Sample records for towers steam turbine

  1. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL; Muley, Nishant [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  2. Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  3. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  4. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    in sellable power output as a result of improved turbine efficiency. The Lyondell facility is a combined cycle power plant where a gas turbine: heat recovery system supplies steam to the steam turbine. Since this steam is a bypropuct of the gas turbine...steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits...

  5. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  6. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set...

  7. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking the performance of extraction, back-pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part of minimising energy and maintenance costs for large process industries. A thorough understanding of key equipment performance characteristics...

  8. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  9. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  10. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint 34851.pdf More Documents &...

  11. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  12. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  13. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Case study that...

  14. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  15. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fingersh, Lee Jay (Westminster, CO)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  16. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  17. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  18. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  19. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E. [Alstom (Germany)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between...

  1. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years. The availability of this equipment in a packaged system form makes it feasible to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity...

  2. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  4. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  5. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  6. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  7. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  8. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  9. Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, K. E.

    statement. however, is relevant to value. GAS TURBINE CYCLE Figure :> shows the enthalpy analysis for a gas turbine cycle employing a heat recovery unit for steam generation. Air enters the compressor where it's boosted to about 190 psi and mixed... of preheaters. boilers and superheaters. [n this example. three levels of steam are produced. Exhaust gases vent up the stack. :1 l.:l MMBtu/hr of electricity is produced. with 70.4"'0 of the heat going to the heat recovery unit. Notice that 22...

  10. Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, K. E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with gas in a combustion chamber. The gas burns and the hot combustion gases are expanded through a turbine. generating electricity. The gases exit at about 1000oF. slightly above atmospheric pressure. They enter a heat recovery unit. which is a series... statement. however, is relevant to value. GAS TURBINE CYCLE Figure :> shows the enthalpy analysis for a gas turbine cycle employing a heat recovery unit for steam generation. Air enters the compressor where it's boosted to about 190 psi and mixed...

  11. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  12. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  13. Estimation of Blade and Tower Properties for the Gearbox Research Collaborative Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G.S.; Oyague, F.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the structural and modal properties of the blade and tower of a 3-bladed 750-kW upwind turbine to develop an aeroelastic model of the wind turbine.

  14. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  15. Turbine Steam Path Audits for Improved Performance and Profitability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babson, P. E.

    TURBINE STEAM PATH AUDITS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY PAUL E. BABSON, DIRECTOR, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT This paper describes the use and value of conducting steam path audits... in turbines. Critical measurements and observations made during overhaul identify and quantify the effects of component degradations upon turbine performance as compared to design conditions. The information generated permits performance oriented repair...

  16. SHM BASED SYSTEM DESIGN OFA WIND TURBINE TOWER USING A MODAL SENSITIVITY BASED BAYES DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHM BASED SYSTEM DESIGN OFA WIND TURBINE TOWER USING A MODAL SENSITIVITY BASED BAYES DETECTOR Mads@ramboll.com ABSTRACT It is investigated if material based structural safety can be replaced with safety obtained from of the NREL 5MW wind turbine tower subjected to bending fatigue and horizontal circumferential cracking

  17. The Use of Tall Tower Field Data for Estimating Wind Turbine Power Performance , J. Chapman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    The Use of Tall Tower Field Data for Estimating Wind Turbine Power Performance A. Swift1 , J data acquisition tower is continuously measuring and recording atmospheric conditions at multiple providing barometric pressure and temperature data. A second data acquisition tower approximately 100m

  18. The Economics of Back-Pressure Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical...

  19. Steam Turbine Performance in Europe | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steam Turbine Performance in Europe Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  20. Steam Turbines for Critical Applications and Emergency or Standby Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    Steam turbines are frequently preferred over electric motors where operational continuity is important. This often imposes extreme premiums in operating cost. The parameters affecting relative economics are explored and a range of alternatives...

  1. Steam Turbines for Critical Applications and Emergency or Standby Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are frequently preferred over electric motors where operational continuity is important. This often imposes extreme premiums in operating cost. The parameters affecting relative economics are explored and a range of alternatives...

  2. The Economics of Back-Pressure Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical...

  3. LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation A. Pintea*, N of power produced by two bladed horizontal variable speed wind turbines. The proposed controller ensures not only an optimal operation of turbines but also enables a compromise with the minimization of the blade

  4. 1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in- creasing the maximum-efficiency power plant. 2. Turbines, Steam, Efficiency and Power Plant A power plant has a steam generator which the operating pressure is below about 22 MPa, in which case the steam is separated and passed on to the turbine

  5. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Sexton, Brendan Francis (Simpsonville, SC); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  6. Improvement of risk estimate on wind turbine tower buckled by hurricane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jingwei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind is one of the important reasonable resources. However, wind turbine towers are sure to be threatened by hurricanes. In this paper, method to estimate the number of wind turbine towers that would be buckled by hurricanes is discussed. Monte Carlo simulations show that our method is much better than the previous one. Since in our method, the probability density function of the buckling probability of a single turbine tower in a single hurricane is obtained accurately but not from one approximated expression. The result in this paper may be useful to the design and maintenance of wind farms.

  7. Case History of Reapplication of a 2500 KW Steam Turbine/Gear Drive Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S.

    standard 5M2) on sizing inlets and exhaust sizes for steam turbines, and using basic thermodynamics to calculate approximate steam flow, we were able to determine the minimum flange sizes of the turbine. The next step involved determining..., and using basic thermodynamics to calculate approximate steam flow, we were able to determine the minimum flange sizes of the turbine. The next step involved determining the optimum number of stages for the steam turbine. By using a standard calculation (1...

  8. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  9. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 × 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760°C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  10. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  11. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunha, Frank J. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  12. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  13. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  14. Thermionic combustor application to combined gas and steam turbine power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C.C.; Lieb, D.P.; Margulies, A.E.; Fusegni, L.J.; Lovell, B.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering and economic feasibility of a thermionic converter topped combustor for a gas turbine is evaluated in this paper. A combined gas and steam turbine system was chosen for this study with nominal outputs of the gas and steam turbines of 70 MW and 30 MW, respectively. 7 refs.

  15. z=0 z=0 z=0 Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ¡ ¢£ ¤ ¥§¦ ¨ © ¥£ ¡ £ ¨ © ¦ ¦ ¡ £ ¨ © ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦ © © ¡ ¥ ¥ £ ¦ ¡ ! ¦ " ©# £ $ ¤ #12; 4 ¡ 3 @ ¢ 2 6 3 F 4 9 7 LC LC PC z=0 z=0 z=0 z=1 z=1 TC TC z=0 HP-pump Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump Air compressor Deaerator HP-pump Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump Air compressor Deaerator HP Combustor Fuel compressor Steam-turbine HP-valve valve LP- drum Evaporator #12; F 4 9 7 ¢ D ¡ 2 B@ 9 7 6

  16. Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed...

  17. Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed...

  18. Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On-Line Disturbance Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On technique to estimate and model rotor- body parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time

  19. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  20. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in todayâ??s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

  1. Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles John Pye, Keith of the technical feasibility a solarised combined-cycle gas turbines with a dish concentrator, with several, optimised for the new SG4 collector. This study aims to determine whether a combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT

  2. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  3. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  4. PS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    area equivalent of 17 American Football Tower Solar receiver 4 vertical panels 18ft*39ft Steam turbinePS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang #12;Overview Magnitudes , Cost & TechnologiesMagnitudes , Cost Government . #12;Further ExplanationFurther Explanation Plataforma Solar de Sanlúcar la Mayor,PSSM Megawatts

  5. NON-STATIONARY TEMPERATURE STRESSES IN THE INDUSTRIAL STEAM TURBINE ROTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zvonimir Guzovi?; Krešimir Kova?i?; Tihomir Mihali?

    The usage of industrial steam turbines in different industrial branches (chemistry, petrochemistry, refineries, sugar and ethanol plants, etc.) for a generator drive for electricity generation or a mechanical drive for compressors, blowers and pumps, is characterized by the need for high flexibility of operation. High flexibility includes numerous start-ups, shut-downs and power changes during the useful life. Changes in power and steam mass flow lead to changes of the working fluid state in the single turbine stages, and thus their aerodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics. During these transient working regimes in steam turbine rotors, large space and time-dependent temperature gradients appear, which can result in high non-stationary temperature stresses, i.e. increased local stress concentrations, what has a negative impact on the useful life of the rotor. In the worst case they can cause fracture of the turbine rotor. Today, for the determination of thermal stressed state of the steam turbine parts the user softwares based on numerical methods are used. In this paper the results of numerical modelling and calculations of non-stationary temperature fields and related stresses in the rotor of industrial steam turbine of 35 MW power during transient operating regime (a cold startup) will be presented. The results of the calculations serve for estimation of the transient regime impact on the stresses of the rotor, as well as on its entire useful life. Key words: industrial steam turbine, transient regimes, temperature stresses, numerical modelling 1.

  6. Why Insertion Turbine Meters are Replacing Orifice Plates for Steam Flow Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusnak, J. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WHY INSERTION TURBINE MBTBRS A E REPLACING ORIFICE PLATES FOR STEAM FLOW MEASURE ENT J. J. Rusnak Engineering Measurements Company Longmont, Colorado ABSTRACT Flow measurement is a complex and application related discipline. It borders... to be instrumented quickly, economically and without dis rupting production; and further, these meters had to be accurate in order to be useful in making energy saving decisions. Thus, the entry of the insertion turbine meter for steam in 1975. Since then it has...

  7. An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David Bruce

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FEASIBILITY OF AN EXTERNAL COMBUSTION, STEAM INJECTED GAS TURBINE A Thesis by DAVID BRUCE FORD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 19SI Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FEASIBILITY OF AN EXTERNAL COMBUSTION i STEAM INJECTED GAS TURBINE A Thesis DAVID BRUCE FORD Approved as to style and content by: & cene 'u Co...

  8. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  9. Case History of Reapplication of a 2500 KW Steam Turbine/Gear Drive Generator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that extracts landfill gas and converts it to diesel fuel, naphtha and a high grade of wax. The plant requires a steam turbine generator set to produce electrical power for its base load operation. This paper covers the history of how the turbine, gear...

  10. Methods for disassembling, replacing and assembling parts of a steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian D. (Mauldin, SC); Wesorick, Ronald R. (Albany, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows. The bore tube assembly, radial tubes, elbows, manifold segments and crossover tubes are removable from the turbine rotor and replaceable.

  11. An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David Bruce

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brayton Cycle Temperature-Entropy Relationship isentropic and the ycle is usually open, in that the gases are exhaused into the atomsphere. Additionally, the heat addition phase (2a-3a) in most gas turbines, is usually accomplished via burning a fuel... output of the turbine without increasing the work required for compression. Second, the steam may be generated with waste 15 heat from the combustion process. In an internal combustion gas turbine, this would result in an increased work output per...

  12. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  13. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  14. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  15. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  16. Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

  17. A Computer Program for Simulating Transient Behavior in Steam Turbine Stage Pressure of AHWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proposed to couple the Advanced Heavy water reactor (AHWR), which is being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, with a desalination plant. The objective of this coupling is to produce system make-up and domestic water. The proposed desalination plant needs about 1.9 kg/sec of steam and the minimum pressure requirement is 3 bars. The desalination plant can be fed with bled steam extracted from a suitable stage in low pressure turbine. As the turbine stage pressure changes with the load, it is essential to know the availability of bled steam at aforesaid pressure for various load condition. The objective of the present study is to identify a suitable extraction point so as to ensure availability of steam at desired condition for desalination plant, even at part load conditions. In order to fulfill the above objective a steam and feed system analysis code was developed which incorporates the mathematical formulation of different components of the steam and feed system such as, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbines, re-heater, feed heaters etc. The dynamic equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the stage pressure at various load conditions. Based on the results obtained, the suitable extraction stage in LP turbine was selected. This enables to determine the lowest possible part load operation up to which availability of desalination plant could be ensured. (authors)

  18. Topping of a combined gas- and steam-turbine powerplant using a TAM combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C.C.; Lovell, B.T.; McCrank, J.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to evaluate the engineering and economic feasibility of a thermionic array module (TAM) topped combustor for a gas turbine. A combined gas- and steam-turbine system was chosen for this study. The nominal output of the gas and steam turbines were 70 MW and 30 MW, respectively. The gas-turbine fuel was a coal-derived medium-Btu gas assumed to be from an oxygen blown Texaco coal-gasification process which produces pressurized gas with an approximate composition of 52% CO and 36% H/sub 2/. Thermionic converters are assumed to line the walls of the gas-turbine combustor, so that the high-temperature gases heat the thermionic converter emitter. The thermionic converters produce electricity while the rejected heat is used to preheat the combustion air. To maximize the production of power from the thermionic converter, the highest practical flame temperature is obtained by preheating the combustor air with the thermionic collectors and rich combustion. A portion of the air, which bypassed the combustor, is reintroduced to complete the combustion at a lower temperature and the mixed gases flow to the turbine. The exhaust gases from the turbine flow to the heat recovery boilers to the bottoming steam cycle. The gas and steam turbine system performance calculation was based on data from Brown Boveri Turbomachinery, Inc. The performance of the thermionic converters (TAM) for the reference case was based on actual measurements of converters fired with a natural gas flame. These converters have been operated in a test furnace for approximately 15,000 device hours.

  19. R and D for improved efficiency small steam turbines. Phase II. Second quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detailed design of a radial inflow steam turbine (RIT) comprised of two radial inflow turbine stages driving a common bull gear/output shaft designed for rated speeds of 70,000 rpm and 52,500 rpm, respectively, is described. Details are presented on: aerodynamic design; high speed rotors; high speed rotor bearings; high speed rotor sealing; gearing; output shaft; static structure; and predicted performance. (MCW)

  20. The Design and Development of An Externally Fired Steam Injected Gas Turbine for Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, M. P.; Meher-Homji, C.; Ford, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the theoretical background and the design and development of a prototype externally fired steam injected (ECSI) gas turbine which has a potential to utilize lower grade fuels. The system is designed around a 2 shaft 360 HP gas...

  1. The Design and Development of An Externally Fired Steam Injected Gas Turbine for Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, M. P.; Meher-Homji, C.; Ford, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the theoretical background and the design and development of a prototype externally fired steam injected (ECSI) gas turbine which has a potential to utilize lower grade fuels. The system is designed around a 2 shaft 360 HP gas...

  2. Improving the Capacity or Output of a Steam Turbine Generator at XYZ Power Plant in Illinois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amoo-Otoo, John Kweku

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Competition has been a prime mover in the energy industry and there is the drive to increase performance of steam turbine-driven equipment. Availability of a unit is also critical to the operation of a plant and has also provided the fundamental...

