=NH)OR' wherein R is an alkyl group of 1 - 8 carbon atoms, particularly 1 - 4 carbon atoms, and R' is an alkyl group of 1 - 4 carbon atoms, specifically methyl or ethyl acetimidate.

Packer, Lester (Orinda, CA); Bymun, Edwin N. (Oakland, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

175

Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Title Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sohn, Michael D., Richard G. Sextro, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(6) Pagination 1792-1796 Date Published Sept. 4-9, 2005 Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Keywords airflow and pollutant transport group, airflow modeling, comis, countermeasures to chemical and biological threats, emergency response, exposure, indoor environment department, shelter-in-place Abstract An accidental or intentional outdoor release of pollutants can produce a hazardous plume, potentially contaminating large portions of a metropolitan area as it disperses downwind. To minimize health consequences on the populace, government and research organizations often recommend sheltering in place when evacuation is impractical. Some reports also recommend "hardening" an indoor shelter, for example by applying duct tape to prevent leakage into a bathroom. However, few studies have quantified the perceived beneficial effects of sheltering and hardening, or examined the limits of their applicability. In this paper, we examine how sheltering and hardening might reduce exposure levels under different building and meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction). We predict concentrations and exposure levels for several conditions, and discuss the net benefits from several sheltering and hardening options

176

Reporting continuous releases of hazardous and extremely hazardous substances under CERCLA and EPCRA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guidance is designed to provide basic instruction to US DOE and DOE operations contractor personnel on how to characterize CERCLA and EPCRA hazardous substance releases as continuous and how to prepare and deliver continuousreleasee reports to Federal, State, and local authorities. DOE staff should use this guidance as an overview of the continuous release requirements, a quick ready reference guide for specific topics concerning continuous releases and a step-by-step guide for the process of identifying and reporting continuous releases.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Lighting Group: Controls: Wireless Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wireless Controls Wireless Lighting Control System (with DUST Networks) Objective The project objectives are to: 1. Demonstrate that wireless technology can be cost-effectively...

178

Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

Watson, A.P.

2003-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

179

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) brought about new awareness regarding the overall health-effects of stationary source fossil combustion emissions. Title III of the CAAA identified 189 pollutants, including mercury, as hazardous or toxic and required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate their emissions by source, health effects and environmental implications, including the need to control these emissions. These pollutants are collectively referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The provisions in Title III specific to electric generating units (EGU) were comprehensively addressed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaborative air toxic characterization programs conducted between 1990 and 1997. This work provided most of the data supporting the conclusions found in EPA's congressionally mandated reports regarding air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility boilers; the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1997)1 and the "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units -- Final Report to Congress" (1998).2 The first report identified coal-fired power plants as the largest source of human-generated mercury emissions in the U.S. and the second concluded that mercury from coal-fired utilities was the HAP of "greatest potential concern" to the environment and human health that merited additional research and monitoring.

180

Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C. [Woods End Labs Inc., Mt. Vernon, ME (United States)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Reducing industrial toxic wastes and discharges: The role of POTWs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intended for use by elected and appointed local officials, the guidebook makes recommendations as to how publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) can promote hazardous waste minimization. The guide suggests that POTWs can significantly reduce their toxic discharges to the sewer (without transferral of same pollutants to another media) by developing programs which combine features of three options - educational programs that provide waste minimization information to local companies; technical assistance programs that help companies identify and evaluate site-specific opportunities for waste minimization; and regulatory programs that establish indirect inducements or direct requirements to promote waste minimization.

Sherry, S.; Corbett, J.; Eulo, T.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Control of Gas Emission during Pyrolysis of Waste Printed Wiring ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moreover, the possibility of controlling toxic exhaust gases and recovering ... Chemical Changes and Surface Properties of Carbonated Waste Cement ... Flux for Basic Oxygen Steel Making Using Waste Oxides of Steel Plant ... Heat Treatment of Black Dross for the Production of a Value Added Material - A Preliminary Study.

183

Institutional Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Institutional Controls Institutional Controls Many major Federal laws (e.g., Atomic Energy Act (AEA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)), Executive Orders, regulations and various other drivers influence the use of institutional controls at DOE sites. Some drivers directly authorize or require the use of institutional controls, while others do not. DOE also uses institutional controls when no specific statutory requirement exists to supplement active remediation, pollution control, public and resource protection, and physical security, or to bolster the integrity of engineered remedies. DOE and its predecessor agencies have conducted activities for over 50 years, using land ownership and access control, environmental monitoring and surveillance, and other tools to support protection efforts at operational and inactive facilities, including radioactive waste burial grounds.

184

Oxygen scavenger/metal passivator reduces corrosion, toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Haverhill Paper board, a Haverhill, MA manufacturer of recycled paperboard, generates about 120,000 lb/hr of 650 psi, 650/sup 0/F (superheated) steam. Boiler deposition and condensate return corrosion problems were always high on the list of things to avoid. A water treatment firm provided the solution with a recently developed oxygen scavenger. The new scavenger, a Chemical Processing Vaaler Award winner (Mid-November, 1986, p. 130), is a patented formulation containing methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO). The formulation is designed to provide protection comparable to hydrazine but without the toxicity concerns. Used in conjunction with the mechanical deaerator, MEKO scavenges the remaining 5-7 ppb of oxygen from the feed water, producing methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), N/sub 2/O, and water. High volatility gives it the ability to leave the boiler with the steam, protecting the entire generating system. MEKO also acts as a metal surface passivator, protecting iron surfaces from corrosion by forming passivated oxide films. In use since December, 1985, the MEKO-based oxygen scavenger has coupled with the other chemical and mechanical water treatment methods to maintain the boiler in operating condition. The MEKO is performing as well or better than the hydrazine at about the same cost - while avoiding the toxicity problem.

Barry, J.; Toy, D.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

NETL: IEP - Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization The goal of the proposed effort is to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements on the management of CCBs. Supporting objectives are to 1) determine the release potential of selected air toxic elements, including mercury and arsenic, from CCBs under specific environmental conditions; 2) increase the database of information on mercury and other air toxic element releases for CCBs; 3) develop comparative laboratory and field data; and 4) develop appropriate laboratory and field protocols. The specific mechanisms of air toxic element releases to be evaluated will be leaching releases, vapor releases to the atmosphere, and biologically induced leaching and vapor releases.

186

Generic microelectronic smart sensor platform for detection of toxic, hazardous, and flammable gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Extensive work has been performed in the past which demonstrates that various metal alloys can be used to detect different toxic, hazardous, and flammable gases. Work has been performed using Pd, Pt, Ir, PdNi, PdAg and Pt/Pd for detecting things such as Hydrogen, Hydrazine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Deuterium, Tritium, Ethanol and Hexane. Perhaps the most familiar is the use of Pd and PdNi for the detection of Hydrogen. These devices work by examining the effect of the gases on the material properties of the metal alloys. Two of the most common material properties examined in these sensors are the resistance of thin film resistors, and the flatband or threshold voltage shifts of MOS structures fabricated with a particular alloy as the gate material. While research into these sensing techniques has shown much promise, few manufacturable, fieldable devices have resulted. These sensing techniques are prone to drift problems due to temperature variations, and typically have large sample to sample variations in performance due to process control issues. Typically, these sensors require significant external instrumentation for measurement and control, making the systems large and expensive. Sandia National Laboratories has designed, fabricated and demonstrated complete functionality of a generic microelectronic based smart sensor platform intended to effectively exploit the research mentioned above into high performance, manufacturable, fieldable devices. This smart sensor platform technology fabricates 2 {mu}m CMOS digital and analog control electronics, sensing elements, and temperature control elements on the same silicon integrated circuit. Our initial demonstration of this technology incorporates PdNi as the sensing alloy for the detection of hydrogen.

Rodriguez, J.; Corbett, W.; Montague, S.; Knoll, M.; McWhorter, P.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}4, July 1--September 30, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B and W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

Farthing, G.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

189

[Completion of the dog toxicity project at the University of Utah: statistical comparison  

SciTech Connect

Radium (Ra) toxicity in dogs is a cornerstone for the evaluation of plutonium (Pu) toxicity, as it provides a possible link to Pu toxicity in humans. Survival regression models with covariates were used to estimate the risk to survival and the frequency and latency of bone tumor development. It appears for Ra that dose-rate is a more significant contributor to non-survival and bone tumors than is skeletal dose.

Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Load Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

191

Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL); Mensah-Biney, R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hazardous, Toxic, and Radionuclide Mixed Wastes Without1997). Less volatile radionuclides are collected with 3 ofmeet the permissible radionuclide concentration and were not

Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

1993 Toxics Release Inventory data for the state of South Carolina...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1993 Toxics Release Inventory data for the state of South Carolina Manufacturing DataTools ResearchTech Services Apps Challenges Blogs Let's Talk Manufacturing You are here...

194

Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Leaching Toxicity of Pb and Ba Containing in Cathode Ray Tube ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Leaching Toxicity of Pb and Ba Containing in Cathode Ray Tube Glasses by SEP-TCLP. Author(s), Mengjun Chen, Fu-Shen Zhang, Jianxin ...

196

Smoke Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... This was followed by the idea of the pressure sand- wich, ie, venting or exhausting the fire floor ... Smoke control is less dependent on tight barriers. ...

1996-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

197

ACCESS CONTROL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TERMSDEFINITIONS FROM DOE M 470.4-7 ACCESS CONTROL. The process of permitting access or denying access to information, facilities, nuclear materials, resources, or designated...

198

Humic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds from low rank brown coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal is one of the sources of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). Recovery of NCCs from brown coals in high yield was carried out from tars of stepwise semicoking of brown coals. Humic acids have been shown to contain many types of nitrogen compounds. Humic acids are thought to be complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, and aliphatic compounds that are involved in the linkages between the aromatic groups. Humic acids extracted from peats, brown coals, and lignites, are characterized using different techniques. Humic substances (HSs) have several known benefits to agriculture. The properties of humic substances vary from source to source, because they are heterogeneous mixtures of biochemical degradation products from plant and animal residues, and synthesis activities of microorganisms. HSs have been considered to be a significant floculant in surface water filtration plants for the production of drinking water as well as the processing of water. HSs are produced from chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from synthetic activities of microorganisms.

Demirbas, A.; Kar, Y.; Deveci, H. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

CONTROL ROD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

Archuleta, M.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Interaction Between Toxic Metals and Complex Biofilm/Mineral/Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

highlights highlights title by Alexis S. Templeton, Thomas P. Trainor, and Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Stanford University Sorption reactions on particle surfaces can dramatically affect the speciation, cycling and bioavailability of essential micronutrients (i.e. PO43-, Cu, Zn etc.) and toxic metals and metalloids (i.e. Pb, Hg, Se, As) in soils and aquatic environments. Considerable attention has been focused on understanding metal sorption reactions at a molecular/mechanistic level and the effects of metal concentration, pH, ionic strength, and complexing ligands on the ways in which metal ions bind to the surfaces of common mineral phases such as Fe-, Mn- and Al-(hydr)oxides and clays. However, a significant fraction of mineral surfaces in natural environments are extensively colonized by microbial organisms, which can also be potent sorbents for metals due to the large number of reactive functional groups that decorate the cell walls and outer membranes of bacterial surfaces.

202

Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day{sup -1}) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day{sup -1}). Furthermore, measurements of the EC{sub 50} parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized.

Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece); Gidarakos, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Evidence of harm perception, peer use, and tolerance for peer use as mediators between coping style and substance use among urban adolescents.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research has provided strong evidence to support the existence of a relationship between adolescent coping styles and substance use. One area of research that has (more)

Chiong, Angela S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Tin oxide nanosensors for highly sensitive toxic gas detection and their 3D system integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present nanosensors based on ultrathin SnO"2 films, which are very sensitive to the highly toxic gases SO"2 and H"2S. The SnO"2-sensing films are fabricated by a spray pyrolysis process on Si substrates with a thickness of 50nm. The sensor resistance ... Keywords: 3D-system integration, Gas sensors, Nanosensors, Toxic gases

C. Griessler; E. Brunet; T. Maier; S. Steinhauer; A. Kck; T. Jordi; F. Schrank; M. Schrems

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

REACTOR CONTROL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

FANS - Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... If set to H+ and a magnet controller is connected, you are ... Typically motors 3, 4, 5, and 6 are fixed for FANS operation A fixed motor will not be ...

209

Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

Corburn, Jason [Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation and School of International and Public Affairs, 400 Avery Hall, 1172 Amsterdam Ave. New York, NY 10027 (United States)]. E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

CONTROL SYSTEM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

1962-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery - Paul Rasmussen, Vinazene  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Charging Mechanism Charging Mechanism The Z compound, as described in Vinazene Patent 8,080,327, undergoes the following half reactions during charging: Z Z + + e - E 0 = -1.3V Z + e -  Z - E 0 = -1.5V _____________________ 2Z  Z - + Z + E 0 = -2.8V A Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery -+- -+- Components Compound Z Tetraethylammonium Tetrafluoroborate (TEA-BF 4 ) Maintains Electroneutrality Acetonitrile (MeCN) Dielectric and Transport medium Abstract Abundant energy, in the exajoule range, is available everyday from solar and wind flux. However, green sources of this energy are subject to intermittent and/or periodic fluctuations. Mitigation of supply obstacles is possible through the use of cost effective and dispatchable energy storage methods. During Phase I of this SBIR

213

Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration  

SciTech Connect

Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Mathematical model of the seismic electromagnetic signals (SEMS) in non crystalline substances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mathematical model of seismic electromagnetic waves in non crystalline substances is developed and the solutions are discussed to show the possibility of improving the electromagnetic waves especially the electric field. The shear stress of the medium in fourth order tensor gives the equation of motion. Analytic methods are selected for the solutions written in Hansen vector form. From the simulated SEMS, the frequency of seismic waves has significant effects to the SEMS propagating characteristics. EM waves transform into SEMS or energized seismic waves. Traveling distance increases once the frequency of the seismic waves increases from 100% to 1000%. SEMS with greater seismic frequency will give seismic alike waves but greater energy is embedded by EM waves and hence further distance the waves travel.

