Sample records for towers rule-of-thumb design

  1. Rules of thumb for passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rules of thumb are given for passive solar systems for: (1) sizing solar glazing for 219 cities, (2) sizing thermal storage mass, and (3) building orientation.

  2. About the Design & Construction Collaborative Life Sciences Building & Skourtes Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    About the Design & Construction Collaborative Life Sciences Building & Skourtes Tower Life Sciences Building & Skourtes Tower (CLSB) is an innovative model for health sciences education intention. The building's volumes--the 12-story north tower and the five-story south wing--are connected

  3. Simulation in the Service of Design - Asking the Right Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donn, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and Information. Balcomb, JD. et al (1992) Passiveas design advice or rules of thumb such as Balcomb et al’ssolar design guide (Balcomb, et al 1992) to the Commercial

  4. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    11. Heat Exchangers Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene (1998) 1252 > Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 > Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and...

  5. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  6. SHM BASED SYSTEM DESIGN OFA WIND TURBINE TOWER USING A MODAL SENSITIVITY BASED BAYES DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHM BASED SYSTEM DESIGN OFA WIND TURBINE TOWER USING A MODAL SENSITIVITY BASED BAYES DETECTOR Mads@ramboll.com ABSTRACT It is investigated if material based structural safety can be replaced with safety obtained from of the NREL 5MW wind turbine tower subjected to bending fatigue and horizontal circumferential cracking

  7. Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources: September...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 70 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 67 Temperature coefficients for PV modules and arrays:...

  8. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 70 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 67 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and...

  9. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  10. Vice President CEO, Tower Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    Vice President CEO, Tower Foundation Administrative Assistant to the AVP Information Representative Tower Foundation Charitable Gifts Officer Gift Analyst Gift Analyst Gift Analyst Senior Analyst Tower Foundation Stewardship Director Graphic Designer Administrative Assistant Web Communications

  11. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  12. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  13. Optimal Solid Space Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory and computations are provided for building of optimal (minimum weight) solid space towers (mast) up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth surface, weather and upper atmosphere experiment, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch spaceships and Earth satellites. These macroprojects are not expensive. They require strong hard material (steel). Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require human work at high altitudes; the tower is separated into sections; all construction can be done at the Earth surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth surface. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other cited publications.

  14. Passive solar design handbook. Volume two of two volumes: passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Barley, D.; McFarland, R.; Perry, J. Jr.; Wray, W.; Noll, S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A manual for the design and performance evaluation and analysis of passive solar heating systems is presented. Two passive solar building types are analyzed: direct gain and thermal storage walls. Rules of thumb for the schematic design phase and simplified procedures for the design development phase are described. Analysis methods for the construction documents phase are given. The design procedure for fan-forced rock beds for hybrid systems is presented. Economic analysis methods for passive solar buildings are described. Tables of monthly average solar radiation, temperature, and degree-days for various locations in the US and southern Canada are included. (WHK)

  15. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  16. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  17. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  18. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  19. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint 34851.pdf More Documents &...

  20. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  1. Tokyo Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; Ashworth, William

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Scanning the skyline of the Japanese capital today, it's hard to catch sight of Tokyo Tower. Modeled on the Eiffel Tower and 333 meters in height, the orange-and-white landmark is the world's tallest self-supporting steel...

  2. A new code for the design and analysis of the heliostat field layout for power tower system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Yu, Weixing [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang, Zhifeng [The Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic system, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new code for the design and analysis of the heliostat field layout for power tower system is developed. In the new code, a new method for the heliostat field layout is proposed based on the edge ray principle of nonimaging optics. The heliostat field boundary is constrained by the tower height, the receiver tilt angle and size and the heliostat efficiency factor which is the product of the annual cosine efficiency and the annual atmospheric transmission efficiency. With the new method, the heliostat can be placed with a higher efficiency and a faster response speed of the design and optimization can be obtained. A new module for the analysis of the aspherical heliostat is created in the new code. A new toroidal heliostat field is designed and analyzed by using the new code. Compared with the spherical heliostat, the solar image radius of the field is reduced by about 30% by using the toroidal heliostat if the mirror shape and the tracking are ideal. In addition, to maximize the utilization of land, suitable crops can be considered to be planted under heliostats. To evaluate the feasibility of the crop growth, a method for calculating the annual distribution of sunshine duration on the land surface is developed as well. (author)

  3. The nominal cooling tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, R. [Burger Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95{degrees}F. Hot Water temperature (HWT) Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies through out the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. Ask any HVAC operator, refinery manager, power generating station operator what happens when the Wet Bulb reaches or exceeds the design WBT of the area. He probably will tell you, {open_quotes}My cooling tower works quite well, but in the summer time, I usually have trouble with it.{close_quotes} This occurs because he is operating a nominal cooling tower.