  3. advanced steam turbines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control systems in the remaining TEX powerhouse (see... Ratheal, R. 2004-01-01 165 Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  4. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of solar tower heliostat fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    the heat. Usually, the heat of the fluid is exchanged into steam which powers a turbine to generate Introduction Solar tower plants generate electric power from sunlight by focusing concentrated solar radiation. Designing commercial power plants aims always at finding the most economic plant design under a given set

  6. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the collector, turbine, and steam accumulator arehigher efficiencies with wet steam, but turbines often see

  7. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoalComplex FlowConocimientoUseful LinksDepartment ofSteam

  8. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Turbine Power (MWe) Steam Turbine Power (MWe) Total (for the 2015 advanced steam turbine configuration for powerthe LP section of the steam turbine set. Finally, the fuel

  9. Sweeney LUBRICATION OF STEAM, GAS AND WATER TURBINES IN POWER GENERATION- A CHEVRONTEXACO EXPERIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter James Sweeney

    On 9 October 2001 two US oil companies Chevron and Texaco merged. Their long-term joint venture operation, known as Caltex (formed in 1936 and operating in East and Southern Africa, Middle East, Asia and Australasia), was incorporated into the one global energy company. This global enterprise will be highly competitive across all energy sectors, as the new company brings together a wealth of talents, shared values and a strong commitment to developing vital energy resources around the globe. Worldwide, ChevronTexaco is the third largest publicly traded company in terms of oil and gas reserves, with some 11.8 billion barrels of oil and gas equivalent. It is the fourth largest producer, with daily production of 2.7 million barrels. The company also has 22 refineries and more than 21,000 branded service stations worldwide. This paper will review the fundamentals of lubrication as they apply to the components of turbines. It will then look at three turbine types, steam, gas and water, to address the different needs of lubricating oils and the appropriate specifications for each. The significance of oil testing both for product development and in-service oil monitoring will be reviewed, together with the supporting field experience of ChevronTexaco. The environmental emissions controls on turbines and any impact on the lubricants will be discussed. Finally, the trends in specifications for lubricating oils to address the modern turbines designs will be reviewed. Key Words: geothermal, lubrication, turbines, in-service testing 1.

  10. Wind shear for large wind turbine generators at selected tall tower sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.L.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the study described in this report is to examine the nature of wind shear profiles and their variability over the height of large horizontal-axis wind turbines and to provide information on wind shear relevant to the design and opertion of large wind turbines. Wind turbine fatigue life and power quality are related through the forcing functions on the blade to the shapes of the wind shear profiles and their fluctuations over the disk of rotation.

  11. Designing and Testing Controls to Mitigate Tower Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes NREL's efforts to design, implement, and test advanced controls for maximizing energy extraction and reducing structural dynamic loads in wind turbines.

  12. Steam turbine field testing techniques using a computerized data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, H.S.; Cotton, K.C.; Kellyhouse, W.W.; Smith, D.P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automatic data acquisition system for conducting full-scale ASME (1) acceptance tests of large steam turbine-generators is described. This includes the instrumentation, the interfacing hardware for analog to digital conversion and transmission of the data to the trailer mounted computer, the software that controls the acquisition of the data, and the calculation of test results. In addition, the application of this automatic data acquisition system for conducting the ASME acceptance test at Consumers Power Company's J.H. Campbell Unit 3 is discussed.

  13. High temperature erosion and fatigue resistance of a detonation gun chromium carbide coating for steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quets, J.M.; Walsh, P.N. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Srinivasan, V. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Tucker, R.C. Jr. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium carbide based detonation gun coatings have been shown to be capable of protecting steam turbine components from particle erosion. To be usable, however, erosion resistant coatings must not degrade the fatigue characteristics of the coated components. Recent studies of the fatigue properties of a detonation gun coated martensitic substrate at 538 C (1,000 F) will be presented with an emphasis on its long term performance. This study will show the retention of acceptable fatigue performance of coated substrates into the high cycle regime, and will include a discussion on the mechanism of fatigue.

  14. Economical Condensing Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, J. E.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown and extraction/condensing. • Letdown turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one...

  15. 3rd Int'l Workshop on Micro & Nano Tech. for Power Generation & Energy Conv. (PowerMEMS'03), Makuhari, Japan, 4-5 Dec. 2003. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A MEMS STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT-ON-A-CHIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frechette, Luc G.

    ), Makuhari, Japan, 4-5 Dec. 2003. 1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A MEMS STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT-ON-A-CHIP Luc G. The microfabricated device consists of a steam turbine that drives an integrated micropump and generator. Two, mechanical, then electrical energy. The concept developed herein consists of a microfabricated steam turbine

  16. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Itzel, Gary Michael (Clifton Park, NY); Yu, Yufeng (Guilderland, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  17. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MW) CERT-1 Gas turbine Steam turbine Total Naphtha DieselMW) CERT-3 CERT-3B Gas turbine Steam turbine Total Naphthageneration (MW) Gas turbine Steam turbine Total Naphtha

  18. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation (MW) Gas turbine Steam turbine Total Naphtha DieselPower generation (MW) CERT-1 Gas turbine Steam turbine Total Naphtha DieselPower generation (MW) Gas turbine CERT-2 CERT-2B Steam turbine Total Naphtha Diesel

  19. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofoftoMay 8, 2014Energy Turbine

  20. Economical Condensing Turbines?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, J. E.

    Economical Condensing Turbines? by J.E.Dean, P.E. Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown 1 and extraction/condensing. ? Letdown... turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: ? Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon...

  1. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to such an extent that new methods are required to achieve this vacuum. One such method of reducing steam use is a hybrid system composed of both steam ejectors and electric driven vacuum pumps. This paper describes the conversion of the vacuum system on the 140...

  2. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Trimmer Dist. Condenser Turbine Steam Leaks LP TurbineWaste Heat Trimmer Turbine Steam Leaks LP Turbine CondenserHR) CARRIED BY LP TURBINE STEAM. *STC OFL RH ll~ PRESSURE

  3. Steam Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    . But he uses it to drive a steam turbine which in turn drives a pump. The turbine expands the steam to a lower pressure where it is then condensed and the condensate returned to the boiler house. Let's find out what the steam is worth to this user. His... while the 15 psig condensing turbine is a good candidate to be replaced with an electric motor. But, whatever the case is, the cost of the steam has nothing to do with its value. The point of the above is that this paper is about COST...

  4. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions. The nickel based Alloy 282 is selected for this project because it is one of the leading candidate materials for the high temperature/pressure section of an A-USC steam turbine. The methods developed in the project are expected to be applicable to other metal alloys in similar steam/oxidation environments. The major developments are: ? failure mechanism and microstructural characterization ? atomistic and first principles modeling of crack tip oxygen embrittlement ? modeling of gamma prime microstructures and mesoscale microstructure-defect interactions ? microstructure and damage-based creep prediction ? multi-scale crack growth modeling considering oxidation, viscoplasticity and fatigue The technology developed in this project is expected to enable more accurate prediction of long service life of advanced alloys for A-USC power plants, and provide faster and more effective materials design, development, and implementation than current state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from January 2011 to January 2014.

  5. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    intends to support partnerships that lead to innovative designs and processes for wind turbine tower manufacturing and turbine system installation. Supported projects will develop...

  6. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    flanges, control valves, steam turbines, manways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are uninsulated. If steam is in demand at the steam pressure level of the uninsulated piping and equipment, then the piping and equipment should be insulated... been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology...

  7. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    opportunities. Often flanges, control valves, steam turbines, man ways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are bare and can significantly increase the steam demand. An insulation survey should be conducted of the steam, condensate... is being let down. Some projects are independent of the steam balance, such as eliminating high-pressure (HP) steam leaks, insulating HP steam piping, optimizing the boiler operation, and improving the performance of condensing turbines...

  8. KALMAN-FILTER BASED DATA FUSION FOR NEUTRALAXIS TRACKING FOR DAMAGE DETECTION IN WIND-TURBINE TOWERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    KALMAN-FILTER BASED DATA FUSION FOR NEUTRALAXIS TRACKING FOR DAMAGE DETECTION IN WIND-TURBINE Monitoring, Strain Sensors, Wind Turbine, Neutral Axis tracking, Kalman Filter INTRODUCTION Ever since to the advancements in the field of materials engineering and manufacturing methods. Newer, bigger wind turbines which

  9. Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . keymanengravables.com Steam Turbine Generator Info, Pictures And Deals For Steam turbine generator ediscountshoppingBack One Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator Need Steam Electricity Generator? See Steam Electricity Generator. greenshieldsindustrial.com Steam Generators Deals on Steam Generators Find what you

  10. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures.

  11. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P. ['Leningradskii Metallicheskii Zavod', branch of JSC 'Silovye mashiny' (Russian Federation); Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A. ['Institut Teploenergoproekt', branch of JSC 'Inzhenernyi tsentr EES' (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  12. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    value for general plant and steam/power plant: 0 o Type ofCTL cases Plant Output Gas Turbine Power (MWe) Steam TurbineUtah Utah Plant output Gas turbine power (MWe) Steam turbine

  13. Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Burns, James Lee (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

  14. Wind tower service lift

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  15. R and D for improved efficiency small steam turbines, Phase II. Report No. 1380-3. First quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Dr., W.; Maillar, K. M.; Bender, D. A.; Brassert, W. L.; Capone, P. A.; Carter, A. F.; Heitmann, A. M.; Holland, J. E.; Lord, R. E.; Thirumalaisamy, S. N.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made in the second phase of a two-phase research, design and prototype development program is presented. Phase II consists of the detailed design of the prototype radial inflow steam turbine configuration selected during the first phase and subsequent fabrication and testing. At this time, the detailed aerodynamic design of the stage flowpath has been completed except for the crossover piping from the first stage exhaust to the second stage inlet. In addition, mechanical design effort has resulted in a definition of a rotor system. The aerodynamic design included the optimization of the overall flowpath geometry of the stages specified in the initial phase of the program. The detailed aerodynamic designs of the rotor blades, nozzle vanes, scroll and diffuser were based on the optimized geometry. The final blading selected for the stage is a radial design with 26 blades, 13 of which are splitters. Sixteen nozzle vanes have been specified. The mechanical design of the rotor system to date has included the specification of the rotor wheels and shafts with their polygon connection, and the design of the thrust and journal bearings and the gearing. In addition, various shaft sealing arrangements have been evaluated, subject to the constraints indicated by initial rotordynamic analyses. Indications are that a reasonably effective labyrinth seal is not precluded by shaft length limitations. As this type of seal has been long accepted by steam turbine users, its use in the prototype is most likely. Proven components have been specified wherever possible, i.e., redesign/development could not be justified. The rotor system has been designed for at least 100,000 hours life with the most severe operating conditions and loads. The system cannot be considered complete, however, until dynamic response of the rotors for all possible operating conditions is shown to be within acceptable limits.

  16. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  17. Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Advanced Research The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds gas turbine technology research and development to improve the efficiency, emissions, and...

  18. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IOUT *MEBP *STC(QAAN. R )-STEAM TURBINE CALC. ~ETFQMIN~5 ST~KJ/S) 1JC. /(GROSS STEAM TURBINE POWER PRODUCTION) STEA~ GENprogram then prints the steam turbine results. All flows in

  19. Castability of Traditionally Wrought Ni-Based Superalloys for USC Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J; Hawk, J A; Evens, N; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The high temperature components within conventional coal fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased. The proposed steam temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work due to temperature limitations of this class of materials; thus Ni-based superalloys are being considered. The full size castings are quite substantial: ~4in thick, several feet in diameter and weigh 5-10,000lb each half. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled in order to produce relevant microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed in order to better deploy the alloy constituents. The castability of two traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys to which minor alloy adjustments have been made in order to improve foundry performance is further explored.

  20. Axial seal system for a gas turbine steam-cooled rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An axial seal assembly is provided at the interface between adjacent wheels and spacers of a gas turbine rotor and disposed about tubes passing through openings in the rotor adjacent the rotor rim and carrying a thermal medium. Each seal assembly includes a support bushing for supporting a land of the thermal medium carrying tube, an axially registering seat bushing disposed in the opposed opening and a frustoconical seal between the seal bushing and seat. The seal bushing includes a radial flange having an annular recess for retaining the outer diameter edge of the seal, while the seat bushing has an axially facing annular surface forming a seat for engagement by the inner diameter edge of the seal.

  1. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology... Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 The easiest solution to eliminating excess steam is to shut down steam turbines that exhaust into the header and start up the motor driven spare equipment. Often times this step will be enough to eliminate...

  2. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  3. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  4. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  5. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  6. An experimental and numerical study of wind turbine seismic behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prowell, I.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assumes linear material response of the turbine tower evennon-linear material behavior in conjunction with turbinefor design of a turbine. When non-linear material behavior

  7. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of regulatory interest in the 'real world' test results coupled with the difficulties of gathering analogous bench test data for systems employing gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and steam injection. It appears that the agencies...

  8. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COOLING TOWERS -- ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES Cooling Water Optimization Dr. JACK MATSON Environmental Engg. Dept. University of Houston Houston, Texas A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower... pressures on generating turbines and all of the good things listed above can be achieved with a well upgraded modernized cooling tower, but if minimum or no attention is paid to the water chemistry, poor performance, and loss of energy and dollar...

  9. Survival of zooplankton entrained into the cooling water system and supplemental cooling towers of a steam-electric generating station located on Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chase, Cathleen Louise

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is not an unlimited resource. Another method supplements the open ? cycle system with external cooling facilities, through which the heated water passes before it flows into the receiving body. Ex- ternal cooling facilities may be wet-cooling towers, dry-cooling...

  10. Tokyo Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; Ashworth, William

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Scanning the skyline of the Japanese capital today, it's hard to catch sight of Tokyo Tower. Modeled on the Eiffel Tower and 333 meters in height, the orange-and-white landmark is the world's tallest self-supporting steel...

  11. Steam turbine: Alternative emergency drive for the secure removal of residual heat from the core of light water reactors in ultimate emergency situation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza Dos Santos, R. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear CNEN/IEN, Cidade Universitaria, Rua Helio de Almeida, 75 - Ilha do Fundiao, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores / CNPq (Brazil)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

  12. Flexible dynamics of floating wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luypaert, Thomas (Thomas J.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents Tower Flex, a structural dynamics model for a coupled analysis of offshore floating wind turbines consisting of a tower, a floating platform and a mooring system. In this multi-body, linear frequency-domain ...

  13. Solar two: A molten salt power tower demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sutherland, J.P. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States); Gould, W.R. Jr. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A consortium of United States utility concerns led by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) is conducting a cooperative project with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories, and industry to convert the 10-MW Solar One Power Tower Pilot Plant to molten nitrate salt technology. The conversion involves installation of a new receiver, a new thermal storage system, and a new steam generator; it utilizes Solar One`s heliostat field and turbine generator. Successful operation of the converted plant, called Solar Two, will reduce economic risks in building initial commercial power tow projects and accelerate the commercial acceptance of this promising renewable energy technology. The estimated cost of Solar Two, including its three-year test period, is $48.5 million. The plant will begin operation in early 1996.

  14. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system that uses steam and turbine generators to produce upcombustion (CO gas) ? Steam turbine condenser cooling waterwater to cooling towers Steam Turbine Generator Waste Heat

  15. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water to cooling towers Steam Turbine Generator Waste Heatcombustion (CO gas) ? Steam turbine condenser cooling watersystem that uses steam and turbine generators to produce up

  16. Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, B.; Nelson, D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual MESA) was implemented at the INEOS Chocolate Bayou site. This program optimizes steam production, compressor turbine extraction, pump operation (turbine/motor) operation, as well...