Dennis, L. C. C.; Yahya, N.; Daud, H.; Shafie, A. [Electromagnetic cluster, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

215

3-Dimensional Reconstruction and Modeling of BActerial Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R R 3-Dimen Substanc Project s EMSL L Alice Do Microsco Co-inves Matthew Environm Bacterial (EPS) pla cellular p cell infec mineral s EPS's ch directly i heavy me fragile, h macromo in elucida immediat process t based, hi such as e method o scale ima near-to-n without a collapse processin EMSL ac Tecnai T 2006. We temperatu capability (CryoTE material Research an nsional Reco ces (EPS) start date: S Lead Investi ohnalkova opy group, E stigators: w Marshall mental Micro l extracellula ay essential processes suc ction, and ba substrates. In hemical react influence the etals and rad highly hydrat olecules pres ation of its s te collapse d hat is a prere igh resolutio electron micr of Cryo-elect aging of the native structu artifact cause after losing ng and dehyd cquired a dev T-12 (FEI) w e built upon

216

Assessment of tree toxicity near the F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Areas of tree mortality, originating in 1979, have been documented downslope of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The basins were used as discharge areas for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive waste. Preliminary studies indicated that there are three possible causes of stress: altered hydrology; hazardous chemicals; and nonhazardous chemicals. It was originally hypothesized that the most likely hydrological stressors to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora were flooding where water levels cover the lenticels for more than 26 percent of the growing season, resulting in low oxygen availability, and toxins produced under anaerobic conditions. In fact, trees began to show stress only flowing a drought year (1977) rather than a wet year. Dry conditions could exacerbate stress by concentrating contaminants, particularly salt. Study of the soil and water chemical parameters in the impacted sites indicated that salt concentrations in the affected areas have produced abnormally high exchangeable sodium percentages. Furthermore, significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals were found in each impacted site, although no one metal was consistently elevated. Evaluation of the concentrations of various chemicals toxic to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora revealed that aluminum was probably the most toxic in the F-Area. Manganese, cadmium, and zinc had concentrations great enough to be considered possible causes of tree mortality in the F-Area. Aluminum was the most likely cause of mortality in the H-Area. Controlled experiments testing metal and salt concentration effects on Nyssa sylvatica would be needed to specifically assign cause and effect mortality relationships.

Loehle, C. (ed.) (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Richardson, C.J. (ed.); Greenwood, K.P.; Hane, M.E.; Lander, A.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Heliogyro Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heliogyros with blade length-to-width aspect ratios of 1000 can achieve ambitious science mission goals, but such designs have not been analyzed with rigor. Archived heliogyro analyses indicate that aspect ratios of 1000 are feasible, but the calculations supporting this claim are based on the simplifying assumptions of decoupled twist, vertical deflection, and in-plane deflection of the blades. In making such simplifications, the equations become more tractable, but crucial behavioral characteristics are possibly lost. Without a more rigorous analytical investigation, the reliability and robustness of the heliogyro remains in doubt. However, with verified control models and an appropriate operations strategy, performance of aggressive heliogyro designs can be presumed. This thesis asserts that heliogyro blades with aspect ratios of 1000:1 can sufficiently operate in space. The crux of this investigation is a high-fidelity model that accurately represents a heliogyro blade. Pitch controls command the thrust vector of the large sail structure. Although the validation model mimics a real solar sail, the controller is driven toward the most simplified configuration. The results of this research validate that a model-based controller that neglects blade twist, coning, and wrinkling can sufficiently control the thrust vector of a suitably designed heliogyro.

Richard S. Blomquist; Dimitrios Apostolopoulos; George Kantor; Andreas Von Flotow

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Radiological Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-STD-1098-2008 October 2008 DOE STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL CONTROL U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii DOE-STD-1098-2008 This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Website at http://www.standards.doe.gov/ DOE-STD-1098-2008 Radiological Control DOE Policy October 2008 iii Foreword The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal

219

ACCESS CONTROL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TERMS/DEFINITIONS FROM DOE M 470.4-7 TERMS/DEFINITIONS FROM DOE M 470.4-7 ACCESS CONTROL. The process of permitting access or denying access to information, facilities, nuclear materials, resources, or designated security areas. ACCESS CONTROL MEASURES. Hardware and software features, physical controls, operating procedures, administrative procedures, and various combinations of these designed to detect or prevent unauthorized access to classified information; special nuclear materials; Government property; automated information systems, facilities, or materials; or areas containing the above and to enforce use of these measures to protect Departmental security and property interests. CRITICAL PATH SCENARIO. An adversary-based scenario that is generated during the conduct of a vulnerability assessment and accounts for adversary tactics that

220

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS: SYSTEMS, VOL. 43, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2013 1105 Visual Imaging of Invisible Hazardous Substances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a hazardous substance such as nerve gas or nuclear radiation using multiple robotic agents could be very to that area enabling humans to avoid such areas. We present an algorithm that is capable of doing substance using simplistic agents with the future possibility of the same algorithm being used to track

Hu, Huosheng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

Dismukes, E.B.

1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

222

Radiological Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-STD-1098-2008 October 2008 ------------------------------------- Change Notice 1 May 2009 DOE STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL CONTROL U.S. Department of Energy SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1098-2008 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Website at http://www.standards.doe.gov/ iii DOE-STD-1098-2008 Change Notice 1: DOE-STD-1098-2008, Radiological Control Standard Section/page/paragraph Change Section 211, page 2-3, paragraph 1 Add new paragraph 1: "Approval by the appropriate Secretarial Officer or designee should be required

223

Building Toxic Metal Characterization and Decontamination Report: Area 6, Building 914  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to outline the toxic metal characterization and decontamination efforts in Area 6, Building 914. This includes the initial building inspection, the hotspot sampling, results/findings, building cleanup, and the verification sampling. Building 914 is a steel light frame building that was constructed in 1992. It is about 16,454 square feet, and five employees are assigned to this building. According to the building's floor plan blueprints, it could be inferred that this building was once a Wiremen/Lineman shop. In 2002-2004, the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office embarked on a broad characterization of beryllium (Be) surface concentrations throughout the North Las Vegas Facility, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), and ancillary facilities like the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, etc. Building 914 was part of this characterization. The results of the 2002 study illustrated that the metal housekeeping limits were within acceptable limits and from a Be standpoint, the building was determined to be fit for occupancy. On March 2, 2011, based on a request from Building 914 users, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) Industrial Hygiene (IH) collected bulk samples from the southwest corner of Building 914 at heights above 6 feet where black dust had been noticed on this particular wall. IH conducted surface swipe sampling of the area and analyzed the samples for toxic metals, namely, beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn). The sample results indicated values two to four times above the housekeeping threshold for Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Mn. Subsequently, the facility was closed and posted; the necessary personnel were notified; and controls were instituted for ingress and egress of the building. On March 17, 2011, IH performed an extensive sampling event involving the entire warehouse in accordance with NSTec Organization Procedure OP-P250.004, Sampling Procedures. Analysis of the results from this exercise illustrated that toxic metal contamination was ubiquitous throughout the warehouse section of this building but did not extend into the office, restroom, and break room areas. On March 22, 2011, a planning meeting was held with Environment, Safety, Health & Quality management; Operations & Infrastructure (O&I) mangement; Facility Management; Occupational Medicine; O&I Operations; and IH. After a brief discussion concerning the salient facts of the surface sample results, it was agreed that the facility and its contents required cleaning. The facility would then be re-sampled to verify cleanliness and suitability for re-occupancy. On April 18, 2011, warehouse cleanup activites began. On July 5, 2011, upon receipt of the results from the last cleaned section, the cleanup operations were concluded. The building was statistically determined to be clean; thus, it could be reoccupied and the warehouse operations could resume immediately.

NSTec Industrial Hygiene

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}6 for the period: January 1 to March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self- consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

Farthing, George A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the keap1 gene activates Nrf2 and confers potent resistance against acute drug toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nrf2 is a key regulator of many detoxifying enzyme genes, and cytoplasmic protein Keap1 represses the Nrf2 activity under quiescent conditions. Germ line deletion of the keap1 gene results in constitutive activation of Nrf2, but the pups unexpectedly died before weaning. To investigate how constitutive activation of Nrf2 influences the detoxification system in adult mice, we generated mice bearing a hepatocyte-specific disruption of the keap1 gene. Homozygous mice were viable and their livers displayed no apparent abnormalities, but nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 is elevated. Microarray analysis revealed that, while many detoxifying enzyme genes are highly expressed, some of the typical Nrf2-dependent genes are only marginally increased in the Keap1-deficient liver. The mutant mice were significantly more resistant to toxic doses of acetaminophen than control animals. These results demonstrate that chronic activation of Nrf2 confers animals with resistance to xenobiotics without affecting the morphological and physiological integrity of hepatocytes.

Okawa, Hiromi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Motohashi, Hozumi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Akira [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Aburatani, Hiroyuki [Research Center for Advance Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Kensler, Thomas W. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Yamamoto, Masayuki [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan) and ERATO Environmental Response Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: masi@tara.tsukuba.ac.jp

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

227

Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats  

SciTech Connect

Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17{beta}-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3{beta}-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N {yields} O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

Ihsan, Awais, E-mail: awais.dr@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang Xu [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu Zhaoying [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128 (China); Wang Yulian [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang Xianju [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yuan Zonghui, E-mail: yuan5802@mail.hzau.edu.cn [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

Vahter, Marie [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Liden, Carola [Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet and Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

229

REACTOR CONTROL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

Ruano, W.J.

1957-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

230

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About It Speaker(s): Arlene Blum Date: November 3, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: William Fisk Polystyrene, polyisocyanurate, and polyurethane are insulation materials that increase energy efficiency and whose use in buildings, especially energy efficient buildings, is growing rapidly. At the same time, the flame retardants currently in use with these materials are often chemicals that are known to be toxic or have not been adequately evaluated for their impact on human health and the environment. For example, all polystyrene foam insulation used in buildings is treated with HBCD, a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic flame retardant. The impacts of exposure to

231

TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory Dataset Summary Description TRI.NET ("T-R-I-dot-net") is a new application developed by EPA to help you analyze Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) information. This application is capable of easily and quickly performing complex queries to help you understand TRI information. It is especially useful for analysts who need a highly interactive environment in order to refine their queries and analyses in an efficient and productive way. TRI.NET makes heavy use of mashups using the latest mapping technologies to help visualize where TRI releases are occurring.

232

Toxicity of aqueous fullerene nC60 to activated sludge: nitrification inhibition and microtox test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing production and use of fullerene nanomaterials raised their exposure potential to the activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment process. In this study, the toxicity of aqueous nanoscaled C60 (nC60) to ...

Yongkui Yang; Norihide Nakada; Ryoji Nakajima; Chao Wang; Hiroaki Tanaka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

Thomas, Samuel William, III

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Public Health Surveillance of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems Using Remote Detection Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. (2007). Fast-Growing Algae Smothers Chinese Lake. Sanhit by toxic "red tide" of algae. Reuters. Beijing. Backer,red tide events." Harmful Algae 2(1): 19-28. Backer, L. C. ,

Mackie, Trina Nicole

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Compatibility and toxicity of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles on mammalian cell systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) produced normal growth curves in the presence of particles. However, the particles do still exhibit some toxicity towards the cells, as the maximum cell density of cells cultured with particles does not reach that ...

Kral, Kelly M., 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischen) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn.

Skodras, G.; Prokopidou, M.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Assessment of Early Toxicity and Response in Patients Treated With Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center Using the Raster Scanning Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Puropose: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Patients and Methods: Between November 2009 and June 2010, we treated 118 patients with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) using active beam delivery. The main indications included skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, salivary gland tumors, and gliomas. We evaluated early toxicity within 6 weeks after RT and the initial clinical and radiologic response for quality assurance in our new facility. Results: In all 118 patients, few side effects were observed, in particular, no high numbers of severe acute toxicity were found. In general, the patients treated with particle therapy alone showed only a few single side effects, mainly Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Common Terminology Criteria grade 1. The most frequent side effects and cumulative incidence of single side effects were observed in the head-and-neck patients treated with particle therapy as a boost and photon intensity-modulated RT. The toxicities included common radiation-attributed reactions known from photon RT, including mucositis, dysphagia, and skin erythema. The most predominant imaging responses were observed in patients with high-grade gliomas and those with salivary gland tumors. For skull base tumors, imaging showed a stable tumor outline in most patients. Thirteen patients showed improvement of pre-existing clinical symptoms. Conclusions: Side effects related to particle treatment were rare, and the overall tolerability of the treatment was shown. The initial response was promising. The data have confirmed the safe delivery of carbon ions and protons at the newly opened Heidelberg facility.

Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Jensen, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Muenter, Marc W.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-hedielberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Contribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 Biofilms to U(VI) Immobilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells without EPS, we showed that i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contributed significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; ii) bEPS could be considered as a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at initial U(VI) concentrations; and iii) U(VI) reduction efficiency was found to be dependent upon initial U(VI) concentration and the efficiency decreased at lower concentrations. To quantify relative contribution of sorption and reduction in U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(V). We found that, when in reduced form, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated reactivity of laEPS while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, might facilitate U(VI) reduction.

Cao, Bin; Ahmed, B.; Kennedy, David W.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

2011-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

240

Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 Biofilms: Characterization by Infrared Spectroscopy and Proteomics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study characterizes the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms to provide insight into potential interactions of EPS with redox-active metals and radionuclides. Both bound and loosely associated EPS were extracted from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms prepared using a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (HfMBR). FTIR spectra revealed the presence of proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, membrane lipids, and fatty acids in both bound and loosely associated EPS. Using a global proteomic approach, a total of 58 extracellular and outer membrane proteins were identified in the EPS. These included homologues of multiple S. oneidensis MR-1 proteins that potentially contribute to key physiological biofilm processes, such as biofilm-promoting protein BpfA, surface-associated serine protease, nucleotidases (CpdB and UshA), an extracellular lipase, and oligopeptidases (PtrB and a M13 family oligopeptidase lipoprotein). In addition, 20 redox proteins were found in extracted EPS. Among the detected redox proteins were the homologues of two S. oneidensis MR-1 c-type cytochromes, MtrC and OmcA, which have been implicated in extracellular electron transfer. Given their detection in the EPS of Shewanella sp. HRCR 1 biofilms, c-type cytochromes may contribute to the possible redox activity of the biofilm matrix and play important roles in extracellular electron transfer reactions.