  4. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system. While our engineers are pretty well convinced of the importance of their sophisticated equipment, and rightly so, they take the cooling towers and the cold water returning from them for granted. Design Conditions are specified...

  5. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve...

  6. Designing and Testing Controls to Mitigate Tower Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes NREL's efforts to design, implement, and test advanced controls for maximizing energy extraction and reducing structural dynamic loads in wind turbines.

  7. Structural Optimization of High Voltage Transmission Line Towers considering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colominas, Ignasi

    Structural Optimization of High Voltage Transmission Line Towers considering Continuum and Discrete/or to common designs largely repeated (e.g. automotive compo- nents), and high voltage transmission towers can than conventional designs of high voltage transmission line towers. The optimization model proposed

  8. Key word:Daylight Factor Window Wall Ratio Pendentive dome Lighting design Tropical region Architecture and Interior design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehrdad Mazloomi

    Abstract: Daylighting design plays important role in architecture of religious buildings such as churches and mosques where pendentive dome construction is frequently used. In daylighting design, many designers face difficulty in estimating the interior share of light which is usually expressed by daylight factor due to complexity of interior form. This study aims to provide designers with a rather high precision rule of thumb for average daylight factor in pendentive dome building. Thus, it investigates the Daylight Factor [DF] distribution of such buildings with reference to the tropics. It takes the Window Wall Ratio [WWR] into account and seeks its influence on daylight factor. By a 12 X 12 points grid, it examines five different ratios including 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 on DF of the floor beneath the dome. The results endorse the direct relation of WWR and DF. The least WWR equal to 0.1 yields an average DF of 0.55 % while the greatest WWR of 0.5 yields in average DF of 2.56%. The intermediate WWR in steps of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 correspond to 1.04, 1.56 and 2.07 percent respectively. As a relatively precise rule of thumb, any increment in consequent steps of WWR with 0.1 intervals results in 0.5 % increase in DF. This can be employed by architects and interior designers for lighting design of pendentive dome buildings in tropical region.

  9. Beneath the shadow of the Tower Soldiers' Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beneath the shadow of the Tower Soldiers' Tower Schedule of Events October-November 2013 As of Oct. 21, 2013 Telephone: 416-978-3485 (office) E-mail: soldiers.tower@utoronto.ca Soldiers' Tower Web Site: www.alumni.utoronto.ca/tower Facebook: www.facebook.com/soldierstower U of T Events web site: www

  10. Optimization of Multiple Receivers Solar Power Tower systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emilio Carrizosa

    2015-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 26, 2015 ... Abstract: In this article a new procedure to optimize the design of a Multiple Receivers Solar Power Tower system is presented. The proposed ...

  11. airport tower stressful: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Abstract For technical, aesthetic and economical reasons, future power transmission line towers will have to be built with new design concepts using new...

  12. airport control towers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Abstract For technical, aesthetic and economical reasons, future power transmission line towers will have to be built with new design concepts using new...

  13. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    intends to support partnerships that lead to innovative designs and processes for wind turbine tower manufacturing and turbine system installation. Supported projects will develop...

  14. Low Wind Speed Technology Phase II: Design and Demonstration of On-Site Fabrication of Fluted-Steel Towers Using LITS-Form(TM) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes NREL's subcontract with Native American Technologies to develop a new method of metal plate forming to produce wind turbine towers.

  15. Feedback Control of Non-linear Quantum Systems: a Rule of Thumb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurt Jacobs; Austin P. Lund

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in the regime in which feedback control is most effective -- when measurements are relatively efficient, and feedback is relatively strong -- then, in the absence of any sharp inhomogeneity in the noise, it is always best to measure in a basis that does not commute with the system density matrix than one that does. That is, it is optimal to make measurements that disturb the state one is attempting to stabilize.

  16. Rules of thumb for metapopulation management Ross, J.V.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollett, Phil

    factors such as climate change, is placing many species at high risk of extinction, and ecologists species, triage becomes necessary, and hence the need to efficiently evaluate extinction risk in order by identifying those species most at risk of extinction. The second rule [R2] identifies an optimal management

  17. Wind tower service lift

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  18. Control Tower Procedures Nolan, Chap 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1 Control Tower Procedures Nolan, Chap 6 2 Control Towers · Responsibilities: 1. Ensure Towers · VFR Towers ­ NOT delegated separation responsibility · Except initial departure traffic ­ ARTCC separates IFR traffic · Non-radar-approach control towers ­ Delegated IFR separation responsibility

  19. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad [SADRA Institute of Higher Education, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid [K.N.T University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  20. The Monster Tower and Action Selectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Wyatt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Monster Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.1 Constructing the Monster Tower. . . . . . . . . 3.2.2Material for the Monster Tower 7.1 Definition of a Goursat

  1. Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

  2. Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, M.

    Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

  3. Toward resilient communities: A performance-based engineering framework for design and evaluation of the built environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieler, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STANDARD 1 DESIGN Transmission Towers & Poles Distributionpipelines, transmission towers, and other structures. As apipelines, transmission towers, and other structures. As a

  4. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units...

  5. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    looking into the function of the cooling tower, which is to produce colder water- and question the quality of water discharged from that simple appearing box. These cross-flow structures are quite large, ranging up to 60 feet tall with as many as 6 or more...

  6. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a compact deep reactive ion etching system for MEMS processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gould, Parker Andrew

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general rule of thumb for new semiconductor fabrication facilities (Fabs) is that revenues from the first year of production must match the capital cost of building the fab itself. With modem Fabs routinely exceeding $1 ...

  7. Cooling towers, the neglected energy conservations and money making machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, R. [Burger Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95 {degrees}F, Hot Water temperature (HWT), Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies throughout the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. In the specification of cooling towers it is necessary to clearly understand the definition of nominal cooling tower, and to make sure the specification you need addressed can be met by the system you purchase. This should be tested prior to final acceptance.

  8. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Guangzhou West Tower Façade System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Q.; Zhang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Public Buildings”, typical meteorological yearly data for Guangzhou were used and revised according to architectural character of Guangzhou West Tower. The energy efficiency design of a single skin façade and active airflow curtain wall was analyzed by a...

  9. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Guangzhou West Tower Façade System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Q.; Zhang, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guangzhou West Tower is an extremely tall public building. The energy efficiency evaluation of its façade should be different than that of ordinary public buildings. Based on the national code GB50189-2005, “Design Standard for Energy efficiency...

  10. IMU Activities Tower Application and Contract 1 INDIANA MEMORIAL UNION STUDENT ACTIVITIES TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    IMU Activities Tower Application and Contract 1 INDIANA MEMORIAL UNION STUDENT ACTIVITIES TOWER March 21, 2012 Union Board Office- 2nd floor of the IMU Activities Tower ­ room 270 The following Student Activities Tower: Organization Name

  11. Experimental Number Theory Part I : Tower Arithmetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    Experimental Number Theory Part I : Tower Arithmetic by Edinah K. Gnang January 15, 2011 1 rooted trees, which we shall here refer to as towers. The bijection between numbers and towers provides by XXX = (xk)1kn , (1) a tower expansion ( or simply a tower ) over XXX is a finite product of iterated

  12. Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turpish, W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 2 Types of Cooling Towers Forced Draft Towers ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 3 Types... of Cooling Towers Induced draft Cross-flow ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 4 Types of Cooling Towers Induced Draft-Counter Flow Two-cell Single Cell Four Cell...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: anemometer towers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anemometer towers Characterizing Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Inflow On April 1, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy The Scaled...

  14. LWST Phase I Project Conceptual Design Study: Evaluation of Design and Construction Approaches for Economical Hybrid Steel/Concrete Wind Turbine Towers; June 28, 2002 -- July 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaNier, M. W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Research Program has begun a new effort to partner with U.S. industry to develop wind technology that will allow wind systems to compete in regions of low wind speed. The Class 4 and 5 sites targeted by this effort have annual average wind speeds of 5.8 m/s (13 mph), measured at 10 m (33 ft) height. Such sites are abundant in the United States and would increase the land area available for wind energy production twenty-fold. The new program is targeting a levelized cost of energy of 3 cents/kWh at these sites by 2010. A three-element approach has been initiated. These efforts are concept design, component development, and system development. This work builds on previous activities under the WindPACT program and the Next Generation Turbine program. If successful, DOE estimates that his new technology could result in 35 to 45 gigawatts of additional wind capacity being installed by 2020.

  15. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  16. Variable Frequency AC Drives for Cooling Tower Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corey, R. W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    speed fan drives. Fan speed is reduced to yield specific water temperatures at thermal conditions less difficult than design. The reduced air flow is accomplished by reduced fan power consumption, resulting in optimum cooling tower operation... and economics. Automatic fan speed control by sensing cold water temperature is the economic essence of the application of adjustable frequency power to A-C fan motors. 2.2 Cell Partitions In some multi-cell mechanical-draft cooling towers, the isolation...