  17. Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, B.; Nelson, D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual MESA) was implemented at the INEOS Chocolate Bayou site. This program optimizes steam production, compressor turbine extraction, pump operation (turbine/motor) operation, as well...

  18. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Condensate recovery o Fuel unit cost o Total fuel consumption o Steam production Slide 6 ­ Boiler o PRV steam flows o o Steam consumers Turbine efficiencies Electrical unit cost o o CondensateDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Conclusion Module 1 June 28

  19. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  20. A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760°C, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800°C. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and ? phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

  1. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, Billy Joe (Winter Park, FL); Whidden, Graydon Lane (Great Blue, CT)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  2. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  3. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve...

  4. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorman, William G. (Ballston Spa, NY); Carberg, William George (Ballston Spa, NY); Jones, Charles Michael (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  5. Optimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the medium pressure manifold (nominally operated at 14 bar), through a steam turbine that can be usedOptimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam Plant of a Paper Mill KEYWORDS: Model Predictive Control, Improved Efficiency, Optimisation, Power and Steam Supply System

  6. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial...

  7. Dynamic response analysis of a 900 kW wind turbine subject to ground excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caudillo, Adrian Felix

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geometry of the blades on a wind turbine has, in the past,of the tower and blades of a 900 kW wind turbine (source:per blade). For this portion of the study, the wind turbine

  8. Controller Field Tests on the NREL CART2 Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossanyi, E.; Wright, A.; Fleming, P.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of the field tests carried out on the CART2 turbine at NREL to validate individual pitch control and active tower damping.

  9. The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

    alternatives to steam turbines. Gas turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells are emerging technologies to watch in lhis regard. Greater acceptance of the CHP concept is in part related to concerns with reliability in power supply. Deregulation... monitored steam operations will give the system operator better diagnostic capabilities Periodic measures of fuel consumption, emissions content, and steam deliveries per volume of product are a few examples of operational metrics. The collection...

  10. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  11. How to Build a Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergy 2010a Wind Turbine WorksHomeTower

  12. LWST Phase I Project Conceptual Design Study: Evaluation of Design and Construction Approaches for Economical Hybrid Steel/Concrete Wind Turbine Towers; June 28, 2002 -- July 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaNier, M. W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Research Program has begun a new effort to partner with U.S. industry to develop wind technology that will allow wind systems to compete in regions of low wind speed. The Class 4 and 5 sites targeted by this effort have annual average wind speeds of 5.8 m/s (13 mph), measured at 10 m (33 ft) height. Such sites are abundant in the United States and would increase the land area available for wind energy production twenty-fold. The new program is targeting a levelized cost of energy of 3 cents/kWh at these sites by 2010. A three-element approach has been initiated. These efforts are concept design, component development, and system development. This work builds on previous activities under the WindPACT program and the Next Generation Turbine program. If successful, DOE estimates that his new technology could result in 35 to 45 gigawatts of additional wind capacity being installed by 2020.

  13. DIRECT STEAM GENERATION USING THE SG4 500m2 PARABOLOIDAL DISH CONCENTRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    steam turbine power block. As well as DSG, the ANU group is investigating energy conversion options conveyed the steam to our 50 kWe steam turbine; the new dish is oversized for the current engine, so someDIRECT STEAM GENERATION USING THE SG4 500m2 PARABOLOIDAL DISH CONCENTRATOR Greg Burgess 1 , Keith

  14. System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. HTGL report No. 134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annen, K.D.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from the MHD exhaust gases by means of metal tube heat exchangers. In addition to the base case systems, vapor cycle variation systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems required a small amount of cooling water. The MHD/gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that the thermal and economic performance of the system could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD/gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to an MHD/steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The systems are nominally 800 MW/sub e/ to 1000 MW/sub e/ in size. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water. Compared to the MHD/steam system which has a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW, the Base Case I MHD/gas turbine system has a heat rate which is 13% higher and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher while requiring no cooling water. Case II results show that an improved performance can be expected from second generation MHD/gas turbine systems. Case III results show that an oxygen enriched MHD/gas turbine system may be attractive for early commercial applications in dry regions of the country.

  15. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators...

  16. STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hørding Pedersen Björn Kjellström Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprøjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study...........................................................................................................................10 Gas turbine technology

  17. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting (Ames, IA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  18. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbines Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Jun

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unit despite the lower turbine cost for the MS7001FA stems from the additional cost of heat recovery steam

  19. 3-D Time-Accurate CFD Simulations of Wind Turbine Rotor Flow Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problems such as helicopter rotors and propellers. In particular, wind turbine blades can experience large from the tower support on downwind, horizontal axis wind turbines. These blade/inflow/tower wake in large scale wind turbines, because the blade passage frequency is well below the audible range

  20. Low Wind Speed Technology Phase II: Design and Demonstration of On-Site Fabrication of Fluted-Steel Towers Using LITS-Form(TM) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes NREL's subcontract with Native American Technologies to develop a new method of metal plate forming to produce wind turbine towers.

  1. Analysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    using drum boilers and steam turbines: (1) A single boiler is used to generate steam that is directly is then distributed to several turbines through the header. The steam can be used to generate electric- ity as wellAnalysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1 , Horacio J. Marquez b

  2. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a well known fact that the gas turbine in a combined cycle has a higher inherent Carnot efficiency than the steam cycle which has been more generally accepted by industry. Unlike steam turbines, gas turbines do not require large boiler feed...

  3. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, William N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  4. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  5. Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, J. L.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

  6. Cheng Cycle Brings Flexibility to Steam Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, D. C.; Bynum, D.; Kosla, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department examined several energy optimization systems for this site. It was determined that a modified gas turbine cogeneration system was the best overall option. This system is unique in that it injects superheated steam from the waste heat boiler back...

  7. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

  8. ExxonMobile Beaumont Chemical Plant Steam Integration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, T.

    ? Conventional boilers ? Gas turbine generators/ heat recovery steam generators ? Waste heat recovery boilers ? Steam is distributed and consumed at multiple locations and at various levels ? Evolution across the site can lead to isolated steam imbalances 4... the chemical plant boundaries ? The Refinery had a need for this valuable energy resource. ? A project was conceived to install piping and control systems to export the excess medium pressure steam to the adjacent Refinery where the steam could be more...

  9. Beneath the shadow of the Tower Soldiers' Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beneath the shadow of the Tower Soldiers' Tower Schedule of Events October-November 2013 As of Oct. 21, 2013 Telephone: 416-978-3485 (office) E-mail: soldiers.tower@utoronto.ca Soldiers' Tower Web Site: www.alumni.utoronto.ca/tower Facebook: www.facebook.com/soldierstower U of T Events web site: www

  10. Operating experience feedback report-reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps used in US commerical nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, J.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pump failure experience is collected by two primary means: (1) Licensee Event Reports, and (2) Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System failure reports. Certain safety-related turbine-driven standby pumps were identified by these data systems as experiencing significant ongoing repetitive failures of their turbine drivers, resulting in low reliability of the pump units. The root causes of identified failures were determined, and actions to preclude these repetitive failures were identified. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Gas Turbine Considerations in the Pulp and Paper Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefits and potentially attractive economics of developing power generation as an integral part of their power plant systems. The large requirements for process steam combined with process by-products and wood wastes make steam turbines a serious...

  12. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  13. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  14. Optimal Solid Space Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory and computations are provided for building of optimal (minimum weight) solid space towers (mast) up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth surface, weather and upper atmosphere experiment, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch spaceships and Earth satellites. These macroprojects are not expensive. They require strong hard material (steel). Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require human work at high altitudes; the tower is separated into sections; all construction can be done at the Earth surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth surface. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other cited publications.

  15. Vice President CEO, Tower Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    Vice President CEO, Tower Foundation Administrative Assistant to the AVP Information Representative Tower Foundation Charitable Gifts Officer Gift Analyst Gift Analyst Gift Analyst Senior Analyst Tower Foundation Stewardship Director Graphic Designer Administrative Assistant Web Communications

  16. AIAA-2004-1184 AN AEROACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINES*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the wind turbine blades can experience large changes in angle of attack associated with sudden large gusts, horizontal axis wind turbines. These blade/inflow/tower wake interactions can result in dynamic stall overAIAA-2004-1184 1 AN AEROACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINES* Philip J. Morris, Lyle N. Long

  17. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines Stephen Rosea , Paulina Jaramilloa,1. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind

  18. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Gas Turbine Power Plant Planning Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cycle units include a heat recovery steam generator on the exhaust to recover otherwise wasted energy. Steam from the heat recovery steam generator powers an additional steam turbine, providing extra electric to about 50 percent. In addition, the steam generator of combined-cycle units can be fitted with fuel

  19. Control Tower Procedures Nolan, Chap 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1 Control Tower Procedures Nolan, Chap 6 2 Control Towers · Responsibilities: 1. Ensure Towers · VFR Towers ­ NOT delegated separation responsibility · Except initial departure traffic ­ ARTCC separates IFR traffic · Non-radar-approach control towers ­ Delegated IFR separation responsibility

  20. DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for intended deployment in large arrays of dishes, with steam directed to a central large steam turbine powerDYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION José Zapata 1 , John dish has been in operation since 2010 with a mono-tube steam cavity receiver, the SG4 system

  1. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  2. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  3. Verification of BModes: Rotary Beam and Tower Modal Analysis Code; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes verification of BModes, a finite-element code developed to provide coupled modes for the blades and tower of a wind turbine. The blades, which may be rotating or non-rotating, and the towers, whether onshore or offshore, are modeled using specialized 15-dof beam finite elements. Both blade and tower models allow a tip attachment, which is assumed to be rigid body with six moments of inertia, and a mass centroid that may be offset from the blade or tower axis. Examples of tip attachments are aerodynamic brakes for blades and nacelle-rotor subassembly for towers. BModes modeling allows for tower supports including tension wires, floating platforms, and monopiles on elastic foundations. Coupled modes (implying coupling of flap, lag, axial, and torsional motions) are required for modeling major flexible components in a modal-based, aeroelastic code such as FAST1. These are also required for validation of turbine models using experimental data, modal-based fatigue analysis, controls design, and understanding aeroelastic-stability behavior of turbines. Verification studies began with uniform tower models, with and without tip inertia, and progressed to realistic towers. For the floating turbine, we accounted for the effects of hydrodynamic inertia, hydrostatic restoring, and mooring lines stiffness. For the monopole-supported tower, we accounted for distributed hydrodynamic mass on the submerged part of the tower and for distributed foundation stiffness. Finally, we verified a model of a blade carrying tip mass and rotating at different speeds (verifications of other blade models, rotating or non-rotating, have been reported in another paper.) Verifications were performed by comparing BModes-generated modes with analytical results, if available, or with MSC.ADAMS results. All results in general show excellent agreement.

  4. Steam Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.

    between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid...

  5. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  6. aircraft turbine disk: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Steam Turbine Cogeneration Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Steam turbines are...

  7. Coupled Dynamic Analysis of Multiple Unit Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Yoon Hyeok

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, a numerical simulation tool has been developed for the rotor-floater-tether coupled dynamic analysis of Multiple Unit Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (MUFOWT) in the time domain including aero-blade-tower dynamics and control...

  8. Coupled Dynamic Analysis of Multiple Unit Floating Offshore Wind Turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Yoon Hyeok

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, a numerical simulation tool has been developed for the rotor-floater-tether coupled dynamic analysis of Multiple Unit Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (MUFOWT) in the time domain including aero-blade-tower dynamics and control...

  9. The Monster Tower and Action Selectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Wyatt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Monster Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.1 Constructing the Monster Tower. . . . . . . . . 3.2.2Material for the Monster Tower 7.1 Definition of a Goursat

  10. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  11. The nominal cooling tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, R. [Burger Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95{degrees}F. Hot Water temperature (HWT) Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies through out the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. Ask any HVAC operator, refinery manager, power generating station operator what happens when the Wet Bulb reaches or exceeds the design WBT of the area. He probably will tell you, {open_quotes}My cooling tower works quite well, but in the summer time, I usually have trouble with it.{close_quotes} This occurs because he is operating a nominal cooling tower.

  12. Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

  13. Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, M.

    Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

  14. Heuristics for Balancing Turbine Fans Samir V. Amiouny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholdi III, John J.

    Reiger, 1986. In some cases, such as in the constructionof hydraulic, steam or gas turbines, fan bladesHeuristics for Balancing Turbine Fans Samir V. Amiouny John J. Bartholdi, III John H. Vande Vate April 20, 1997 Abstract We develop heuristics for a problem that models the static balancing of turbine

  15. Reduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirsum Institute of Power Plant Technology, Steam and Gas Turbines, RWTH Aachen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ingo RöhleReduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines Bachelor Thesis in Computational Engineering Institute of Propulsion Technology, German Aerospace Center #12;Abstract Gas turbine development has been

  16. Testing erosion-resistant chromium carbide plasma coatings on the TVA Paradise Unit-2 intermediate pressure turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karr, O.F.; Frank, R.L.; Gaston, D.E. Jr.; Bradford, T.L.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid particle erosion (SPE) is caused by oxide particles in steam. Hard oxide particles exfoliate from the inside surfaces of boiler tubes and steam lines and are carried by the steam to the turbine where they impact and erode stationary and moving turbine parts (nozzles, moving blades, stationary blades, seal strips, and shrouds around the blades). The first stages of the high pressure (HP) and intermediate pressure (IP) turbines experience the greatest amount of SPE. Though many owners experience erosion in the first stages of both HP (main steam) and IP (reheat steam) turbines, TVA's principal erosion experience is in the IP or reheat steam turbines. This report is limited to the first few stages of IP turbines, referred to as ''first reheat stages.'' Hard chromium carbide plasma coatings have been developed. The coating was installed in Paradise Unit-2 IP turbine, 9th and 10th stages. Pretest inspection report is given.

  17. Exergy Analysis of the Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery and Evaluation with New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaei, H.; Taheri, R.; Arghandeh, R.

    oil refinery, Exergy Analysis, Steam Network, Retrofit, Optimization 1. INTRODUCTION Refinery steam network is considered as a unit that consumes energy greatly. The main objective of the network is to produce the steam, which is required...) Using heat recovery steam generating systems and gas turbines instead of old boilers and so on. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of optimization in steam networks. in this paper, we complete the lost works such as optimization and estimation...

  18. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units...

  19. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    looking into the function of the cooling tower, which is to produce colder water- and question the quality of water discharged from that simple appearing box. These cross-flow structures are quite large, ranging up to 60 feet tall with as many as 6 or more...

