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Sample records for towers steam turbine

  1. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  2. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint 34851.pdf (366.26 KB) More ...

  3. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650C to 800C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650C to 760C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  4. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment Steam turbines are well suited as ... This service generally calls for a backpressure noncondensing steam turbine. The ...

  5. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  6. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  7. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

  8. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E.

    2009-07-15

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  10. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET #21 Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment (January 2012) (398.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency Benchmark the Fuel Cost of

  11. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design | Department of Energy in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint 34851.pdf (366.26 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis Final Report DE-EE0005380 - Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage

  13. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.

    2005-11-01

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  14. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  15. Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbine Works DFSTW Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dongfang Steam Turbine Works (DFSTW) Place: Deyang, Sichuan Province, China Zip: 618000 Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  16. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  17. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  18. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  19. Combined Heat and Power Technology Fact Sheets Series: Steam Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Steam Turbines Steam turbines are a mature technology and have been used since the 1880s for electricity production. Most of the electricity generated in the United States is produced by steam turbines integrated in central station power plants. In addition to central station power, steam turbines are also commonly used for combined heat and power (CHP) instal- lations (see Table 1 for summary of CHP attributes). Applications Based on data from the CHP Installation Database, 1 there are 699

  20. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  1. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  2. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  3. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  4. Wind Turbine Tower for Storing Hydrogen and Energy - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Wind Turbine Tower for Storing Hydrogen and Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Around the world, there is an increasing demand for satisfying energy requirements in ways that use less or no fossil fuels. These alternatives need to be reliable, cost effective, and environmentally

  5. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  6. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  7. Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zervos, N.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

  8. Power Tower System Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The cool heat-transfer fluid exiting the turbine flows into a steam condenser to be cooled and sent back up the tower to the receiver. In power tower concentrating solar power ...

  9. Steam turbine development for advanced combined cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Balling, L.; Termuehlen, H.

    1996-12-31

    For advanced combined cycle power plants, the proper selection of steam turbine models is required to achieve optimal performance. The advancements in gas turbine technology must be followed by advances in the combined cycle steam turbine design. On the other hand, building low-cost gas turbines and steam turbines is desired which, however, can only be justified if no compromise is made in regard to their performance. The standard design concept of two-casing single-flow turbines seems to be the right choice for most of the present and future applications worldwide. Only for very specific applications it might be justified to select another design concept as a more suitable option.

  10. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  11. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment - Steam Tip Sheet #21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  13. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  14. HRSGs, steam turbines, and auxiliaries for combined cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J.

    1994-09-01

    This article examines current steam turbine/boiler technology and how it fits in with current combined-cycle powerplants. It seems fair to state that the world's continued interest in combined-cycle (CC) powerplants is fed in part by the rapidly advancing gas-turbine (GT) technology. The steam cycle simply plays a subservient role--for example, as GT exhaust temperatures arise, steam-cycle components are selected to match them. And certainly from today's vantage point, one can extrapolate a future of GTs continuing to lead and steam cycles following, as GT technology moves to higher firing temperatures and more efficient and powerful machines. But here's the important questions: is the next incremental efficiency advance most economically obtained in the GT Brayton cycle or the steam cycle That's a tough question to answer today because GT technology has enjoyed the limelight--and deservedly so. Of course, the emerging fully competitive environment for electricity generation--and wholesale and retail delivery--underscores the need for efficiency. New components--such as those for recovering more heat from the GT exhaust through sub-dew point cooling--could emerge in the steam cycle in the next few years.

  15. Performance uprate of a geothermal steam turbine case study: Brady Power low pressure turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.J. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The output of a low pressure steam turbine operating in a geothermal power plant has been increased 10.9% by performing an efficiency uprate. The performance of the turbine was studied, resulting in a design for re-optimizing the steam path. New high-efficiency components were blended with existing turbine parts to achieve large output gains at minimum cost. Because the uprate was performed by a non-OEM, the analysis and manufacturing techniques were specifically tailored for the aftermarket. The work was completed on the spare turbine components, thereby allowing the plant to continue operation while the uprated parts were being manufactured. The predicted output gains were confirmed by field performance tests of the existing and uprated turbines.

  16. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunha, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  17. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  18. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  19. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel; Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  20. Improved global efficiency in industrial applications with cogeneration steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, A.; Alsthom, G.

    1998-07-01

    This paper focuses on medium steam turbine in the range of 10--80 MW and their application in cogeneration plants. The author summarizes the different steps which have led to the TM concept: good efficiency; competitive price; short delivery time; operation flexibility; ease of integration in a cogeneration process. The second part of the document shows two examples of integration of these turbines in cogeneration processes; one for acrilonitril (ACN) and polypropylene plant in Spain and the second for a textile plant in Taiwan.

  1. Oxidation of alloys targeted for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, D.E.

    2006-03-12

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines.

  2. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  3. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings

  4. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  5. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  6. Validation of SWAY Wind Turbine Response in FAST, with a Focus on the Influence of Tower Wind Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, R.; Yin Kwee Ng, E.

    2015-04-23

    Need to modify simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions. the SWAY system in both turbine operating and nonoperating conditions. Mixed results were observed when comparing the simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions. without the new tower-load capability to examine its influence on the response characteristics of the system. This is important in situations when the turbine is parked in survival conditions. The simulation results were then compared to measured data from the SWAY system in both turbine operating and nonoperating conditions. Mixed results were observed when comparing the simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions.

  7. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  8. Life assessment product catalog for boilers, steam pipes, and steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, S. , Santa Clara, CA )

    1992-07-01

    Aging fossil power plants, escalating costs of new plant construction, and load growth rate uncertainties are motivating utilities to make the most effective use of critical components in existing power plants. To help meet this need, EPRI has refined existing methods and developed new methods of predicting the remaining life of key fossil plant components with greater accuracy and confidence. This report describes 16 EPRI products (guidelines, computer programs, and other tools) that apply these techniques to boiler tubes, boiler headers, steam lines, and turbine rotors, blades, and casings. Utility personnel, including plant engineers, maintenance supervisor, engineering department staff, plant operating staff, and performance engineers, can use these products to assess remaining component life, as well as to set cost-effective maintenance procedures, inspection schedules, and operating procedures.

  9. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  10. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  11. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  12. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  13. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  14. Methods for disassembling, replacing and assembling parts of a steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian D.; Wesorick, Ronald R.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows. The bore tube assembly, radial tubes, elbows, manifold segments and crossover tubes are removable from the turbine rotor and replaceable.

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Tower Plant Illustration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This graphic illustrates numerous large, flat, sun-tracking mirrors, known as heliostats, that focus sunlight onto a receiver at the top of a tower. A heat-transfer fluid heated in the receiver is used to generate steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity.

  16. A Computer Program for Simulating Transient Behavior in Steam Turbine Stage Pressure of AHWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-07-01

    It is proposed to couple the Advanced Heavy water reactor (AHWR), which is being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, with a desalination plant. The objective of this coupling is to produce system make-up and domestic water. The proposed desalination plant needs about 1.9 kg/sec of steam and the minimum pressure requirement is 3 bars. The desalination plant can be fed with bled steam extracted from a suitable stage in low pressure turbine. As the turbine stage pressure changes with the load, it is essential to know the availability of bled steam at aforesaid pressure for various load condition. The objective of the present study is to identify a suitable extraction point so as to ensure availability of steam at desired condition for desalination plant, even at part load conditions. In order to fulfill the above objective a steam and feed system analysis code was developed which incorporates the mathematical formulation of different components of the steam and feed system such as, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbines, re-heater, feed heaters etc. The dynamic equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the stage pressure at various load conditions. Based on the results obtained, the suitable extraction stage in LP turbine was selected. This enables to determine the lowest possible part load operation up to which availability of desalination plant could be ensured. (authors)

  17. R and D for improved efficiency small steam turbines. Phase II. Second quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The detailed design of a radial inflow steam turbine (RIT) comprised of two radial inflow turbine stages driving a common bull gear/output shaft designed for rated speeds of 70,000 rpm and 52,500 rpm, respectively, is described. Details are presented on: aerodynamic design; high speed rotors; high speed rotor bearings; high speed rotor sealing; gearing; output shaft; static structure; and predicted performance. (MCW)

  18. " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," " " "," "

  19. ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Establishments" ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

  20. Steam supply system for superposed turbine and process chamber, such as coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menger, W.M.

    1986-08-26

    A steam supply system is described for a process chamber consuming superheated steam at a pressure of about 600 psi or below which is driven by a boiler operating at a pressure of about 2000 psi, a pressure range above that needed by the process chamber for also driving a superposed turbine. The system consists of: (a) a high pressure boiler feed pump for supplying highly purified water to the boiler; (b) a condensing reboiler connected to receive steam from the superposed turbine in a high pressure side; (c) the condensing reboiler also having a low pressure side, essentially isolated from fluid contact with the high pressure side, for receiving water for use in the lower operating pressure steam processes; (d) the condensing reboiler further comprising integral superheating means for heating the water received in the low pressure side into superheated low pressure steam with the steam received in the high pressure side; (e) means for conveying fluid from the high pressure side of the condensing reboiler to the boiler feed pump; and (f) means for conveying the low pressure superheated steam from the condensing reboiler to the process chamber.

  1. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  2. Validation of Simplified Load Equations through Loads Measurement and Modeling of a Small Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Tower; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, S.; Damiani, R.; vanDam, J.

    2015-05-18

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve the modeling and prediction of small wind turbine dynamics, NREL tested a small horizontal axis wind turbine in the field at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The test turbine was a 2.1-kW downwind machine mounted on an 18-meter multi-section fiberglass composite tower. The tower was instrumented and monitored for approximately 6 months. The collected data were analyzed to assess the turbine and tower loads and further validate the simplified loads equations from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-2 design standards. Field-measured loads were also compared to the output of an aeroelastic model of the turbine. Ultimate loads at the tower base were assessed using both the simplified design equations and the aeroelastic model output. The simplified design equations in IEC 61400-2 do not accurately model fatigue loads. In this project, we compared fatigue loads as measured in the field, as predicted by the aeroelastic model, and as calculated using the simplified design equations.

  3. High temperature erosion and fatigue resistance of a detonation gun chromium carbide coating for steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quets, J.M.; Walsh, P.N.; Srinivasan, V.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Chromium carbide based detonation gun coatings have been shown to be capable of protecting steam turbine components from particle erosion. To be usable, however, erosion resistant coatings must not degrade the fatigue characteristics of the coated components. Recent studies of the fatigue properties of a detonation gun coated martensitic substrate at 538 C (1,000 F) will be presented with an emphasis on its long term performance. This study will show the retention of acceptable fatigue performance of coated substrates into the high cycle regime, and will include a discussion on the mechanism of fatigue.

  4. Blading designs to improve thermal performance of HP and IP steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.; Martin, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    Improved blade designs are available for high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines for increased thermal efficiency. These designs and the technology used to develop and verify them are discussed in this paper. The blading designs include twisted blade designs and full three dimensional designs. Appropriate strategies are discussed for the application of these different types of blading for new and retrofit applications. The market place in the electric energy industry in the United States is changing. The impact of this change on the need for improved blade designs and application strategies for the use of this blading is also discussed.

  5. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-12-31

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  6. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  7. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Itzel, Gary Michael (Clifton Park, NY); Yu, Yufeng (Guilderland, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  8. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    The Steam Turbine critical stationary structural components are high integrity Large Shell and Valve Casing heavy section Castings, containing high temperature steam under high pressures. Hence to support the development of advanced materials technology for use in an AUSC steam turbine capable of operating with steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F) and 35 Mpa (5000 psia), Casting alloy selection and evaluation of mechanical, metallurgical properties and castability with robust manufacturing methods are mandated. Alloy down select from Phase 1 based on producability criteria and creep rupture properties tested by NETL-Albany and ORNL directed the consortium to investigate cast properties of Haynes 282 and Haynes 263. The goals of Task 4 in Phase 2 are to understand a broader range of mechanical properties, the impact of manufacturing variables on those properties. Scale up the size of heats to production levels to facilitate the understanding of the impact of heat and component weight, on metallurgical and mechanical behavior. GE Power & Water Materials and Processes Engineering for the Phase 2, Task 4.0 Castings work, systematically designed and executed casting material property evaluation, multiple test programs. Starting from 15 lbs. cylinder castings to world’s first 17,000 lbs. poured weight, heavy section large steam turbine partial valve Haynes 282 super alloy casting. This has demonstrated scalability of the material for steam Turbine applications. Activities under Task 4.0, Investigated and characterized various mechanical properties of Cast Haynes 282 and Cast Nimonic 263. The development stages involved were: 1) Small Cast Evaluation: 4 inch diam. Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 Cylinders. This provided effects of liquidus super heat range and first baseline mechanical data on cast versions of conventional vacuum re-melted and forged Ni based super alloys. 2) Step block castings of 300 lbs. and 600 lbs. Haynes 282 from 2 foundry heats were evaluated which

  9. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  10. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Lower Cost of Energy" intends to support partnerships that lead to innovative designs and processes for wind turbine tower manufacturing and turbine system installation. ...

  11. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures.

  12. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  13. Wind tower service lift

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  14. Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Burns, James Lee

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

  15. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators - Steam Tip Sheet #22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. How to Build a Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volunteers - Sign Up About Science Bowl Curriculum and Activities How to Build a Motor The Great Marble Drop How to Build a Turbine How to Build a Tower Classroom...