Cao, Bin; Shi, Liang; Brown, Roslyn N.; Xiong, Yijia; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Lipton, Mary S.; Beyenal, Haluk

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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241

Reaction products of aquatic humic substances with chlorine. Environ. Health Perspect. 46  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major concern of the chlorination of aquatic humic materials is the ubiquitous production of trihalomethanes. A large number of other chlorinated organic compounds, however, have been shown to be formed by chlorine's reaction with humic substances. In this study, humic material was concentrated from a coastal North Carolina lake and chlorinated at a chlorine to carbon mole ratio of 1.5 at pH 12. A high pH was necessary for complete dissolution of the humic material and for production of adequate quantities of oxidation and chlorination products for extraction, separation and mass spectrometric identification. After concentration in ether, samples were methylated, separated with a 50-m OV-17 glass capillary column or a 25 m SP-2100 fused-silica column and identified. A Hewlett-Packard 5710A gas chromatograph interfaced to a VG Micromass 7070F double-focusing mass spectrometer was used. Low resolution, accurate mass measurements were made with a combined EI-CI source. The ability to do low resolution, accurate mass measurements made possible a rapid scan function necessary for capillary column gas chromatography. Accurate mass measurements allowed increased confidence in the identification of compounds, most of which are not available as standards. The products identified in these studies were chlorinated aliphatic straight-chain acids dominated by di- and trichloroacetic acid and the chlorinated dicarboxylic acids: succinic, fumaric and maleic acids. Chlorinated and unchlorinated aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids and unchlorinated polycarboxylic aromatic acids comprise the remaining bulk of the compounds identified.

J. D. Johnson; R. F. Christman; D. L. Norwood; D. S. Millington

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Evaluation of radium and toxic element leaching characteristics of Florida phosphogypsum stockpiles. Report of investigations/1983  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted studies to determine if phosphogypsum, a waste material from the processing of phosphate rock, contains hazardous toxic materials as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and whether leaching of these toxic materials and radium may occur. Samples of the phosphogypsum stockpiled material were evaluated using the EPA extraction procedure, atomic absorption, neutron activation, X-ray diffraction, and chemical and physical means. Radiological tests performed used both the germanium-lithium and emanation methods.

May, A.; Sweeney, J.W.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Program on Technology Innovation: Cumulative Risk Assessment of Urban Air Toxics: Pilot Modeling Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cumulative risk modeling for estimating the burden of exposure to urban air toxics requires consideration of a range of factors influencing population health. These factors include multiple toxic compounds, a variety of pollutant sources, background levels of air pollutants, and non-chemical stressors not historically considered in regulatory risk assessments. To date, quantitative methods to account for all these factors remain sporadic and relatively untested. However, the United States ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

Questions on the toxicity and behavior of product in the body  

SciTech Connect

This May 1945 report deals with how best to estimate the toxicity of ``Product`` to workers at Clinton Laboratories. Discussed are the issues of how toxic product is relative to radium, methods of analysis of product in the body, means of elimination from and distribution of product within the body, and what therapeutic measures are available. The principal concern of the author is that of protection of personnel who regularly handle in the laboratory large amounts of this material.

English, S.G.

1945-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Between 1950 and 1970 the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant generated transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste, which was buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste must now be retrieved and sent to a permanent disposal site. During retrieval the main contaminates to be controlled are compounds of plutonium and americium. Since these substances are small sized, and extremely mobile, airborne concentrations must be kept to a minimum to effectively eliminate personnel uptake during retrieval operations. This report describes an invention that relates to a system to control contamination due to TRU airborne particles and was developed consisting of an outer containment building, an inner containment area, a dust suppression system including an electrostatic contaminate capture subsystem, a contamination control system including a moisture control subsystem, a rapid monitoring subsystem, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems, and a lifting and moving system including recovery and repackaging subsystems.

Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Feldman, E.M.; Scott, D.W.; Mullen, C.K.; Meyer, L.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

Illicit substance use and risk of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of association, and event analyses provide the greatest.analyses differ from event analyses by controlling forour study, a previous event analysis study demonstrated that

Drumright, Lydia Nicole

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

Tanteles, George A. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom) [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Murray, Robert J.S. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Mills, Jamie [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Barwell, Julian [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom) [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chakraborti, Prabir [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Chan, Steve [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cheung, Kwok-Leung [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)] [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ennis, Dawn [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Khurshid, Nazish [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Lambert, Kelly [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Sahota, Harjinder [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Woodings, Pamela [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J., E-mail: cjt14@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); and others

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Heliostat control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in a system and method of controlling heliostat in which the heliostat is operable in azimuth and elevation by respective stepper motors and including the respective steps or means for calculating the position for the heliostat to be at a commanded position, determining the number of steps in azimuth and elevation for each respective motor to get to the commanded position and energizing both the azimuth and elevation stepper motors to run in parallel until predetermined number of steps away from the closest commanded position in azimuth and elevation so that the closest position has been achieved, and thereafter energizing only the remaining motor to bring it to its commanded position. In this way, the heliostat can be started from a stowed position in the morning and operated by a computer means to its commanded position and kept correctly oriented throughout the day using only the time of the day without requiring the usual sensors and feedback apparatus. A computer, or microprocessor, can then control a plurality of many heliostats easily and efficiently throughout the day.

Kaehler, James A. (Littleton, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

Ecology and Air Quality Group

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Application of leaching tests for toxicity evaluation of coal fly ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The toxic properties of coal fly ash samples obtained from various coal combustion power plants were evaluated in this work using physicochemical analyses and bioassays. Physicochemical analyses showed that heavy metals present in solid samples included Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The results of the chemical analysis of eluates deduced by the application of standard leaching tests according to EN 12457-2 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) methods indicated that the compounds contained in fly ashes could potentially be transferred to the liquid phase depending upon the leaching method used. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in TCLP eluates, indicating that the initial pH value of the leaching medium significantly affected the transfer of these elements to the liquid phase. Tests conducted with the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox test), the crustacean Daphnia magna, and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were used to assess toxicity of eluates obtained by both leaching tests. Daphnia magna was the most sensitive test organism. The EN 12457-2 method proved to be more reliable for toxicity evaluation of eluates. In contrast, the TCLP method showed some interference owing to acetic acid toxicity, and precipitation occurred after pH adjustment of eluates from acid to neutral range. The toxicity of both fly ashes and the corresponding solid leaching residues of EN 12457-2 and TCLP leaching tests was also measured using the Microtox Basic Solid phase Test. The results generated with this bioassay indicated that toxicity was greatly influenced by the pH status of the solid samples.

Tsiridis, V.; Samaras, P.; Kungolos, A.; Sakellaropoullos, G.P. [Technological Educational Institute for West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece). Dept. for Pollution Control Technology

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Gene F. Parkin, P.E. B.S.C.E. University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; 1970 (with High Distinction)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stimulation of Anaerobic Digestion," Water Research, 17, 677 (1983). 11. Hergenroeder, R. and Parkin, G of Anaerobic Toxicity by Batch and Semi-Continuous Assays," Jour. Water Pollution Control Fed., 52, 720 (1980 Anaerobic Reactors: Response to Toxic Substances," Water Science and Tech., 15, 261 (1983). #12;2 13.

Stanier, Charlie

252

Nutrition and Biochemistry of PhospholipidsChapter 21 Phosphatidylcholine as Drug Substance and as Excipient theMechanism of Biological Activity?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrition and Biochemistry of Phospholipids Chapter 21 Phosphatidylcholine as Drug Substance and as Excipient theMechanism of Biological Activity? Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press

253

Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone-Depleting Substances to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A ChemistryClimate Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature of the stratosphere has decreased over the past several decades. Two causes contribute to that decrease: well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). This paper addresses the attribution of temperature ...

Richard S. Stolarski; Anne R. Douglass; Paul A. Newman; Steven Pawson; Mark R. Schoeberl

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Apparatus for use in rapid and accurate controlled-potential coulometric analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for controlled-potential coulometric analysis of a solution includes a cell to contain the solution to be analyzed and a plurality of electrodes to contact the solution in the cell. Means are provided to stir the solution and to control the atmosphere above it. A potentiostat connected to the electrodes controls potential differences among the electrodes. An electronic circuit connected to the potentiostat provides analog-to-digital conversion and displays a precise count of charge transfer during a desired chemical process. This count provides a measure of the amount of an unknown substance in the solution.

Frazzini, Thomas L. (Frankfort, IL); Holland, Michael K. (LaGrange Park, IL); Pietri, Charles E. (Downers Grove, IL); Weiss, Jon R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

256

Reducing flare emissions from chemical plants and refineries through the application of fuzzy control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing legislative requirements on a global basis are driving the development of solutions to reduce emission. Flaring and venting of waste hydrocarbon gases is a known contributor to pollution and increasing pressure is being exerted onto operators ... Keywords: air assist, combustion, combustion efficiency, emissions, flare, fuzzy control, member ship function, steam injection, toxic gas

A. Alizadeh-Attar; H. R. Ghoohestani; I. Nasr Isfahani

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Reducing flare emissions from chemical plants and refineries through the application of fuzzy control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing legislative requirements on a global basis are driving the development of solutions to reduce emission. Flaring and venting of waste hydrocarbon gases is a known contributor to pollution and increasing pressure is being exerted onto operators ... Keywords: air assist, combustion, combustion efficiency, emissions, flare, fuzzy control, member ship function, steam injection, toxic gas

A. Alizadeh-Attar; H. R. Ghoohestani; I. Nasr Isfahani

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fuzzy control of steam turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: PID control, comparison of PID and fuzzy control, fuzzy logic control, robustness, speed control, steam turbine control

N. Kiupel; P. M. Frank; O. Bux

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Controlled Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lUU lUU iIII---11111 q o m Controlled Synthesis of Polyenes by Catalytic Methods Progress Report for the period 12/01/92 - 11/30/93 Richard R. Schrock Five papers have appeared in the last year (see list at end), numbers 225,229, 233, 236, and 240. The living cyclopolymerization of dipropargyl derivatives has been reported for diethyl dipropargylmalonate (X = C(CO2Et)2; Scheme I; #225). We have found that c_ addition and [3 addition take place approximately to an equivalent degree, on the basis of the 13C NMR chemical shift for the quaternary carbon atom in the five or si×-membered ring, and in the presence of ethylene have isolated a molecule that contains a si×-membered ring that is formed when ethylene cleaves the cyclized species from the metal in a chain transfer-like reaction. On this basis also we can say that the polymer prepared from this monomer using classical catalysts contain

260

Lighting Group: Controls: Advanced Digital Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Digital Controls Advanced Digital Controls HPCBS Advanced Digital Controls Objective The goal of this project is to hasten the adoption of digital lighting control systems to allow commercial building operators to optimize the neergy performance of their lighting systems, implement demand responsive control, and improve occupant comfort and productivity. The specific objectives are as follows: (1) Advance the adoption of digital lighting control systems by working with industry to embed IBECS technology into existing analog control and DALI products, and by developing compelling demonstrations of digital control systems for evaluation by early adopters. (2) In collaboration with equipment manufacturers, produce digital lighting system prototypes that demonstrate the advantages of digitally controlled lighting systems to innovative property managers and other energy stakeholders. A digitally controlled lighting system consists of lights that are individually controllable via a network. The advantages of digital control are:

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261

Robotics Control using Active Disturbance Rejection Control.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Conventional robotics control has been set in stone since the sixties. The world has been waiting too long for a new age of control to (more)

Khairallah, Ousama Said

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

SUMMARY OF AIR TOXICS -. EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN UTILITY POWER PLANTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AIR TOXICS AIR TOXICS -. EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN UTILITY POWER PLANTS Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Prepared Under Burns and Roe Services Corporation Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC92100 .Subtask 44.02 July 1996 SUMMARY OF AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN . . UTILITY POWER PLANTS Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center . Prepared by Adrian Radziwon and Edward Winter Burns and Roe Services Corporation Terence J. McManus, Oak Ridge Associated Universities July 1996 TABLE OF CONTERlW SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION ................... 1 Background . : .................. 1 Objectives .................... 1 Report Structure ................. 3 Uncertainties ................... 3 SECTION 2.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................. 7

263

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form | U.S. DOE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E: sc.ber@science.doe.gov More Information » April 2013 Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Two genes responsible for mercury methylation identified. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo

264

Tissue distribution as a factor in species susceptibility to toxicity and hazard assessment. Example: methylmercury  

SciTech Connect

Data on the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of methylmercury(MeHg) in cats and humans were utilized as an example of how such data can assist in extrapolating toxicity data between animal species. These data demonstrate that the whole-body half-time for clearance of MeHg was the same for cats and humans and that the concentration of MeHg in the brain at comparable signs of toxicity were the same (10 ppM) in the two species. However, the blood:brain ratio of MeHg concentration was 10 times as high in cats (1:1) as humans (1:10). From these data it was hypothesized that the no-effect level of methylmercury intake in cats should be 10 times that for humans. This hypothesis was verified from toxia data on MeHg toxicity in cats and humans.

Willes, R.F.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) : a concept for a new method.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has committed to reexamining its use of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was developed to support the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Toxicity Characteristic (40 CFR 261.24) and to help predict whether toxic constituents of solid wastes would be mobilized upon their contact with municipal waste leachate. The method involves a batch extraction test in which wastes are exposed to an aqueous liquid designed to simulate the solvent properties of municipal waste leachates. The resulting extract (i.e., TCLP leachate) is analyzed for the presence of various organic and inorganic contaminants. This article presents a concept for a new method that addresses a number of critical design criteria. The concept is based on a preliminary method developed by the authors as part of a work group chaired by the American Society for Testing and Materials.

Kimmell, T. A.; Williams, L. R.; Sorini, S. S.; Environmental Assessment; National Research Lab.; Western Research Inst.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children  

SciTech Connect

Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was constrained by specific requirements in the CSPA, the intent of this work was to identify HPCs and CHCCs that might guide future regulatory actions and inform chemical management policies, aimed at protecting children's health.