  20. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

  1. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Bourdon Steam Plant Operator Vincent Massara Steam Plant Operator Cliff Lescenski Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley Equipment Maintenance Robert Earle Equipment

  2. ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    engines, microturbines, steam turbines, fuel cells · CHP waste-heat-activated technologies -- generation3/23/09 ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam to produce projects. The team's expertise covers: · CHP power generation technologies -- turbines, internal combustion

  3. ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    engines, microturbines, steam turbines, fuel cells · CHP waste-heat-activated technologies -- generation3/20/09 ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam to produce projects. The team's expertise covers: · CHP power generation technologies -- turbines, internal combustion

  4. Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Doug

    to as Combustion Turbine Generators (CTGs). Each unit is connected to a Rentech Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG Solar TaurusTM 70 turbines with lean, premixed combustion is presented. The units are equipped. The turbines drive generators to produce electricity. The turbine and generator units are collectively referred

  5. Proceedings of IGTI 2009 ASME 2009 International Gas Turbine Institute Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    - istic of steam turbine blading in low pressure turbines. The re- sults demonstrate that the designProceedings of IGTI 2009 ASME 2009 International Gas Turbine Institute Conference June 8-12, 2009, Orlando,FL, USA GT2009-60115 THREE-DIMENSIONAL AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A TURBINE BLADE BY USING

  6. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 1 Open GasTurbine Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    hr for steam-propulsion systems High back work ratio (ratio of compressor work to the turbine workM. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 1 Open GasTurbine Cycle Fig.1: Schematic for an open gas-turbine at constant pressure. The high temperature (and pressure) gas enters the turbine where it expands to ambient

  7. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion steam control and bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA); Jennings, Stephen J. (Radnor Township, Delaware County, PA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two sets of hinged control doors for regulating motive steam flow from an evaporator to a condenser alternatively through a set of turbine blades in a steam bypass around the turbine blades. The evaporator has a toroidal shaped casing situated about the turbine's vertical axis of rotation and an outlet opening therein for discharging motive steam into an annular steam flow path defined between the turbine's radially inner and outer casing structures. The turbine blades extend across the steam flow path intermediate the evaporator and condenser. The first set of control doors is arranged to prevent steam access to the upstream side of the turbine blades and the second set of control doors acts as a bypass around the blades so as to maintain equilibrium between the evaporator and condenser during non-rotation of the turbine. The first set of control doors preferably extend, when closed, between the evaporator casing and the turbine's outer casing and, when open, extend away from the axis of rotation. The second set of control doors preferably constitute a portion of the turbine's outer casing downstream from the blades when closed and extend, when open, toward the axis of rotation. The first and second sets of control doors are normally held in the open and closed positions respectively by locking pins which may be retracted upon detecting an abnormal operating condition respectively to permit their closing and opening and provide steam flow from the evaporator to the condenser.

  8. A feasibility study of wind turbine blade surface crack detection using an optical inspection method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    A feasibility study of wind turbine blade surface crack detection using an optical inspection technique was investigated to assess its ability to detect surface flaws on an on-tower wind turbine blade and investors. Rotor blades are one of the largest mechanical components of a wind turbine and cannot

  9. Small-scale wind turbines in cities and suburbs S Tullis, K Aly, R Bravo, A Fiedler, S Kooiman, K McLaren S Ziada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Small-scale wind turbines in cities and suburbs S Tullis, K Aly, R Bravo, A Fiedler, S Kooiman, K wind turbines in the urban environment: Current Research at McMaster University Nominal performance #12;Horizontal axis small wind turbines Numerous suppliers of turbines for tower/field installation

  10. Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , steam, burning velocity, chemiluminescence, OH Introduction In ultra-wet gas turbines, the heatExperimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen

  11. Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The secondary flow is another loop that links the steam generator and the turbines. Inside the exchangerSteam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations M Abstract This work takes place in steam generators flow studies and we consider here steady state three

  12. Bond Graph Model of a Vertical U-Tube Steam Condenser Coupled with a Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    turbines, distillation industries using water as a solvent, etc. System-level modeling of steam condensersBond Graph Model of a Vertical U-Tube Steam Condenser Coupled with a Heat Exchanger K. Medjaher1+ A A simulation model for a vertical U-tube steam condenser in which the condensate is stored at the bottom well

  13. IMU Activities Tower Application and Contract 1 INDIANA MEMORIAL UNION STUDENT ACTIVITIES TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    IMU Activities Tower Application and Contract 1 INDIANA MEMORIAL UNION STUDENT ACTIVITIES TOWER March 21, 2012 Union Board Office- 2nd floor of the IMU Activities Tower ­ room 270 The following Student Activities Tower: Organization Name

  14. Experimental Number Theory Part I : Tower Arithmetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    Experimental Number Theory Part I : Tower Arithmetic by Edinah K. Gnang January 15, 2011 1 rooted trees, which we shall here refer to as towers. The bijection between numbers and towers provides by XXX = (xk)1kn , (1) a tower expansion ( or simply a tower ) over XXX is a finite product of iterated

  15. Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turpish, W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 2 Types of Cooling Towers Forced Draft Towers ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 3 Types... of Cooling Towers Induced draft Cross-flow ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 4 Types of Cooling Towers Induced Draft-Counter Flow Two-cell Single Cell Four Cell...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: anemometer towers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anemometer towers Characterizing Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Inflow On April 1, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy The Scaled...

  17. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry's knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200[degrees]F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000[degrees]F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900[degrees]F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500[degrees]F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a topping'' system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500[degrees]F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  18. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry`s knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200{degrees}F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000{degrees}F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900{degrees}F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500{degrees}F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a ``topping`` system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500{degrees}F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  19. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing, combustion, cooling, materials, coatings and casting development. The market potential for the ATS gas turbine in the 2000-2014 timeframe was assessed for combined cycle, simple cycle and integrated gasification combined cycle, for three engine sizes. The total ATS market potential was forecasted to exceed 93 GW. Phase 3 and Phase 3 Extension involved further technology development, component testing and W501ATS engine detail design. The technology development efforts consisted of ultra low NO{sub x} combustion, catalytic combustion, sealing, heat transfer, advanced coating systems, advanced alloys, single crystal casting development and determining the effect of steam on turbine alloys. Included in this phase was full-load testing of the W501G engine at the McIntosh No. 5 site in Lakeland, Florida.

  20. Characterizing Inflow Conditions Across the Rotor Disk of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Kelley, N.; Scott, G.; Jager, D.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-megawatt utility-scale wind turbines operate in a turbulent, thermally-driven atmosphere where wind speed and air temperature vary with height. Turbines convert the wind's momentum into electrical power, and so changes in the atmosphere across the rotor disk influence the power produced by the turbine. To characterize the inflow into utility scale turbines at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado, NREL recently built two 135-meter inflow monitoring towers. This poster introduces the towers and the measurements that are made, showing some of the data obtained in the first few months of operation in 2011.

  1. Wind Turbine Safety and Function Test Report for the Mariah Windspire Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers to wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines (SWT). In total, five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests performed on the turbines, including power performance, duration, noise, and power-quality tests. NWTC testing results provide manufacturers with reports that may be used to meet part of small wind turbine certification requirements. The test equipment includes a Mariah Windspire wind turbine mounted on a monopole tower. L&E Machine manufactured the turbine in the United States. The inverter was manufactured separately by Technology Driven Products in the United States. The system was installed by the NWTC site operations group with guidance and assistance from Mariah Power.

  2. axial turbine stages: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFF 2:. 58 b. From the Willans line, calculate steam raFe for 25J... Harriz, J. T. 98 VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE CiteSeer Summary: Wind energy is currently the fastest-growing...

  3. 66 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 1, NO. 2, JULY 2010 Optimization of Wind Turbine Performance With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    mass damper to mitigate vibrations of the blades and tower of a wind turbine was presented in [1466 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 1, NO. 2, JULY 2010 Optimization of Wind Turbine, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents a multiobjective optimization model of wind turbine performance

  4. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

  5. Untapped Energy Savings from Cooling Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps Jr., P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cooling towers; crossflow and counterflow. Many older towers are of the crossflow type and many newer towers are counterflow. The two types are most easily identified by looking at the sides of the tower. Crossflow towers have the air inlets all... the way up the sides of the tower, and air is drawn inward across the falling water, hence the term crossflow. Counterflow towers only have inlets around the bottom of the tower, and air is drawn in and upward through the falling water, hence the term...

  6. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  7. Gas Turbine Considerations in the Pulp and Paper Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M.

    GAS TURBINE CONSIDERATIONS IN THlI: PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY J. Steven Anderson, Ph.D. Director-Energy International Paper Company Purchase, NY INTRODUCTION The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest users of energy... as an inte gral part of their power plant systems. The large requirements for process steam combined with process by-products and wood wastes make steam turbines a serious consideration in plant locations where suit able economic conditions are present...

  8. Stellar Explosions by Magnetic Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri A. Uzdensky; Andrew I. MacFadyen

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a magnetic mechanism for the collimated explosion of a massive star relevant for GRBs, XRFs and asymmetric supernovae. We apply Lynden-Bell's magnetic tower scenario to the interior of a massive rotating star after the core has collapsed to form a black hole with an accretion disk or a millisecond magnetar acting as a central engine. We solve the force-free Grad-Shafranov equation to calculate the magnetic structure and growth of a tower embedded in a stellar environment. The pressure of the toroidal magnetic field, continuously generated by differential rotation of the central engine, drives a rapid expansion which becomes vertically collimated after lateral force balance with the surrounding gas pressure is reached. The collimation naturally occurs because hoop stress concentrates magnetic field toward the rotation axis and inhibits lateral expansion. This leads to the growth of a self-collimated magnetic tower. When embedded in a massive star, the supersonic expansion of the tower drives a strong bow shock behind which an over-pressured cocoon forms. The cocoon confines the tower by supplying collimating pressure and provides stabilization against disruption due to MHD instabilities. Because the tower consists of closed field lines starting and ending on the central engine, mixing of baryons from the cocoon into the tower is suppressed. The channel cleared by the growing tower is thus plausibly free of baryons and allows the escape of magnetic energy from the central engine through the star. While propagating down the stellar density gradient, the tower accelerates and becomes relativistic. During the expansion, fast collisionless reconnection becomes possible resulting in dissipation of magnetic energy which may be responsible for GRB prompt emission.

  9. Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  10. Chemical filtration for steam purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalcik, F.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few industrial process systems are as vulnerable to corrosion as the steam generating loop of an electric power plant. Impurities inevitably migrate into the steam cycle, and must be removed to prevent turbine blade corrosion. It is critical to understand the behavior of the condensate polishing resins used to remove the impurities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) participated in investigations involving ion chromatography which identified chloride as a problem in studies of regeneration and polishing procedures. A modified regeneration procedure consists of ammonium sulfate treatment of the resin before and after ammonia recirculation, followed by a dilute ammonia rinse. A joint study with Southern California Edison also simulated condenser leaks to find the effect of cooling water intrusion.

  11. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  12. TOWER OF COARSE MODULI KINYA KIMURA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Michael

    TOWER OF COARSE MODULI KINYA KIMURA Modular Towers is introduced by M. Fried for analogue of the towers of modular curves in the framework of Hurwitz space theory. Let p be a prime, G a p of which order of the elements is prime to p. Then we can consider the tower of Hurwitz space associated

  13. THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH APPLETON TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH APPLETON TOWER A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES Appleton Tower confirm the evacuation arrangements". #12;Introduction Disabled Access Guide for Appleton Tower APPLETON TOWER was named in posthumous honour of physicist Sir Edward Appleton, the Principal who oversaw

  14. Methodologies for Continuous Cellular Tower Data Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clauset, Aaron

    Methodologies for Continuous Cellular Tower Data Analysis Nathan Eagle1,2 , John A. Quinn3 cellular tower data from 215 randomly sampled subjects in a major urban city. We demonstrate the potential by tower transitions. The tower groupings from these unsupervised clustering techniques are subsequently

  15. David Hume Tower George Square, Edinburgh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    David Hume Tower George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JX 0131 650 8295 http://www.ed.ac.uk/maps THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH DAVID HUME TOWER A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES #12;If you require this document the evacuation arrangements". #12;Disabled Access Guide for David Hume Tower Introduction DAVID HUME TOWER

  16. A' Brief. History of the Tower Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A' Brief. History of the Tower Shielding Facility and Programs Tower Shielding Facility Hoisting Equipment and Handling Pool Tower Shielding Reactor TSR-II Assembly and Outer Reflector Reactor Suspension buildings (1953) 0 Towers form a lOO- by 200-j? rectangle 0 Unit weight of towers less than 400 lb/' - gives

  17. Proceedings of IGTI 2010 ASME 2010 International Gas Turbine Institute Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    of design parameters. Three design cases are performed with a low-aspect-ratio steam turbine blade testedProceedings of IGTI 2010 ASME 2010 International Gas Turbine Institute Conference June 14-18, 2010 (Switzerland) Baden, Switzerland ABSTRACT For low-aspect-ratio turbine blades secondary loss reduc- tion

  18. CONTROL DESIGN FOR A GAS TURBINE CYCLE WITH CO2 CAPTURE CAPABILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    . The exhaust gas from a gas turbine with CO2 as working fluid, is used as heating medium for a steam cycleCONTROL DESIGN FOR A GAS TURBINE CYCLE WITH CO2 CAPTURE CAPABILITIES Dagfinn Snarheim Lars Imsland. of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim Abstract: The semi-closed oxy-fuel gas turbine cycle has been

  19. Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    , into the mechanical energy acting on the turbine and generator. The steam generated in the boiler system servesGain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator saturation Pang; accepted 2 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a gain-scheduled approach for boiler-turbine controller

  20. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

  1. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Power Towers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trough Systems CLFR Power Towers Acciona Abengoa Sener Solar Millennium SkyFuel Siemens Ausra SPGMann SkyFuel Abengoa Brightsource Energy SolarReserve eSolar Dish Engine...

  3. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system. While our engineers are pretty well convinced of the importance of their sophisticated equipment, and rightly so, they take the cooling towers and the cold water returning from them for granted. Design Conditions are specified...

  4. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  5. Aeroderivative Gas Turbines Can Meet Stringent NOx Control Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, S. C.; Studniarz, J. J.

    AERODERIVATIVE GAS TURBINES CAN MEET STRINGENT NOx CONTROL REQUIREMENTS S. C. Keller, Manager Cogeneration Sales & Market Development General Electric Company Marine & Industrial Engines Cincinnati, Ohio ABSTRACT Gas Turbines operating... in the United States are required to meet federally mandated emission standards. This article will discuss how General Electric's 1M industrial aeroderivative gas turbines are meeting NOx requirements as low as 25 parts per ~tllion usi-ng steam injection...

  6. Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants Pascal Richter Center for Computational · Optimization of solar tower power plants 1/20 #12;Introduction ­ Solar tower power plants Solar tower PS10 (11 of the solar tower Pascal Richter · Optimization of solar tower power plants 2/20 #12;Model of solar tower

  7. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

  8. COUPLING SUPERCRITICAL AND SUPERHEATED DIRECT STEAM GENERATION WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COUPLING SUPERCRITICAL AND SUPERHEATED DIRECT STEAM GENERATION WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE Joe a suitable turbine available. Overall, energy transport and storage concepts are presented that maximise dishes, in particular, minimisation of molten salt quantities in storage, and maximisation of thermal

  9. Case Study: Lessons Learned From Converting Electric Chillers to Steam Chillers in a Electric Deregulated Market.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohl, J.

    This paper will examine an example of converting two electric centrifugal chillers, which needed to be replaced, to use steam turbine driven centrifugal chillers at a large commercial office building consisting of approximately 700,000 square feet...