  17. Miniaturized Turbine Offers Desalination Solution | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    integrating GE's experience with steam turbine, oil & gas compressors, 3D printing and ... GE is a world leader in the development and application of steam turbine technology, with ...

  18. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program invention 604. Fourth quarter project report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-10-31

    A coal air turbine `CAT` generates electric power and heat from coal combustion. The purpose of this project is the conceptual design of a `CAT` plant, and to make a comparison of the capital cost and and cost of power and steam from the `CAT` plant with power produced by alternate plants at the same site. Three configurations investigated include: condensing plant utilizing coal fuel and a condenser tower, or river, for cooling; a cogeneration plant utilizing coal and a steam turbine; and a cogeneration plant utilizing steam export and injection with waste coal fuel.

  19. Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbines Hydrogen Turbine photo Hydrogen Turbines The NETL Hydrogen Turbine Program manages a research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) portfolio of projects designed to remove environmental concerns about the future use of fossil fuels through development of revolutionary, near-zero-emission advanced turbine technologies. More Information Advanced Research The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds gas turbine technology research and development to improve the efficiency,

  20. R and D for improved efficiency small steam turbines, Phase II. Report No. 1380-3. First quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Dr., W.; Maillar, K. M.; Bender, D. A.; Brassert, W. L.; Capone, P. A.; Carter, A. F.; Heitmann, A. M.; Holland, J. E.; Lord, R. E.; Thirumalaisamy, S. N.

    1980-09-01

    Progress made in the second phase of a two-phase research, design and prototype development program is presented. Phase II consists of the detailed design of the prototype radial inflow steam turbine configuration selected during the first phase and subsequent fabrication and testing. At this time, the detailed aerodynamic design of the stage flowpath has been completed except for the crossover piping from the first stage exhaust to the second stage inlet. In addition, mechanical design effort has resulted in a definition of a rotor system. The aerodynamic design included the optimization of the overall flowpath geometry of the stages specified in the initial phase of the program. The detailed aerodynamic designs of the rotor blades, nozzle vanes, scroll and diffuser were based on the optimized geometry. The final blading selected for the stage is a radial design with 26 blades, 13 of which are splitters. Sixteen nozzle vanes have been specified. The mechanical design of the rotor system to date has included the specification of the rotor wheels and shafts with their polygon connection, and the design of the thrust and journal bearings and the gearing. In addition, various shaft sealing arrangements have been evaluated, subject to the constraints indicated by initial rotordynamic analyses. Indications are that a reasonably effective labyrinth seal is not precluded by shaft length limitations. As this type of seal has been long accepted by steam turbine users, its use in the prototype is most likely. Proven components have been specified wherever possible, i.e., redesign/development could not be justified. The rotor system has been designed for at least 100,000 hours life with the most severe operating conditions and loads. The system cannot be considered complete, however, until dynamic response of the rotors for all possible operating conditions is shown to be within acceptable limits.

  1. Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 (1.94 MB) More Documents & Publications 2011: Air Quality Regulations Report 2011 Air Quality Regulations Report Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010

  2. Microsoft Word - PowerTower_work_2009.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... conditions due to rapid degradation of steam temperature and pressure. Receiver trip leads to a turbine trip because there is no buffer storage between the receiver and turbine. ...

  3. RELAP5/MOD3 Analysis of Transient Steam-Generator Behavior During Turbine Trip Test of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Hiroshi Endo; Tomoko Ishizu; Kazuo Haga

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop a thermal-hydraulic model of the steam-generator (SG) to simulate transient phenomena in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) MONJU, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) verified the SG model using the RELAP5/MOD3 code against the results of the turbine trip test at a 40% power load of MONJU. The modeling by using RELAP5 was considered to explain the significant observed behaviors of the pressure and the temperature of the EV steam outlet, and the temperature of water supply distributing piping till 600 seconds after the turbine trip. The analysis results of these behaviors showed good agreement with the test results based on results of parameter study as the blow efficiency (release coef.) and heat transferred from the helical coil region to the down-comer (temperature heating down-comer tubes). It was found that the RELAP5/MOD3 code with a two-fluids model can predict well the physical situation: the gas-phase of steam generated by the decompression boiling moves upward in the down-comer tubes accompanied by the enthalpy increase of the water supply chambers; and that the pressure change of a 'shoulder' like shape is induced by the mass balance between the steam mass generated in the down-comer tubes and the steam mass blown from the SG. The applicability of RELAP5/MOD3 to SG modeling was confirmed by simulating the actual FBR system. (authors)

  4. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  5. Castability of Traditionally Wrought Ni-Based Superalloys for USC Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J; Hawk, J A; Evens, N; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    The high temperature components within conventional coal fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased. The proposed steam temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) power plant is high enough (760C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work due to temperature limitations of this class of materials; thus Ni-based superalloys are being considered. The full size castings are quite substantial: ~4in thick, several feet in diameter and weigh 5-10,000lb each half. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled in order to produce relevant microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed in order to better deploy the alloy constituents. The castability of two traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys to which minor alloy adjustments have been made in order to improve foundry performance is further explored.

  6. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET 22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators (January ...

  7. Axial seal system for a gas turbine steam-cooled rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    An axial seal assembly is provided at the interface between adjacent wheels and spacers of a gas turbine rotor and disposed about tubes passing through openings in the rotor adjacent the rotor rim and carrying a thermal medium. Each seal assembly includes a support bushing for supporting a land of the thermal medium carrying tube, an axially registering seat bushing disposed in the opposed opening and a frustoconical seal between the seal bushing and seat. The seal bushing includes a radial flange having an annular recess for retaining the outer diameter edge of the seal, while the seat bushing has an axially facing annular surface forming a seat for engagement by the inner diameter edge of the seal.

  8. SunTower Power Tower and Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph shows a Sierra SunTower power tower, one of two towers at eSolar’s 5 megawatt (MW) commercial CSP plant in Lancaster, California.

  9. Report on Preliminary Engineering Study for Installation of an Air Cooled Steam Condenser at Brawley Geothermal Plant, Unit No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-03-01

    The Brawley Geothermal Project comprises a single 10 MW nominal geothermal steam turbine-generator unit which has been constructed and operated by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE). Geothermal steam for the unit is supplied through contract by Union Oil Company which requires the return of all condensate. Irrigation District (IID) purchases the electric power generated and provides irrigation water for cooling tower make-up to the plant for the first-five years of operation, commencing mid-1980. Because of the unavailability of irrigation water from IID in the future, SCE is investigating the application and installation of air cooled heat exchangers in conjunction with the existing wet (evaporative) cooling tower with make-up based on use of 180 gpm (nominal) of the geothermal condensate which may be made available by the steam supplier.

  10. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  11. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  12. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  13. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  14. Steam turbine: Alternative emergency drive for the secure removal of residual heat from the core of light water reactors in ultimate emergency situation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza Dos Santos, R.

    2012-07-01

    In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

  15. SMUD Kokhala Power Tower Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Henry W.; Whitney, Daniel D.; Beebe, H.I.

    1997-06-01

    Kokhala is the name of a new hybridized power tower design which integrates a nitrate-salt solar power tower with a gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. This integration achieves high value energy, low costs, and lower investor risk than a conventional solar only power tower plant. One of the primary advantages of this system is that it makes small power tower plants much more economically competitive with conventional power generation technologies. This paper is an overview of a study that performed a conceptual evaluation of a small (30 MWe) commercial plant suitable for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s (SMUD) Rancho Seco power plant site near Sacramento, California. This paper discusses the motivation for using a small hybrid solar plant and provides an overview of the analysis methodology used in the study. The results indicate that a power tower integrated with an advanced gas turbine, combined with Sacramento`s summer solar resource, could produce a low- risk, economically viable power generation project in the near future.

  16. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  17. A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760°C, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800°C. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and η phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

  18. Thermo-fluid dynamic design study of single and double-inflow radial and single-stage axial steam turbines for open-cycle thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment facility in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.

  19. NREL: Wind Research - Advanced Research Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and meteorological towers upwind are instrumented to collect data. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) uses two large turbines to conduct advanced controls research. ...

  20. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve ...

  1. Single casing reheat turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsushima, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Shigeo

    1999-07-01

    For conventional power plants, regenerative reheat steam turbines have been accepted as the most practical method to meet the demand for efficient and economical power generation. Recently the application of reheat steam turbines for combined cycle power plant began according to the development of large-capacity high temperature gas turbine. The two casing double flow turbine has been applied for this size of reheat steam turbine. The single casing reheat turbine can offer economical and compact power plant. Through development of HP-LP combined rotor and long LP blading series, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. had developed a single casing reheat steam turbine series and began to use it in actual plants. Six units are already in operation and another seven units are under manufacturing. Multiple benefits of single casing reheat turbine are smaller space requirements, shorter construction and erection period, equally good performance, easier operation and maintenance, shorter overhaul period, smaller initial investment, lower transportation expense and so on. Furthermore, single exhaust steam turbine makes possible to apply axial exhaust type, which will lower the height of T/G foundation and T/G housing. The single casing reheat turbine has not only compact and economical configuration itself but also it can reduce the cost of civil construction. In this paper, major developments and design features of the single casing reheat turbine are briefly discussed and operating experience, line-up and technical consideration for performance improvement are presented.

  2. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    turbine-generator maintenance does not interfere with plant thermal deliveries. Cost-Effective Power Generation In a backpressure steam turbine, energy from high-pressure ...

  3. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Use Vapor ...

  4. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  5. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  6. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  7. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  8. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  9. Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Power Tower Power Tower DOE funds solar research and development (R&D) in power tower (central receiver) systems as one of four concentrating solar ...

  10. Controller Field Tests on the NREL CART2 Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossanyi, E.; Wright, A.; Fleming, P.

    2010-12-01

    This document presents the results of the field tests carried out on the CART2 turbine at NREL to validate individual pitch control and active tower damping.

  11. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  12. Armor Tower, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mr. Edward Rosenbloom Chief Executive Officer Armor Tower, Inc. P.O. Box 49779 Charlotte, North Carolina 28277 WEL-2015-06 Dear Mr. Rosenbloom: The Office of Enterprise Assessments' Office of Enforcement has completed an investigation into an electrical shock incident involving an Armor Tower, Inc. (Armor Tower) employee at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Armor Tower is a second-tier subcontractor to Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC (BSA), which is the Department of Energy's (DOE)

  13. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

  14. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  15. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  16. ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Bullard, S.B.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2003-04-22

    Efficiency increases in fossil energy boilers and steam turbines are being achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure at the turbine inlets well beyond the critical point of water. To allow these increases, advanced materials are needed that are able to withstand the higher temperatures and pressures in terms of strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. As part of a larger collaborative effort, the Albany Research Center (ARC) is examining the steam-side oxidation behavior for ultrasupercritical (USC) steam turbine applications. Initial tests are being done on six alloys identified as candidates for USC steam boiler applications: ferritic alloy SAVE12, austenitic alloy Super 304H, the high Cr-high Ni alloy HR6W, and the nickel-base superalloys Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Inconel 740. Each of these alloys has very high strength for its alloy type. Three types of experiments are planned: cyclic oxidation in air plus steam at atmospheric pressure, thermogravimetric ana lysis (TGA) in steam at atmospheric pressure, and exposure tests in supercritical steam up to 650 C (1202 F) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). The atmospheric pressure tests, combined with supercritical exposures at 13.8, 20.7, 24.6, and 34.5 MPa (2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 psi) should allow the determination of the effect of pressure on the oxidation process.

  17. Theoretical prediction of physical and chemical characteristics of the first drop'' of condensate from superheated geothermal steam: Implications for corrosion and scaling in turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreussi, P. (Univ. degli Studi di Udine (Italy). Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche); Corsi, R. (STEAM srl, Pisa (Italy)); Guidi, M.; Marini, L. (Geotermica Italiana srl, Pisa (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes a method for computing: (1) the chemical composition of the first drop of condensate which forms at dew-point temperature through expansion of superheated steam, and (2) the saturation index of the drop with respect to relevant solid phases, such as halite, amorphous silica, boric acid, borax and sal ammoniac. Boiling-point elevation is taken into account in these calculations. Preliminary application to some wells in the Larderello geothermal field indicate that: (1) the high concentration of HCl in the steam causes both the low pH and very high TDS of the first drop; (2) the lower the dew-point temperature, the higher the TDS of the first drop; (3) for a given chemical composition, the lower the steam pressure, the higher the risk of corrosion and scaling in the steam path.

  18. Solar power tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar power tower section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  19. District steam and the St. Louis steam loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tierney, T.M.; Sauer, H.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Owned and operated by large public electric utilities, district steam systems flourished in most northern US cities in the first half of this century. Following World War II, however, district steam systems became minor and, in some cases, unprofitable portions of the utilities' operations. Consequently, public utilities ceased promoting district steam to existing and potential customers, leading to the decline of their use. In recent years, district steam systems have been revitalized by independent enterprises that have the commitment and expertise to make these systems once again reliable and cost-effective energy sources. This paper reports on one such system, The St. Louis Steam Loop. The St. Louis steam loop consists of 22 miles of insulated underground steam piping encompassing a 400-square block area in the city's downtown business district. The loop is supplied with steam by the Ashley Plant, which was built in 1904 for the St. Louis World's Fair. Due to the rising cost of oil, which has been used to fuel the Ashley Plant since 1972, and the subsequent loss of customers, many people considered the steam system a dinosaur in the jet age. In 1982, Trigen-St. Louis Energy Corporation purchased the steam system and embarked on an aggressive campaign to upgrade all aspects of the system, including valves, piping, and meters. In 1999, Trigen-St. Louis will install an ISMW state-of-the-art combustion turbine cogenerator to provide 95% of the steam to the steam loop. A primary reason for the St. Louis Steam Loop's longevity is that it has reliably supplied steam to many downtown buildings for the better part of the 20th century.