  17. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

  18. Untapped Energy Savings from Cooling Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps Jr., P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cooling towers; crossflow and counterflow. Many older towers are of the crossflow type and many newer towers are counterflow. The two types are most easily identified by looking at the sides of the tower. Crossflow towers have the air inlets all... the way up the sides of the tower, and air is drawn inward across the falling water, hence the term crossflow. Counterflow towers only have inlets around the bottom of the tower, and air is drawn in and upward through the falling water, hence the term...

  19. Stellar Explosions by Magnetic Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri A. Uzdensky; Andrew I. MacFadyen

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a magnetic mechanism for the collimated explosion of a massive star relevant for GRBs, XRFs and asymmetric supernovae. We apply Lynden-Bell's magnetic tower scenario to the interior of a massive rotating star after the core has collapsed to form a black hole with an accretion disk or a millisecond magnetar acting as a central engine. We solve the force-free Grad-Shafranov equation to calculate the magnetic structure and growth of a tower embedded in a stellar environment. The pressure of the toroidal magnetic field, continuously generated by differential rotation of the central engine, drives a rapid expansion which becomes vertically collimated after lateral force balance with the surrounding gas pressure is reached. The collimation naturally occurs because hoop stress concentrates magnetic field toward the rotation axis and inhibits lateral expansion. This leads to the growth of a self-collimated magnetic tower. When embedded in a massive star, the supersonic expansion of the tower drives a strong bow shock behind which an over-pressured cocoon forms. The cocoon confines the tower by supplying collimating pressure and provides stabilization against disruption due to MHD instabilities. Because the tower consists of closed field lines starting and ending on the central engine, mixing of baryons from the cocoon into the tower is suppressed. The channel cleared by the growing tower is thus plausibly free of baryons and allows the escape of magnetic energy from the central engine through the star. While propagating down the stellar density gradient, the tower accelerates and becomes relativistic. During the expansion, fast collisionless reconnection becomes possible resulting in dissipation of magnetic energy which may be responsible for GRB prompt emission.

  20. A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L. [eds.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

    1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

  1. TOWER OF COARSE MODULI KINYA KIMURA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Michael

    TOWER OF COARSE MODULI KINYA KIMURA Modular Towers is introduced by M. Fried for analogue of the towers of modular curves in the framework of Hurwitz space theory. Let p be a prime, G a p of which order of the elements is prime to p. Then we can consider the tower of Hurwitz space associated

  2. THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH APPLETON TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH APPLETON TOWER A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES Appleton Tower confirm the evacuation arrangements". #12;Introduction Disabled Access Guide for Appleton Tower APPLETON TOWER was named in posthumous honour of physicist Sir Edward Appleton, the Principal who oversaw

  3. Methodologies for Continuous Cellular Tower Data Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clauset, Aaron

    Methodologies for Continuous Cellular Tower Data Analysis Nathan Eagle1,2 , John A. Quinn3 cellular tower data from 215 randomly sampled subjects in a major urban city. We demonstrate the potential by tower transitions. The tower groupings from these unsupervised clustering techniques are subsequently

  4. David Hume Tower George Square, Edinburgh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    David Hume Tower George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JX 0131 650 8295 http://www.ed.ac.uk/maps THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH DAVID HUME TOWER A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES #12;If you require this document the evacuation arrangements". #12;Disabled Access Guide for David Hume Tower Introduction DAVID HUME TOWER

  5. A' Brief. History of the Tower Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A' Brief. History of the Tower Shielding Facility and Programs Tower Shielding Facility Hoisting Equipment and Handling Pool Tower Shielding Reactor TSR-II Assembly and Outer Reflector Reactor Suspension buildings (1953) 0 Towers form a lOO- by 200-j? rectangle 0 Unit weight of towers less than 400 lb/' - gives

  6. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Power Towers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trough Systems CLFR Power Towers Acciona Abengoa Sener Solar Millennium SkyFuel Siemens Ausra SPGMann SkyFuel Abengoa Brightsource Energy SolarReserve eSolar Dish Engine...

  8. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  9. Multi-objective optimization of solar tower heliostat fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    the heat. Usually, the heat of the fluid is exchanged into steam which powers a turbine to generate Introduction Solar tower plants generate electric power from sunlight by focusing concentrated solar radiation. Designing commercial power plants aims always at finding the most economic plant design under a given set

  10. Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants Pascal Richter Center for Computational · Optimization of solar tower power plants 1/20 #12;Introduction ­ Solar tower power plants Solar tower PS10 (11 of the solar tower Pascal Richter · Optimization of solar tower power plants 2/20 #12;Model of solar tower

  11. 7.2.9. Tower 7.2.10. Winterdienstgebude /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    .2.9.3.4.3 Überwachung der Notstromversorgung des Towers 7.2.9.3.5 Kälteversorgung des Towers / Cooling Supply of Tower 7

  12. Dynamic response of guyed towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillcrist, Mark Christopher

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    also account for entrapped sea water in the tower legs as well as added hydrodynamic mass. Sarpkya and Isaacson (9) show that the added hydrodynamic mass, m , per unit length of a circular cylinder can be closely approximated by m = psr 2 a (3. 1... bending associated with the guyed tower's fundamental mode. The global damping matrix, used in this study, is assumed to account for all sources of damping, with the exception of hydrodynamic damping (implicit in the nonlinear drag term of Morison...