Stone, Alex, E-mail: alst461@ecy.wa.go [Washington State Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600 (United States); Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: ddel461@ecy.wa.go [Washington State Department of Ecology, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

269

Issues involved with non-characterized control of methanotrophic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Methane-utilizing bacteria, methanotrophs, have application as biocatalysts in the commodity chemical production, waste treatment and environmental remediation industries. Methanotrophs have the ability to oxidize many chemical compounds into more desired products, such as the production of propylene oxide. Methanotrophs can also degrade toxic compounds such as trichloroethylene. However, there are many physical, chemical and biological problems associated with the continuous oxidation of chemicals. These include, low mass transfer of methane, oxygen and propylene; toxicity of substrates and degradation products, and competition between the growth substrate, i.e., methane and chemical feed stock, e.g., propylene for the biocatalyst. To supervise methanotrophic bioprocesses, an intelligent control system must accommodate any biological limitations, e.g., toxicity, and mitigate the impact of the physical and chemical limitations, e.g., mass transfer of methane and the solubility of propylene. The intelligent control system must have the capability to assess the current conditions and metabolic state of the bacteria; recognize and diagnose instrument faults; and select and maintain sets of parameters that will result in high production and growth.

Stoner, D.L.; Tolle, C.R.; Noah, K.S.; Davis, D.A.; Miller, K.S.; Fife, D.J.

1998-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

270

Toxicity of coal gasifier solid waste to the aquatic plants Selenastrum capricornutum and Spirodela oligorhiza  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classical assessment of aquatic toxicity has focused on fish and invertebrates primarily due to their economic importance. However, increased awareness of the role of aquatic vegetation as primary producers in aquatic systems has stimulated their use in aquatic hazards evaluations. This paper presents the results of solid waste leaching tests using a procedure which was designed to mimic landfilling of solid waste. Results are reported for leachate analysis of the ash agglomerate and the relative toxicity of this leachate to Selenastrum capricornutum (a unicellular green alga) and Spirodela oligorhiza (a floating aquatic vascular plant).

Klaine, S.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

2010 EPRI-Southern Company Services Activated Carbon Mercury Control Workshop Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a maximum achievable control technology ruling for air toxics on March 16, 2011. The proposed rule would impose new emission limits on mercury, acid gases, and particulate matter (as a surrogate for non-mercury metallic pollutants such as arsenic) from coal-fired power plants. These new limits are in addition to already existing mercury emissions limits imposed by many states. Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one of the leading control options to...

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

272

Computer/Controller 1588  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Computer/Controller? What is a computer or controller? ... Computer/controllers in a system supporting IEEE 1588 will typically include a 1588 clock. ...

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

273

Strong Analytic Controllability for Hydrogen Control Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The realization and representation of so(4,2) associated with the hydrogen atom Hamiltonian are derived. By choosing operators from the realization of so(4,2) as interacting Hamiltonians, a hydrogen atom control system is constructed, and it is proved that this control system is strongly analytically controllable based on a time-dependent strong analytic controllability theorem.

Chunhua Lan; Tzyh-Jong Tarn; Quo-Shin Chi; John W. Clark

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

274

Role of natural organic matter in governing the bioavailability of toxic metals to american oysters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colloidal macromolecular organic matter (COM), which makes up a large portion of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine environments, has the capability to modify the bioavailability of potentially toxic metals to aquatic organisms. In order to better understand the bioavailability of some of these metals to estuarine bivalves, American Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to different types of natural colloidal (COM) and model (alginic acid, carrageenan, and latex particles) organic biopolymers, tagged with gamma-emitting radioactive metal ions (110mAg, 109Cd, 57Co, 51Cr, 59Fe, 203Hg and 65Zn) or 14C (to sugar OH groups). Natural COM was obtained from Galveston Bay water by 0.5µm filtration, followed by cross-flow ultrafiltration, using a 1kDa ultrafilter, diafiltration and freeze-drying. COM and DOM model compounds were used in the bioavailability experiments at 2 ppm concentrations. Separate 16-hour experiments using varying sizes of latex particles assessed the lowest size of colloids that can be filtered from the water. Results showed that filter-feeding bivalves could efficiently remove particles as small as 0.04µm (40nm) in diameter, with removal halftimes of 2.5 to 5.5 hours, equivalent to filtration rates of about 50±15 ml/hour, or about 3 L d-1 g-1, which are typical values for these oysters. Results of the 20-hour bioavailability experiments demonstrated that oysters could effectively filter metals bound to COM, with the metals bound to alginic acid COM being removed at the highest rates from the water. However, the metals bound to alginic acid were not found in oyster meat in the highest amounts: it was the metals associated with the carrageenan COM. The 14C labeled biopolymer data also showed alginic acid to be removed from the water at the highest rate and, contrary to the metals, was also present in the meat in the greatest amounts. Thus, while previous experiments suggested that the quantity (i.e., concentration) of natural organic matter is important for metal bioavailability, it was shown here that the ?quality?, i.e., the type of natural organic matter, is also a factor for controlling bioavailability, removal and incorporation rates of metals to oysters.

Haye, Jennifer Marcelle

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Pulmonary toxicity, distribution, and clearance of intratracheally instilled silicon nanowires in rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are being manufactured for use as sensors and transistors for circuit applications. The goal was to assess pulmonary toxicity and fate of Si NWusing an in vivo experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally ...

Jenny R. Roberts; Robert R. Mercer; Rebecca S. Chapman; Guy M. Cohen; Sarunya Bangsaruntip; Diane Schwegler-Berry; James F. Scabilloni; Vincent Castranova; James M. Antonini; Stephen S. Leonard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Safety Topic Chemical Hood General purpose: prevent exposure to toxic, irritating, or noxious chemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety Topic ­ Chemical Hood General purpose: prevent exposure to toxic, irritating, or noxious chemical vapors and gases. A face velocity of 100 feet per minute (fpm) provides efficient vapor capture the better. (T) (F) A chemical hood can be used for storage of volatile, flammable, or odiferous materials

Cohen, Robert E.

277

Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The PCB Information Manual: Volume 1: Production, Uses, Characteristics, and Toxicity of PCBs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the United States ended in 1977, many types of in-service equipment, such as utility transformers, and many products, such as paints, caulking, and plastics, still contain PCBs. This Volume of the PCB Information Manual provides information concerning the production, uses, characteristics, and toxicity of PCBs.

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

SUFFOLK COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES TOXIC/HAZARDOUS MATERIAL TRANSFER FACILITY DESIGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

facilities transferring toxic/hazardous materials with the following exceptions: A) gasoline station or similar installation solely incident to the retail sale or personal consumption of motor fuels for motor, phone number, signature and seal: C) Suffolk County tax map number (District-Section-Block-Lot); D

Homes, Christopher C.

280

Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Inc.) coupled to a fiber-optic spectrometer (S2000, Ocean Optics, Inc.) and a fiber-optic xenon flash. Moline, and C. S. Roesler (1999), Optical monitoring and fore- casting systems for harmful algal bloomsVertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TOXICITY ASSESSMENT Alpha radiation exposure decreases apoptotic cells in zebrafish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TOXICITY ASSESSMENT Alpha radiation exposure decreases apoptotic of an adaptive response by the ionizing radiation against sub- sequent exposures to Cd. Keywords Multiple embryos subjected to a priming exposure provided by one environmental stressor (low-dose alpha particles

Yu, K.N.

282

Toxicity of Pesticides 1 O. Norman Nesheim, Frederick M. Fishel, and Mark Mossler2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to harmful effects produced by long-term exposure to pesticides. Less is known about the chronic toxicity levels of the pesticide that remain in or on growing crops after treatment with the pesticide. This is, of course, a worst case situation, since all crops on which the pesticide is registered for use

Watson, Craig A.

283

Creosote-Treated Wood Poles and Crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms are classified as hazardous waste by the EPA's revised toxicity characteristic rule, disposal costs will rise dramatically. However, when the rule is applied to data obtained from this EPRI study, creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms receive a nonhazardous classification.

1992-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

284

Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-Treated Wood Poles and Crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood poles and crossarms are classified as hazardous waste by the revised toxicity characteristic (TC) rule, disposal costs will rise dramatically. However, when the ruling is applied to data obtained during this study, PCP-treated utility wood poles and crossarms receive a nonhazardous classification.

1991-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

285

Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

Specht, W.L.

2000-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

286

Incoherent Control of Locally Controllable Quantum Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement on the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach for controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

Daoyi Dong; Chenbin Zhang; Herschel Rabitz; Alexander Pechen; Tzyh-Jong Tarn

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

Methamphetamine induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in cortical neurons and glia to prevent its toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impairment of cognitive and motor functions in humans and animals caused by methamphetamine (METH) administration underscores the importance of METH toxicity in cortical neurons. The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts a cytoprotective effect against various neuronal injures; however, it remains unclear whether HO-1 is involved in METH-induced toxicity. We used primary cortical neuron/glia cocultures to explore the role of HO-1 in METH-induced toxicity. Exposure of cultured cells to various concentrations of METH (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mM) led to cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. A METH concentration of 5 mM, which caused 50% of neuronal death and glial activation, was chosen for subsequent experiments. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that METH significantly induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, both preceded cell death. Double and triple immunofluorescence staining further identified HO-1-positive cells as activated astrocytes, microglia, and viable neurons, but not dying neurons. Inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway significantly blocked HO-1 induction by METH and aggravated METH neurotoxicity. Inhibition of HO activity using tin protoporphyrine IX significantly reduced HO activity and exacerbated METH neurotoxicity. However, prior induction of HO-1 using cobalt protoporphyrine IX partially protected neurons from METH toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that induction of HO-1 by METH via the p38 signaling pathway may be protective, albeit insufficient to completely protect cortical neurons from METH toxicity.

Huang, Y.-N. [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Wu, C.-H. [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Lin, T.-C. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Wang, J.-Y., E-mail: jywang@ndmctsgh.edu.t [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Department of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China)

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

Dismukes, E.B. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States); Elia, G.G. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Grinding circuit control using programmable logic controllers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an application for cement milling system. In this application the process is controlled by software running on Programmable Logic Controllers. The appliance used to observe industrial process show the following mill parameters: feed ... Keywords: PLC programming, ball mill, clinker grinding, grinding circuit, programmable logic controllers

Costea R. Claudiu; Silaghi Helga Maria; Rohde L. Ulrich; Silaghi A. Marius

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Controller synthesis for networked control systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a discrete-time model for networked control systems (NCSs) that incorporates all network phenomena: time-varying sampling intervals, packet dropouts and time-varying delays that may be both smaller and larger than the sampling interval. ... Keywords: Linear matrix inequalities, Networked control systems, Sampled-data control, Stability analysis, Time-varying delay

M. B. G. Cloosterman; L. Hetel; N. van de Wouw; W. P. M. H. Heemels; J. Daafouz; H. Nijmeijer

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

LARK-TRIPP -- A Toxic Release Inventory Estimation Tool for Power Plants Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LARK-TRIPP is software developed to estimate and keep records on land and air releases, primarily trace substance emissions from fuel steam electric plants. Emissions can be tracked for individual plants containing a single unit or multiple units. Data are gathered by single unit/single year, but output can be combinations of current unit/year or all units/years. LARK-TRIPP enables the user to calculate reportable quantities of elements based on coal or ash data. A record of all input data can then be st...

1999-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

292

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CClF/sub 2/-CClF/sub 2/ known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Results indicate that for the range of Reynolds and Froude numbers considered, the liquid film is likely to be turbulent rather than laminar. The study also shows that two-dimensional effects are important, and the flow is never fully developed either in the film or the core. In addition, the new approach for the turbulent film is capable of predicting a local net flow rate that may be upward, downward, stationary, or stalled. An actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114. Results indicate that the theory can be used to predict the pressure gradient in the two-phase region based on laboratory measurements.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

SciTech Connect

A Scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. Emphasis is placed upon the latter case since the range of experimental measurements of pressure, temperature, and void fraction collected in this study fall in the slug-churn''- annular'' flow regimes. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. Turbulent stresses are modeled by using Prandtl's mixing-length theory. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CCIF{sub 2}-CCIF{sub 2} known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. The compressibility is accounted for through the acceleration pressure gradient of the core and not directly through the Mach number. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Finally, an actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated; it is based on actual field data from New Zealand. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

doi:10.1155/2012/460508 Review Article Mercury Toxicity and Treatment: A Review of the Literature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright 2012 Robin A. Bernhoft. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which is widely dispersed in nature. Most human exposure results from fish consumption or dental amalgam. Mercury occurs in several chemical forms, with complex pharmacokinetics. Mercury is capable of inducing a wide range of clinical presentations. Diagnosis of mercury toxicity can be challenging but can be obtained with reasonable reliability. Effective therapies for clinical toxicity have been described. 1.

Robin A. Bernhoft

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste grouts prepared by mixing a simulated nonradioactive liquid waste with a dry solids blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay were screened for their acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates (D. magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate (4-methylumbelliferyl b-d galactoside) as the toxic stress indicator. After one hour of exposing juvenile daphnids to grout extracts of varying concentrations, followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The effective concentration at which 50% of the daphnids were adversely affected (EC50) values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The results indicated that the grout extracts studied are nonhazardous and not dangerous to daphnids.

Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Powell, W.J.; Voogd, J.A.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Composition of Toxic Leachate and Unstable Compost to Produce Biodegradable Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper reports a study of mixing two materials that were toxic leachate and unstable compost, aiming to produce biodegradable material. Various low levels of BOD/COD of leachate were mixed with various high levels of C/N of unstable compost. CO2 evolution test was performed to measure the degree of biodegradable materials. The leachate contained BOD and COD that were more than 100 and 500 mg LG 1 respectively and represented by BOD/COD ratio of less than 0.1. The compost characterized by C/N ratio in the range of 15-20. Results showed that leachate and compost mixture produced biodegradable material. A mixture containing 20 % leachate and 80 % compost produced high level of biodegradable material. Key words: Toxic leachate % Unstable compost % Biodegradable material

Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo; Yulia Maghriba; Rachmat Boedisantoso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Superconducting VAR control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Static VAR control means employing an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting direct current coil having low losses and low cost characteristics.

Boenig, Heinrich J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hassenzahl, William V. (Piedmont, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Control of Customer Property  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 EOTA Inventory Control Process 110620.doc110620 Page 1 of 6 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: EOTA Inventory Control Process Document Number: MGTP-005 Rev. 110620...

299

NSLS Work Planning & Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Work Planning & Controls NSLS Work Planning and Control Procedure Lead Working Guidelines Information on Working in Areas Subject to Radiation from VUV Injection Procedure for...

300

Air Pollution Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation establishes the Department of Environmental Management and the Air Pollution Control Board, which are tasked with the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution by all...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

DeShong, J.A.