  20. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  1. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, William N.

    1985-01-01

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  2. The Inside of a Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Inside of a Wind Turbine The Inside of a Wind Turbine 1 of 17 Tower: 2 of 17 Tower: Made from tubular steel (shown here), concrete, or steel lattice. Supports the structure of the turbine. Because wind speed increases with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity. Generator: 3 of 17 Generator: Produces 60-cycle AC electricity; it is usually an off-the-shelf induction generator. High-speed shaft: 4 of 17 High-speed shaft: Drives the generator.

  3. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  4. Tower Camera Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudry, D

    2005-01-01

    The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.

  5. First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A 65-foot tall, 20-kilowatt wind turbine with a white rotor and a yellow tower on a ... Academy and Cianbro to launch a deepwater offshore floating wind turbine near Bangor. ...

  6. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  7. Significant Silica Solubility in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Russell

    1986-01-21

    Although it is widely believed that silica solubility in low pressure (5 to 10 bar) geothermal steam is negligible, when one takes into account steam flows exceeding 10 million tonnes a year--at Wairakei, for instance--it is found that the amount transmitted in the vapor has the potential to give significant deposits on turbine nozzles and blades. A 150 MWe power station, when based on flows from a hot water reservoir at (a) 250 C or (b) 315 C, and with separator pressures of 6 bar, is found to carry about 100 and 200 kg/year respectively in the steam phase. In the case of a similar sized station exploiting a dry steam reservoir such as The Geysers, equivalent silica flows are obtained, dissolved in steam and carried as dust--the latter as solid particles precipitating from the vapor en route from source to turbine, and not preexisting in the formations as is commonly considered. Choking or coating of subterranean rock near such dry steam wells due to exsolving silica, may be the principal cause of declining steam discharge under production. Silica from completely dry or superheated steam can also seal the cap and sides of steam reservoirs when expanding below the criticus temperature (236 C) in a way previously thought possible only by hot water or wet steam.

  8. Composite Tower Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    needs, including meteorological towers, weather towers, and data collection and instrumentation towers. Coordinates: 40.233765, -111.668509 Show Map Loading map......

  9. China Solar Tower Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tower Development Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Tower Development Place: China Sector: Solar Product: Joint venture for development of solar towers in China,...

  10. Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, G.J.

    1981-06-23

    A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

  11. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Tower Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this b-roll, solar power towers' are systems that use an array of mirrors to focus the sun's energy on a tower-mounted heat exchanger to generate electricity.

  13. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-04-27

    A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

  14. Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

  15. Conversion of Solar Two to a Kokhala hybrid power tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, H.W.

    1997-06-01

    The continued drop in energy prices and restructuring of the utility industry have reduced the likelihood that a follow-on commercial 100-MW, power tower project will be built immediately following the Solar Two demonstration project. Given this, it would be desirable to find a way to extend the life of the Solar Two project to allow the plant to operate as a showcase for future power tower projects. This paper looks at the possibility of converting Solar Two into a commercial Kokhala hybrid power tower plant at the end of its demonstration period in 1998. The study identifies two gas turbines that could be integrated into a Kokhala cycle at Solar Two and evaluates the design, expected performance, and economics of each of the systems. The study shows that a commercial Kokhala project at Solar Two could produce power at a cost of less than 7 e/kWhr.

  16. Turbine FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine FAQs faq-header-big.jpg TURBINES - BASICS Q: What is a turbine? A: A turbine is a mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and turns it into useful work. A ...

  17. Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Towers for Utilities - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  18. SNL Wake Imaging System Solves Wind Turbine Wake Formation Mysteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy SNL Wake Imaging System Solves Wind Turbine Wake Formation Mysteries SNL Wake Imaging System Solves Wind Turbine Wake Formation Mysteries May 18, 2015 - 4:20pm Addthis Illustration showing a utility-scale wind turbine in a field. A square brown steel shed behind the base of the turbine's tower houses the laser that emits a laser light sheet (illustrated by a green triangle) that travels from the shed to above the turbine downwind of the turbine. A white van parked

  19. Code System for Calculating the Nonlinear Transient Behavior of a Natural Circulation U-Tube Steam Generator with Its Main Steam System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-04-20

    Version 00 The code is based on a non-linear theoretical model describing the steady-state and transient behavior of a vertical natural-circulation U-tube steam generator together with its main steam system. The steam generator is considered to consist of a heat exchange section, a top plenum, a down-comer region and a main steam system (with a sequence of relief and/or safety valves, isolation, bypass, turbine-trip and turbine-control valves and a steam turbine). Possible perturbations from outsidemore » can be: inlet water temperature, inlet water mass flow and system pressure on the primary side, feedwater temperature, feed-water mass flow and outlet steam mass flow disturbed by actions of the different valves within the main steam system on the secondary side.« less

  20. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  1. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... There are four basic ways to test steam traps: temperature, sound, visual, and electronic. Recommended Steam Trap Testing Intervals * High-Pressure (150 psig and above): Weekly to ...

  2. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion steam control and bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael; Jennings, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    Two sets of hinged control doors for regulating motive steam flow from an evaporator to a condenser alternatively through a set of turbine blades in a steam bypass around the turbine blades. The evaporator has a toroidal shaped casing situated about the turbine's vertical axis of rotation and an outlet opening therein for discharging motive steam into an annular steam flow path defined between the turbine's radially inner and outer casing structures. The turbine blades extend across the steam flow path intermediate the evaporator and condenser. The first set of control doors is arranged to prevent steam access to the upstream side of the turbine blades and the second set of control doors acts as a bypass around the blades so as to maintain equilibrium between the evaporator and condenser during non-rotation of the turbine. The first set of control doors preferably extend, when closed, between the evaporator casing and the turbine's outer casing and, when open, extend away from the axis of rotation. The second set of control doors preferably constitute a portion of the turbine's outer casing downstream from the blades when closed and extend, when open, toward the axis of rotation. The first and second sets of control doors are normally held in the open and closed positions respectively by locking pins which may be retracted upon detecting an abnormal operating condition respectively to permit their closing and opening and provide steam flow from the evaporator to the condenser.

  3. Concentrating Solar Power: Power Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video provides an overview of the principles, applications, and benefits of generating electricity using power towers, a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. A brief animation explains...

  4. Achieve Steam System Excellence- Steam Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently.

  5. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Upwind and Downwind Turbines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Qiuying; Sheng, Chunhua; Afjeh, Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic interactions of the model NREL 5 MW offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are investigated using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four wind turbine configurations are considered; three-bladed upwind and downwind and two-bladed upwind and downwind configurations, which operate at two different rotor speeds of 12.1 and 16 RPM. In the present study, both steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads, such as the rotor torque, blade hub bending moment, and base the tower bending moment of the tower, are evaluated in detail to provide overall assessment of different wind turbine configurations. Aerodynamic interactions between the rotor and tower are analyzed,more » including the rotor wake development downstream. The computational analysis provides insight into aerodynamic performance of the upwind and downwind, two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines.« less

  6. IVANPAH | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION Ivanpah uses power tower solar thermal technology to generate power by creating high-temperature steam to drive a conventional steam turbine. Mirrors are used ...

  7. Simulating Turbine-Turbine Interaction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulating Turbine-Turbine Interaction - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  8. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  9. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  10. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  11. Characterizing Inflow Conditions Across the Rotor Disk of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Kelley, N.; Scott, G.; Jager, D.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-megawatt utility-scale wind turbines operate in a turbulent, thermally-driven atmosphere where wind speed and air temperature vary with height. Turbines convert the wind's momentum into electrical power, and so changes in the atmosphere across the rotor disk influence the power produced by the turbine. To characterize the inflow into utility scale turbines at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado, NREL recently built two 135-meter inflow monitoring towers. This poster introduces the towers and the measurements that are made, showing some of the data obtained in the first few months of operation in 2011.

  12. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  13. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tower System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics August 20, 2013 - 5:06pm Addthis In power tower concentrating solar power systems, numerous large, flat, ...

  15. Power coefficient of tornado-type wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangwalla, A.A.; Hsu, C.T.

    1983-11-01

    In a tornado-type wind turbine the wind collecting tower is equipped with adjustable vanes that can be opened on the windward side and closed on the leeward side. The wind enters the tower tangentially through these open vanes and exits from the top. As a result, a vortex is formed inside the tower. A vertical axis turbine which is located underneath the tower floor admits air vertically and exhausts it into the vortex core. The pressure drop in the vortex core can be high, depending upon the vortex concentration, thus enhancing manyfold the total pressure drop across the turbine. The power coefficient C /SUB p/ of this system depends mainly on how low a pressure can be created in the vortex core. A maximum C /SUB p/ of about 2.5 was obtained by Yen for a spiral shaped tower. This is about 6.25 times the C /SUB p/ of conventional windmills. Analytical studies have been carried out by several investigators to study the C /SUB p/ of this vortex machine. Loth considered the conservation of angular momentum and obtained a C /SUB p/ based on the tower frontal area, which is not impressive.

  16. How Does a Wind Turbine Work? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Does a Wind Turbine Work? How Does a Wind Turbine Work? How does a wind turbine work? Previous Next Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Click NEXT to learn more. Blades Rotor Low Speed Shaft Gear Box High Speed Shaft Generator Anemometer Controller Pitch System Brake Wind Vane Yaw Drive Yaw Motor Tower Nacelle

  17. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources » Energy Basics » Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player A wind turbine works on a simple principle. This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100

  18. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player A wind turbine works on a simple principle. This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above

  19. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air conditioners, or other process equipment to the ambient air. Heat is rejected to the environment from cooling towers through the process of evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers use significant amounts of water.

  20. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaguo; Lu, Yonggi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  1. Wind Turbine Safety and Function Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests that were performed on the turbines, including power performance, duration, noise, and power quality tests. Test results provide manufacturers with reports that can be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes an ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 100-ft free-standing lattice tower. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

  2. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

    2010-05-01

    This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

  3. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Water Efficiency | Department of Energy Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Fact sheet covers the key components of cooling towers and how to improve water efficiency. waterfs_coolingtowers.pdf (3.16 MB) More Documents & Publications Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Side Stream Filtration for

  4. Steam Field | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steam Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Steam Field Dictionary.png Steam Field: No definition has been...

  5. Turbulence-Turbine Interaction: The Basis for the Development of the TurbSim Stochastic Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N. D.

    2011-11-01

    A combination of taller wind turbines with more flexible rotors and towers operating in turbulent conditions that are not well understood is contributing to much higher than anticipated maintenance and repairs costs and is associated with lower energy production. This report documents evidence of this and offers the turbine designers an expanded tool that resolves many of these shortcomings.

  6. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  7. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  8. Steam Technical Brief: Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  9. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitates specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.

  10. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitatesmore » specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.« less

  11. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  12. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  13. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  14. Power with STEAM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    » Power with STEAM Power with STEAM ROSES outreach program inspires New Mexico African-American youth to envision themselves working as scientists and professionals August 18, 2016 Students at Power with STEAM 2016 The Lab's first Power with STEAM program event, held recently at the Bradbury Science Museum, brought students and some interns in the Los Alamos student programs together for fun and learning. Contacts Michelle B. Lee (505) 667-3624 Email Reaching out to New Mexico's

  15. 20% Wind Energy by 2030 - Chapter 2: Wind Turbine Technology Summary Slides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Wind Turbine Technology Summary Slides Anatomy of a 1.5-MW wind turbine Nacelle enclosing: * Low-speed shaft * Gearbox * Generator, 1.5 MW * Electrical controls * Blade pitch controls Rotor Hub Tower, 80 m Minivan Rotor blades: * Shown feathered * Length, 37-m Larger and taller turbines are needed to capture optimal wind resources Wind power is competitive with wholesale prices Source: Wiser and Bolinger, 2009 Note: Wholesale price range reflects flat block of power across 23 pricing

  16. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  17. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Burritt, James

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  18. Turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  19. Dissipation of turbulence in the wake of a wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

    2014-11-06

    The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters D downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Furthermore. comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.

  20. Dissipation of turbulence in the wake of a wind turbine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

    2014-11-06

    The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-ratemore » turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters D downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Furthermore. comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.« less

  1. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  2. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  3. GreenTower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Developer of a solar chimney technology, with greenhouses for food production. Hopes to deploy this in Namibia. References: GreenTower1 This article...

  4. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aerosol-tower-eml

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AEROSOL-TOWER-EML) Instrument Categories Aerosols Campaigns Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Field Evaluation Download Data Southern Great Plains, 1994.04.01 - 1994.05.31...

  5. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances ...