  13. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  14. See the UT Tower going dark? There's a reason why Tower joins campus in conservation project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    See the UT Tower going dark? There's a reason why Tower joins campus in conservation project KXAN orange or even its typical white, the University of Texas Tower will join the dark night sky as part of a campus-wide energy conservation project. This is the first time the Tower will take part in Longhorn

  15. RUDDER TOWER: You are standing in the lobby of Rudder Tower, home to the Appelt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RUDDER TOWER: You are standing in the lobby of Rudder Tower, home to the Appelt Aggieland Visitor Center. The lobby elevators take you up Rudder Tower, where the office of the president of Texas A to the Plaza, you'll be facing Albritton Tower in the distance; you will hear its Westminster chimes ring every

  16. Livingston Campus North and South Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston Campus North and South Tower General Instructions: · Print directions and name.7 miles). Continue on Route 18 North. · Follow the signs for Towers move in. From Garden State Parkway the Raritan River (approximately 3.7 miles). Continue on Route 18 North. · Follow the signs for Towers move in

  17. Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tower pump suction basin was accomplished by diving into the basin using SCUBA gear. It was possible to see a build-up of debris on the pump suction basket strainers and on the floor of the sumps. Also, it was discovered that one of the four baskets had...

  18. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  19. Results from the CDMS 5-Tower Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonghee Yoo; for the CDMS collaboration

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical observations strongly suggest that non-luminous, nonbaryonic components, so called "Dark Matter", may constitute most of the matter in the Universe. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to detect Dark Matter interaction events through nuclear recoils from elastic scattering. The detector is capable of reading out both phonon and ionization energy of an interaction in Ge or Si crystals. We present results from the CDMS five-tower detector arrays. The data were collected in the period between October 2006 and July 2007 (with an effective exposure of 121.3 kg-days). No WIMP signal was observed. The results, when combined with previous CDMS Soudan data, set a 90% confidence level upper bound on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of $4.6\\times 10^{-44}$ cm$^2$ at 60 Gev/c$^2$ WIMP mass.

  20. Verification of BModes: Rotary Beam and Tower Modal Analysis Code; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes verification of BModes, a finite-element code developed to provide coupled modes for the blades and tower of a wind turbine. The blades, which may be rotating or non-rotating, and the towers, whether onshore or offshore, are modeled using specialized 15-dof beam finite elements. Both blade and tower models allow a tip attachment, which is assumed to be rigid body with six moments of inertia, and a mass centroid that may be offset from the blade or tower axis. Examples of tip attachments are aerodynamic brakes for blades and nacelle-rotor subassembly for towers. BModes modeling allows for tower supports including tension wires, floating platforms, and monopiles on elastic foundations. Coupled modes (implying coupling of flap, lag, axial, and torsional motions) are required for modeling major flexible components in a modal-based, aeroelastic code such as FAST1. These are also required for validation of turbine models using experimental data, modal-based fatigue analysis, controls design, and understanding aeroelastic-stability behavior of turbines. Verification studies began with uniform tower models, with and without tip inertia, and progressed to realistic towers. For the floating turbine, we accounted for the effects of hydrodynamic inertia, hydrostatic restoring, and mooring lines stiffness. For the monopole-supported tower, we accounted for distributed hydrodynamic mass on the submerged part of the tower and for distributed foundation stiffness. Finally, we verified a model of a blade carrying tip mass and rotating at different speeds (verifications of other blade models, rotating or non-rotating, have been reported in another paper.) Verifications were performed by comparing BModes-generated modes with analytical results, if available, or with MSC.ADAMS results. All results in general show excellent agreement.

  1. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COOLING TOWERS -- ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES Cooling Water Optimization Dr. JACK MATSON Environmental Engg. Dept. University of Houston Houston, Texas A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower... pressures on generating turbines and all of the good things listed above can be achieved with a well upgraded modernized cooling tower, but if minimum or no attention is paid to the water chemistry, poor performance, and loss of energy and dollar...