  10. Case Study: Lessons Learned From Converting Electric Chillers to Steam Chillers in a Electric Deregulated Market. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohl, J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will examine an example of converting two electric centrifugal chillers, which needed to be replaced, to use steam turbine driven centrifugal chillers at a large commercial office building consisting of approximately 700,000 square feet...

  11. 7.2.9. Tower 7.2.10. Winterdienstgebude /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    .2.9.3.4.3 Überwachung der Notstromversorgung des Towers 7.2.9.3.5 Kälteversorgung des Towers / Cooling Supply of Tower 7

  12. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    and Steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Pump Steam Generator Turbine Generator Cooling Tower Water pressurized (primary loop) Water and Steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Pump Steam Generator Turbine Generator Cooling Tower Condenser Cooling Water Pump Reactor Core Reactor Vessel Control

  13. Turbulence-Turbine Interaction: The Basis for the Development of the TurbSim Stochastic Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N. D.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of taller wind turbines with more flexible rotors and towers operating in turbulent conditions that are not well understood is contributing to much higher than anticipated maintenance and repairs costs and is associated with lower energy production. This report documents evidence of this and offers the turbine designers an expanded tool that resolves many of these shortcomings.

  14. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recommendations to increase steam system effic iency. Steam System Opportunities ]n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a O.4-year payback. 75...

  15. Chemical impurity monitoring in the turbine environment at ANO-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bour, D.P.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview is presented here of three independent measurement campaigns for trace impurities in the secondary side water/steam of ANO-1, a PWR containing a once-through steam generator. The measurements took place in 1978-1979 between two turbine disc cracking incidents near the point of first condensation in the low pressure turbines. Turbine disc cracking occurred despite maintenance of conditions near the turbine manufacturers recommended limits. Measurements focused on sodium, chloride, and sulfate. The primary source of contamination was found to be the condensate polishing plant. Major improvements were seen to result from changes in regeneration procedures. Turbine damage may be the result of acid conditions at the Wilson Line since chloride and sulfate were enriched relative to sodium in the LP turbine inlet steam.

  16. Dynamic response of guyed towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillcrist, Mark Christopher

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    also account for entrapped sea water in the tower legs as well as added hydrodynamic mass. Sarpkya and Isaacson (9) show that the added hydrodynamic mass, m , per unit length of a circular cylinder can be closely approximated by m = psr 2 a (3. 1... bending associated with the guyed tower's fundamental mode. The global damping matrix, used in this study, is assumed to account for all sources of damping, with the exception of hydrodynamic damping (implicit in the nonlinear drag term of Morison...

  17. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  18. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D eReview |Panel HydrogenM M aDesign |

  19. See the UT Tower going dark? There's a reason why Tower joins campus in conservation project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    See the UT Tower going dark? There's a reason why Tower joins campus in conservation project KXAN orange or even its typical white, the University of Texas Tower will join the dark night sky as part of a campus-wide energy conservation project. This is the first time the Tower will take part in Longhorn

  20. RUDDER TOWER: You are standing in the lobby of Rudder Tower, home to the Appelt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RUDDER TOWER: You are standing in the lobby of Rudder Tower, home to the Appelt Aggieland Visitor Center. The lobby elevators take you up Rudder Tower, where the office of the president of Texas A to the Plaza, you'll be facing Albritton Tower in the distance; you will hear its Westminster chimes ring every

  1. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  2. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas CT New Gas CT Old Geothermal Nuclear Steam Turbine SteamTurbine SteamTurbine Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Steam

  3. Livingston Campus North and South Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston Campus North and South Tower General Instructions: · Print directions and name.7 miles). Continue on Route 18 North. · Follow the signs for Towers move in. From Garden State Parkway the Raritan River (approximately 3.7 miles). Continue on Route 18 North. · Follow the signs for Towers move in

  4. Solar Two: A Molten Salt Power Tower Demonstration* Craig E.Tyner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    .S. Department of Energy (DOE),Sandia National Laboratories, and industry to convert the 10-MwSolar One Power receiver, a new thermal storage system, and a new steam generator; it utilizes Solar One's heliostat field and turbine generator. Successful operation of the convertedplant, called SolarTwo, will reduce

  5. Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tower pump suction basin was accomplished by diving into the basin using SCUBA gear. It was possible to see a build-up of debris on the pump suction basket strainers and on the floor of the sumps. Also, it was discovered that one of the four baskets had...

  6. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  7. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  8. Analysis of wind turbine vibrations based on SCADA data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Kusiak; Zijun Zhang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vibrations of a wind turbine have a negative impact on its performance. Mitigating this undesirable impact requires knowledge of the relationship between the vibrations and other wind turbine parameters that could be potentially modified. Three approaches for ranking the impact importance of measurable turbine parameters on the vibrations of the drive train and the tower are discussed. They include the predictor importance analysis, the global sensitivity analysis, and the correlation coefficient analysis versed in data mining and statistics. To decouple the impact of wind speed on the vibrations of the drive train and the tower, the analysis is performed on data sets with narrow speed ranges. Wavelet analysis is applied to filter noisy accelerometer data. To exclude the impact malfunctions on the vibration analysis, the data are analyzed in a frequency domain. Data-mining algorithms are used to build models with turbine parameters of interest as inputs, and the vibrations of drive train and tower as outputs. The performance of each model is thoroughly evaluated based on metrics widely used in the wind industry. The neural network algorithm outperforms other classifiers and is considered to be the most promising approach to study wind turbine vibrations. ?DOI: 10.1115/1.4001461?

  9. Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Scott, G.; Kelley, N.; Lundquist, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility-scale wind turbines operate in dynamic flows that can vary significantly over timescales from less than a second to several years. To better understand the inflow to utility-scale turbines, two inflow towers were installed and commissioned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, in 2011. These towers are 135 m tall and instrumented with a combination of sonic anemometers, cup anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature measurements to characterize the inflow wind speed and direction, turbulence, stability and thermal stratification to two utility-scale turbines. Herein, we present variations in mean and turbulent wind parameters with height, atmospheric stability, and as a function of wind direction that could be important for turbine operation as well as persistence of turbine wakes. Wind speed, turbulence intensity, and dissipation are all factors that affect turbine performance. Our results shown that these all vary with height across the rotor disk, demonstrating the importance of measuring atmospheric conditions that influence wind turbine performance at multiple heights in the rotor disk, rather than relying on extrapolation from lower levels.

  10. Computer-Aided Design Reveals Potential of Gas Turbine Cogeneration in Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanny, M. D.; Koeroghlian, M. M.; Baker, W. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas turbine cogeneration cycles provide a simple and economical solution to the problems created by rising fuel and electricity costs. These cycles can be designed to accommodate a wide range of electrical, steam, and process heating demands...

  11. Computer-Aided Design Reveals Potential of Gas Turbine Cogeneration in Chemical and Petrochemical Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanny, M. D.; Koeroghlian, M. M.; Baker, W. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas turbine cogeneration cycles provide a simple and economical solution to the problems created by rising fuel and electricity costs. These cycles can be designed to accommodate a wide range of electrical, steam, and process heating demands...

  12. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

  13. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA); Prichard, Andrew W. (Richland, WA); Reid, Bruce D. (Pasco, WA); Burritt, James (Virginia Beach, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  14. Flash Steam Recovery Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /condensate recovery system, resulting in condensate flash steam losses to the atmosphere. Using computer simulation models and pinch analysis techniques, the Operational Excellence Group (Six Sigma) was able to identify a project to recover the flash steam losses as a...

  15. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  16. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam...

  17. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  18. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  19. Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

  20. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five...

  1. Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    problemA of water hammer and high back pressure. ? Exorbitantly hi~h percentage of cold trapA. ? External steam leaks within the steam trap stations, bypasA valves and/or strainer blowdown valvefl open, blowin~ steam. ! I ? Dirt nssociated... Trapping 2 Trap Installed Backwards 1 Misapplication of Technology 1 Strainer Blowdown Connections Capped 285 (*b) Test Tee Connections Capped 11 Trap Inlet Connected to Steam Line Strainer Blowdown Connection 3 Water Logged Coils (Vacuum Present) 7...

  2. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  3. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have...

  4. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  5. Coatings for the protection of turbine blades from erosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, P.N.; Quets, J.M.; Tucker, R.C. Jr. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many types of turbines, including aircraft gas turbines, steam turbines, and power recovery turbines, suffer from solid particle erosion caused by a variety of materials ingested into the machines. Utilization of various laboratory erosion tests tailored to the specific application by using various erodents, temperatures, velocities, and angles of impact, have been shown to be effective in the development and selection of coatings for the erosion protection of turbine blades and other components. Detonation gun coatings have demonstrated their efficacy in providing substantial protection in many situations. It has now been shown that several tungsten carbide and chromium carbide Super D-Gun{trademark} coatings not only have better erosion resistance than their D-Gun analogs, but cause little or no degradation of the fatigue properties of the blade alloys. Nonetheless, caution should be employed in the application of any laboratory data to a specific situation and additional testing done as warranted by the turbine designer.

  6. PowerJet Wind Turbine Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, Raymond J

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    PROJECT OBJECTIVE The PowerJet wind turbine overcomes problems characteristic of the small wind turbines that are on the market today by providing reliable output at a wide range of wind speeds, durability, silent operation at all wind speeds, and bird-safe operation. Prime Energy�s objective for this project was to design and integrate a generator with an electrical controller and mechanical controls to maximize the generation of electricity by its wind turbine. The scope of this project was to design, construct and test a mechanical back plate to control rotational speed in high winds, and an electronic controller to maximize power output and to assist the base plate in controlling rotational speed in high winds. The test model will continue to operate beyond the time frame of the project, with the ultimate goal of manufacturing and marketing the PowerJet worldwide. Increased Understanding of Electronic & Mechanical Controls Integrated With Electricity Generator The PowerJet back plate begins to open as wind speed exceeds 13.5 mps. The pressure inside the turbine and the turbine rotational speed are held constant. Once the back plate has fully opened at approximately 29 mps, the controller begins pulsing back to the generator to limit the rotational speed of the turbine. At a wind speed in excess of 29 mps, the controller shorts the generator and brings the turbine to a complete stop. As the wind speed subsides, the controller releases the turbine and it resumes producing electricity. Data collection and instrumentation problems prevented identification of the exact speeds at which these events occur. However, the turbine, controller and generator survived winds in excess of 36 mps, confirming that the two over-speed controls accomplished their purpose. Technical Effectiveness & Economic Feasibility Maximum Electrical Output The output of electricity is maximized by the integration of an electronic controller and mechanical over-speed controls designed and tested during the course of this project. The output exceeds that of the PowerJet�s 3-bladed counterparts (see Appendix). Durability All components of the PowerJet turbine assembly�including the electronic and mechanical controls designed, manufactured and field tested during the course of this project�proved to be durable through severe weather conditions, with constant operation and no interruption in energy production. Low Cost Materials for the turbine, generator, tower, charge controllers and ancillary parts are available at reasonable prices. Fabrication of these parts is also readily available worldwide. The cost of assembling and installing the turbine is reduced because it has fewer parts and requires less labor to manufacture and assemble, making it competitively priced compared with turbines of similar output manufactured in the U.S. and Europe. The electronic controller is the unique part to be included in the turbine package. The controllers can be manufactured in reasonably-sized production runs to keep the cost below $250 each. The data logger and 24 sensors are for research only and will be unnecessary for the commercial product. Benefit To Public The PowerJet wind-electric system is designed for distributed wind generation in 3 and 4 class winds. This wind turbine meets DOE�s requirements for a quiet, durable, bird-safe turbine that eventually can be deployed as a grid-connected generator in urban and suburban settings. Results As described more fully below and illustrated in the Appendices, the goals and objectives outlined in 2060 SOPO were fully met. Electronic and mechanical controls were successfully designed, manufactured and integrated with the generator. The turbine, tower, controllers and generators operated without incident throughout the test period, surviving severe winter and summer weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, ice and sustained high winds. The electronic controls were contained in weather-proof electrical boxes and the elec

  7. Cooling Tower Considerations for Energy Optimizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accumulat- ing in the strainers and tubes. The California Redwood Institute states that the service life of thin section Redwood used in cooling towers .is a'pproximately 15 to 20 years. Therefore, in these older-type towers the fill Is usually... of the art cellular film fill packing. Figure 6. Eight cell blow-thru tower where rebuilding lowered the water temperature 4OF greatly reducing compressor head pressures and temperatures thereby lowering energy consumption throughout the system...

  8. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  9. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  10. Wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  11. WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA 9/1/06-11/30/06 Prepared for Department of Energy (DOE) Golden.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series...........................................................................................................

  12. WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA 11/13/06-11/30/06 Prepared for Department of Energy (DOE.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series.........................................................................................................

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  14. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  15. Pueblo Towers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to:ID8/OrganizationTechProbSolutionsPublic ArtTexas Jump to:Towers Jump to:

  16. Out of Ashes and Rubble: The Pirelli Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler, Claudia J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agnese’s text. 13. The Pirelli tower was novel, experimentalpostwar periods, or that the tower was a departure from theand Rubble: The Pirelli Tower Claudia J. Ziegler At the end

  17. Airfoil Heat Transfer Characteristics in Syngas and Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzotta, D.W. (Univ. of Pittsburgh); Chyu, M.K. (Univ. of Pittsburgh); Alvin, M.A.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen or coal-derivative syngas turbines promise increased efficiency with exceptionally low NOx emissions compared to the natural gas based turbines. To reach this goal, turbine inlet temperature (TIT) will need to be elevated to a level exceeding 1700°C [1, 2]. The thermal load induced by such a temperature increase alone will lead to immense challenges in maintaining material integrity of turbine components. In addition, as working fluid in the gas path will primarily be steam, possibly mixed with carbon oxides, the aero-thermal characteristic in a hydrogen turbine is expected to be far different from that of air/nitrogen enriched gas stream in a gas turbine. For instance, steam has distinctly higher density and specific heat in comparison to a mixture of air and combustion gases as they are expanded in a conventional gas turbine. Even if the temperature limits remain about the same, the expansion in a hydrogen turbine will have to proceed with a greater enthalpy drop and therefore requires a larger number of stages. This also implies that the flow areas may need to be expanded and blade span to be enlarged. Meanwhile, a greater number of stages and hot surfaces need to be protected. This also suggests that current cooling technology available for modern day gas turbines has to be significantly improved. The ultimate goal of the present study is to systematically investigate critical issues concerning cooling technology as it is applicable to oxy-fuel and hydrogen turbine systems, and the main scope is to develop viable means to estimate the thermal load on the turbine “gas side”, that is eventually to be removed from the “coolant side”, and to comparatively quantify the implication of external heat load and potential thermal barrier coating (TBC) degradation on the component durability and lifing. The analysis is based on two well-tested commercial codes, FLUENT and ANSYS.

  18. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  19. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  20. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  1. Steam System Data Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam System Data Management What Does It Include Safety In Motion Wal?Tech?Valve,?Inc. 251?438?2203 The Real Genius Behind Technology Is People ESL-IE-13-05-35 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... ? Fabrication Training (Six Year Training) ? Welding Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased...