  6. Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Scott, G.; Kelley, N.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Utility-scale wind turbines operate in dynamic flows that can vary significantly over timescales from less than a second to several years. To better understand the inflow to utility-scale turbines, two inflow towers were installed and commissioned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, in 2011. These towers are 135 m tall and instrumented with a combination of sonic anemometers, cup anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature measurements to characterize the inflow wind speed and direction, turbulence, stability and thermal stratification to two utility-scale turbines. Herein, we present variations in mean and turbulent wind parameters with height, atmospheric stability, and as a function of wind direction that could be important for turbine operation as well as persistence of turbine wakes. Wind speed, turbulence intensity, and dissipation are all factors that affect turbine performance. Our results show that these all vary with height across the rotor disk, demonstrating the importance of measuring atmospheric conditions that influence wind turbine performance at multiple heights in the rotor disk, rather than relying on extrapolation from lower levels.

  7. Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Scott, G.; Kelley, N.; Lundquist, J.

    2012-01-01

    Utility-scale wind turbines operate in dynamic flows that can vary significantly over timescales from less than a second to several years. To better understand the inflow to utility-scale turbines, two inflow towers were installed and commissioned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, in 2011. These towers are 135 m tall and instrumented with a combination of sonic anemometers, cup anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature measurements to characterize the inflow wind speed and direction, turbulence, stability and thermal stratification to two utility-scale turbines. Herein, we present variations in mean and turbulent wind parameters with height, atmospheric stability, and as a function of wind direction that could be important for turbine operation as well as persistence of turbine wakes. Wind speed, turbulence intensity, and dissipation are all factors that affect turbine performance. Our results shown that these all vary with height across the rotor disk, demonstrating the importance of measuring atmospheric conditions that influence wind turbine performance at multiple heights in the rotor disk, rather than relying on extrapolation from lower levels.

  8. Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Steam Power Plant (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants...

  9. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  10. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  11. Cooling tower environmental considerations for cogeneration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, K.L.; Putnam, R.A.; Schott, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Careful consideration must be given to the potential environmental impacts resulting from cooling tower operations in cogeneration projects. Concerns include visible plumes, fogging and icing of nearby roadways, emissions, water use, aesthetics, and noise. These issues must be properly addressed in order to gain public acceptance and allow for easier permitting of the facility. This paper discusses the various evaporative type cooling tower technologies from an environmental standpoint. In addition, typical concerns and questions raised by the public are presented, along with suggested guidelines for addressing these concerns. The use of modeling to predict the potential environmental impacts from cooling tower operations is sometimes required by regulatory agencies as a condition for obtaining approval for the facility. This paper discusses two of the models that are currently available for predicting cooling tower environmental impacts such as fogging, icing, salt deposition, and visible plumes. The lack of standardized models for cooling tower noise predictions, and the means by which the modeling requirements may be achieved are also addressed. An overview of the characteristics of cooling tower noise, the various measures used for noise control and the interdependency of the control measures and other cooling tower performance parameters are presented. Guidance is provided to design cost effective, low noise installations. The requirements for cooling tower impact assessments to support permitting of a cogeneration facility are also presented.

  12. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  13. Enforcement Letter, Armor Tower, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Armor Tower, Inc. Enforcement Letter, Armor Tower, Inc. December 4, 2015 Worker Safety and Health Enforcement Letter issued to Armor Tower, Inc. On December 4, 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enterprise Assessments' Office of Enforcement issued an Enforcement Letter (WEL-2015-06) to Armor Tower, Inc., relating to a worker electrical shock that occurred while working on a meteorological tower at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory. Enforcement Letter, Armor Tower, Inc.

  14. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  15. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmarking the fuel cost of steam generation, in dollars per 1,000 pounds (1,000 lb) of steam, is an effective way to assess the ...

  16. Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2013-06-01

    This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

  17. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee ...

  18. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  19. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  20. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Fact sheet provides an overview of side stream ...

  1. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. ...

  2. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Advanced Cooling Tower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Advanced Cooling Tower Controls The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified advanced cooling tower controls as a water-saving ...

  3. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption. ...

  4. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. ...

  5. Cooling tower water treatment and reuse. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cooling tower water treatment and reuse. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cooling tower water treatment and reuse. No abstract prepared. Authors: Brady, Patrick Vane ; ...

  6. Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians - Wind Meteorological Tower...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Band of Kumeyaay Indians Meteorlogical Tower Deployment and Data Measurement and Analysis ... from the previously collected raw wind data and correlations among the towers show: * ...

  7. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  8. Exhaust system for use with a turbine and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalsania, Prakash Bavanjibhai; Sadhu, Antanu

    2015-08-18

    An exhaust system for use with a steam turbine is provided. An exhaust hood includes an input and an output, the input receiving fluid from the steam turbine. The exhaust hood includes a first side wall that extends between the input and the output. The first side wall includes an aperture. An ejector is coupled to the exhaust hood. The ejector includes inlets and an outlet. At least one of the inlets receives fluid from the exhaust hood via the aperture.

  9. Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  10. Simulating Turbine-Turbine Interaction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulating Turbine-Turbine Interaction - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management

  11. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  12. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-07-01

    This BestPractices Steam Technical Brief was developed to provide a basic understanding of the different process-control schemes used in a typical steam system.

  13. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  14. Performance of tornado-type wind turbines with radial inflow supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.T.; Ide, H.

    1982-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted for the performance of tornado-type wind turbines with radial inflow supply from the incoming wind. It was shown that the radial inflow supply was necessary for intensifying a vortex in the wind collecting tower and, consequently, for enhancing the power efficiencies. A maximum power efficiency of 3.8 was obtained for a circular-shaped tower as compared to the value of 0.4 for the conventional windmills.

  15. Coatings for the protection of turbine blades from erosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, P.N.; Quets, J.M.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Many types of turbines, including aircraft gas turbines, steam turbines, and power recovery turbines, suffer from solid particle erosion caused by a variety of materials ingested into the machines. Utilization of various laboratory erosion tests tailored to the specific application by using various erodents, temperatures, velocities, and angles of impact, have been shown to be effective in the development and selection of coatings for the erosion protection of turbine blades and other components. Detonation gun coatings have demonstrated their efficacy in providing substantial protection in many situations. It has now been shown that several tungsten carbide and chromium carbide Super D-Gun{trademark} coatings not only have better erosion resistance than their D-Gun analogs, but cause little or no degradation of the fatigue properties of the blade alloys. Nonetheless, caution should be employed in the application of any laboratory data to a specific situation and additional testing done as warranted by the turbine designer.

  16. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  17. Wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  18. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  19. Okeelanta Cogeneration Project: Electricity and steam from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaberg, D.

    1994-12-31

    The Okeelanta Cogeneration Project is a Bagasse- and wood chip-fired cogeneration project with a net electrical output of approximately 70MW, located at the Okeelanta Corporation`s sugar mill in South Bay, Florida. The Project is comprised of three stoker type boilers each capable of producing 440,000 lbs/hr of steam at 1455 psia, 955F, and a single extraction/condensing steam turbine with a gross output of 75 MW. The electrical output will be sold to Florida Power and Light under the terms of an executed power purchase agreement and delivered at 138kV.

  20. Aero Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aero Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Aero Turbine Facility Aero Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner AeroTurbine...

  1. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  2. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  3. Reliable steam: To cogenerate or not to cogenerate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.; D'Anna, L.; Vetterick, R.

    1999-07-01

    Leading industrial companies and institutions are forever seeking new and better ways to reduce their expenses, reduce waste, meet environmental standards, and, in general, improve their bottom-line. One approach to achieving all of these goals is a 100 year-old concept, cogeneration. Many industrial and institutional plants need thermal energy, generally as steam, for manufacturing processes and heating. They also need electric power for motors, lighting, compressed air and air conditioning. Traditionally, these fundamental needs are met separately. Steam is produced with industrial boilers and electricity is purchased from a local utility company. However, these needs can be met at the same time with cogeneration, using the same heat source. Cogeneration is the concurrent production of electrical power and thermal energy from the same heat source. Large steam users commonly take advantage of cogeneration by using high pressure steam with a back pressure turbine to generate electricity, and extract lower pressure steam from the turbine exhaust for their process needs. This approach reduces their electric utility bills while still providing thermal energy for industrial processes. The result is also a more efficient process that uses less total heat and discharges less smoke up the stack. Newer technologies are making cogeneration opportunities available to smaller-sized thermal plants, and electric utility deregulation opportunities are causing many CEOs to seriously consider cogeneration in their manufacturing plants. Whether steam is created through cogeneration or separate generation, many opportunities exist to improve productivity in the distribution system, operation, and maintenance. These opportunities are captured by taking a systems approach, which is promoted by programs such as the Department of Energy's Steam Challenge.

  4. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  5. American Tower Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Tower Company Address: P.O. Box 29 Place: Shelby, Ohio Zip: 44875 Sector: Wind energy Product: Agriculture;Business and legal...

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Power Tower Projects | Concentrating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power | NREL Power Tower Projects Aerial photo of a power tower system, showing numerous large, reflective mirrors in concentric circular rows. Tracking the sun, each mirror reflects onto the top of the tower at the center of the circle of mirrors. The receiver at the top of the tower is glowing. Stretched-membrane heliostats with silvered polymer reflectors surround the Solar Two power tower in Daggett, California. Credit: Sandia National Laboratories / PIX 00036 Concentrating solar

  7. Seismic response of offshore guyed towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, A.K.; Bisht, R.S.

    1993-12-31

    Seismic stresses in the offshore Guyed Tower assumes importance because of its flexural modes having smaller periods (in the range of 1 to 3 sec), which may attract considerable seismic forces. Since the displacement of the offshore Guyed Tower is generally guided by the rigid body mode corresponding to the fundamental period which lies between 20 to 40 sec., seismic excitation is relatively unimportant in relation to the towers` overall displacement behavior. The response of offshore Guyed Tower to ransom ground motion (E1 Centro earthquake, 1940) is investigated. The guyed tower is modeled as a uniform shear beam with a rotational spring at the base of the tower. The guylines are represented by a linearized spring whose force-excursion relationship is derived from a separate static analysis of the guylines. The dynamic equation of motion duly takes into account the pressure-drag effect produced due to fluid-structure interaction. The response is obtained in tim- domain using Newmark`s {beta} Time Integration Scheme.

  8. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... when compared to fuel-oil and natural-gas-fired boilers. ... form throughout the combustion and heat transfer processes. ... removal are steam jet ejectors and mechanical vacuum pumps. ...

  9. Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Systems Steam Systems Many manufacturing facilities can recapture energy by installing more efficient steam equipment and processes and applying energy management practices. Use the software tools, training, and publications listed below to optimize performance and save energy. Steam Tools Tools to assess your energy system: Steam System Modeler Qualified Specialists Qualified Specialists have passed a rigorous competency examination on a specific industrial system assessment tool. Locate

  10. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply

  11. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  12. tidal turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tidal turbines - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  13. wind turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    turbines - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  14. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2011-02-22

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  15. Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2013-06-04

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  16. Single Rotor Turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A.

    2004-10-26

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a centrifugal compressor having axially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and an axial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the centrifugal compressor flows.

  17. ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera Three Meter Tower: video camera Authors: Scott Smith ; Martin...

  18. ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Three Meter Tower: video camera Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera Three Meter Tower: video camera Authors: Scott Smith ; Martin...

  19. ARM: Forty Meter Tower: video camera (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Forty Meter Tower: video camera Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Forty Meter Tower: video camera Forty Meter Tower: video camera Authors: Scott Smith ; Martin...

  20. Optimization of some parameters of atomic steam-gas powerplant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratnikov, Y.F.

    1985-10-21

    Determination of optimum parameters of binary-type atomic steam-gas powerplant is a difficult analytical problem in view of the complicated interdependence of parameters, which characterize the reactor, gas-turbine, and steam-turbine parts of the installation. Conclusions include: 1) Determination of optimum parameters of atomic steam-gas installation is recommended to produce with gas consumption = const and heat output of the reactor = var. since best technical-economic indices of installation correspond to this case. 2) With increase in power of atomic steam-gas installation, together with improvement in economic indices, the optimum pressure ratio descends and optimum temperature of feed water increases. 3) Increase in the fuel component leads to a decrease of optimum pressure ratio and to increase in temperature of feed water. 4) Change of cost of reactor plant over wide limits virtually does not have effect on numerical values of optimum parameters being investigated. 5) In all cases optimum pressure ratio is more, and temperature of feed water is less than outer limits, obtained by thermodynamic calculations.

  1. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  2. Fill fouling experiences on both mechanical and natural draft towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraze, R.O. )

    1992-01-01

    Fouling of the film fill in cooling towers is becoming an increasingly serious problem in the Utility Industry. This paper discusses Florida Power Corporation's experience with fouling of film type fill in two mechanical draft and two natural draft towers. The two mechanical draft towers were placed in service as helper towers at the Anclote Plant in 1981. The two natural draft towers went into service at the Crystal River North Site in 1982 and 1984 for closed cycle cooling. All the towers are on salt water systems.

  3. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Parsons, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  4. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  5. Energy 101: Wind Turbines

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of the wind. Highlighted are the various parts and mechanisms of a modern wind turbine.