  2. Cooling Tower Considerations for Energy Optimizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accumulat- ing in the strainers and tubes. The California Redwood Institute states that the service life of thin section Redwood used in cooling towers .is a'pproximately 15 to 20 years. Therefore, in these older-type towers the fill Is usually... of the art cellular film fill packing. Figure 6. Eight cell blow-thru tower where rebuilding lowered the water temperature 4OF greatly reducing compressor head pressures and temperatures thereby lowering energy consumption throughout the system...

  3. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  4. Improvement of risk estimate on wind turbine tower buckled by hurricane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jingwei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind is one of the important reasonable resources. However, wind turbine towers are sure to be threatened by hurricanes. In this paper, method to estimate the number of wind turbine towers that would be buckled by hurricanes is discussed. Monte Carlo simulations show that our method is much better than the previous one. Since in our method, the probability density function of the buckling probability of a single turbine tower in a single hurricane is obtained accurately but not from one approximated expression. The result in this paper may be useful to the design and maintenance of wind farms.

  5. WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA 9/1/06-11/30/06 Prepared for Department of Energy (DOE) Golden.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series...........................................................................................................

  6. WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA 11/13/06-11/30/06 Prepared for Department of Energy (DOE.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series.........................................................................................................

  7. How to Build a Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergy 2010a Wind Turbine WorksHomeTower

  8. Pueblo Towers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to:ID8/OrganizationTechProbSolutionsPublic ArtTexas Jump to:Towers Jump to:

  9. Advanced Tower Analysis and Design System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related LinksATHENAAdministrative80-AAAdvancedof

  10. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fingersh, Lee Jay (Westminster, CO)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  11. Out of Ashes and Rubble: The Pirelli Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler, Claudia J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agnese’s text. 13. The Pirelli tower was novel, experimentalpostwar periods, or that the tower was a departure from theand Rubble: The Pirelli Tower Claudia J. Ziegler At the end

  12. Optimal sequencing of a cooling tower with multiple cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper evaluates the energy savings potential of multi-cell cooling tower optimal sequencing control methods. Annual tower fan energy usage is calculated for a counter-flow tower with multiple variable-speed fans. Effectiveness-NTU tower model...

  13. THE GROUP OF SYMMETRIES OF THE TOWER OF HANOI GRAPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behrstock, Jason

    THE GROUP OF SYMMETRIES OF THE TOWER OF HANOI GRAPH SO EUN PARK The classical Tower of Hanoi puzzle the tower of disks to another peg, moving one topmost disk at a time while never stacking a disk referred to as the Tower of Hanoi problem. Figure 1. Convention for labeling k pegs and n disks

  14. Charlotte Teachers' Circle September 17, 2011 Tower of Hanoi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Harold

    1 Charlotte Teachers' Circle September 17, 2011 Tower of Hanoi The Tower of Hanoi as the Tower of Brahma. According to the legend, when the last move of the puzzle is completed, the world of the three pegs. The objective of the puzzle is to move the entire tower to one of the other pegs

  15. A New Tower Over Cubic Finite Fields , Arnaldo Garcia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    A New Tower Over Cubic Finite Fields Alp Bassa , Arnaldo Garcia and Henning Stichtenoth We present a new explicit tower of function fields (Fn)n0 over the finite field with = q3 elements, where the limit). This tower contains as a subtower the tower which was introduced by Bezerra­ Garcia­Stichtenoth (see [3

  16. Effects of guy wires on SWECS tower dynamics. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C P; Pykkonen, K R; Sexton, J H

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats (RF) Supporting Research and Technology (SRT) study for tower testing/analysis has led to some useful information concerning the effect of tower guy pretension on small wind system tower dynamics. The effect of guy-wire pretension on tower natural frequencies is usually considered negligible if the guy: (1) has no sag caused by gravity, and (2) the tension is not approaching the tower buckling load. At the rf test center it was found that, for the test tower even when these conditions were avoided, the guy fundamental frequency must be 30% greater than the tower fundamental frequency to maintain the fundamental's characteristics.

  17. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  18. Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Loving care is paid to the compressors, condensers, and computer programs of refrigeration systems. When problems arise, operator: run around in circles with expensive "fixes", but historically ignore the poor orphan, the cooling tower perched...

  19. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

  20. WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT WBZ Tower, Hull, MA 12/1/06-2/28/07 Prepared for Department of Energy (DOE) Golden...................................................................................................................... 8 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 9 Wind Speed Distributions

  1. Projective preservation : reframing Rudolph's Tower for Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Jessica K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By 2012, the fate of Paul Rudolph's tower in downtown Boston has been in question for years while a vision of a denser city calls for its demolition. Projected development on the site currently argues that to move forward, ...