1960-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Quantum Multiobservable Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present deterministic algorithms for the simultaneous control of an arbitrary number of quantum observables. Unlike optimal control approaches based on cost function optimization, quantum multiobservable tracking control (MOTC) is capable of tracking predetermined homotopic trajectories to target expectation values in the space of multiobservables. The convergence of these algorithms is facilitated by the favorable critical topology of quantum control landscapes. Fundamental properties of quantum multiobservable control landscapes that underlie the efficiency of MOTC, including the multiobservable controllability Gramian, are introduced. The effects of multiple control objectives on the structure and complexity of optimal fields are examined. With minor modifications, the techniques described herein can be applied to general quantum multiobjective control problems.

Raj Chakrabarti; Rebing Wu; Herschel Rabitz

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

303

Characterization of Toxicity of Coal-Fired Power Plant Effluents to Freshwater Mussels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plant wastewater effluents contain metals and other materials that may harm aquatic life living in receiving streams adjacent to power plants. Characterization of the hazard associated with these wastewater effluents will inform plant operators such that they may alter processes in order to promote cleaner wastewater discharges. This interim report discusses efforts to culture healthy aquatic organisms to be used in toxicity bioassays. Culture and bioassay methods are refined and ready f...

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

304

Characterization of Toxicity of Coal-Fired Power Plant Effluents to Freshwater Mussels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has voiced concerns about fluidized gas desulfuration (FGD-) influenced waste streams regarding compliance with water quality standards. The effects of these effluents on aquatic organisms need to be quantified to better characterize the risk to aquatic ecosystems. This interim report discusses results of effluent toxicity tests performed over the past year. Four separate shipments of effluents were received from three different coal-fired power plants. Resultin...

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

305

Characterization of the Toxicity of Coal-Fired Power Plant Effluents to Freshwater Mussels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plant effluents contain trace metals, dissolved salts, and nutrients that may harm aquatic life, including fish, invertebrates, and freshwater mussels, living in receiving streams adjacent to the plants. This interim report discusses the results of effluent toxicity and water quality tests performed over the past year for three coal-fired power plantsMitchell Plant and Mountaineer Plant, both in West Virginia, and Marshall Plant in North Carolina.

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

306

Novel Concepts for Particulate Matter Control: 2013 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The latest regulatory challenge for U.S. utilities and the air pollution control industry is the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS). For existing coal-fired generating units, a maximum particulate matter (PM) emissions rate of 0.030lb/mmBtu (filterable component only) must be met in conjunction with HCl emissions standards (0.002 lb/mmBtu) and mercury emissions standards (1.2 lb/mmBtu for non-low-rank virgin coals). MATS standards are ...

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

307

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

308

The Experimental Performance of a Mobile Manipulator Control Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results are presented of an experimental study of a recently developed motion control algorithm for mobile manipulators. First, the dynamic interactions between a mobile manipulator and its vehicle are shown to lead to poor performance when a conventional fixed-base controller, which neglects these interactions, is used. Then the mobile manipulator control algorithm, which accounts for dynamic vehicle motions caused by manipulator motions, is shown to be stable and to perform well, while using only limited sensory data, such as would be practically available in highly unstructured field environments. 1:Introduction Robotic manipulators are being considered for a wide variety of applications outside of their traditional factory settings. These applications, such as fire-fighting, toxic waste cleanup, and planetary exploration will require the manipulators to operate from moving vehicles, i.e. as mobile manipulators, see Fig. 1 [1]. Gravity Large Payload Sensing Suspension & Soil...

Norbert A. M. Hootsmans; Steven Dubowsky; Patrick Z. Mo

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

Diebold, J.P. [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings  

SciTech Connect

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Personal Universal Controllers: Controlling Complex Appliances with . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We envision a future where each person will carry with them a personal universal controller (PUC), a portable computerized device that allows the user to control any appliance within their environment. The PUC has a two-way communication channel with each appliance. It downloads a specification of the appliance's features and then automatically generates an interface for controlling that appliance (graphical, speech, or both). In this demonstration we present a working PUC system that automatically generates graphical and speech interfaces, and controls real appliances, including a shelf stereo and a Sony camcorder.

Jeffrey Nichols; Brad A. Myers; Michael Higgins; Joseph Hughes; Thomas K. Harris; Roni Rosenfeld; Kevin Litwack

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A New Look at Natural Humics on Uranium Stability and Mobility Humic substances naturally forming organic materials in soil and groundwater, have  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Look at Natural Humics on Uranium Stability and Mobility Humic substances ­ naturally forming are significant because humics could present a potential challenge to immobilizing and stabilizing reduced uranium uranium bioreduction and oxidation. Environ. Sci. Technol. (in press). #12;

314

Bursting synchronization in networks with long-range coupling mediated by a diffusing chemical substance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many networks of physical and biological interest are characterized by a long-range coupling mediated by a chemical which diffuses through a medium in which oscillators are embedded. We considered a one-dimensional model for this effect for which the diffusion is fast enough so as to be implemented through a coupling whose intensity decays exponentially with the lattice distance. In particular, we analyzed the bursting synchronization of neurons described by two timescales (spiking and bursting activity), and coupled through such a long-range interaction network. One of the advantages of the model is that one can pass from a local (Laplacian) type of coupling to a global (all-to-all) one by varying a single parameter in the interaction term. We characterized bursting synchronization using an order parameter which undergoes a transition as the coupling parameters are changed through a critical value. We also investigated the role of an external time-periodic signal on the bursting synchronization properties of the network. We show potential applications in the control of pathological rhythms in biological neural networks.

R. L. Viana; A. M. Batista; C. A. S. Batista; J. C. A. de Pontes; F. A. dos S. Silva; S. R. Lopes

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale-waste lands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale and total Al concentrations showed a significant decrease after planting S. cumini plantation onto the shale

Neher, Deborah A.

316

High Throughput, Low Toxic Processing of Very Thin, High Efficiency CIGSS Solar Cells: Final Report, December 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work carried out during this project presents the use of diethylselenium or other organometallic precursors as low-toxicity alternative selenium sources for preparing a high-quality absorber.

Dhere, N. G.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

NSLS Controls & Diagnostics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controls & Diagnostics Systems Other Projects and Responsibilities WebDAQs Presentations Papers Tech Notes...

318

Control physical models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes design of model physical model of rectification column. Physical model is appointed as a demonstration system control for distillation by means of control system SIMATIC PCS7 from company SIEMENS. The SIMATIC PCS7 Process control ... Keywords: description, distillation, physical model, process control system

Tom Dvo?k; Jan Blek

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

1963-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

320

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA{sub 2}, A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS.

Kang, Mi Sun [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ju Yeon [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Heui [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyung Jun [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang Mook [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chin, Mi-Reyoung [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang-Kiu [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bonventre, Joseph V. [Renal Unit, Brigham Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Jung, Sung Yun [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Kyong [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: proteinlab@hanmail.net

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Document Control Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Document Control Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 7 1 Document Control Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 7 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Document Control Process Document Number: P-001 Rev 11_0304 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): F-001 Document Control Template - Process, F-002 Document Control Template - Instruction, F-003 Document Control Template - Screenshot, F-004 Document Control Template - Form, F-005 Document Control Template - Form - Excel, MGTP-002 Skill Set Model, Q-003 EOTA Processes: Sequence and Interaction, P-003, Control of Records P-001 Document Control Process 11_0304 Page 2 of 7 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change

323

Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Control rod drive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

Hawke, Basil C. (Solana Beach, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Strategic Trade Control: Multilateral Export Control Arrangements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multilateral Multilateral Export Control Arrangements Nonproliferation & National Security (NPNS) Overview Technical Nonproliferation Policy Support Strategic Trade Control Review of export license applications Multilateral Export Control Arrangements Interdiction Engagement & Training INECP INSEP GIPP Safeguards Concepts and Approaches Human Capital Development Additional Protocol Technical Assistance National Security Systems & Assessments National Security Information Systems Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) Radiation Detection & Response (RDR) Contact NPNS Other Major Programs Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE Division on Flickr Nonproliferation and National Security Program Technical Nonproliferation Policy Support (TNPS)

326

CONTROL ROD DRIVE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

1961-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

327

Control system design method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

328

Paducah | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paducah Paducah Paducah Below are compliance agreements for the Paducah site, and summaries of the agreements are included. These agreements help in promoting cooperation between EM, Department organizations, and state agencies. Federal Facility Agreement for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Federal Facility Agreement for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Summary Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, February 20, 1992 Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement, February 20, 1992 Summary Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Compliance Order, September 10, 1997 Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Compliance Order, September 10, 1997 Summary More Documents & Publications Closure Sites

329

Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

Not Available

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Toxicity of lead to soil respiration: mediation by clay minerals, humic acids, and compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since Pb has no known biological function, elevated levels of Pb in soils and in other natural environments may adversely affect the indigenous biota, including the microbiota. Elevated levels of Pb in soil may also adversely affect microbemediated ecologic processes. There is, however, relatively little information on the mediating influence of the physicochemical factors of the recipient environment on the toxicity of Pb to microbe-mediated ecologic processes. This present study evaluated the influence of the clay minerals, kaolinite and montmorillonite, particulate humic acids, and compost on the degradation of glucose in soil.

Debosz, K.; Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Characterization and Segmental Distribution of 251-Bolton-Hunterlabeled Substance P Binding Sites in Rat Spinal Cord  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substance P (SP) is widely distributed in the spinal cord and has been implicated as a neurotransmitter in several spinal cord neuronal systems. To investigate SP receptors in the spinal cord, 1251-Bolton-Hunter-SP (*I-BH-SP) was used to identify and characterize spinal cord binding sites for the peptide. The binding of *%BH-SP had the following characteristics: high affinity; time, temperature, and membrane concentration dependent; reversible; and saturable. The KS0 of SP in whole spinal cord was 0.46 nM as compared with 0.95, 60, and 150 nM for physalaemin, eledoisin, and kassinin. Four putative antagonists of SP were e 0.0001 times as potent as SP in inhibiting *%BH-SP binding. lCsos were 5, 7.5, 7.0, and 45 PM for D-Pro*, D-Trp73s-SP; D-Pro*, D-Phe, D-Trp-SP; D-Arg, D-Pro*, D-Tqfss, Leu-SP; and D-Pro4, D-Trp7Vs30-SP(4-1 I), respectively.

Clivel G. Charlton; Cinda; J. Helke

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Control of Customer Property  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Report of Lost, Damaged, Destroyed or Stolen (RLDDS) Property, MGTP-005 EOTA Inventory Process, MGTP-006 for control of EOTA issued key(s) MGTP-003 Control of Customer...

334

Solar control design package  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information used in the evaluation of design of Solar Control's solar heating and cooling system controller and the Solarstat is presented. System performance specifications, design data brochures, and detailed design drawings are presented.

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Appendix B - Control Points  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B B Control Points B.1 Injector Control Points Qty Type Device 2 Magnet Bend magnet - DL1 bend 9 Magnet Quad magnet 10 Magnet X-Y Corrector Pair 2 Magnet Solenoid 2 Magnet...

336

Portable controls experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiments for controls classes like MIT's 2.004 require large lab setups and expensive equipment such as oscilloscopes and function generators. We developed a series of controls experiments based on National Instruments' ...

Larson, Richard Winston

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Networked Control Systems Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and deploys measurement science for sensor networks and control systems used in manufacturing, construction, and other cyber-physical systems ...

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Control of Test Conduct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Revision 1 Effective June 2008 Control of Test Conduct Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: Date: Garrett P....

339

Simplified distillation column controls  

SciTech Connect

A simple, energy efficient method of controlling single or double distillation columns for the production of ethyl alcohol is described. The control system is based on a material balance scheme centered around a thermostat actuated control valve to regulate reflux rate and product purity. Column bottom's levels are automatically regulated by vented suction lines on the pump inlets. Methods of minimizing control input variations are used including column insulation, stillage-to-beer heat exchanger, and a steam pressure regulator.

Badger, P.; Pile, R.; Lightsey, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Lighting Control Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for lighting control systems in residential, commercial, and industrial facilities is on the rise with the demand for increased energy savings. With lighting accounting for almost 23% of grid load, there is significant opportunity to reduce lighting load while improving the quality of light for customers. Lighting control systems are becoming more intelligent as the need for them to interface with building control systems and demand response systems also increases. Lighting control systems use...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Open Architecture Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Forum, Orlando, FL, January 2004. I-4 Regional Meeting: Process Control Security, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering ...

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

NETL: IEP - PM Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of PM2.5 NAAQS Regulations Visibility (Regional Haze) Opacity Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Primary Particulates Currently, coal-fired electric utility boilers built or...

343

Informal Control code logic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

Bergstra, Jan A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Water heater control module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

Hammerstrom, Donald J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

345

CONTROL FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>A control rod operating device in a nuclear reactor of the type in which the control rod is gradually withdrawn from the reactor to a position desired during stable operation is described. The apparatus is comprised essentially of a stop member movable in the direction of withdrawal of the control rod, a follower on the control rod engageable with the stop and means urging the follower against the stop in the direction of withdrawal. A means responsive to disengagement of the follower from the stop is provided for actuating the control rod to return to the reactor shut-down position.

Lichtenberger, H.V.; Cameron, R.A.

1959-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materials j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j h a z m a t Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption C. Zhang a,b,∗ , S.V. Malhotra b,1 , A.J. Francis c,d a College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071 b Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07104 USA c Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 USA d Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 South Korea h i g h l i g h t s * Three ILs showed varying degrees of toxicity to Clostridium sp.

347

Heavy-metal toxicity phenomena in laboratory-scale ANFLOW bioreactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An energy-conserving wastewater treatment system was developed based on an anaerobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor. Since many applications of the ANFLOW process could involve the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals, the potentially toxic effects of these metals on the biological processes occurring in ANFLOW columns (primarily acetogenesis and methanogenesis) were investigated. Both step and pulse inputs of zinc ranging from 100 to 1000 mg/L were added to synthetic wastewaters being treated in ANFLOW columns with 0.057-m/sup 3/ volumes. Column responses were used to develop descriptive models for toxicity phenomena in such systems. It was found that an inhibition function could be defined and used to modify a model based on plugflow with axial dispersion and first-order kinetics for soluble substrate removal. The inhibitory effects of zinc on soluble substrate removal were found to be predominantly associated with its sorption by biosolids. Sorption initially occurred in the lower regions of the column, but was gradually observed in higher regions as the sorption capacity of the lower regions was exhausted. Sorption phenomena could be described with the Freundlich equation. Sorption processes were accompanied by shifts of biological processes to regions higher in the columns. A regenerative process was observed when feeding of wastewaters without zinc was resumed. It was postulated that regeneration could be based on sloughing of layers of biofilms, or other biosolids involved in zinc sorption, followed by continued growth of lower layers of biofilms not involved in heavy-metal sorption.