  2. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  3. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  4. Combustion turbine emissions issues for air permit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macak, J.J. III; Schott, G.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Projects Division

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from combustion turbines continues to be a significant new energy source. These power projects may be either simple-cycle peaking units or combined-cycle applications in which exhaust heat is recovered to generate steam for export (cogeneration facility) and power generation (steam turbine generator). While combustion turbines represent one of the cleanest forms of power generation, regulatory agencies have identified them as significant sources of air pollution. Both new sources and existing combustion turbine installations are receiving increasing attention at federal, state, and local levels. Before construction can begin on a new combustion turbine facility, an air permit authorizing construction must first be obtained. The air permitting process is generally the ``critical path`` permit, often taking in excess of two years to receive the final approval. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 also impact existing units due to the non-attainment provisions of the Act and the Title 5 nationwide operating permit program. Careful consideration of combustion turbine operational characteristics and air pollutant emissions will expedite air permitting. This paper addresses specific issues related to combustion turbine emissions and the air permitting process. Guidelines for addressing many considerations are provided in order to secure an air permit that allows maximum flexibility in plant operation.

  5. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  6. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply both heat and peaking power (Block 2 engine); (2) Repowering of an older coal-fired plant (Block 2 engine); (3) Gas-fired HAT cycle (Block 1 and 2 engines); (4) Integrated gasification HAT (Block 1 and 2 engines). Also under Phase I of the NGT Program, a conceptual design of the combustion system has been completed. An integrated approach to cycle optimization for improved combustor turndown capability has been employed. The configuration selected has the potential for achieving single digit NO{sub x}/CO emissions between 40 percent and 100 percent load conditions. A technology maturation plan for the combustion system has been proposed. Also, as a result of Phase I, ceramic vane technology will be incorporated into NGT designs and will require less cooling flow than conventional metallic vanes, thereby improving engine efficiency. A common 50 Hz and 60 Hz power turbine was selected due to the cost savings from eliminating a gearbox. A list of ceramic vane technologies has been identified for which the funding comes from DOE, NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and P&W.

  7. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  8. Single Rotor Turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a centrifugal compressor having axially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and an axial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the centrifugal compressor flows.

  9. Waste heat recovery steam curves with unfired HRSGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compilation of waste heat recovery steam curves for a sampling of gas turbines ranging in output from around 1 MW to more than 200 MW is presented. The gas turbine output data shown with each set of curves differs from the values given in the Performance Specifications section of the Handbook. That's because the values have been calculated to reflect the effects of a 4 inch inlet and 10 inch outlet pressure drop on power output (lower), heat rate (higher), mass flow (higher), and exhaust temperature (higher).

  10. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  11. Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  12. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  13. Energy 101: Wind Turbines

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of the wind. Highlighted are the various parts and mechanisms of a modern wind turbine.

  14. Energy 101: Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of the wind. Highlighted are the various parts and mechanisms of a modern wind turbine.

  15. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L. (Morgantown, WV); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Parsons, Edward L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  16. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  17. the risk issue of wind measurement for wind turbine operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Sciences, National Taiwan University #12;outline · Wind measurement in meteorology and wind farm design-related issues on wind turbine operation 3/31/2011 2 #12;WIND MEASUREMENT IN METEOROLOGY & WIND FARM DESIGN 3.brainybetty.com 11 wind farm at ChangHwa Coastal Industrial Park 70m wind tower 70m 50m 30m 10m #12;1 2 3 4 5 1 (70M

  18. Optimal sequencing of a cooling tower with multiple cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper evaluates the energy savings potential of multi-cell cooling tower optimal sequencing control methods. Annual tower fan energy usage is calculated for a counter-flow tower with multiple variable-speed fans. Effectiveness-NTU tower model...

  19. THE GROUP OF SYMMETRIES OF THE TOWER OF HANOI GRAPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behrstock, Jason

    THE GROUP OF SYMMETRIES OF THE TOWER OF HANOI GRAPH SO EUN PARK The classical Tower of Hanoi puzzle the tower of disks to another peg, moving one topmost disk at a time while never stacking a disk referred to as the Tower of Hanoi problem. Figure 1. Convention for labeling k pegs and n disks

  20. Charlotte Teachers' Circle September 17, 2011 Tower of Hanoi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Harold

    1 Charlotte Teachers' Circle September 17, 2011 Tower of Hanoi The Tower of Hanoi as the Tower of Brahma. According to the legend, when the last move of the puzzle is completed, the world of the three pegs. The objective of the puzzle is to move the entire tower to one of the other pegs

  1. A New Tower Over Cubic Finite Fields , Arnaldo Garcia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    A New Tower Over Cubic Finite Fields Alp Bassa , Arnaldo Garcia and Henning Stichtenoth We present a new explicit tower of function fields (Fn)n0 over the finite field with = q3 elements, where the limit). This tower contains as a subtower the tower which was introduced by Bezerra­ Garcia­Stichtenoth (see [3

  2. Effects of guy wires on SWECS tower dynamics. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C P; Pykkonen, K R; Sexton, J H

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats (RF) Supporting Research and Technology (SRT) study for tower testing/analysis has led to some useful information concerning the effect of tower guy pretension on small wind system tower dynamics. The effect of guy-wire pretension on tower natural frequencies is usually considered negligible if the guy: (1) has no sag caused by gravity, and (2) the tension is not approaching the tower buckling load. At the rf test center it was found that, for the test tower even when these conditions were avoided, the guy fundamental frequency must be 30% greater than the tower fundamental frequency to maintain the fundamental's characteristics.

  3. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  4. 36 AUGUST | 2011 EnhancEd TurbinE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    36 AUGUST | 2011 EnhancEd TurbinE PErformancE moniToring comPonEnTs of wind TurbinEs are affected by asymmetric loads, variable wind speeds, and se- vere weather conditions which cause wind turbines to change their states. A typical wind turbine under- goes various states during its daily operations. The wind turbine

  5. Nice, 10/10/2013 T L( ) M( ) N( ) C( ) M

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    Vapor Pump Steam generator (heat change) Turbine Alternator Cooling tower Cooling water Condenser Pump and steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Liquid Vapor Pump Steam generator (heat change) Turbine structure Pressurized water (primary loop) Water and steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Liquid

  6. Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power "on demand"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    . Solar One used water as a working fluid to generate the steam required to drive a conven- tional turbine steam, and electricity is produced by a conventional steam turbine. After the molten salt has cooled to about 285°C (550°F) in producing the steam, it is again pumped to the top of the tower to be heated

  7. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  8. Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Loving care is paid to the compressors, condensers, and computer programs of refrigeration systems. When problems arise, operator: run around in circles with expensive "fixes", but historically ignore the poor orphan, the cooling tower perched...

  9. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

  10. WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA 12/1/06-2/28/07 Prepared for Department of Energy (DOE) Golden...................................................................................................................... 8 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  11. Projective preservation : reframing Rudolph's Tower for Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Jessica K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By 2012, the fate of Paul Rudolph's tower in downtown Boston has been in question for years while a vision of a denser city calls for its demolition. Projected development on the site currently argues that to move forward, ...

  12. Turbine FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zand Analysis Utilities (TAU)Tuning ofTurbine

  13. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract—The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

  14. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  15. Stability Properties of Magnetic Tower Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanori Nakamura; Hui Li; Shengtai Li

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability properties of ``magnetic tower'' jets propagating in the gravitationally stratified background have been examined by performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The current-carrying, Poynting flux-dominated magnetic tower jet, which possesses a highly wound helical magnetic field, is subject to the current-driven instability (CDI). We find that, under general physical conditions including small perturbations in the initial background profiles, the propagating magnetic tower jets develop the non-axisymmetric, $m=1$ kink mode of the CDI. The kink mode grows on the local Alfv\\'en crossing time scale. In addition, two types of kink modes appear in the system. At the central region where external thermal pressure confinement is strong, only the internal kink mode is excited and will grow. A large distance away from the central region where the external thermal pressure becomes low, the external kink mode is observed. As a result, the exterior of magnetic tower jets will be deformed into a large-scale wiggled structure. We also discuss extensively the different physical processes that contribute to the overall stability properties of the magnetic tower jets. Specifically, when the jet propagates in an initially unperturbed background, we find that they can survive the kink mode beyond the point predicted by the well-known Kruskal-Shafranov (K-S) criterion. The stabilization in this case comes mainly from the dynamical relaxation of magnetic twists during the propagation of magnetic towers; the magnetic pitch is reduced and the corresponding K-S critical wavelength becomes longer as the tower jet proceeds. Furthermore, we show that the pressure-driven and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities do not occur in the magnetic tower jets.

  16. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  17. Midwest Consortium for Wind Turbine Reliability and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott R. Dana; Douglas E. Adams; Noah J. Myrent

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the efforts aimed to establish a student focused laboratory apparatus that will enhance Purdue's ability to recruit and train students in topics related to the dynamics, operations and economics of wind turbines. The project also aims to facilitate outreach to students at Purdue and in grades K-12 in the State of Indiana by sharing wind turbine operational data. For this project, a portable wind turbine test apparatus was developed and fabricated utilizing an AirX 400W wind energy converter. This turbine and test apparatus was outfitted with an array of sensors used to monitor wind speed, turbine rotor speed, power output and the tower structural dynamics. A major portion of this project included the development of a data logging program used to display real-time sensor data and the recording and creation of output files for data post-processing. The apparatus was tested in an open field to subject the turbine to typical operating conditions and the data acquisition system was adjusted to obtain desired functionality to facilitate use for student projects in existing courses offered at Purdue University and Indiana University. Data collected using the data logging program is analyzed and presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the test apparatus related to wind turbine dynamics and operations.

  18. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  19. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  20. Steam System Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchanan, M. G.; Sneary, M. L.

    energy into the air. You might say that many of us are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 ? This cooling... are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 . This cooling is accomplished by venting the receiver to the atmosphere...

  1. Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhtar, S. Z.

    Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper...

  2. Progress in Implementing and Testing State-Space Controls for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Designing wind turbines with maximum energy production and longevity for minimal cost is a major goal of the federal wind program and the wind industry. Control can improve the performance of wind turbines by enhancing energy capture and reducing dynamic loads. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) we are designing state-space control algorithms for turbine speed regulation and load reduction and testing them on the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART). The CART is a test-bed especially designed to test advanced control algorithms on a two-bladed teetering hub upwind turbine. In this paper we briefly describe the design of control systems to regulate turbine speed in region 3 for the CART. These controls use rotor collective pitch to regulate speed and also enhance damping in the 1st drive-train torsion, 1st rotor symmetric flap mode, and the 1st tower fore-aft mode. We designed these controls using linear optimal control techniques using state estimation based on limited turbine measurements such as generator speed and tower fore-aft bending moment. In this paper, we describe the issues and steps involved with implementing and testing these controls on the CART, and we show simulated tests to quantify controller performance. We then present preliminary results after implementing and testing these controls on the CART. We compare results from these controls to field test results from a baseline Proportional Integral control system. Finally we report conclusions to this work and outline future studies.

  3. Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

  4. Steam Champions in Manufacturing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steanl Flow ? Analyze pressure reduction options: none, use boiler controls or PRVs, Through PRVs use backpressure turbines Recover & Utilize ? Maximize volume of condensate recovered and utilized Available Condensate Use High Pressure ? Maximize...

  5. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  6. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

  7. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  8. Backpressure Steam Cogeneration: A History and Review of the "Cheapest Power You'll Never Buy"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffroy-Michaels, E.

    The use of backpressure steam turbines to make low-cost electricity is a well established technology with a long and illustrious history and a value that became lost as industry switched from home-grown power generation to centralized utility power...

  9. Backpressure Steam Cogeneration: A History and Review of the "Cheapest Power You'll Never Buy" 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffroy-Michaels, E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of backpressure steam turbines to make low-cost electricity is a well established technology with a long and illustrious history and a value that became lost as industry switched from home-grown power generation to centralized utility power...

  10. Sandia Energy - Simulating Turbine-Turbine Interaction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of wind-turbine wakes within a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer using a large eddy simulation (LES) method. Current and ongoing work aims to leverage the simulation...

  11. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  12. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storey, James Michael (Clifton Park, NY); Tesh, Stephen William (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  13. Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

    BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

  14. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caruso, Philip M. (Selkirk, NY); Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin (Saratoga Springs, NY); Ladhani, Azad A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeMania, Alan Richard (Niskayuna, NY); Palmer, Gene David (Clifton Park, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY); Rathbun, Lisa Shirley (Scotia, NY); Akin, Robert Craig (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  15. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

  16. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these technologies and the corresponding early adopters are likely to be located.

  17. Digital places : rethinking urban elements : the case of the tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gichuhi, Christopher M. (Christopher Mwethera), 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Problem - How can we make working, living and all aspects of our life in the urban tower more palatable? How can we create environment at the urban tower scale. With technology as one of the biggest drivers of social and ...

  18. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  19. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  20. Boise Air Traffic Control Tower: High Performance and sustainable Building Guiding Principles Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Goel, Supriya; Henderson, Jordan W.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of energy efficiency opportunities for new FAA tower construction using the Boise Air Traffic Control Tower as an example.

  1. Bankers in the Ivory Tower: The Financialization of Governance at the University of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eaton, Charlie; Goldstein, Adam; Habinek, Jacob; Kumar, Mukul; Stover, Tamera Lee; Roehrkasse, Alex

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bankers in the Ivory Tower: The Financialization ofBankers in the Ivory Tower: The Financialization of

  2. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Takle, Gene

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  3. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takle, Gene

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  4. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  5. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  7. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

  8. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

  9. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  10. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

  12. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

  13. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the tasks completed for the advanced turbine systems program. The topics of the report include last row turbine blade development, single crystal blade casting development, ceramic materials development, combustion cylinder flow mapping, shroud film cooling, directional solidified valve development, shrouded blade cooling, closed-loop steam cooling, active tip clearance control, flow visualization tests, combustion noise investigation, TBC field testing, catalytic combustion development, optical diagnostics probe development, serpentine channel cooling tests, brush seal development, high efficiency compressor design, advanced air sealing development, advanced coating development, single crystal blade development, Ni-based disc forging development, and steam cooling effects on materials.

  14. New North Dakota Factory to Produce Wind Towers, Jobs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind tower factory could bring back some of the jobs lost when a machine manufacturing plant closed.

  15. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    ,200 foot steam line to begin wanning it up. He'd been energizing the G-line for 3 weeks now at the end ofthe asbestos worker's shift and had never had the system warm up this quickly. It usually took from 30 to 45 minutes. When the handwheel spun... at Fort Wainwright, Alaska, the G and H Lines ran underground in narrow utilidors 2 filled with pipe. Originally, the contractor had tried to abate the steam main with the lines energized. This proved to be near impossible for the workers. Utilidor...