  6. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems - Steam Tip Sheet #18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps - Steam Tip Sheet #1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems - Steam Tip Sheet #18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  10. Phase Change Material Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phase Change Material Tower Phase Change Material Tower This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_erickson.pdf (1.04 MB) More Documents & Publications Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 2014 SunShot Initiative Peer Review Report

  11. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  12. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  13. Simplifying steam trap selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debat, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In the current economic world order, there is an obligation to eliminate waste and conserve economic and natural resources. One trap blowing 100-lb of steam through a 1/4-in. orifice can cost more than $12,000 a year in wasted energy. Richard J. Debat of Armstrong International, Inc. explains the operating principles of the four basic types of steam traps as the first step in simplifying the selection process so the right trap can be specified for a given application.

  14. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines David ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test ...

  17. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. You are accessing a ...

  18. Midwest Consortium for Wind Turbine Reliability and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott R. Dana; Douglas E. Adams; Noah J. Myrent

    2012-05-11

    This report provides an overview of the efforts aimed to establish a student focused laboratory apparatus that will enhance Purdue's ability to recruit and train students in topics related to the dynamics, operations and economics of wind turbines. The project also aims to facilitate outreach to students at Purdue and in grades K-12 in the State of Indiana by sharing wind turbine operational data. For this project, a portable wind turbine test apparatus was developed and fabricated utilizing an AirX 400W wind energy converter. This turbine and test apparatus was outfitted with an array of sensors used to monitor wind speed, turbine rotor speed, power output and the tower structural dynamics. A major portion of this project included the development of a data logging program used to display real-time sensor data and the recording and creation of output files for data post-processing. The apparatus was tested in an open field to subject the turbine to typical operating conditions and the data acquisition system was adjusted to obtain desired functionality to facilitate use for student projects in existing courses offered at Purdue University and Indiana University. Data collected using the data logging program is analyzed and presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the test apparatus related to wind turbine dynamics and operations.

  19. Project Profile: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Baseload Power Tower Project Profile: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower Wilson logo Wilson Solarpower, under the Baseload CSP FOA, proposed a utility-scale, Brayton cycle baseload power tower system with a capacity factor of at least 75% and LCOE of $0.09/kWh. Approach Photo of a tower in the background with slanted panels connected by a wire in the foreground. Wilson developed, built, tested, and evaluated two prototype components-an unpressurized thermal storage system and an

  20. New North Dakota Factory to Produce Wind Towers, Jobs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind tower factory could bring back some of the jobs lost when a machine manufacturing plant closed.

  1. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  2. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  3. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  4. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  5. Boise Air Traffic Control Tower: High Performance and sustainable Building Guiding Principles Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Goel, Supriya; Henderson, Jordan W.

    2013-09-01

    Overview of energy efficiency opportunities for new FAA tower construction using the Boise Air Traffic Control Tower as an example.

  6. First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off the Coast of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maine | Department of Energy First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off the Coast of Maine First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off the Coast of Maine October 1, 2013 - 12:33pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Third Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. A 65-foot tall, 20-kilowatt wind turbine with a white rotor and a yellow tower on a floating platform in the ocean. Castine, Maine - On May 31, 2013, the University of Maine's

  7. Making Solar Power History at Ivanpah | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... energy on boilers located atop three solar power towers, generating steam to turn a conventional steam turbine. The facility is owned by NRG Solar, Google and BrightSource Energy. ...

  8. Photo of the Week: Ivanpah Solar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy on boilers located atop three solar power towers, generating steam to turn a conventional steam turbine. The facility is owned by NRG Solar, Google and BrightSource Energy. ...

  9. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances to current land-based turbines are directly linked to our country's economic and energy security. Technical advancement for any type of gas turbine generally implies better performance, greater efficiency, and extended component life. From the standpoint of cycle efficiency and durability, this suggests that a continual

  10. turbine | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    turbine Home Future of Condition Monitoring for Wind Turbines Description: Research into third party software to aid in the development of better CMS in order to raise turbine...

  11. Western Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Turbine Place: Aurora, Colorado Zip: 80011 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind Turbine Installation and Maintainance. Coordinates:...

  12. Performance of tornado-type wind turbines with radial inflow supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.T.; Ide, H.

    1983-11-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted for the performance of tornado-type wind turbines (TTWT) with radial inflow supply from incoming wind. It was shown that the radial inflow supply was necessary for intensifying a vortex in the wind collecting tower and, consequently, for enhancing the power efficiencies, C /SUB p/, of the wind turbines. Maximum C /SUB p/ (based on turbine disk area) of 3.8 and 9 was obtained for circular- and spiral-shaped towers, respectively, as compared to 0.4 for conventional windmills. With the radial inflow supply, the maximum C /SUB p/ was increased about 100% for the circular model but only 15-30% for the spiral model since the spiral model provides the inflow effect by itself.

  13. Testing Controls to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. This paper describes testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control methods. The controller uses independent blade pitch to regulate the turbine's speed in Region 3, mitigate the effects of shear across the rotor disk, and add active damping to the tower's first fore-aft bending mode. Additionally, a separate generator torque control loop is designed to add active damping to the tower's first side-side mode and the first drivetraintorsion mode. This paper discusses preliminary implementation and field tests of this controller in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Also included are preliminary comparisons of the performance of this controller to results from a typical baseline Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller designed with just Region 3 speed regulation as the goal.

  14. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. D. Jablonski, and P. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Develop advanced coal-based power systems capable of 45–50 % efficiency at <$1,000/kW (in 2002 dollars). Develop technologies for capture and sequestration of CO2 that result in: • <10% increase in the cost of electricity in an IGCC-based plant • <35% increase in the cost of electricity for pulverized coal boilers Demonstrate coal-based energy plants that offer near-zero emissions (including CO2) with multiproduct production

  15. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  16. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  17. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  18. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  19. Steam System Survey Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey Guide Steam System Survey Guide This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam system, and

  20. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caruso, Philip M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Ladhani, Azad A.; DeMania, Alan Richard; Palmer, Gene David; Wilson, Ian David; Rathbun, Lisa Shirley; Akin, Robert Craig

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  1. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  2. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  3. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  4. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractices Steam Technical Brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer solution for various applications.

  5. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  6. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-09-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

  7. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  8. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  9. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the tasks completed for the advanced turbine systems program. The topics of the report include last row turbine blade development, single crystal blade casting development, ceramic materials development, combustion cylinder flow mapping, shroud film cooling, directional solidified valve development, shrouded blade cooling, closed-loop steam cooling, active tip clearance control, flow visualization tests, combustion noise investigation, TBC field testing, catalytic combustion development, optical diagnostics probe development, serpentine channel cooling tests, brush seal development, high efficiency compressor design, advanced air sealing development, advanced coating development, single crystal blade development, Ni-based disc forging development, and steam cooling effects on materials.

  10. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  11. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  12. Advanced Combustion Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that will accelerate turbine performance and efficiency beyond current state-of-the-art and reduce the risk to market for novel and advanced turbine-based power cycles. ...

  13. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Takle, Gene

    2013-03-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  14. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  15. Downhole steam injector. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

    1981-06-03

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  16. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on deaerators provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  18. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  19. Baseload gas turbine to meet utility requirements for reliability and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grevstad, P.E.; Smith, M.J.; Duncan, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The coal gasifier-gas turbine, combined cycle is described as a superior baseload electric generating system. It promises lower fuel cost, lower operating and maintenance cost, and superior siting and environmental characteristics over conventional steam systems with flue gas clean up and fluidized bed combined cycle systems. Two major new components are required: 1) the coal gasifier, and 2) the baseload gas turbine. 10 refs.

  20. Analysis of pure electrical and cogeneration steam power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albar, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    General Electric's method of steam turbine performance was used with pure electrical and with cogeneration power plants at various flow rates. Comparisons were made for two cases: (1) the same amount of heat is added to each boiler and the amount of electrical power generated is compared; and (2) when each plant should produce the same amount of electric power and the amount of heat added to each boiler is compared. Cogeneration is energetically more efficient than pure electrical plant. Correlations for the dependence of heat rate, power generated, heat added to throttle flow ratio were obtained from this work.

  1. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, Jr., John E.

    1985-01-01

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  2. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister Jr., J. E.

    1985-02-12

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  3. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Report assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings and provide information about specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This report provides an overview of the characterization of

  4. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  5. Project Profile: Solar Power Tower Improvements with the Potential to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Costs | Department of Energy Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: Solar Power Tower Improvements with the Potential to Reduce Costs Project Profile: Solar Power Tower Improvements with the Potential to Reduce Costs Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne logo Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, under the Baseload CSP FOA, designed and tested several components of a molten salt solar power tower that is in line with SunShot Initiative cost targets. Approach Receiver test panel design

  6. Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool for Solar Power Towers |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool for Solar Power Towers The Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool (SolarPILOT(tm)) generates and characterizes power tower (central receiver) systems. This software was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). SolarPILOT consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) and an application programming interface (API) through which external programs can access SolarPILOT's functionality.

  7. High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receivers | Department of Energy High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_ambrosini.pdf (3.05 MB) More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower

  8. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  9. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-08

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  10. NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia ... Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy Systems ...

  11. Don Ana Sun Tower Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Don Ana Sun Tower Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power Developer NRG EnergyeSolar Location Dona Ana County, New Mexico Coordinates 32.485767,...

  12. Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background SolarPILOT(tm) offers several unique capabilities compared to other software tools. Unlike exclusively ...

  13. Building a Better Transmission Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Better Transmission Tower Building a Better Transmission Tower May 20, 2011 - 9:41am Addthis A helicopter hoists platforms for linemen during the construction of this single-circuit 500-kilovolt tower – one of hundreds on the McNary-John Day line saving BPA big bucks. | Photo courtesy of Bonneville Power Administration A helicopter hoists platforms for linemen during the construction of this single-circuit 500-kilovolt tower - one of hundreds on the McNary-John Day line saving BPA big

  14. Hydrogen Turbines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Turbines Hydrogen Turbines Hydrogen Turbines The Turbines of Tomorrow Combustion (gas) turbines are key components of advanced systems designed for new electric power plants in the United States. With gas turbines, power plants will supply clean, increasingly fuel-efficient, and relatively low-cost energy. Typically, a natural gas-fired combustion turbine-generator operating in a "simple cycle" converts between 25 and 35 percent of the natural gas heating value to useable

  15. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2004-06-01

    The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1% by volume steel

  16. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  17. Steam-system upgrades | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upgrades Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSteam-systemupgrades&old...

  18. Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Standard Steam Trust) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Standard Steam Trust LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Subsidiary of...

  19. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  1. Wind turbine generator with improved operating subassemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1985-01-01

    A wind turbine includes a yaw spring return assembly to return the nacelle from a position to which it has been rotated by yawing forces, thus preventing excessive twisting of the power cables and control cables. It also includes negative coning restrainers to limit the bending of the flexible arms of the rotor towards the tower, and stop means on the rotor shaft to orient the blades in a vertical position during periods when the unit is upwind when the wind commences. A pendulum pitch control mechanism is improved by orienting the pivot axis for the pendulum arm at an angle to the longitudinal axis of its support arm, and excessive creep is of the synthetic resin flexible beam support for the blades is prevented by a restraining cable which limits the extent of pivoting of the pendulum during normal operation but which will permit further pivoting under abnormal conditions to cause the rotor to stall.

  2. Meteorological Towers Display for Windows NT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-20

    The Towers Display Program provides a convenient means of graphically depicting current wind speed and direction from a network of meteorological monitoring stations. The program was designed primarily for emergency response applications and, therefore, plots observed wind directions as a transport direction, i.e., the direction toward which the wind would transport a release of an atmospheric contaminant. Tabular summaries of wind speed and direction as well as temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence measured atmore » each monitoring station can be displayed. The current implementation of the product at SRS displays data from eight Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System meteorological towers at SRS, meteorological stations established jointly by SRS/WSRC and the Augusta/Richmond County Emergency Management Agency in Augusta, GA, and National Weather Service stations in Augusta, GA. Wind speed and direction are plotted in a Beaufort scale format at the location of the station on a geographic map of the area. A GUI provides for easy specification of a desired date and time for the data to be displayed.« less

  3. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added ...

  4. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the globalmore » meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions« less

  5. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions

  6. Energy 101: Wind Turbines - 2014 Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Turbines - 2014 Update Energy 101: Wind Turbines - 2014 Update

  7. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Pressure Steam | Department of Energy Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #29 Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam (January 2012)

  8. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  9. Minimize Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    may lead to carryover of boiler water into the steam, or the formation of deposits. ... 108,696 - 106,383 2,313 lbhr Enthalpy of Boiler Water 338.5 Btulb; for ...

  10. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  11. Trends in packaged steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  12. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. , Carlson; Bryan J. , Wingo; Robert M. , Robison; Thomas W.

    2012-08-07

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  13. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  14. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  15. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  16. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  17. Testing America's Wind Turbines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing America's Wind Turbines Testing America's Wind Turbines View All Maps Addthis

  18. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  19. Comparison of Second-Order Loads on a Tension-Leg Platform for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueydon, S.; Wuillaume, P.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Platt, A.

    2015-03-01

    The first objective of this work is to compare the two floating offshore wind turbine simulation packages {DIFFRAC+aNySIM} and {WAMIT+FAST}. The focus is on second-order wave loads, and so first- and second-order wave loads are applied to a structure sequentially for a detailed comparison and a more precise analysis of the effects of the second-order loads. aNySIM does not have the capability to model flexible bodies, and so the simulations performed in this tool are done assuming a rigid body. FAST also assumes that the platform is rigid, but can account for the flexibility of the tower. The second objective is to study the effects of the second-order loads on the response of a TLP floating wind turbine. The flexibility of the tower must be considered for this investigation, and therefore only FAST is used.