  2. Experimental study on the performance of a regeneration tower for various climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ertas, A.; Kiris, I.; Anderson, E.E. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)); Gandhidasan, P. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years attempts have been made to use packed towers for regenerating weak liquid desiccants in desiccant cooling or drying processes. For regeneration of desiccants, a counter-flow packed regeneration tower in conjunction with a humidifier has been designed and constructed. The tower was packed with plastic Intalox Snowflake packing material. Experimental measurements of the regeneration tower performance utilizing a new cost effective liquid desiccant mixture CELD (comprised of 50% of lithium chloride and 50% calcium chloride by weight) have been carried out. The average summer climatic conditions for Oklahoma (dry-bulb temperature of 32.22[degrees]C and relative humidity of 60%), Texas (dry-bulb temperature of 32.22[degrees]C and relative humidity of 70%), and Florida (dry-bulb temperature of 32.22[degrees]C and relative humidity of 80%) were simulated with air inlet condition to the tower. The effect of desiccant inlet temperature, inlet concentration, and flow rate on the regeneration tower performance has been investigated.

  3. Stability Properties of Magnetic Tower Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanori Nakamura; Hui Li; Shengtai Li

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability properties of ``magnetic tower'' jets propagating in the gravitationally stratified background have been examined by performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The current-carrying, Poynting flux-dominated magnetic tower jet, which possesses a highly wound helical magnetic field, is subject to the current-driven instability (CDI). We find that, under general physical conditions including small perturbations in the initial background profiles, the propagating magnetic tower jets develop the non-axisymmetric, $m=1$ kink mode of the CDI. The kink mode grows on the local Alfv\\'en crossing time scale. In addition, two types of kink modes appear in the system. At the central region where external thermal pressure confinement is strong, only the internal kink mode is excited and will grow. A large distance away from the central region where the external thermal pressure becomes low, the external kink mode is observed. As a result, the exterior of magnetic tower jets will be deformed into a large-scale wiggled structure. We also discuss extensively the different physical processes that contribute to the overall stability properties of the magnetic tower jets. Specifically, when the jet propagates in an initially unperturbed background, we find that they can survive the kink mode beyond the point predicted by the well-known Kruskal-Shafranov (K-S) criterion. The stabilization in this case comes mainly from the dynamical relaxation of magnetic twists during the propagation of magnetic towers; the magnetic pitch is reduced and the corresponding K-S critical wavelength becomes longer as the tower jet proceeds. Furthermore, we show that the pressure-driven and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities do not occur in the magnetic tower jets.

  4. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports.

  5. Digital places : rethinking urban elements : the case of the tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gichuhi, Christopher M. (Christopher Mwethera), 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Problem - How can we make working, living and all aspects of our life in the urban tower more palatable? How can we create environment at the urban tower scale. With technology as one of the biggest drivers of social and ...

  6. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Case study that...

  7. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  8. Boise Air Traffic Control Tower: High Performance and sustainable Building Guiding Principles Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Goel, Supriya; Henderson, Jordan W.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of energy efficiency opportunities for new FAA tower construction using the Boise Air Traffic Control Tower as an example.

  9. Bankers in the Ivory Tower: The Financialization of Governance at the University of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eaton, Charlie; Goldstein, Adam; Habinek, Jacob; Kumar, Mukul; Stover, Tamera Lee; Roehrkasse, Alex

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bankers in the Ivory Tower: The Financialization ofBankers in the Ivory Tower: The Financialization of

  10. New North Dakota Factory to Produce Wind Towers, Jobs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind tower factory could bring back some of the jobs lost when a machine manufacturing plant closed.

  11. MARTIN'S MAXIMUM AND TOWER FORCING SEAN COX AND MATTEO VIALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viale, Matteo

    MARTIN'S MAXIMUM AND TOWER FORCING SEAN COX AND MATTEO VIALE Abstract. There are several examples, the Reflection Princi- ple (RP) implies that if I is a tower of ideals which concentrates on the class GIC1 of 1 [16], shows that if PFA+ or MM holds and there is an inaccessible cardinal, then there is a tower

  12. 30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE The TALE Tower Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE The TALE Tower Detector D. R. BERGMAN1 , FOR THE TA and extend the range of its energy coverage to lower energies. One of the TALE detectors is a "tower cosmic rays with energies between 1016.5 and 1018 eV. To achieve this low-energy sensitivity the tower

  13. Muirhead Tower Atrium 9 January17 May 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Muirhead Tower Atrium 9 January­17 May 2013 Weekdays 9am­6pm William Morris and the Kelmscott Press Morris died. Muirhead Tower Atrium, 9 January­17 May 2013 Twitter: @CadburyRL See more exhibitions from Muirhead Tower, Lower Ground Floor University of Birmingham, B15 2TT E: special-collections@bham.ac.uk T