Rivera, A.L.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Structure-toxicity assessment of metabolites of the aerobic bacterial transformation of substituted naphthalenes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pseudomonas fluorescens 5R, a naphthalene-degrading bacterium isolated from manufactured gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was examined for its degradative capacity of a number of substituted naphthalenes. In general, those compounds substituted on only one ring with an electrically neutral substituent were found to be transformed primarily to substituted salicylic acids according to the classical (NAH7) naphthalene dioxygenase-initiated upper pathway reactions of the naphthalene degradative pathway (i.e., the NAH system). Dimethylnaphthalenes with a substituent on each ring, and certain halogenated naphthalenes, were transformed via a monohydroxylation reaction to form hydroxylated dead-end products. Of the substituted salicylic acids examined, only 3- and 4-methylsalicylic acid, the respective products of the degradation of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, were further degraded by salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the first two enzymes of the NAH lower pathway. Using the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute toxicity assay, many of the monohydroxylated products of incomplete biodegradation were found to be polar narcotics. Substituted salicylic acids that are not further degraded by the NAH lower pathway were found to be toxic via carboxylic acid narcosis.

LeBlond, J.D.; Applegate, B.M.; Menn, F.M.; Schultz, T.W.; Sayler, G.S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Toxic chemical release inventory reporting: Questions and answers (Qs&As)  

SciTech Connect

On September 22, 1992, the Secretary of Energy directed the Department to participate in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program and to initiate Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) issued interim guidance on March 4, 1993, entitled ``Toxic Chemical Release Inventory and 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program`` that provided instructions on implementing the Secretarial directive. As stated in the interim guidance, all DOE sites not currently reporting under EPCRA Section 313, which meet the criteria for DOE TRI reporting, will initiate reporting of all TRI chemical releases and transfers for the 1993 calendar year with the annual report due to EPA, States and a courtesy copy to EH-20 by July 1, 1994. All other DOE sites which currently report under EPCRA Section 313 will also follow the criteria for DOE TRI reporting.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Multispecies toxicity assessment of compost produced in bioremediation of an explosives-contaminated sediment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multispecies terrestrial test system was used to assess the environmental effectiveness of composting for bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soils. The assessment involved comparing biological responses, from the individual to the community level, in remediated and reference composts. A 6-month greenhouse study incorporated two soil invertebrate species, three plant species and an associated symbiont, and the naturally occurring complement of soil microorganisms. Measured parameters included growth and reproduction of earthworms and isopods; soil mote diversity; soil lipid class composition as an indicator of soil microbial community structure; plant growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction; and root nodulation and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. Additional short-term toxicity tests of seed germination and earthworm survival were performed to supplement the mesocosm data. Compost prepared from the explosives-contaminated soil inhibited several aspects of plant growth and physiology, but few adverse effects on soil invertebrates were detected. An initial lag in earthworm and isopod reproduction occurred in the reference compost, reflecting some inherent compost differences not associated with contamination, and highlighting the importance and the difficulty of finding appropriate reference soils for assessing hazardous waste sites or remediation technologies. Nonetheless, the results from this study suggested some nonlethal effects from the contaminated-soil compost, primarily to plants. The mesocosm methodology used in this study can bridge the gap between traditional short-term toxicity testing and longer term field assessments, and provide information on ecological effects by explicitly including measurements of multiple species across several levels of ecological organization.

Gunderson, C.A.; Napolitano, G.E.; Wicker, L.F.; Richmond, J.E.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Kostuk, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences; Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of cresols (i.e., m-, o- and p-cresol isomers) from a population of creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms by application of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March 1990 (55FR 11798). Data generated in this study indicate that creosote-treated utility poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of total cresols and other semi-volatile organic compounds, from wood subjected to TCLP analysis, were an order of magnitude or more below their current Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory levels. The wood analyzed in this study consisted of 54 samples of wood poles and 6 crossarms. Subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and the resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of cresols and other semi-volatile compounds.

Horn, M.E. (Environmental Management Services, Waupaca, WI (United States)); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

Thorp, A.G. II

1962-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Control of Customer Property  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 EOTA Key Control Process 11_0119.docx1_0119 6 EOTA Key Control Process 11_0119.docx1_0119 Page 1 of 5 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: EOTA Key Control Process Document Number: MGTP-006 Rev. 11_0119 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: MGTP-003 Control of Customer Property Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): MGTF-012 Key Check-Out Form MGTP-006 EOTA Key Control Process 11_0119.docx1_0119 Page 2 of 5 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change 10_0823 Initial Release 11_0119 Modified process to include steps to take if an employee does not return a key. MGTP-006 EOTA Key Control Process 11_0119.docx1_0119 Page 3 of 5 I. Purpose To establish a process for control of all EOTA keys.

355

One Controlling Many  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

One Controlling Many One Controlling Many As Unmanned Systems proliferate the battle space, the decisive advantages historically provided by strategy, tactics, and training must be translated into Unmanned Systems (UMS) Control Systems. It is a challenge to effectively control large numbers of UMS. The human operator must be freed to focus on high level perception, tactics, and strategy while the system automates lower level functions. The Intelligent Systems, Robotics, and Cybernetics (ISRC) Group at Sandia National Laboratories is working to develop a controls system for single-operator multiple unmanned systems control. Critical Characteristics * A single operator controls a heterogeneous team of several (three to six) unmanned ground (UGVs) and aerial vehicles (UAVs) performing multiple

356

Determination of the toxicity characteristic for metals in soil: A comparison of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and total metal determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison is made of the concentrations of metals extracted from soils using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a total determination method. This information is of interest in two ways. First, it is hoped that a relationship might be established between the amount of each metal determined after extraction by the TCLP and the amount determined using a total determination method. And second, data are also presented which indicate the general extractability of various metals in soil samples using the TCLP. This study looks specifically at inorganic elements (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mg, Hg, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in soils from a firing range. Results show that total determination methods for metals can not generally be used for heterogeneous samples, such as soil samples from a firing range. Some correlation between a total determination method and TCLP was observed when Ba and Cd were present in the samples at lower concentrations (less than 80 mg/kg for Ba and less than 25 mg/kg for Cd); however, additional data are necessary to verify this correlation.

Bass, D.A.; Taylor, J.D.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads  

SciTech Connect

As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

358

Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance  

SciTech Connect

Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

Traceski, T.T.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Investigating Sources of Toxicity in Stormwater: Algae Mortality in Runoff Upstream of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A source evaluation case study is presented for observations of algae toxicity in an intermittent stream passing through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory near Livermore, California. A five-step procedure is discussed to determine the cause of water toxicity problems and to determine appropriate environmental management practices. Using this approach, an upstream electrical transfer station was identified as the probable source of herbicides causing the toxicity. In addition, an analytical solution for solute transport in overland flow was used to estimate the application level of 40 Kg/ha. Finally, this source investigation demonstrates that pesticides can impact stream water quality regardless of application within levels suggested on manufacturer labels. Environmental managers need to ensure that pesticides that could harm aquatic organisms (including algae) not be used within close proximity to streams or storm drainages and that application timing should be considered for environmental protection.

Campbell, C G; Folks, K; Mathews, S; Martinelli, R

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

360

Impacts of NOx Controls on Mercury Controllability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Past tests have led researchers and air pollution regulators to hypothesize that nitrogen oxides (NOx) controls can enhance mercury capture by particulate collection devices and sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers. This technology review presents results obtained to date from a comprehensive program designed to confirm, qualify, and quantify these hypotheses.

2002-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Eligibility Commercial...

362

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

363

Nuclear reactor control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

1. In a nuclear reactor incorporating a plurality of columns of tubular fuel elements disposed in horizontal tubes in a mass of graphite wherein water flows through the tubes to cool the fuel elements, the improvement comprising at least one control column disposed in a horizontal tube including fewer fuel elements than in a normal column of fuel elements and tubular control elements disposed at both ends of said control column, and means for varying the horizontal displacement of the control column comprising a winch at the upstream end of the control column and a cable extending through the fuel and control elements and attached to the element at the downstream end of the column.

Cawley, William E. (Phoenix, AZ); Warnick, Robert F. (Pasco, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

CHSP: HAZARD CONTROLS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYGIENE HYGIENE AND SAFETY PLAN CHSP SITE MAP HAZARD CONTROLS CONTROLS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS arrow image WORK PRACTICE CONTROLS arrow image CHEMICAL STORAGE GUIDELINES DECOMISSIONING LAB AND SHOP SPACES SPECIFIC CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES arrow image EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT arrow image APPENDICES arrow image FAQs QUESTIONS Search the CHSP: > Go spacer image EH&S Home PUB 3000 LBNL Home LBNL A-Z Index LBNL Search LBNL Phone Book Privacy & Security Notice spacer spacer image spacer image spacer image HAZARD CONTROLS This section discusses control procedures for limiting employee exposure to chemical hazards. Technical Areas Technical areas include laboratories, shops, workrooms, and similar areas where non-administrative activities are performed. For the purpose of the

365

Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hydraulic control rod  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for shifting a control rod into and out of a nuclear reactor utilizing as pressure fluid the fluid employed as coolant moderator in the reactor.

Treshow, Michael (Hinsdale, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Computer Applications & Process Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[valSummaryfrmSearchResults]. Item 1. Topic: Computer Applications & Process Control. Sort by: Title, Author, Publisher, Product Type, In Stock, Date Published...

368

Ice maker safety control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a refrigeration apparatus including an evaporator, a defrost heater for defrosting the evaporator, a defrost thermostat having a switch for de-energizing the defrost heater at a preselected high temperature of the evaporator, and an ice making apparatus having a mold, a mold heater, and a control circuit controllably energized the mold heater, a safety control for the ice making apparatus is described comprising: means for thermally coupling the defrost thermostat with the mold; and means electrically connecting the defrost thermostat switch with the control circuit for de-energizing the mold heater at a preselected high temperature of the mold to prevent overheating thereof.

Linstromberg, W.J.

1988-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fluctuations and Nanoscale Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Selected Publications: Simultaneous positioning and orientation of a single nano-object by flow control: theory and simulations, PP Mathai, AJ ...

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

370

Emissions & Emission Controls - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions and Emission Controls In conjunction with the research efforts at FEERC to improve fuel efficiency and reduce petroleum use, research on emissions is conducted with two...

371

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Air Pollution Controls  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Various statutes within the Wisconsin Legislative Documents relate to air pollution control. These statutes describe zoning, permitting, and emissions regulations for hazardous and non-hazardous...

373

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

374

Shore Erosion Control (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Natural Resources is responsible for creating and implementing a program designed to minimize shore erosion through education, erosion control projects, promulgate regulations,...

375

Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in...

376

Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has...

377

Programmable Logic Controllers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) drive the behavior of industrial control systems according to uploaded programs. It is now known that PLCs are vulnerable to the uploading of malicious code that can have severe physical consequences. What is not understood is whether an adversary with no knowledge of the PLCs interface to the control system can execute a damaging, targeted, or stealthy attack against a control system using the PLC. In this paper, we present SABOT, a tool that automatically maps the control instructions in a PLC to an adversary-provided specification of the target control systems behavior. This mapping recovers sufficient semantics of the PLCs internal layout to instantiate arbitrary malicious controller code. This lowers the prerequisite knowledge needed to tailor an attack to a control system. SABOT uses an incremental model checking algorithm to map a few plant devices at a time, until a mapping is found for all adversary-specified devices. At this point, a malicious payload can be compiled and uploaded to the PLC. Our evaluation shows that SABOT correctly compiles payloads for all tested control systems when the adversary correctly specifies full system behavior, and for 4 out of 5 systems in most cases where there where unspecified features. Furthermore, SABOT completed all analyses in under 2 minutes.

Stephen Mclaughlin; Patrick Mcdaniel; Stephen Mclaughlin; Patrick Mcdaniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Role Based Access Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nash and Poland [10] discuss the application of role based access control to cryptographic authentication devices commonly used in the banking ...

379

Control of Records Procedure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Revision 1 Effective June 2008 Control, Close-out, and Storage of Documentation Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: ...

380

Document Control Template-Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5ADocument Control Template - ExcelForm EOTA - Business Form Document Title: P-001, Document Control Process Document Number: Document Control Template - Excel Form EOTA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Amino acid, lipid and red blood cell studies on selenium toxicity with the laboratory rat.  

SciTech Connect

The amino acid and lipid analysis on blood and liver and the amino acid analysis on urine gave irregular values for each determination. Therefore, the average values which were presented in the 1966 Technical Progress report (C00-1449-2) were not considered valid and were not submitted for publication. However, experiments on the in vivo conversion of 75 Se-labeled selenite-Se to urinary metabolites led to the observance of an unknown metabolite. This metabolite, which was different from the ordinary selenium analogues of sulfur, was designated as "U-1" (C00-1449-3). The use of the 59 Fe was involved in the study of the anemia of chronic selenium toxicity. The findings because of the labeled iron led to the conclusion that the anemia was from massive hemolysis (C00-1449-3).

Halverson, A W; Tsay, D -T; Triebwasser, K C; Whitehead, E I

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Analysis of 1994 Air Force toxic release inventory reporting. Master`s thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to analyze the Air Force`s 1994 Toxic Release Inventory data. Statistical tests were used to meet the following research objectives: (1) review the CY 94 data to determine which chemicals were most often reported and which bases and major commands had the most releases in terms of the number of chemicals reported and the amount of chemicals reported and (2) investigate factors which could influence the reporting status of a facility. An analysis of a survey of Air Force facilities indicated that two factors had an influence on the reporting status of Air Force facilities: (1) whether the TRI point of contact had confidence in the completeness of the data used for threshold computations and (2) whether the primary database used for threshold computations was the Standard Base Supply System.