  20. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  1. Rampressor Turbine Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2003-09-30

    The design of a unique gas turbine engine is presented. The first Rampressor Turbine engine rig will be a configuration where the Rampressor rotor is integrated into an existing industrial gas turbine engine. The Rampressor rotor compresses air which is burned in a traditional stationary combustion system in order to increase the enthalpy of the compressed air. The combustion products are then expanded through a conventional gas turbine which provides both compressor and electrical power. This in turn produces shaft torque, which drives a generator to provide electricity. The design and the associated design process of such an engine are discussed in this report.

  2. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meacher, John S.; Ruscitto, David E.

    1982-01-01

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  3. Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind turbine reliability issues are often linked to failures of contacting components, such as bearings, gears, and actuators. Therefore, special consideration to tribological design in wind...

  4. Scale Models & Wind Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbines * Readings about Cape Wind and other offshore and onshore siting debates for wind farms * Student Worksheet * A number of scale model items: Ken, Barbie or other dolls...

  5. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  6. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  7. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  8. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  9. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  10. Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    2001-01-11

    This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

  11. Steam System Modeler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam System Modeler Steam System Modeler April 17, 2014 - 11:34am Addthis There is often flexibility in the operational conditions and requirements of any steam system. In order to optimize performance, the impacts of potential adjustments need to be understood individually and collectively. The Steam System Modeler allows you to create up to a 3-pressure-header basic model of your current steam system. A second model can then be created by adjusting a series of characteristics simulating

  12. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Turbine Loads Database - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database ...

  13. Wind turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    turbine Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Wind turbine: A machine that converts wind energy to mechanical energy; typically connected to a generator to produce...

  14. TGM Turbines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbines Jump to: navigation, search Name: TGM Turbines Place: Sertaozinho, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 14175-000 Sector: Biomass Product: Brazil based company who constructs and sells...

  15. wind-turbine fleet reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind-turbine fleet reliability - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers wind-turbine fleet reliability Home...

  16. Lubricating system for thermal medium delivery parts in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Cooling steam delivery tubes extend axially along the outer rim of a gas turbine rotor for supplying cooling steam to and returning spent cooling steam from the turbine buckets. Because of the high friction forces at the interface of the tubes and supporting elements due to rotor rotation, a low coefficient of friction coating is provided at the interface of the tubes and support elements. On each surface, a first coating of a cobalt-based alloy is sprayed onto the surface at high temperature. A portion of the first coating is machined off to provide a smooth, hard surface. A second ceramic-based solid film lubricant is sprayed onto the first coating. By reducing the resistance to axial displacement of the tubes relative to the supporting elements due to thermal expansion, the service life of the tubes is substantially extended.

  17. Gas turbine based cogeneration facilities: Key issues to be addressed at an early design stage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandesteene, J.L.; De Backer, J.

    1998-07-01

    The basic design of a cogeneration facility implies much more than looking for a gas turbine generating set that matches the steam host heat demand, and making an economical evaluation of the project. Tractebel Energy Engineering (TEE) has designed, built and commissioned since the early nineties 350 MW of cogeneration facilities, mainly producing electricity and steam with natural gas fired gas turbines, which is the present most common option for industrial combined heat and power production. A standardized cogeneration design does not exist. Each facility has to be carefully adapted to the steam host's particular situation, and important technical issues have to be addressed at an early stage of plant design. Unexpected problems, expensive modifications, delays during execution of the project and possible long term operational limitations or drawbacks may result if these questions are left unanswered. This paper comments the most frequent questions on design values, required flexibility of the HRSG, reliability and backup, control system, connection to the grid

  18. Thermostatic steam trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.H.; Mac Nicol, A.E.

    1987-03-03

    A thermostatic trap is described for a heating system having a feed pipe connected to a source of steam and a discharge pipe for discharge of condensate and comprising: housing means defining a volume and comprising a bowl shaped body, a removable cover therefor, a housing inlet pipe portion projecting from a side wall portion of the body and adapted for connection to the discharge pipe. A housing outlet pipe portion projects from a bottom wall portion of the body, and an outlet orifice defined by the bottom wall portion and extends between the volume and the outlet pipe portion; a valve body means retained within the volume and comprising an end wall, a side wall and a retaining ring portion that together define a valve chamber. The end wall defines a valve inlet opening communicating with the chamber and an annular valve seat within the chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening. The valve body means comprises a valve outlet pipe that defines a valve outlet opening axially aligned with the valve inlet opening and communicating with the chamber, the outlet pipe being fixed in the outlet orifice; a resilient, annular seal means disposed within the valve chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening; and a bi-metallic disc disposed within the valve chamber between the annular seal means and the outlet opening and having an outer peripheral portion retained by the retaining ring portion of the valve body means.

  19. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  20. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  1. WINDExchange: Siting Wind Turbines

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Deployment Activities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Regional Resource Centers Economic Development Siting Resources & Tools Siting Wind Turbines This page provides resources about wind turbine siting. American Wind Wildlife Institute The American Wind Wildlife Institute (AWWI) facilitates timely and responsible development of wind energy, while protecting wildlife and wildlife habitat. AWWI was created and is sustained by a unique collaboration of environmentalists, conservationists,

  2. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  3. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  4. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inspect and Repair Steam Traps Inspect and Repair Steam Traps This tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #1 Inspect and Repair Steam Traps (January 2012) (393.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors

  5. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- News & Views Bren Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At 1,527 Feet, BREN Tower Dominates Nevada National Security Site Skyline Photo - 1,527-foot BREN Tower The BREN Tower 1,527 feet tall, has been a focal point of attention ever since it was erected on the Nevada National Security Site in 1962. During its 30 years, it has been part of the Yucca and Jackass Flat skylines, and a platform for two important experiments --Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada (BREN), and the High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment (HENRE). It was built by the Dresser-Ideco

  6. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  7. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  8. Ceramic Cerami Turbine Nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1997-04-01

    A turbine nozzle vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes an outer shroud and an inner shroud having a plurality of horizontally segmented vanes therebetween being positioned by a connecting member positioning segmented vanes in functional relationship one to another. The turbine nozzle vane assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  9. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment. Each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion. Each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component.

  10. Ceramic turbine nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-12-17

    A turbine nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The metallic components have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine nozzle vane assembly. The turbine nozzle vane assembly includes a plurality of segmented vane defining a first vane segment and a second vane segment, each of the first and second vane segments having a vertical portion, and each of the first vane segments and the second vane segments being positioned in functional relationship one to another within a recess formed within an outer shroud and an inner shroud. The turbine nozzle and shroud assembly provides an economical, reliable and effective ceramic component having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the other component. 4 figs.

  11. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Steam Boiler Systems Best Management Practice 8: Steam Boiler Systems Steam boilers are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where ...

  12. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resor, Brian Ray; Maniaci, David Charles; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-05-01

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  13. Baseline Design of a Hurricane-Resilient Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Schreck, S.; Maples, B.; Anderson, M.; Finucane, Z.; Raina, A.

    2014-10-01

    Under U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored research FOA 415, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led a team of research groups to produce a complete design of a large wind turbine system to be deployable in the western Gulf of Mexico region. As such, the turbine and its support structure would be subjected to hurricane-loading conditions. Among the goals of this research was the exploration of advanced and innovative configurations that would help decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of the design, and the expansion of the basic IEC design load cases (DLCs) to include hurricane environmental conditions. The wind turbine chosen was a three-bladed, downwind, direct-drive, 10-MW rated machine. The rotor blade was optimized based on an IEC load suite analysis. The drivetrain and nacelle components were scaled up from a smaller sized turbine using industry best practices. The tubular steel tower was sized using ultimate load values derived from the rotor optimization analysis. The substructure is an innovative battered and raked jacket structure. The innovative turbine has also been modeled within an aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool, and future papers will discuss results of the dynamic response analysis for select DLCs. Although multiple design iterations could not be performed because of limited resources in this study, and are left to future research, the obtained data will offer a good indication of the expected LCOE for large offshore wind turbines to be deployed in subtropical U.S. waters, and the impact design innovations can have on this value.

  14. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2008-10-07

    A wind turbine (100) comprising an electrical generator (108) that includes a rotor assembly (112). A wind rotor (104) that includes a wind rotor hub (124) is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle (160) via a bearing assembly (180). The wind rotor hub includes an opening (244) having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity (380) inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret (140) supported by a tower (136). Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity (172, 176, 368) that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system (276) for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  15. Success Story: Capstone Turbine Corporation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Profile story on Capstone Turbine Corporation for the American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness (AEMC) Summit.

  16. Innovative turbine concepts for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of preliminary studies conducted to identify and evaluate three innovative concepts for an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) steam turbine that could significantly reduce the cost of OTEC electrical power plants. The three concepts are (1) a crossflow turbine, (2) a vertical-axis, axial-flow turbine, and (3) a double-flow, radial-inflow turbine with mixed-flow blading. In all cases, the innovation involves the use of lightweight, composite plastic blading and a physical geometry that facilitates efficient fluid flow to and from the other major system components and reduces the structural requirements for both the turbine or the system vacuum enclosure, or both. The performance, mechanical design, and cost of each of the concepts are developed to varying degrees but in sufficient detail to show that the potential exists for cost reductions to the goals established in the US Department of Energy's planning documents. Specifically, results showed that an axial turbine operating with 33% higher steam throughput and 7% lower efficiency than the most efficient configuration provides the most cost-effective open-cycle OTEC system. The vacuum enclosure can be significantly modified to reduce costs by establishing better interfaces with the system. 33 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  18. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  19. Exxon's guyed tower nears load-out date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasscock, M.S.; Finn, L.D.

    1983-04-01

    Exxon's Lena guyed tower, installed in 1,000ft. water in the Gulf of Mexico, is discussed. The Lena tower is designed to move in response to wave forces rather than resist them rigidly, as is the case with conventional platforms. Selection of tower components to satisfy requirements resulted in a complex geometry which presented design challenges. Buoyancy will serve as a stabilizing force for the tower by adding to the restoring force of the guying system. Flexible J-tube pipeline risers were developed to avoid excessive stresses in the pipelines and J-tube pipelines and J-tubes at the mudline. Exxon's Lena platform is to-date in the second deepest water in the world, and at 1,305 ft total height, is the tallest.

  20. Alpine SunTower Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.renewableenergyfocus.comview2513pge-and-nrg-energy-collaborate-on-92-mw-solar-thermal-power Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAlpineSunTowerSola...

  1. Flow Distortion Study Completed for the Chesapeake Light Tower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    With the light tower similar in profile to offshore oil platforms, one concern was whether its bulky cross section would disturb the wind blowing around it so that measurements on ...

  2. CDX 4608, Guard Tower Power and Fiber Reroute (4608)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guard Tower Power and Fiber Reroute (4608) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee The proposed action is to design and re-route power and fiber to 9949-AR (Guard...

  3. Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor SWRI logo -- This project is inactive -- The Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) and its partners, under the 2012 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) SunShot R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing an external combustor capable of operating at much higher temperatures than the current state-of-the-art technology. Approach Illustration with a horizontal

  4. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  5. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tower Manufacturing and Installation Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation December 18, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis The DOE Wind Program has issued a Notice of Intent for a funding opportunity that it intends to post early in 2014, pending Congressional appropriations. The funding opportunity, tentatively titled "U.S. Wind Manufacturing: Taller Hub Heights to Access Higher Wind Resources, and Lower Cost of Energy" intends to support

  6. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermoscompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam - Steam Tip Sheet #29

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-05-07

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports.

  8. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  9. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  10. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  11. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Charles C.; Pytanowski, Gregory P.; Vendituoli, Jonathan S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  12. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  13. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of the two concepts

  14. Alstom 3-MW Wind Turbine Installed at NWTC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The 3-MW Alstom wind turbine was installed at NREL's NWTC in October 2010. Test data will be used to validate advanced turbine design and analysis tools. NREL signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Alstom in 2010 to conduct certification testing on the company's 3-MW ECO 100 wind turbine and to validate models of Alstom's unique drivetrain concept. The turbine was installed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in October 2010 and engineers began certification testing in 2011. Tests to be conducted by NREL include a power quality test to finalize the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) requirements for type certification of the 60-Hz unit. The successful outcome of this test will enable Alstom to begin commercial production of ECO 100 in the United States. NREL also will obtain additional measurements of power performance, acoustic noise, and system frequency to complement the 50 Hz results previously completed in Europe. After NREL completes the certification testing on the ECO 100, it will conduct long-term testing to validate gearbox performance to gain a better understanding of the machine's unique ALSTOM PURE TORQUE{trademark} drivetrain concept. In conventional wind turbines, the rotor is supported by the shaft-bearing gearbox assembly. Rotor loads are partially transmitted to the gearbox and may reduce gearbox reliability. In the ALSTOM PURE TORQUE concept, the rotor is supported by a cast frame running through the hub, which transfers bending loads directly to the tower. Torque is transmitted to the shaft through an elastic coupling at the front of the hub. According to Alstom, this system will increase wind turbine reliability and reduce operation and maintenance costs by isolating the gearbox from rotor loads. Gearbox reliability has challenged the wind energy industry for more than two decades. Gearbox failures require expensive and time-consuming replacement, significantly increasing the cost of wind plant

  15. Howden Wind Turbines Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Howden Wind Turbines Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Howden Wind Turbines Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Wind energy Product: Howden was a manufacturer of wind turbines in...