  16. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  17. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  18. Structural Optimization of High Voltage Transmission Line Towers considering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colominas, Ignasi

    Structural Optimization of High Voltage Transmission Line Towers considering Continuum and Discrete/or to common designs largely repeated (e.g. automotive compo- nents), and high voltage transmission towers can than conventional designs of high voltage transmission line towers. The optimization model proposed

  19. MARTIN'S MAXIMUM AND TOWER FORCING SEAN COX AND MATTEO VIALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viale, Matteo

    MARTIN'S MAXIMUM AND TOWER FORCING SEAN COX AND MATTEO VIALE Abstract. There are several examples, the Reflection Princi- ple (RP) implies that if I is a tower of ideals which concentrates on the class GIC1 of 1 [16], shows that if PFA+ or MM holds and there is an inaccessible cardinal, then there is a tower

  20. About the Design & Construction Collaborative Life Sciences Building & Skourtes Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    About the Design & Construction Collaborative Life Sciences Building & Skourtes Tower Life Sciences Building & Skourtes Tower (CLSB) is an innovative model for health sciences education intention. The building's volumes--the 12-story north tower and the five-story south wing--are connected

  1. 30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE The TALE Tower Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE The TALE Tower Detector D. R. BERGMAN1 , FOR THE TA and extend the range of its energy coverage to lower energies. One of the TALE detectors is a "tower cosmic rays with energies between 1016.5 and 1018 eV. To achieve this low-energy sensitivity the tower

  2. Muirhead Tower Atrium 9 January17 May 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Muirhead Tower Atrium 9 January­17 May 2013 Weekdays 9am­6pm William Morris and the Kelmscott Press Morris died. Muirhead Tower Atrium, 9 January­17 May 2013 Twitter: @CadburyRL See more exhibitions from Muirhead Tower, Lower Ground Floor University of Birmingham, B15 2TT E: special-collections@bham.ac.uk T

  3. Tower Foundation of SJSU Procurement Card Program Policies & Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eirinaki, Magdalini

    Tower Foundation of SJSU Procurement Card Program Policies & Procedures General Information Overview of Program The Tower Foundation ProCard program has been implemented to provide easy be an authorized signer on the Tower account. Purchases made with the ProCard are billed to Approving Official

  4. THE TOWER AT THE END OF COMMENCEMENT, 2006 THE GENERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    THE TOWER AT THE END OF COMMENCEMENT, 2006 THE GENERAL UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS INFORMATION AT AUSTIN O Box 7216, Austin TX 78713- 7216. Cover: The Tower at the conclusion of Commencement 2006 of the Tower and celebrated with a fireworks display and light show. Issue Number 2006/5 August 2006

  5. The Albany Particle Tower: Online Access for High School Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    The Albany Particle Tower: Online Access for High School Students Kristen Melnyk­Elsner Kimball education outreach program, the Albany Particle Tower (APT) has been made available online to students who to run the detector and analyze real time data. Introduction The Albany Particle Tower is a Cosmic Ray

  6. Wind Turbine Competition Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Wind Turbine Competition Introduction: The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers, SHPE at UTK, wishes to invite you to participate in our first `Wind Turbine' competition as part of Engineer's Week). You will be evaluated by how much power your wind turbine generates at the medium setting of our fan

  7. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  8. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines Steven Simmons February 27 2014 1 #12;CCCT Today's Discussion 1 Meeting Pricing of 4 advanced units using information from Gas Turbine World Other cost estimates from E E3 EIA Gas Turbine World California Energy Commission Date 2010 Oct 2012, Dec 2013 Apr 2013 2013 Apr

  9. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies Preservative Spray Treatment Maintains Cooling Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reidenback, R.

    Several problems common to most industrial wood framed cooling towers can be easily controlled with annual preservative spray treatment applications to the plenum area framework and drift eliminators. It eliminates the expensive periodic repairs due...

  10. Untapped Energy Savings from Cooling Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps Jr., P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling tower is often an overlooked source of easy energy savings. As long as it's running not much thought is usually given to it, but when numbers are applied to how much a degree of colder water is worth it can become a valuable and ready...

  11. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses-Section: Shell Losses] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Efficiency

  12. Steam Plant, 6% Irrigation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    Steam Plant, 6% School of Medicine, 17% Irrigation, 3% Hospital, 22% Athletics, 2% Housing, 5 · Rainwater Cisterns · Reducing the number of once through cooling systems in labs · Expediting the connection for Irrigation ~15 million gallons Percent of Water Used for Irrigation that is Non-Potable ~10-15% Number

  13. Evaluation of Steam Turbines Triangular Tooth on Stator Labyrinth Seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanvir, Hossain Ahmed

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    the 0.5 ptation is u es, the pre ssure differe above plot, % when mo sed to refine ssure diffe nces are plo it is observe re than 1000 F the wall. A rences acro tted as a fu d that the c 00 nodes ar ig. 1.7. Gr fter several ss... the seal nction of Re hange in pre e employed id Independ thousand ite are record which is sh ssure differ . ence study rations and ed. Finally own in the ence ( Pin-Po . the number the record Fig. 1.7. Fr ut ) is less th 9...

  14. Evaluation of Steam Turbines Triangular Tooth on Stator Labyrinth Seal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanvir, Hossain Ahmed

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . ........................................................................... 9? Fig. 1.8. Flow pattern inside the labyrinth seal cavities for incompressible flow (case 1, c=0.05, s=3, B=7?, w=0, cavity 1). ............ 12? Fig. 1.9. Flow pattern inside the labyrinth seal cavities for compressible flow... ( case 1, c=0.05, s=3, b=7?, w=0, cavity 1). ............................................. 13? Fig. 1.10. Stream traces inside the labyrinth seal cavities for compressible flow (case 3, c=0.05, s=3, b=7?, cavity 1...

  15. Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict of Columbia:DominionDongara PelletDongfang

  16. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo: Notice of AllowanceAugust 30,25

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

  18. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  19. Ultrasonic detection of residual stress in a turbine disk 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Nitin

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in temperature and stresses during welding. Adapted from [4] . . Cracked steam turbine rotor disk segments. Adapted from [6] . . . . 5 Electrical block diagram of Barkhausen apparatus. Adapted from [11] 10 Snell's Law. 15 Stress field and speeds of plane... International B. Effects in Engineering Design Residual stresses may be introduced into materials in a variety of ways, e. g. , in manu- facturing and repairing processes such as casting, machining, or welding. The casting process has a high probability...

  20. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  1. Wind turbine generator with improved operating subassemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (24 Stonepost Rd., Glastonbury, CT 06033)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine includes a yaw spring return assembly to return the nacelle from a position to which it has been rotated by yawing forces, thus preventing excessive twisting of the power cables and control cables. It also includes negative coning restrainers to limit the bending of the flexible arms of the rotor towards the tower, and stop means on the rotor shaft to orient the blades in a vertical position during periods when the unit is upwind when the wind commences. A pendulum pitch control mechanism is improved by orienting the pivot axis for the pendulum arm at an angle to the longitudinal axis of its support arm, and excessive creep is of the synthetic resin flexible beam support for the blades is prevented by a restraining cable which limits the extent of pivoting of the pendulum during normal operation but which will permit further pivoting under abnormal conditions to cause the rotor to stall.

  2. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  3. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  4. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  5. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  6. Steam Trap Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment Collecting leg, same size as equip ment connection but not less than Install a Yarway Process Trap below be drained. Install a Provide vacuum strainer with a blow down valve. Use and Yarway Aldrain valves full ported stop valves, (gate... and Corrosion Problems Like any critical control device the steam trap should be protected from dirt and scale if optimum operation and adequate service life are to be attained. Strainers should be equipped with blowdown valves to provide an effective...

  7. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been great advances in boiler control technology as older pneumatic and analog electronic control systems have given way to digital, computer-based distributed control systems. These systems are more reliable and can extend boiler life. Modem... Several software tools are now available for individual steam technologies, such as steam traps, insulation, and boiler controls. The Partnership should investigate linking these software tools together and incorporating other steam "modules" (i...

  8. Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    for the sale. This paper investigates the internal elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Hard before... and after statistics of costs and profits obtained through optimization of colder water by engineered thermal upgrading will be discussed. Salient points will be reenforced with on-the-job, hands-on, slides and illustrations. HISTORICAL NEGLECT From...

  9. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  10. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  11. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Units Year Total Hydro Turbines Steam Turbines Gas Turbinesnumber GW Total Hydro Turbines Steam Turbines Gas Turbinesnumbers GW Total Hydro Turbines Steam Turbines Gas Turbines

  12. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  13. Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

  14. Steam condensate leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

  15. Using the Biphase Turbine to Generate Useful Energy from Process Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helgeson, N. L.; Studhalter, W. R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    component, two-phase stream, as in a water-steam combination; or it may be a multi-component, two phase stream such as is often present in industrial processes. The performance of the Biphase turbine and its advantages over single-phase energy conversion...

  16. Steam/fuel system optimization report: 6000-tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vakil, T.D.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and configuration of the steam and fuel system for the 6000-ton-per-day (tpd) SRC-I Demonstration plant have been optimized, based on requirements for each area of the plant that were detailed in Area Baseline Designs of December 1982. The system was optimized primarily for the two most likely modes of plant operation, that is, when the expanded-bed hydrocracker (EBH) is operating at either high or low conversion, with all other units operating. However, the design, as such, is also operable under four other anticipated operating modes. The plant is self-sufficient in fuel except when the coker/calciner unit is not operating; then the required fuel oil import ranges from 80 to 125 MM Btu/h, lower heating value (LHV). The system affords stable operation under varying fuel gas availability and is reliable, flexible, and efficient. The optimization was based on maximizing overall efficiency of the steam system. The system was optimized to operate at five different steam-pressure levels, which are justifiable based on the plant's team requirements for process, heat duty, and power. All identified critical equipment drives will be run by steam turbines. Also part of the optimization was elimination of the steam evaporator in the wastewater treatment area. This minimized the impact on the steam system of operating in either the discharge of zero-discharge mode; the steam system remains essentially the same for either mode. Any further optimization efforts should be based on overall cost-effectiveness.

  17. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  18. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Efficiency Definition - 1 8/30/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module will be discussed. [Slide Visual ­ Contents of Module Sections] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training

  19. DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Module Stack Losses 1 June 28, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Stack Losses loss is almost always the largest boiler loss. [Slide Visual ­ Stack Loss Title Page] Steam

  20. Rampressor Turbine Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a unique gas turbine engine is presented. The first Rampressor Turbine engine rig will be a configuration where the Rampressor rotor is integrated into an existing industrial gas turbine engine. The Rampressor rotor compresses air which is burned in a traditional stationary combustion system in order to increase the enthalpy of the compressed air. The combustion products are then expanded through a conventional gas turbine which provides both compressor and electrical power. This in turn produces shaft torque, which drives a generator to provide electricity. The design and the associated design process of such an engine are discussed in this report.

  1. Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind turbine reliability issues are often linked to failures of contacting components, such as bearings, gears, and actuators. Therefore, special consideration to tribological design in wind...

  2. Barstow Wind Turbine Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Barstow Wind Turbine project for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  3. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meacher, John S. (Ballston Lake, NY); Ruscitto, David E. (Ballston Spa, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  4. Black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consonni, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. di Energetica; Larson, E.D.; Keutz, T.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Berglin, N. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kraft process dominates pulp and paper production worldwide. Black liquor, a mixture of lignin and inorganic chemicals, is generated in this process as fiber is extracted from wood. At most kraft mills today, black liquor is burned in Tomlinson boilers to produce steam for on-site heat and power and to recover the inorganic chemicals for reuse in the process. Globally, the black liquor generation rate is about 85,000 MW{sub fuel} (or 0.5 million tonnes of dry solids per day), with nearly 50% of this in North America. The majority of presently installed Tomlinson boilers will reach the end of their useful lives during the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor-gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher electrical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety, and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companies are pursuing commercialization of black liquor gasification for gas turbine applications. This paper presents results of detailed performance modeling of gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration systems using different black liquor gasifiers modeled on proposed commercial designs.

  5. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  6. Oral Syllabus of David Nacin Minor Topic: The Automorphism Tower Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oral Syllabus of David Nacin Minor Topic: The Automorphism Tower Problem Simon Thomas: The Automorphism Tower Problem 1. The Automorphism Tower Problem (a) The Automorphism Tower Problem (b) Some Fundamental Results (c) Some Examples of Automorphism Towers (d) The Infinite Dihedral Group 2. Wielandt

  7. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

    . For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

  8. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, Jr., John E. (Aiken, SC)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  9. Lubricating system for thermal medium delivery parts in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling steam delivery tubes extend axially along the outer rim of a gas turbine rotor for supplying cooling steam to and returning spent cooling steam from the turbine buckets. Because of the high friction forces at the interface of the tubes and supporting elements due to rotor rotation, a low coefficient of friction coating is provided at the interface of the tubes and support elements. On each surface, a first coating of a cobalt-based alloy is sprayed onto the surface at high temperature. A portion of the first coating is machined off to provide a smooth, hard surface. A second ceramic-based solid film lubricant is sprayed onto the first coating. By reducing the resistance to axial displacement of the tubes relative to the supporting elements due to thermal expansion, the service life of the tubes is substantially extended.

  10. Co-generation: a new energy system to generate both steam and electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraway, P.M.; Kloth, T.L.; Bull, A.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion is presented of the installation and operation of a co-generation system at Tenneco's Fee ''C'' Lease, whereby hot combustion gas from a turbine fueled by gas or lease crude will be used to generate steam for enhanced recovery, with the same turbine providing the power to generate electricity for sale to a utility. A summary is also given of the history of the project, some of the contractual requirements, the physical layout of the system, component descriptions, environmental considerations, and the composition of the final system.

  11. Optimization of Multiple Receivers Solar Power Tower systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 8, 2015 ... Solar Power Tower (SPT) systems are known as one of the most promising ...... An appropriate control is required to adapt the mass flow in the ...

  12. Optimization of Multiple Receivers Solar Power Tower systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emilio Carrizosa

    2015-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 26, 2015 ... Abstract: In this article a new procedure to optimize the design of a Multiple Receivers Solar Power Tower system is presented. The proposed ...

  13. airport tower stressful: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Abstract For technical, aesthetic and economical reasons, future power transmission line towers will have to be built with new design concepts using new...

  14. airport control towers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Abstract For technical, aesthetic and economical reasons, future power transmission line towers will have to be built with new design concepts using new...

  15. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad [SADRA Institute of Higher Education, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid [K.N.T University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  16. TOWER OF COVERINGS OF QUASI-PROJECTIVE VARIETIES ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    on a tower of coverings of a non-compact Kähler manifold of finite volume with reasonable geometric assumptions to its universal covering. Applicable examples ...