Pollock, B.A.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Postcombustion measures for cleaner solid fuels combustion: activated carbons for toxic pollutants removal from flue gases  

SciTech Connect

In this work the efficiency of postcombustion measures (i.e., activated carbon utilization) to achieve cleaner solid fuels combustion was evaluated. Thus, two commercial activated carbons (Calgon F400 and RWE active coke) were tested for removing toxic polluting compounds (Hg, PCBs, PCDD/Fs) from the gas phase. The effects of the pore structure and surface chemistry of the activated carbons tested were investigated, along with the sorption temperature and sulfur addition in carbon matrix. Experiments were realized in a bench-scale adsorption unit and in a commercial solid fuels-fired hot water boiler. The results showed that both activated carbons tested are suitable for the removal of toxic compounds (i.e., Hg, PCBs, PCDD/Fs) from the gas phase. Due to differences in Hg adsorptive capacity and adsorption rate, which are attributed to the diversified pore structure and surface chemistry of the activated carbons, RWE active coke is, presumably, more suitable for continuous Hg removal (i.e., activated carbon injection), while Calgon F400 is more suitable for batch one (packed column). For both activated carbons, Hg adsorption capacity was reduced with temperature increase, while it was enhanced by the presence of sulfur. Oxygen surface functional groups seem to be involved in Hg adsorption mechanism. Lactones are believed to act as potential active sites for mercury adsorption, while phenols may act as inhibitors. The removal of PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the gas phase seems not to be a problem for the activated carbons tested, regardless of their pore structure or surface chemistry. 61 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

G. Skodras; I. Diamantopoulou; P. Natas; A. Palladas; G.P. Sakellaropoulos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Predictor of Severe Gastroduodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Abdominopelvic Malignancies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To identify the predictors for the development of severe gastroduodenal toxicity (GDT) in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2011, 202 patients with abdominopelvic malignancies were treated with curative-intent SBRT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 40 patients with the eligibility criteria as follows: 3 fractionations, follow-up period {>=}1 year, absence of previous radiation therapy (RT) history or combination of external-beam RT and the presence of gastroduodenum (GD) that received a dose higher than 20% of prescribed dose. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (range, 33-60 Gy) with 3 fractions. We analyzed the clinical and dosimetric parameters, including multiple dose-volume histogram endpoints: V{sub 20} (volume of GD that received 20 Gy), V{sub 25}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}, and D{sub max} (the maximum point dose). The grade of GDT was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0, and GDT {>=}grade 3 was defined as severe GDT. Results: The median time to the development of severe GDT was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). Severe GDT was found in 6 patients (15%). D{sub max} was the best dosimetric predictor for severe GDT. D{sub max} of 35 Gy and 38 Gy were respectively associated with a 5% and 10% probability of the development of severe GDT. A history of ulcer before SBRT was the best clinical predictor on univariate analysis (P=.0001). Conclusions: We suggest that D{sub max} is a valuable predictor of severe GDT after SBRT using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. A history of ulcer before SBRT should be carefully considered as a clinical predictor, especially in patients who receive a high dose to GD.

Bae, Sun Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Lee, Kyung-Nam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chul Ju; Yang, Ki Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Bum [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Late Tissue Toxicity: Pilot Study of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the use of advanced ultrasonic imaging to quantitatively evaluate normal-tissue toxicity in breast-cancer radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Eighteen breast cancer patients who received radiation treatment were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical study. Radiotherapy involved a radiation dose of 50.0 to 50.4 Gy delivered to the entire breast, followed by an electron boost of 10.0 to 16.0 Gy delivered to the tumor bed. Patients underwent scanning with ultrasound during follow-up, which ranged from 6 to 94 months (median, 22 months) postradiotherapy. Conventional ultrasound images and radio-frequency (RF) echo signals were acquired from treated and untreated breasts. Three ultrasound parameters, namely, skin thickness, Pearson coefficient, and spectral midband fit, were computed from RF signals to measure radiation-induced changes in dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue, respectively. Ultrasound parameter values of the treated breast were compared with those of the untreated breast. Ultrasound findings were compared with clinical assessment using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late-toxicity scores. Results: Significant changes were observed in ultrasonic parameter values of the treated vs. untreated breasts. Average skin thickness increased by 27.3%, from 2.05 {+-} 0.22mm to 2.61 {+-} 0.52mm; Pearson coefficient decreased by 31.7%, from 0.41 {+-} 0.07 to 0.28 {+-} 0.05; and midband fit increased by 94.6%, from -0.92 {+-} 7.35 dB to 0.87 {+-} 6.70 dB. Ultrasound evaluations were consistent with RTOG scores. Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasound provides a noninvasive, objective means of assessing radiation-induced changes to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This imaging tool will become increasingly valuable as we continue to improve radiation therapy technique.

Liu Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhou Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Yoshida, Emi J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Woodhouse, Shermian A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Schiff, Peter B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wang, Tony J.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Lu Zhengfeng; Pile-Spellman, Eliza [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zhang Pengpeng [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Kutcher, Gerald J. [Department of History, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY (United States)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Personal building controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Buildings are some of the largest energy consumers in the world and yet occupants are regularly dissatisfied with the interior environment in large part due to thermal discomfort [7]. Studies show that given personal control over their environment, occupants ... Keywords: building, energy, hvac, lighting, personal controls

Andrew Krioukov; David Culler

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Contamination Control Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

EBY, J.L.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

Stepping motor controller  

SciTech Connect

A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, Steven C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Stepping motor controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

1982-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

390

NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Control of Records  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Control of Records Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 6 3 Control of Records Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 6 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Control of Records Process Document Number P-003 Rev 11_0304 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): REG-003, Records Register P-003 Control of Records Process 11_0304 Page 2 of 6 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change A Initial Release 08_0805 Added Integration Group to Section III. 11_0304 Defined Record Creator and New Record for clarity and swapped Step 3.0 and 4.0 P-003 Control of Records Process 11_0304 Page 3 of 6 I. Purpose To describe the process for how records are established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to requirements and

392

DOE Mercury Control Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Research Mercury Control Research Air Quality III: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter September 9-12, 2002 Rita A. Bajura, Director National Energy Technology Laboratory www.netl.doe.gov 169330 RAB 09/09/02 2 Potential Mercury Regulations MACT Standards * Likely high levels of Hg reduction * Compliance: 2007 Clean Power Act of 2001 * 4-contaminant control * 90% Hg reduction by 2007 Clear Skies Act of 2002 * 3-contaminant control * 46% Hg reduction by 2010 * 70% Hg reduction by 2018 * Hg emission trading President Bush Announcing Clear Skies Initiative February 14, 2002 169330 RAB 09/09/02 3 Uncertainties Mercury Control Technologies * Balance-of-plant impacts * By-product use and disposal * Capture effectiveness with low-rank coals * Confidence of performance 169330 RAB 09/09/02 4

393

Residential Humidity Control Strategies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Humidity Control Strategies Residential Humidity Control Strategies Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Humidity control goals  Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality  Control indoor humidity year-around, just like we do temperature  Durability and customer satisfaction  Reduce builder risk and warranty/service costs 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Humidity control challenges 1. In humid cooling climates, there will always be times of the year when there is little sensible cooling load to create thermostat demand but humidity remains high * Cooling systems that modify fan speed and temperature set point based on humidity can help but are still limited

394

Cyclic control stick  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclic control stick of the type used in helicopters for reducing the safety hazards associated with such a mechanism in the event of a crewman being thrown violently into contact with the cyclic control stick resulting from a crash or the like. The cyclic control stick is configured to break away upon the exertion of an impact force which exceeds a predetermined value and/or is exerted for more than a momentary time duration. The cyclic control stick is also configured to be adjustable so as to locate the grip thereof as far away from the crewman as possible for safety reasons without comprising the comfort of the crewman or the use of the control stick, and a crushable pad is provided on the top of the grip for impact energy absorbing purposes.

Whitaker, Charles N. (2834 S. Extension Rd., No. 2024, Mesa, AZ 85202); Zimmermann, Richard E. (425 E. Greenway, Tempe, AZ 85282)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Control systems under attack?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

Lders, Stefan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Neural daylight control system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper describes the design, the implementation of a neural controller used in an automatic daylight control system. The automatic lighting control system (ALCS) attempt to maintain constant the illuminance at the desired level on working plane even if the daylight contribution is variable. Therefore, the daylight will represent the perturbation signal for the ALCS. The mathematical model of process is unknown. The applied structure of control need the inverse model of process. For this purpose it was used other artificial neural network (ANN) which identify the inverse model of process in an on-line manner. In fact, this ANN identify the inverse model of process + the perturbation signal. In this way the learning signal for neural controller has a better accuracy for the present application.

Grif, Horatiu Stefan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Surveillance Guides - Hazards Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hazards Control Hazards Control 1.0 Objective The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the effectiveness of the contractor's programs and policy for establishing controls to mitigate hazards affecting the public, worker, and environment. 2.0 References 2.1 DOE 4330.4B Maintenance Management Program 2.2 48 CFR 1970.5204-2 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations 3.0 Requirements Implemented This surveillance is conducted to verify implementation of DOE 450.4-1A Volume 2 Appendix E core expectation #3 (CE II-3). CE II-3: An integrated process has been established and is utilized to develop controls which mitigate the identified hazards present within a facility or activity. The set of controls ensure adequate protection of the public, worker, and the environment and are established as agreed upon by DOE.

398

Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the results were quantified using a Live/DeadTM cell assay. This work is a preliminary study cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity testing Tomasz Glawdel,a Caglar Elbuken,a Lucy E. J. Leeb that incorporates electroosmotic pumps, a concentration gradient generator and a fish cell line (rainbow trout gill

Le Roy, Robert J.

399

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form) EHS Contact: Kate Lumley-Sapanski (kxl3@psu apply: When to Report: · All chemical exposures or explosions requiring medical attention must

Yener, Aylin

400

Uncertainties in Air Toxics Calculated by the Dispersion Models AERMOD and ISCST3 in the Houston Ship Channel Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The uncertainties in simulations of annually averaged concentrations of two air toxics (benzene and 1,3-butadiene) are estimated for two widely used U.S. air quality models, the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term, version 3, (ISCST3) model and ...

Steven R. Hanna; Robert Paine; David Heinold; Elizabeth Kintigh; Dan Baker

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Analysis of Crankcase Oils and Oil Residues From the Electric Utility Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If used crankcase oils and oil residues from electric utilities were listed as hazardous waste by EPA, disposal would be costly and recycling options would be limited. The toxicity characteristic test results from this study reveal that such used oils and oil residues are generally nonhazardous and therefore do not warrant classification as hazardous wastes.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Isotopically controlled semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor bulk crystals and multilayer structures with controlled isotopic composition have attracted much scientific and technical interest in the past few years. Isotopic composition affects a large number of physical properties, including phonon energies and lifetimes, bandgaps, the thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient and spin-related effects. Isotope superlattices are ideal media for self-diffusion studies. In combination with neutron transmutation doping, isotope control offers a novel approach to metal-insulator transition studies. Spintronics, quantum computing and nanoparticle science are emerging fields using isotope control.

Haller, Eugene E.

2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

403

Flash protection controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

Galbraith, Lee K. (Mountain View, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fermilab DART run control  

SciTech Connect

DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L. [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Flash protection controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

Galbraith, L.K.

1979-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

Radiological Control Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Surface controlled blade stabilizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Drill string stabilizer apparatus, controllable to expand and retract entirely from the surface by control of drill string pressure, wherein increase of drill string pressure from the surface closes a valve to create a piston means which is moved down by drill string pressure to expand the stabilizer blades, said valve being opened and the piston moving upward upon reduction of drill string pressure to retract the stabilizer blades. Upward and downward movements of the piston and an actuator sleeve therebelow are controlled by a barrel cam acting between the housing and the actuator sleeve.

Russell, Larry R. (6025 Edgemor, Suite C, Houston, TX 77081)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The International Trade In Toxic Waste: A Selected Bibliography Of Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Economic Policy and Trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs policy options to control the international waste trade. International Environmental Affairs

Lewis, Deanna L.; Chepesiuk, Ron

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Control of non-controllable quantum systems: A quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new notion of controllability, eigenstate controllability, is defined for finite-dimensional bilinear quantum mechanical systems which are neither strongly completely controllably nor completely controllable. And a quantum control algorithm based on Grover iteration is designed to perform a quantum control task of steering a system, which is eigenstate controllable but may not be (strongly) completely controllable, from an arbitrary state to a target state.

Chen-Bin Zhang; Dao-Yi Dong; Zong-Hai Chen

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

410

Control of External Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Control of External Documents Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 5 2 Control of External Documents Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 5 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Control of External Documents Process Document Number P-002 Rev 11_0304 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): REG-002, External Document Register P-002 Control of External Documents Process 11_0304 Page 2 of 5 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change A Initial Release 11_0304 Changed revision format from alpha character to numbers; modified process to include a step directing addition to REG-002 External Document Register and changed verbiage to clarify and more accurately reflect current process.

411

Media Inventory Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Media Inventory Control 11_0406 Page 1 of 5 8 Media Inventory Control 11_0406 Page 1 of 5 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Media Inventory Control Document Number: ITTP-018 Rev. 09_0910 Document Owner: Janet Lee Backup Owner: Ben Aragon Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: Referenced Document(s): MGTP-003 Customer Property, ISDP-002 Training Production Process, ADMP-001 Procurement Process, ADMP-003 Receiving/Inspection Process, ITTF-013 Media Requests ITTP-018 Media Inventory Control 11_0406 Page 2 of 5 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change A Initial Release B Added use of ITTF-013, Media Requests (SMS Records) 08_0904 Changed Media Specialist to Online Learning support Specialist (OLSS). Modified process to better fit actual media request process.

412

Stepping Motor Control System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a hardware system designed to facilitate position and velocity control of a group of eight stepping motors using a PDP-11. The system includes motor driver cards and other interface cards in addition ...

Larson, Noble G.

413

Management Control Cover  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fees in the Idaho National Laboratory Contract OAS-M-06-07 August 2006 REPORT ON MANAGEMENT CONTROLS OVER PERFORMANCE FEES IN THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY CONTRACT TABLE OF...

414

Stochastically scalable flow control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in the mathematical analysis of flow control have prompted the creation of the Scalable TCP (STCP) and Exponential RED (E-RED) algorithms. These are designed to be scalable under the popular deterministic delay ...

Thomas Voice

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

416

Condenser Microbiofouling Control Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbiofouling of condenser surfaces can substantially increase costs at electric power plants. This handbook is a consolidated source of information to support decisions that must be made to control microbiofouling.