  16. NREL: Wind Research - Small Wind Turbine Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small Wind Turbine Development A photo of Southwest Windpower's Skystream wind turbine in front of a home. PIX14936 Southwest Windpower's Skystream wind turbine. A photo of the ...

  17. Category:Wind turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind turbine Jump to: navigation, search Pages in category "Wind turbine" This category contains only the following page. W Wind turbine Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  18. Luther College Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Luther College Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Luther College Wind Turbine Facility Luther College Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind...

  19. Capstone Turbine Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbine Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Capstone Turbine Corp Place: Chatsworth, California Zip: 91311 Product: Capstone Turbine Corp produces low-emission microturbine...

  20. Williams Stone Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stone Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Williams Stone Wind Turbine Facility Williams Stone Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status...

  1. Portsmouth Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Portsmouth Wind Turbine Facility Portsmouth Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service...

  2. Charlestown Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Charlestown Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Charlestown Wind Turbine Facility Charlestown Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility...

  3. GC China Turbine Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GC China Turbine Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: GC China Turbine Corp Place: Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Sector: Wind energy Product: China-base wind turbine manufacturer....

  4. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battelle

    2003-12-30

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  5. Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This brief outlines typical ways to increase steam system efficiency through changes in distribution, generation, and recovery.

  6. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  7. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  8. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  9. Gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  10. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  11. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Blade engineering and design is one of the most complicated and important aspects of modern wind turbine technology. Engineers strive to design blades that extract as much energy from the wind as possible throughout a range of wind speeds and gusts, yet are still durable, quiet and cheap. A variety of ideas for building turbines and teacher handouts are included in this document and at the Web site.

  12. A REVIEW OF THE OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL ALLOYS IN STEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Ian G; Dooley, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this review is the state of knowledge of the oxidation behavior in steam of alloys with potential for use as pressure parts in steam boilers. Growth of steam-side oxides has implications for scale exfoliation, tube blockage and overheating, and turbine erosion. Mitigation of such problems requires mechanistic understanding of the influences of alloy composition and microstructure as well as time, temperature, and boiler operating parameters on the evolution of specific scale structures. The oxidation behavior in steam of three classes of alloys is addressed: ferritic steels (particularly the 9-12 wt% Cr alloys), austenitic steels, and high-temperature nickel-based alloys. Understanding the interplay among compositional and microstructural requirements for strengthening and oxidation resistance, and their influence on the rate and mode of scale evolution is key to the most effective application of these alloy classes. Underlying these interests is the apparently different mode of oxide growth in steam than in air, especially contributions from inward transport of oxidant species. The particular species involved and their roles in the oxidation process are expected to exert a large influence on the oxide morphologies developed, while the fate of any hydrogen released in the alloy is a further topic of particular interest.

  13. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 1: Experimental system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the airfoil cooling significantly for the future generation of advanced turbine systems (ATS), a fundamental experimental program has been developed to study the heat transfer mechanisms of mist/steam cooling under highly superheated wall temperatures. The mist/steam mixture was obtained by blending fine water droplets (3 {approximately} 15 {micro}m in diameter) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bars. Two mist generation systems were tested by using the pressure atomizer and the steam-assisted pneumatic atomizer, respectively. The test section, heated directly by a DC power supply, consisted of a thin-walled ({approximately} 0.9 mm), circular stainless steel tube with an ID of 20 mm and a length of 203 mm. Droplet size and distribution were measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system through view ports grafted at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. Mist transportation and droplet dynamics were studied in addition to the heat transfer measurements. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet mass ratios ranging from 1 {approximately} 6%.

  14. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  15. Improving Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability Using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimizes the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque(R) drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind conditions and turbine operations.

  16. Improved Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yi; Bergua, R.; van Dam, J.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2014-08-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimize the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind speed and turbine operations.

  17. Wind turbine/generator set having a stator cooling system located between stator frame and active coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2012-11-13

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  18. SwanTurbines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SwanTurbines Jump to: navigation, search Name: SwanTurbines Place: United Kingdom Product: SwanTurbines is developing a tidal stream turbine. The company is currently working on a...

  19. Investigations on Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Foil Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Foil Structural Health Monitoring Presented at GMREC METS - ... Investigations on Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Foil Structural Health Monitoring ...

  20. Secretary Chu Announces up to $62 Million for Concentrating Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    focus the sun's rays to the tower using a 360-degree, surround reflector field on the ground and collect the heat in a salt fluid, which is used to make steam and drive a turbine. ...

  1. QUARTERLY NUCLEAR POWER DEPLOYMENT SUMMARY JANUARY 2016

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... delivered; this is the final steam generator for the project. Vertical construction of the cooling tower is 50% complete. Work on the Unit 3 turbine building (Unit 3 and Unit 4 ...

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... o Well field piping, manifolds, and circulation pump(s) * Geothermal power plant o Steam turbine o Condenser or cooling tower o Circulating water pumps o Monitoring equipment o ...

  3. Turbine inner shroud and turbine assembly containing such inner shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Corman, Gregory Scot; Dean, Anthony John; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Mirdamadi, Massoud

    2001-01-01

    A turbine inner shroud and a turbine assembly. The turbine assembly includes a turbine stator having a longitudinal axis and having an outer shroud block with opposing and longitudinally outward facing first and second sides having open slots. A ceramic inner shroud has longitudinally inward facing hook portions which can longitudinally and radially surround a portion of the sides of the outer shroud block. In one attachment, the hook portions are engageable with, and are positioned within, the open slots.

  4. Investigation of a FAST-OrcaFlex Coupling Module for Integrating Turbine and Mooring Dynamics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masciola, M.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.

    2011-10-01

    To enable offshore floating wind turbine design, the following are required: accurate modeling of the wind turbine structural dynamics, aerodynamics, platform hydrodynamics, a mooring system, and control algorithms. Mooring and anchor design can appreciably affect the dynamic response of offshore wind platforms that are subject to environmental loads. From an engineering perspective, system behavior and line loads must be studied well to ensure the overall design is fit for the intended purpose. FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) is a comprehensive simulation tool used for modeling land-based and offshore wind turbines. In the case of a floating turbine, continuous cable theory is used to emulate mooring line dynamics. Higher modeling fidelity can be gained through the use of finite element mooring theory. This can be achieved through the FASTlink coupling module, which couples FAST with OrcaFlex, a commercial simulation tool used for modeling mooring line dynamics. In this application, FAST is responsible for capturing the aerodynamic loads and flexure of the wind turbine and its tower, and OrcaFlex models the mooring line and hydrodynamic effects below the water surface. This paper investigates the accuracy and stability of the FAST/OrcaFlex coupling operation.

  5. Wind Turbine System State Awareness

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2011-02-08

    Researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Intelligent Wind Turbine Program are developing a multi-physics modeling approach for the analysis of wind turbines in the presence of realistic wind loading....

  6. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  7. Panel resonant behavior of wind turbine blades.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2010-03-01

    The principal design drivers in the certification of wind turbine blades are ultimate strength, fatigue resistance, adequate tip-tower clearance, and buckling resistance. Buckling resistance is typically strongly correlated to both ultimate strength and fatigue resistance. A composite shell with spar caps forms the airfoil shape of a blade and reinforcing shear webs are placed inside the blade to stiffen the blade in the flap-wise direction. The spar caps are dimensioned and the shear webs are placed so as to add stiffness to unsupported panel regions and reduce their length. The panels are not the major flap-wise load carrying element of a blade; however, they must be designed carefully to avoid buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static testing of blades under a simulated extreme loading condition. The focus of this paper is on the use of experimental modal analysis to measure localized resonances of the blade panels. It can be shown that the resonant behavior of these panels can also provide a means to evaluate buckling resistance by means of analytical or experimental modal analysis. Further, panel resonances have use in structural health monitoring by observing changes in modal parameters associated with panel resonances, and use in improving panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. In recent modal testing of wind turbine blades, a set of panel modes were measured. This paper will report on the findings of these tests and accompanying numerical and analytical modeling efforts aimed at investigating the potential uses of panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design.

  8. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  9. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  10. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  11. Solar Two: A successful power tower demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REILLY,HUGH E.; PACHECO,JAMES E.

    2000-03-02

    Solar Two, a 10MWe power tower plant in Barstow, California, successfully demonstrated the production of grid electricity at utility-scale with a molten-salt solar power tower. This paper provides an overview of the project, from inception in 1993 to closure in the spring of 1999. Included are discussions of the goals of the Solar Two consortium, the planned-vs.-actual timeline, plant performance, problems encountered, and highlights and successes of the project. The paper concludes with a number of key results of the Solar Two test and evaluation program.

  12. 2010sr27[cooling_tower_complete].doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Friday, September 17, 2010 james-r.giusti@srs.gov Paivi Nettamo, SRNS, (803) 952-6938 paivi.nettamo@srs.gov K Cooling Tower Project Reaches Completion Aiken, S.C. - One of the most visual milestones of cleanup projects underway within the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management was the demolition of the K-Reactor Cooling Tower at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Now, this American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project has been completed one month ahead of schedule, with debris

  13. MULTI-TUBE POWER LEADS TOWER FOR BEPCII IR MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JIA,L.X.; ZHANG,X.B.; WANG,L.; WANG,T.H.; YAO,Z.L.

    2004-05-11

    A power lead tower containing the multi-tube power leads is designed and under fabrication for the superconducting IR quadrupole magnets in the Beijing Electron Position Collider Upgrade (BEPCII). The lead tower consists of six pairs of gas-cooled leads for seven superconducting coils at various operating currents. The power lead is designed in a modular fashion, which can be easily applied to suit different operating current. The end copper block of the tube lead has a large cold mass that provide a large time constant in case of cooling flow interruption. A novel cryogenic electrical isolator is used for the leads.

  14. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines This tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines (January 2012) (385.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy

  15. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  16. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  17. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-24

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine. 3 figs.

  18. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  19. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  20. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  1. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  2. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  3. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  4. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  5. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  6. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lingTowerWaterUseWinterGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  7. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  8. Turbine-Fact-Sheets | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Turbines FE0023975 TurboGT(tm) Gas Turbine with ArticReturn(tm) Cooling Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. Hydrogen Turbines FE0023983 Rotating Detonation Combustion for ...

  9. Testing and Modeling of a 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation Codes (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCava, W.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Casanovas, C.; Cugat, C.

    2012-06-01

    This poster describes the NREL/Alstom Wind testing and model verification of the Alstom 3-MW wind turbine located at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. NREL,in collaboration with ALSTOM Wind, is studying a 3-MW wind turbine installed at the National Wind Technology Center(NWTC). The project analyzes the turbine design using a state-of-the-art simulation code validated with detailed test data. This poster describes the testing and the model validation effort, and provides conclusions about the performance of the unique drive train configuration used in this wind turbine. The 3-MW machine has been operating at the NWTC since March 2011, and drive train measurements will be collected through the spring of 2012. The NWTC testing site has particularly turbulent wind patterns that allow for the measurement of large transient loads and the resulting turbine response. This poster describes the 3-MW turbine test project, the instrumentation installed, and the load cases captured. The design of a reliable wind turbine drive train increasingly relies on the use of advanced simulation to predict structural responses in a varying wind field. This poster presents a fully coupled, aero-elastic and dynamic model of the wind turbine. It also shows the methodology used to validate the model, including the use of measured tower modes, model-to-model comparisons of the power curve, and mainshaft bending predictions for various load cases. The drivetrain is designed to only transmit torque to the gearbox, eliminating non-torque moments that are known to cause gear misalignment. Preliminary results show that the drivetrain is able to divert bending loads in extreme loading cases, and that a significantly smaller bending moment is induced on the mainshaft compared to a three-point mounting design.

  10. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent& Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  11. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent and Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  12. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  13. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  14. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation - Steam Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy - Steam Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines - Steam Tip Sheet #2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Workers Safely Tear Down Towers at Manhattan Project Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – After decades dominating the Los Alamos National Laboratory skyline, two water towers were safely demolished by workers in a matter of hours recently, bringing EM’s Environmental Projects Office at Los Alamos a step closer to transferring the land for future commercial or industrial use.

  18. Add helper cooling towers to control discharge temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, J.; Christensen, G.

    1993-04-01

    This article describes the retrofitting of helper cooling towers to the Crystal River energy complex to reduce thermal pollution to the Gulf of Mexico. The topics of the article include the design concept, evaluation of design alternatives, a project description, economic evaluation, marine organism control, power requirements, and auxiliary systems.