  17. Comparative evaluation of cooling tower drift eliminator performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Joseph Kwok-Kwong

    The performance of standard industrial evaporative cooling tower drift eliminators is analyzed using experiments and numerical simulations. The experiments measure the

  18. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices SteamOffice of1/263

  19. Besanon, February 12 2009 Gloria FACCANONI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    ) Liquid Vapor Pump Steam generator (heat change) Turbine Alternator Cooling tower Cooling water Condenser Containment structure Pressurized water (primary loop) Water and steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop Pressurized water (primary loop) Water and steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Liquid Vapor Pump Steam

  20. Toulon, 7/11/2013 T L( ) M( ) N( ) C( ) M

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    (cooling loop) Liquid Vapor Pump Steam generator (heat change) Turbine Alternator Cooling tower Cooling W R Containment structure Pressurized water (primary loop) Water and steam (secondary loop) Water (primary loop) Water and steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Liquid Vapor Pump Steam generator

  1. November, 2011 Gloria F 1 Grgoire A 2 Samuel K 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    ) Water (cooling loop) Liquid Vapor Pump Steam generator (heat change) Turbine Alternator Cooling tower. Appendix P W R Containment structure Pressurized water (primary loop) Water and steam (secondary loop Pressurized water (primary loop) Water and steam (secondary loop) Water (cooling loop) Liquid Vapor Pump Steam

  2. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  3. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  4. Gas turbine diagnostic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talgat, Shuvatov

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the given article the methods of parametric diagnostics of gas turbine based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The diagnostic map of interconnection between some parts of turbine and changes of corresponding parameters has been developed. Also we have created model to define the efficiency of the compressor using fuzzy logic algorithms.

  5. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment, each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion, and each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  6. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment. Each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion. Each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  7. Ceramic Cerami Turbine Nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Alpine, CA)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of horizontally segmented vanes therebetween being positioned by a connecting member positioning segmented vanes in functional relationship one to another. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  8. Tower systems for Linearly repetitive Delone sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José Aliste-Prieto; Daniel Coronel

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study linearly repetitive Delone sets and prove, following the work of Bellissard, Benedetti and Gambaudo, that the hull of a linearly repetitive Delone set admits a properly nested sequence of box decompositions (tower system) with strictly positive and uniformly bounded (in size and norm) transition matrices. This generalizes a result of Durand for linearly recurrent symbolic systems. Furthermore, we apply this result to give a new proof of a classic estimation of Lagarias and Pleasants on the rate of convergence of patch-frequencies.

  9. CXAllenRadioTower2.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.0 -CURRICULUM VITAEAllen Radio Tower

  10. GreenTower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG ContractingGreenOrder Jump to: navigation,GreenTower Jump to:

  11. Tower, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldsonInformationTorpedo SpecialityVessel JumpTower,

  12. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resor, Brian Ray; Maniaci, David Charles; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  13. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  14. Wind Turbine Blockset General Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber General Overview and Description of the Models Florin Iov, Adrian Turbine Blockset in Saber Abstract. This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine, optimize and design wind turbines". The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains

  15. Baseline Design of a Hurricane-Resilient Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Schreck, S.; Maples, B.; Anderson, M.; Finucane, Z.; Raina, A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored research FOA 415, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led a team of research groups to produce a complete design of a large wind turbine system to be deployable in the western Gulf of Mexico region. As such, the turbine and its support structure would be subjected to hurricane-loading conditions. Among the goals of this research was the exploration of advanced and innovative configurations that would help decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of the design, and the expansion of the basic IEC design load cases (DLCs) to include hurricane environmental conditions. The wind turbine chosen was a three-bladed, downwind, direct-drive, 10-MW rated machine. The rotor blade was optimized based on an IEC load suite analysis. The drivetrain and nacelle components were scaled up from a smaller sized turbine using industry best practices. The tubular steel tower was sized using ultimate load values derived from the rotor optimization analysis. The substructure is an innovative battered and raked jacket structure. The innovative turbine has also been modeled within an aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool, and future papers will discuss results of the dynamic response analysis for select DLCs. Although multiple design iterations could not be performed because of limited resources in this study, and are left to future research, the obtained data will offer a good indication of the expected LCOE for large offshore wind turbines to be deployed in subtropical U.S. waters, and the impact design innovations can have on this value.

  16. Subhourly wind forecasting techniques for wind turbine operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegley, H.L.; Kosorok, M.R.; Formica, W.J.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three models for making automated forecasts of subhourly wind and wind power fluctuations were examined to determine the models' appropriateness, accuracy, and reliability in wind forecasting for wind turbine operation. Such automated forecasts appear to have value not only in wind turbine control and operating strategies, but also in improving individual wind turbine control and operating strategies, but also in improving individual wind turbine operating strategies (such as determining when to attempt startup). A simple persistence model, an autoregressive model, and a generalized equivalent Markhov (GEM) model were developed and tested using spring season data from the WKY television tower located near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The three models represent a pure measurement approach, a pure statistical method and a statistical-dynamical model, respectively. Forecasting models of wind speed means and measures of deviations about the mean were developed and tested for all three forecasting techniques for the 45-meter level and for the 10-, 30- and 60-minute time intervals. The results of this exploratory study indicate that a persistence-based approach, using onsite measurements, will probably be superior in the 10-minute time frame. The GEM model appears to have the most potential in 30-minute and longer time frames, particularly when forecasting wind speed fluctuations. However, several improvements to the GEM model are suggested. In comparison to the other models, the autoregressive model performed poorly at all time frames; but, it is recommended that this model be upgraded to an autoregressive moving average (ARMA or ARIMA) model. The primary constraint in adapting the forecasting models to the production of wind turbine cluster power output forecasts is the lack of either actual data, or suitable models, for simulating wind turbine cluster performance.

  17. Structural effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces on horizontal-axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.S.; Shipley, D.E. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). BioServe Space Technologies

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to its renewable nature and abundant resources, wind energy has the potential to fulfill a large portion of this nation`s energy needs. The simplest means of utilizing wind energy is through the use of downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) with fixed-pitch rotors. This configuration regulates the peak power by allowing the rotor blade to aerodynamically stall. The stall point, the point of maximum coefficient of lift, is currently predicted using data obtained from wind tunnel tests. Unfortunately, these tests do not accurately simulate conditions encountered in the field. Flow around the tower and nacelle coupled with inflow turbulence and rotation of the turbine blades create unpredicted aerodynamic forces. Dynamic stall is hypothesized to occur. Such aerodynamic loads are transmitted into the rotor and tower causing structural resonance that drastically reduces the design lifetime of the wind turbine. The current method of alleviating this problem is to structurally reinforce the tower and blades. However, this adds unneeded mass and, therefore, cost to the turbines. A better understanding of the aerodynamic forces and the manner in which they affect the structure would allow for the design of more cost effective and durable wind turbines. Data compiled by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for a downwind HAWT with constant chord, untwisted, fixed-pitch rotors is analyzed. From these data, the actual aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor are being portrayed and the potential effects upon the structure can for the first time be fully analyzed. Based upon their understanding, solutions to the problem of structural resonance are emerging.

  18. Guidelines for reducing dynamic loads in two-bladed teetering-hub downwind wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.D.; Bir, G.S.; Butterfield, C.D.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of the federal Wind Energy Program is the rapid development and validation of structural models to determine loads and response for a wide variety of different wind turbine configurations operating under extreme conditions. Such codes are crucial to the successful design of future advanced wind turbines. In previous papers the authors described steps they took to develop a model of a two-bladed teetering-hub downwind wind turbine using ADAMS{reg_sign} (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems), as well as comparison of model predictions to test data. In this paper they show the use of this analytical model to study the influence of various turbine parameters on predicted system loads. They concentrate their study on turbine response in the frequency range of six to ten times the rotor rotational frequency (6P to 10P). Their goal is to identify the most important parameters which influence the response of this type of machine in this frequency range and give turbine designers some general design guidelines for designing two-bladed teetering-hub machines to be less susceptible to vibration. They study the effects of such parameters as blade edgewise and flapwise stiffness, tower top stiffness, blade tip-brake mass, low-speed shaft stiffness, nacelle mass momenta of inertia, and rotor speed. They show which parameters can be varied in order to make the turbine less responsive to such atmospheric inputs as wind shear and tower shadow. They then give designers a set of design guidelines in order to show how these machines can be designed to be less responsive to these inputs.

  19. Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 2011 Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, Louisiana, May 17-19, 2011 13. Is there never enough time or resource to periodically blow down strainers / drip pockets? 14. Is there a ?one size fits all? approach towards steam trap... selection; using the same model for all drip and tracer applications? 15. Does the site remove strainer screens from steam traps to prevent blockage? 16. Is at least the same amount of steam produced today as 4 years ago? 17. In the past 3 years, has...

  20. A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that use both sensible heat transfer and mass transfer to cool. The heat and mass transfer process for a crossflow cooling tower has been modeled on an Apple II microcomputer. Various heat loads or weather conditions can be imposed on a given tower...

  1. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine (100) comprising an electrical generator (108) that includes a rotor assembly (112). A wind rotor (104) that includes a wind rotor hub (124) is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle (160) via a bearing assembly (180). The wind rotor hub includes an opening (244) having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity (380) inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret (140) supported by a tower (136). Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity (172, 176, 368) that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system (276) for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  2. Wind Turbine Acoustic Noise A white paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Wind Turbine Acoustic Noise A white paper Prepared by the Renewable Energy Research Laboratory...................................................................... 8 Sound from Wind Turbines .............................................................................................. 10 Sources of Wind Turbine Sound

  3. OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Krutenat, Gas Turbine Materials Conference Proceedings,Conference on Gas Turbine Materials in a Marine Environment,in developing new turbine materials, coatings and processes,

  4. Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenserfor Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condensertower and condenser water optimization Summary Cleanroom energy

  5. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  6. Group Date Location Room No. Group Day Date Location Room No. Monday 26 September David Hume Tower 9.18 Friday 30 September David Hume Tower 9.18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tittley, Eric

    Group Date Location Room No. Group Day Date Location Room No. Monday 26 September David Hume Tower 9.18 Friday 30 September David Hume Tower 9.18 10 October David Hume Tower 9.18 14 October David Hume Tower 9.18 24 October David Hume Tower 9.18 28 October David Hume Tower 9.18 07 November David

  7. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  8. Cooling towers, the neglected energy conservations and money making machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, R. [Burger Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95 {degrees}F, Hot Water temperature (HWT), Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies throughout the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. In the specification of cooling towers it is necessary to clearly understand the definition of nominal cooling tower, and to make sure the specification you need addressed can be met by the system you purchase. This should be tested prior to final acceptance.

  9. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  10. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Charles C. (San Diego, CA); Pytanowski, Gregory P. (San Diego, CA); Vendituoli, Jonathan S. (San Diego, CA)

    1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  11. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  12. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of the two concepts was also performed. Key cost components included the material and construction costs of the buoy; material and installation costs of the tethers, mooring lines, and anchor technologies; costs of transporting and installing the system at the chosen site; and the cost of mounting the wind turbine to the platform. The two systems were evaluated based on their static and dynamic performance and the total system installed cost. Both systems demonstrated acceptable motions, and have estimated costs of $1.4-$1.8 million, not including the cost of the wind turbine, the power electronics, or the electrical transmission.

  13. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  14. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  15. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 ­ Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

  16. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green...

  17. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  18. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship... wall temperatures Furnace tube hydrocarbon + steam 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 2 time C o k e l a y e r Page 8 Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Efficiency ? Overall energy efficiency of furnace depends on ? Run length or % of time...

  19. Waste Steam Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, J. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .15 Jet Ejector - 165 p~ia Saturated Motive (965 psia/925?F) JO 2].22 2].]0 23.35 35 23. 22 23.]0 23.35 45 23.22 23.]0 23.35 ($2.l2/MM Btu fuel, 85% boiler efficiency,) 55 23.22 23.30 2].]5 ., 23. 22 23. )0 2].35 80 23. 22 23. JO 23. ]5 1243... technique, and the costs of fuel and electrical power. If turbine flows are unaffected so that no by-product power generation is lost, direct exchange to process and jet ejector compression will always yield an energy profit. Recovery via mechanical...

  20. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  1. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  2. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA); Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL)

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  3. Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

  4. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  5. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  6. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  7. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  8. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  9. Results from the CDMS 5-Tower Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonghee Yoo; for the CDMS collaboration

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical observations strongly suggest that non-luminous, nonbaryonic components, so called "Dark Matter", may constitute most of the matter in the Universe. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to detect Dark Matter interaction events through nuclear recoils from elastic scattering. The detector is capable of reading out both phonon and ionization energy of an interaction in Ge or Si crystals. We present results from the CDMS five-tower detector arrays. The data were collected in the period between October 2006 and July 2007 (with an effective exposure of 121.3 kg-days). No WIMP signal was observed. The results, when combined with previous CDMS Soudan data, set a 90% confidence level upper bound on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of $4.6\\times 10^{-44}$ cm$^2$ at 60 Gev/c$^2$ WIMP mass.

  10. Computer Optimization of Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, C. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As fuel costs continued to rise sharply during the 1970' s, the staff at Exxon's Benicia Refinery realized there was a growing economic incentive to optimize the production of high pressure steam. A significant percentage of the Refinery's total...

  11. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  12. Steam System Forecasting and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    '. This and the complex and integrated nature of the plants energy balance makes steam system forecasting and management essential for optimum use of the plant's energy. This paper discusses the method used by Union carbide to accomplish effective forecasting...

  13. Improved Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yi; Bergua, R.; van Dam, J.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimize the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind speed and turbine operations.

  14. The impact of wind turbines on birds in upstate New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, B.A. [ABR, Inc., Forest Grove, OR (United States); Johnson, C.B. [ABR, Inc., Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During spring and fall 1995, ABR, Inc., an environmental research firm, used radar and visual techniques to study bird migration near proposed and existing wind-turbine sites in upstate New York for Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the possible impacts of wind turbines and meteorological towers on local and migratory birds during the spring and fall migration periods. Here we primarily report on data collected from the existing wind-turbine site at Copenhagen. In addition to visual observations of diurnal movements of birds, two radars were used for observations of migrating birds at night. The surveillance radar provided information on nocturnal migration rates, flight directions, and flight behavior. The vertical radar provided information on flight altitudes.

  15. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  16. Wind shear climatology for large wind turbine generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.L.; Wendell, L.L.; Heflick, S.K.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climatological wind shear analyses relevant to the design and operation of multimegawatt wind turbines are provided. Insight is provided for relating the wind experienced by a rotating blade in a shear flow to the analysis results. A simple analysis of the wind experienced by a rotating blade for three types of wind shear profiles under steady-state conditions is presented in graphical form. Comparisons of the magnitude and frequency of the variations in 1) the wind sensed by a single blade element, 2) the sum, and 3) the difference of the winds sensed by opposite blade elements show strong sensitivity to profile shape. These three items represent forcing functions that can be related to 1) flatwise bending moment, 2) torque on the shaft, and 3) teeter angle. A computer model was constructed to simulate rotational sampling of 10-s sampled winds from a tall tower for three different types of large wind turbines. Time series produced by the model indicated that the forcing functions on a rotating blade vary according to the shear profile encountered during each revolution as opposed to a profile derived from average wind conditions, e.g., hourly average winds. An analysis scheme was developed to establish a climatology of wind shear profiles derived from 10-s sampled winds and hourly average winds measured over a one-year period at several levels on a tall tower. Because of the sensitivity of the forcing function variability to profile shape, the analyses performed and presented are in the form of joint frequency distributions of velocity differences of the the top-to-hub versus the hub-to-bottom portion of disks of rotation for the three turbine configurations.

  17. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  18. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  19. Wind turbine/generator set having a stator cooling system located between stator frame and active coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  20. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.