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

417

Personalized HVAC control system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a novel method of building comfort control, focused around the occupant. Custom sensing, communication, and actuation hardware were developed to locate users in a building, and measure various parameters directly ...

Feldmeier, Mark Christopher

418

Environment induced incoherent controllability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that the environment induced entanglement between two non interacting, two-dimensional quantum systems S and P can be used to control the dynamics of S by means of the initial state of P. Using a simple, exactly solvable model, we show that both accessibility and controllability of S can be achieved under suitable conditions on the interaction of S and P with the environment.

Raffaele Romano; Domenico D'Alessandro

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

419

Combustion oscillation control  

SciTech Connect

Premixing of fuel and air can avoid high temperatures which produce thermal NOx, but oscillating combustion must be eliminated. Combustion oscillations can also occur in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle turbines. As an alternative to design or operating modifications, METC is investigating active combustion control (ACC) to eliminate oscillations; ACC uses repeated adjustment of some combustion parameter to control the variation in heat release that drives oscillations.

Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL EQUATIONS TO SUPPORT DETOXIFICATION OF COPPER USING NATURAL HUMATE AMENDMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific research and changes in regulatory policies have led to reductions in the allowable discharges of several contaminant metals, including copper, into surface water. Low target concentrations and variable outfall conditions challenge the efficacy of traditional treatment technologies such as ion exchange. In reviewing various treatment options, scientists and engineers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) developed a treatment strategy focusing on toxicity reduction (rather than the removal of the copper) and demonstrated that the method is viable and promising for mitigating copper toxicity. The resulting outfall chemistry protects the ecosystem in the receiving stream in a manner that is equal to, or better than, technologies that remove copper to the emerging regulatory levels. Further, the proposed toxicity reduction strategy results in collateral beneficial changes in outfall water chemistry such that the outfall more closely matches the chemistry of natural streams for key parameters such as the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The detoxification process is based on the EPA BLM. Specifically, modeling indicates that copper toxicity can be mitigated by modest additions of natural organic carbon and that the amount of amendment needed can be determined based on pH and stream flow. The organic carbon amendments proposed for the treatment/detoxification process are extracts of natural materials that are produced for use in organic agriculture. These extracts are known by several common names such as potassium humate, soluble humic acid, and a variety of brand trademarks. When used to reduce ecosystem toxicity in surface water, these amendments bind copper and compete with the biological receptor sites, resulting in a reduction of impacts to key food chain organisms such as the Daphnia ('water flea'). Design and implementation of the process is straightforward. The core equipment consists of storage tank(s), pH sensor(s), outfall flow monitor(s), variable speed pump(s), and a programmable logic controller (PLC). The PLC collects information on pH and outfall flow, and modulates the pump flow rate to meter the correct amount of amendment into the outfall. A mathematical relationship, or control equation, is programmed into the PLC and serves as the basis of the operation. A summary of the development of, and key documentation for, the process control equation is provided.

Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Halverson, N.; Nichols, R.

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "toxic substances control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Emissions of volatile and potentially toxic organic compounds from waste-water treatment plants and collection systems (Phase 2). Volume 1. Project summaries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Phase II research project on emission of potentially toxic organic compounds (PTOCs) from wastewater treatment plants were fivefold: (1) assessment of the importance of gaseous emissions from municipal wastewater collection systems; (2) resolution of the discrepancy between the measured and estimated emissions (Phase I), from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP) operated by the County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (CSDLAC); (3) determination of airborne concentrations of PTOCS immediately downwind of an activated sludge aeration process at the City of Los Angeles' Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP); (4) a modeling assessment of the effects of transient loading on emissions during preliminary and primary treatment at a typical municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP); (5) a preliminary investigation of effects of chlorination practices on haloform production. Volume 1, for which the abstract was prepared, contains a summary of results from each project; Volume 2 contains the discussion regarding the modeling of collection system emissions; Volume 3 addresses methods development and field sampling efforts at the JWPCP and HTP, data on emissions from a mechanically ventilated sewer and results of some preliminary haloform formation studies in wastewaters; and Volume 4 discusses aspects of the emissions modeling problem.

Chang, D.P.Y.; Schroeder, E.D.; Corsi, R.L.; Guensler, R.; Meyerhofer, J.A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Pit disassembly motion control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Department of Energy (DOE) Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed for the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The facility will recover plutonium from excess nuclear weapon pits defined in START II and START III treaties. The plutonium will be stored and used to produce mixed oxide reactor fuel at another new DOE facility. Because of radiation dose issues, much of the pit disassembly work and material transfer will be automated. Automated material handling systems will interface with disassembly lathes, conversion reactors that produce oxide for storage, robotic container welding stations, vault retrieval systems, and nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation. The goal is to use common motion control hardware for material transfer and possibly common motion controllers for the unique PDCF systems. The latter is complicated by the different directions manufactures are considering for distributed control, such as Firewire, SERCOS, etc., and by the unique control requirements of machines such as lathes compared to controls for an integrated NDA system. The current design approach is to standardize where possible, use network cables to replace wire bundles where possible, but to first select hardware and motion controllers that meet specific machine or process requirements.

Christensen, L. (Lowell); Pittman, P. C. (Pete C.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Closing the Gap in Control System Implementations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Continuous-Time Linear Control Systems . . . . .Discrete-Time Linear Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . .

Saha, Indranil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Control the Robot Movement by Fuzzy Logic Controller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, great interest has been the reluctance to move to DC motors and its applications in industry Such as robotics, textiles, and household electric vehicle or application or Aviation domains. The first control techniques used classic controllers ... Keywords: control, fuzzy logic controller, pid controller, dc motor, robot movement, simulation

Yousfi Khemissi; Amrani Abdulwahab

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

Hamid Farzan

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nonlinear continuous feedback controllers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Packet-switched communication networks such as today's Internet are built with several interconnected core and distribution packet forwarding routers and several sender and sink transport agents. In order to maintain stability and avoid congestion collapse in the network, the sources control their rate behavior and voluntarily adjust their sending rates to accommodate other sources in the network. In this thesis, we study one class of sender rate control that is modeled using continuous first-order differential equation of the sending rates. In order to adjust the rates appropriately, the network sends continuous packet-loss feedback to the sources. We study a form of closed-loop feedback congestion controllers whose rate adjustments exhibit a nonlinear form. There are three dimensions to our work in this thesis. First, we study the network optimization problem in which sources choose utilities to maximize their underlying throughput. Each sender maximizes its utility proportional to the throughput achieved. In our model, sources choose a utility function to define their level of satisfaction of the underlying resource usages. The objective of this direction is to establish the properties of source utility functions using inequality constrained bounded sets and study the functional forms of utilities against a chosen rate differential equation. Second, stability of the network and tolerance to perturbation are two essential factors that keep communication networks operational around the equilibrium point. Our objective in this part of the thesis is to analytically understand the existence of local asymptotic stability of delayed-feedback systems under homogeneous network delays. Third, we propose a novel tangential controller for a generic maximization function and study its properties using nonlinear optimization techniques. We develop the necessary theoretical background and the properties of our controller to prove that it is a better rate adaptation algorithm for logarithmic utilities compared to the well-studied proportional controllers. We establish the asymptotic local stability of our controller with upper bounds on the increase / decrease gain parameters.

Sitharaman, Sai Ganesh

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Supervisory Control Strategy Development  

SciTech Connect

Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions.

Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

428

Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume I  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office (January 1998). Glossary Agency for Toxic SubstancesDisease Registry, ATSDR Glossary of Terms, (June 21, 2004).Glossary .

Lackner, Regina

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office (January 1998). Glossary Agency for Toxic SubstancesDisease Registry, ATSDR Glossary of Terms, (June 21, 2004).Glossary .

Lackner, Regina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Site Environmental Report for 2010, Volumes 1 & 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office (January 1998). Glossary Agency for Toxic SubstancesDisease Registry, ATSDR Glossary of Terms, (June 21, 2004).Glossary

Baskin, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Low noise control valve  

SciTech Connect

Noise is one of the problems associated with the use of any type of control valve in systems involving the flow of fluids. The advent of OSHA standards has prompted control valve manufacturers to design valves with special trim to lower the sound pressure level to meet these standards. However, these levels are in some cases too high, particularly when a valve must be located in or near an area where people are working at tasks requiring a high degree of concentration. Such locations are found around and near research devices and in laboratory-office areas. This paper describes a type of fluid control device presently being used at PPL as a bypass control valve in deionized water systems and designed to reduce sound pressure levels considerably below OSHA standards. Details of the design and construction of this constant pressure drop variable flow control valve are contained in the text and are shown in photographs and drawings. Test data taken are included. (auth)

Christie, R.S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Nuclear reactor control column  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Aquatic plant control research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, E.G. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States). Hydro Generation Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Performance of microprocessor controllers  

SciTech Connect

United States animal production systems are at the threshold of a major new method for daily management of environmental control -- the integrated microprocessor-based environmental control system. Widespread adoption of this technology has the potential for dramatic improvement in production efficiencies through lower management costs, improved energy savings, and better feed conversion efficiencies. However, the technical problems of transient surge protection and appropriate mechanical backup systems have not been adequately addressed by the industry. The goals of this research were to identify the degree to which transient surge protection was being provided by current manufacturers, and to illustrate the implementation of microprocessor environmental control systems with mechanical backup. Transient open circuit over-voltage tests (ANSI/IEEE C62.41-1980) were performed on 16 environmental control units: a maximum of 800 V spike was applied to the power supplies, and up to 100 V spike applied to temperature sensor lines. Under these relatively mild tests, no failures were noted due to power supply transients, but three units failed when subjected to transients on their temperature sensor lines. Mechanical backup systems were designed to provide essential life-support during critical conditions of extreme outside conditions and extreme animal densities. The design and installation of environmental control systems for (1) a gestation unit and (2) a broiler house was performed. An overview of the process, and difficulties noted, is presented. Both systems incorporated mechanical backups. 20 refs.

Gates, R.S.; Turner, L.W.; Overhults, D.G. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Broadband accelerator control network  

SciTech Connect

A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.

Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Assessing the Renal Toxicity of Capstone Depleted Uranium Oxides and Other Uranium Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The primary target for uranium toxicity is the kidney. The most frequently used guideline for uranium kidney burdens is the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) value of 3 g U/g kidney, a value that is based largely upon chronic studies in animals. In the present effort, we have developed a risk model equation to assess potential outcomes of acute uranium exposure. Twenty-seven previously published case studies in which workers were acutely exposed to soluble compounds of uranium (as a result of workplace accidents) were analyzed. Kidney burdens of uranium for these individuals were determined based on uranium in the urine, and correlated with health effects observed over a period of up to 38 years. Based upon the severity of health effects, each individual was assigned a score (- to +++) and then placed into an Effect Group. A discriminant analysis was used to build a model equation to predict the Effect Group based on the amount of uranium in the kidneys. The model equation was able to predict the Effect Group with 85% accuracy. The risk model was used to predict the Effect Group for Soldiers exposed to DU as a result of friendly fire incidents during the 1991 Gulf War. This model equation can also be used to predict the Effect Group of new cases in which acute exposures to uranium have occurred.

Roszell, Laurie E.; Hahn, Fletcher; Lee, Robyn B.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

437

Application of powder metallurgy techniques for the development of non-toxic ammunition. Final CRADA report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and Delta Frangible Ammunition (DFA), was to identify and evaluate composite materials for the development of small arms ammunition. Currently available small arms ammunition utilizes lead as the major component of the projectile. The introduction of lead into the environment by these projectiles when they are expended is a rapidly increasing environmental problem. At certain levels, lead is a toxic metal to the environment and a continual health and safety concern for firearm users as well as those who must conduct lead recovery operations from the environment. DFA is a leading supplier of high-density mixtures, which will be used to replace lead-based ammunition in specific applications. Current non-lead ammunition has several limitations that prevent it from replacing lead-based ammunition in many applications (such as applications that require ballistics, weapon recoil, and weapon function identical to that of lead-based ammunition). The purpose of the CRADA was to perform the research and development to identify cost-effective materials to be used in small arms ammunition that eventually will be used in commercially viable, environmentally conscious, non-lead, frangible and/or non-frangible, ammunition.

Lowden, R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kelly, R. [Delta Defense, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

438

The toxicity of inhaled particles of sup 238 PuO sub 2 in dogs  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in the dog. Inhalation was selected because it is the mostly likely route of human exposure in the event of an accidental airborne release. Of 166 dog in the study, 72 inhaled 1.5{mu}m and 72 inhaled 3.0 {mu}m activity median aerodynamic diameter particles of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Another 24 dogs inhaled the aerosol vector without plutonium. The aerosol exposures resulted in initial pulmonary burdens ranging from 37 to 0.11 and 55.5 to 0.37 kBq of {sup 238}Pu/kg body mass, of 1.5 {mu}m and 3.0 {mu}, particles, respectively. The particles dissolved slowly resulting in translocation of the Pu to liver, bone and other sites. The dogs were observed for biological effects over their life span. Necropsies were performed at death, and tissues were examined microscopically. The principal late-occurring effects were tumors of the lung, skeleton, and liver. Risk factors estimated for these cancers were 2800 lung cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, 800 liver cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, and 6200 bone cancers/10{sup 4} Gy for dogs. The potential hazard from {sup 238}Pu to humans may include tumors of the lung, bone and liver because of the likelihood of similarity of the dose patterns for the two species. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gillett, N.A. (Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Toxicity studies of mild gasification products. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major hypothesis of carcinogenesis is that malignancy is due to an alteration (mutation) of the genetic material in a somatic cell. Reactive electrophilic metabolites are generated from many chemicals by the action of endogenous mixed-function oxidases. These reactive metabolites may bind to cellular macromolecules, such as DNA, and can, therefore, initiate a mutagenic or carcinogenic event. Prokaryotes and non-mammalian eukaryotes are used in mutation assays, while cultured mammalian cells are generally used for mutagenic as well as clastogenic tests examining alterations and damage to the DNA and/or chromosomes of somatic cells. One of the first mammalian cell lines used in genotoxicity studies is V79, which was derived from Chinese hamster lung cells. According to the test plan on toxicity studies of mild gasification products, mammalian cell in vitro assays are to be performed on selected samples displaying mutagenic activity in the Ames assay. The results of the Ames testing of the mild gasification sample Shell Oil PSIS{number_sign}330331 were negative. However, fractionation of the sample and Ames testing of the subfractions were performed per DOE requ