  19. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  20. Steam Systems, Retrofit Measure Packages, Hydronic Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program www.buildingamerica.gov Decker Homes Buildings Technologies Program Steam Systems, Retrofit Measure Packages, Hydronic Systems Russell Ruch Elevate Energy Peter Ludwig Elevate Energy July 16, 2014 Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings Contents * Retrofit Measure Packages for steam and hydronic MF buildings that save 25-30% * System Balancing * Steam * Hydronic 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Background

  1. Starting of turbine engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekleton, J.R.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes a relatively small turbine engine. It comprises: a rotary turbine wheel; a rotary compressor coupled to the turbine wheel; an annular combustor for receiving air from the compressor and fuel from a fuel source combusting the same and providing gases of combustion to the turbine wheel to drive the same; substantially identical main fuel injectors including fuel injecting nozzles angularly spaced about the compressor; fuel and air from the compressor being introduced into the combustor generally in the tangential direction; a fuel pump; a control schedule valve; and first and second main fuel solenoid valves. The first valve being operable to connect a minority of the injectors to the control schedule valve and the fuel pump for starting the engine, there being an even number of the injectors and the minority of injectors consisting of two diametrically opposite injectors; the first and second valves being operable to connect all of the injectors to the control schedule valve and the pump for causing normal operation of the engine; the engine further being characterized by the absence of start fuel injectors for the combustor.

  2. Turbine vane structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Irwin, John A.

    1980-08-19

    A liquid cooled stator blade assembly for a gas turbine engine includes an outer shroud having a pair of liquid inlets and a pair of liquid outlets supplied through a header and wherein means including tubes support the header radially outwardly of the shroud and also couple the header with the pair of liquid inlets and outlets. A pair of turbine vanes extend radially between the shroud and a vane platform to define a gas turbine motive fluid passage therebetween; and each of the vanes is cooled by an internal body casting of super alloy material with a grooved layer of highly heat conductive material that includes spaced apart flat surface trailing edges in alignment with a flat trailing edge of the casting joined to wall segments of the liner which are juxtaposed with respect to the internal casting to form an array of parallel liquid inlet passages on one side of the vane and a second plurality of parallel liquid return passages on the opposite side of the vane; and a superalloy heat and wear resistant imperforate skin covers the outer surface of the composite blade including the internal casting and the heat conductive layer; a separate trailing edge section includes an internal casting and an outer skin butt connected to the end surfaces of the internal casting and the heat conductive layer to form an easily assembled liquid cooled trailing edge section in the turbine vane.

  3. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moursund, R. A.; Carlson, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  4. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  5. Achieve Steam System Excellence: Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... equipment. * The IAC Steam Tool Benchmarking Report project tested and validated ... system against well-documented industry best practices. * 3E Plus software evaluates and ...

  6. Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles...

  7. Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Standard Steam Trust LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra...

  8. Greenville Steam Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGreenvilleSteamBiomassFacility&oldid397532" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  9. Minimize Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  10. Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  11. Pre-In-Plant Training Webinar (Steam)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This pre-In-Plant training webinar for the Better Plants Program covers how to find energy savings in steam systems.

  12. Segmented Ultralight Pre-Aligned Rotor for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Steele, A.; Ichter, B.; Selig, M.; Moriarty, P.

    2012-01-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale turbines, a downwind rotor concept is proposed which employs fixed blade curvature based on force alignment at rated conditions. For a given peak stress constraint, the reduction in downwind cantilever loads allows reduced shell and spar thickness, and thus a reduced blade mass as compared with a conventional upwind rotor, especially as rotor sizes approach extreme-scales. To quantify this mass reduction, a Finite Element Analysis was conducted for a 10 MW rated rotor based on the NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine. The results show that this 'pre-alignment' yields a net downstream deflection of 32 deg, a downward hub-pitch angle of 6 deg, a 20% increase in blade length (to maintain the same radius as the conventional blade), and a net mass savings of about 50% through decreased shell and spar thicknesses. The pre-alignment may also allow a more straightforward and efficient segmentation of the blade since shear stresses near joints are substantially reduced. Segmenting, in turn, can dramatically reduce costs associated with fabrication, transport and assembly for extreme-scale off-shore systems. The pre-aligned geometric curvature can also help alleviate tower wake effects on the blades since blade tips (where shadow effects can be most problematic) are shifted downstream where the tower wake is weaker. In addition, the portion of the tower that is upstream of the blade tips can be faired with an externally-rotating aerodynamic shroud. Furthermore, the downwind rotor can allow a floating off-shore tri-pod platform to reduce tower weight and yaw-control requirements. A simple economic analysis of the segmented ultralight pre-aligned rotor (SUPAR) concept suggests that the overall system cost savings can be as much as 25%, indicating that more detailed (numerical and experimental) investigations are warranted.

  13. An overview of the NREL/SNL flexible turbine characterization project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, Gunjit; Kelley, Neil; McKenna, Ed; Osgood, Richard; Sutherland, Herbert; Wright, Alan

    1998-09-01

    There has been a desire to increase the generating capacity of the latest generation of wind turbine designs. In order to achieve these larger capacities, the dimensions of the turbine rotors are also increasing significantly. These larger structures are often much more flexible than their smaller predecessors. This higher degree of structural flexibility has placed increased demands on available analytical models to accurately predict the dynamic response to turbulence excitation, In this paper we present an overview and our progress to date of a joint effort of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). In this paper we present an overview and status of an ongoing program to characterize and analytically model the dynamics associated with the operation of one of the most flexible turbine designs currently available, the Cannon Wind Eagle 300 (CWE-300). The effort includes extensive measurements involving a detailed inventory of the turbine's physical properties, establishing the turbine component and fill-system vibrational modes, and documenting the dynamic deformations of the rotor system and support tower while in operation.

  14. Turbine Reliability and Operability Optimization through the use of Direct Detection Lidar Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.

  15. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS(ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2001-06-01

    optimized for the highest level of performance. The unique feature of an H-technology combined-cycle system is the integrated heat transfer system, which combines both the steam plant reheat process and gas turbine bucket and nozzle cooling. This feature allows the power generator to operate at a higher firing temperature than current technology units, thereby resulting in dramatic improvements in fuel-efficiency. The end result is the generation of electricity at the lowest, most competitive price possible. Also, despite the higher firing temperature of the H System{trademark}, the combustion temperature is kept at levels that minimize emission production. GE has more than 3.6 million fired hours of experience in operating advanced technology gas turbines, more than three times the fired hours of competitors' units combined. The H System{trademark} design incorporates lessons learned from this experience with knowledge gleaned from operating GE aircraft engines. In addition, the 9H gas turbine is the first ever designed using ''Design for Six Sigma'' methodology, which maximizes reliability and availability throughout the entire design process. Both the 7H and 9H gas turbines will achieve the reliability levels of our F-class technology machines. GE has tested its H System{trademark} gas turbine more thoroughly than any previously introduced into commercial service. The H System{trademark} gas turbine has undergone extensive design validation and component testing. Full-speed, no-load testing of the 9H was achieved in May 1998 and pre-shipment testing was completed in November 1999. The 9H will also undergo approximately a half-year of extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site. Testing of the 7H began in December 1999, and full speed, no-load testing was completed in February 2000. The 7H gas turbine will also be subjected to extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site.

  16. Transformation into combined cycle of old steam plants in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.; Valenti, G.

    1998-07-01

    The ongoing energy market liberalization is pushing the electricity industries towards generation systems capable to achieve low production costs for their plants. Combined cycles are today the best way to reach the above targets thanks to their very high efficiency, short completion time and low capital intensity. In industrialized countries like Italy, the existing steam plant fleet comprises several units with operating life of more than 20 years and modest efficiencies. Thanks to the following: possible easy and cheap revamping of existing steam turbines in order to extend their residual life of around 15 years or more; sites already devoted to power generation with reduced needs for further authorization procedures; existing connection to the grid and therefore no need for new overhead electric line construction (today practically impossible due to social and environmental opposition); the transformation into combined cycles of some existing old units (by replacing the old boiler with gas turbines and heat recovery steam generator) is of strategic importance for the mid term development and efficiency improvement of the power generation system. For the specific Italian reality, the paper reports the results of a study on the transformation into combined cycle of existing steam units sized 300 MW and 150 MW (the most common sizes in Italy) highlighting the advantages in terms of: reduction of generated kWh costs with respect to present power stations which otherwise should be modified (either by adding gas treatment systems or by changing the feeding fuel) to meet the emission limitation targets; drastic emission reduction for all the major pollutants: CO{sub 2} (increased efficiency), SO{sub x} (natural gas is sulfur free), NO{sub x} (low NO{sub x} burning technologies); reduced primary energy needs (Italy imports approximately 90% of its fossil fuel consumption).

  17. Turbine blade tip gap reduction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2012-09-11

    A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  18. Pyrometer mount for a closed-circuit thermal medium cooled gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Burns, James Lee; Fulton, John Robert

    2002-01-01

    A steam-cooled second-stage nozzle segment has an outer band and an outer cover defining a plenum therebetween for receiving cooling steam for flow through the nozzles to the inner band and cover therefor and return flow through the nozzles. To measure the temperature of the buckets of the stage forwardly of the nozzle stage, a pyrometer boss is electron beam-welded in an opening through the outer band and TIG-welded to the outer cover plate. By machining a hole through the boss and seating a linearly extending tube in the boss, a line of sight between a pyrometer mounted on the turbine frame and the buckets is provided whereby the temperature of the buckets can be ascertained. The welding of the boss to the outer band and outer cover enables steam flow through the plenum without leakage, while providing a line of sight through the outer cover and outer band to measure bucket temperature.

  19. SMART POWER TURBINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was remarkably

  20. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Windpower, Nautica; Marrone, Joseph; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  1. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  2. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving...

  3. Candidate wind-turbine-generator site summarized meteorological data for December 1976-December 1981. [Program WIND listed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 16 of the original 17 candidate and wind turbine generator sites collected during the period from December 1976 through December 1981 are presented. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and provide data that could be considered representative of long-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and a topographic map showing the location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for long-term average wind energy production at each site.

  4. The WEI6K, a 6-kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Kyle K.; McCleer, Patrick J.; Hahlbeck, Edwin C.; DOE Project Office - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-21

    This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation “Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.” The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness in Class 3 wind resources that can now be achieved in Class 5 resources. The scope of work for this project has been to complete the preliminary design of an improved small wind turbine, including preliminary loads and strength analyses; analysis and design of all major components; systems integration and structural dynamic analysis; estimation of life-cycle cost of energy; and design documentation and review. The project did not entail hardware fabrication or testing. The WEI6K Turbine resulting from this project is an upwind horizontal-axis wind turbine rated at 6 kW. It features a 3-blade 7-m diameter rotor. The generator is a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous machine generating 3-phase power at 240 VAC. The turbine is maintained oriented in to the wind via active yaw control using electromechanical servos. Power is regulated with active blade pitch control. The turbine is presently designed to be placed on a 100-foot (30m) tower. The turbine is predicted to generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy (COE) between 7.3 and 8.9 ¢/kWh at an IEC Class II site, with an average wind speed of 8.5 m/s at hub height, depending upon whether the customer uses a guyed truss tower (the lower figure) or a monopole tower. For the NREL Reference Site, with a mean wind speed of 5.35 m/s at 10 m height, the turbine would generate at a levelized cost of energy of between 9.7 and 11.9 ¢/kWh. The lowest of these numbers is presently competitive with retail electricity rates in most of the country. The 8.9 ¢/kWh is still competitive with retail rates in many regions of the

  5. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their

  6. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam generation systems best practices and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues (November 2005) (1.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Steam System Survey Guide Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System

  7. Process steam production from cotton gin trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

  8. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  9. Turbine seal assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  10. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  11. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  12. Turbine vane plate assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiavo Jr., Anthony L.

    2006-01-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes a turbine vane having first and second shrouds with an elongated airfoil extending between. Each end of the airfoil transitions into a shroud at a respective junction. Each of the shrouds has a plurality of cooling passages, and the airfoil has a plurality of cooling passages extending between the first and second shrouds. A substantially flat inner plate and an outer plate are coupled to each of the first and second shrouds so as to form inner and outer plenums. Each inner plenum is defined between at least the junction and the substantially flat inner plate; each outer plenum is defined between at least the substantially flat inner plate and the outer plate. Each inner plenum is in fluid communication with a respective outer plenum through at least one of the cooling passages in the respective shroud.

  13. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2010-11-09

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of hook shaped struts each mounted within channels extending in a spanwise direction of the spar and the shell to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also fanning a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure. The hook struts have a hooked shaped end and a rounded shaped end in order to insert the struts into the spar.

  14. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  15. Snubber assembly for turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-03

    A snubber associated with a rotatable turbine blade in a turbine engine, the turbine blade including a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall opposed from the pressure wall. The snubber assembly includes a first snubber structure associated with the pressure sidewall of the turbine blade, a second snubber structure associated with the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, and a support structure. The support structure extends through the blade and is rigidly coupled at a first end portion thereof to the first snubber structure and at a second end portion thereof to the second snubber structure. Centrifugal loads exerted by the first and second snubber structures caused by rotation thereof during operation of the engine are at least partially transferred to the support structure, such that centrifugal loads exerted on the pressure and suctions sidewalls of the turbine blade by the first and second snubber structures are reduced.

  16. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PADUCAH, Ky. – Five modern, modular steam boilers have replaced three larger coal-fired boilers that comprised the steam plant at EM’s Paducah Site.

  17. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and help ensure proper steam pressure at plant equipment. Any surface over 120F should be insulated, including boiler surfaces, steam and condensate return piping, and fttings. ...

  18. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (January 2012) (374.64 KB) More Documents & Publications Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems ...

  19. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam ... sterilizer condensate retrofit kits as a water-saving technology that is relevant to the ...