  14. Tower Foundation of SJSU Procurement Card Program Policies & Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eirinaki, Magdalini

    Tower Foundation of SJSU Procurement Card Program Policies & Procedures General Information Overview of Program The Tower Foundation ProCard program has been implemented to provide easy be an authorized signer on the Tower account. Purchases made with the ProCard are billed to Approving Official

  15. THE TOWER AT THE END OF COMMENCEMENT, 2006 THE GENERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    THE TOWER AT THE END OF COMMENCEMENT, 2006 THE GENERAL UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS INFORMATION AT AUSTIN O Box 7216, Austin TX 78713- 7216. Cover: The Tower at the conclusion of Commencement 2006 of the Tower and celebrated with a fireworks display and light show. Issue Number 2006/5 August 2006

  16. The Albany Particle Tower: Online Access for High School Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    The Albany Particle Tower: Online Access for High School Students Kristen Melnyk­Elsner Kimball education outreach program, the Albany Particle Tower (APT) has been made available online to students who to run the detector and analyze real time data. Introduction The Albany Particle Tower is a Cosmic Ray

  17. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies Preservative Spray Treatment Maintains Cooling Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reidenback, R.

    Several problems common to most industrial wood framed cooling towers can be easily controlled with annual preservative spray treatment applications to the plenum area framework and drift eliminators. It eliminates the expensive periodic repairs due...

  18. Untapped Energy Savings from Cooling Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps Jr., P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling tower is often an overlooked source of easy energy savings. As long as it's running not much thought is usually given to it, but when numbers are applied to how much a degree of colder water is worth it can become a valuable and ready...

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

  20. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  1. REMOTE INTERVENTION TOWER ELIMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dave Murnane; Renauld Washington

    2002-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report is presented to satisfy reporting requirements in the Statement of work section J.5 page 120 per Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-01NT41093. The project does not contain any imperial research data. This report describes the assembly of Commercial off the shelf (COTS) items configured in a unique manner to represent new and innovative technology in the service of size reduction and material handling at DOE sites, to assist in the D&D effort currently underway at the designated DOE Facilities.

  2. Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    for the sale. This paper investigates the internal elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Hard before... and after statistics of costs and profits obtained through optimization of colder water by engineered thermal upgrading will be discussed. Salient points will be reenforced with on-the-job, hands-on, slides and illustrations. HISTORICAL NEGLECT From...

  3. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  4. Oral Syllabus of David Nacin Minor Topic: The Automorphism Tower Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oral Syllabus of David Nacin Minor Topic: The Automorphism Tower Problem Simon Thomas: The Automorphism Tower Problem 1. The Automorphism Tower Problem (a) The Automorphism Tower Problem (b) Some Fundamental Results (c) Some Examples of Automorphism Towers (d) The Infinite Dihedral Group 2. Wielandt

  5. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, Jr., John E. (Aiken, SC)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  6. Optimization of Multiple Receivers Solar Power Tower systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 8, 2015 ... Solar Power Tower (SPT) systems are known as one of the most promising ...... An appropriate control is required to adapt the mass flow in the ...

  7. TOWER OF COVERINGS OF QUASI-PROJECTIVE VARIETIES ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    on a tower of coverings of a non-compact Kähler manifold of finite volume with reasonable geometric assumptions to its universal covering. Applicable examples ...

  8. Comparative evaluation of cooling tower drift eliminator performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Joseph Kwok-Kwong

    The performance of standard industrial evaporative cooling tower drift eliminators is analyzed using experiments and numerical simulations. The experiments measure the

  9. Tower systems for Linearly repetitive Delone sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José Aliste-Prieto; Daniel Coronel

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study linearly repetitive Delone sets and prove, following the work of Bellissard, Benedetti and Gambaudo, that the hull of a linearly repetitive Delone set admits a properly nested sequence of box decompositions (tower system) with strictly positive and uniformly bounded (in size and norm) transition matrices. This generalizes a result of Durand for linearly recurrent symbolic systems. Furthermore, we apply this result to give a new proof of a classic estimation of Lagarias and Pleasants on the rate of convergence of patch-frequencies.

  10. CXAllenRadioTower2.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.0 -CURRICULUM VITAEAllen Radio Tower

  11. GreenTower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG ContractingGreenOrder Jump to: navigation,GreenTower Jump to:

  12. Tower, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldsonInformationTorpedo SpecialityVessel JumpTower,

  13. PS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    area equivalent of 17 American Football Tower Solar receiver 4 vertical panels 18ft*39ft Steam turbinePS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang #12;Overview Magnitudes , Cost & TechnologiesMagnitudes , Cost Government . #12;Further ExplanationFurther Explanation Plataforma Solar de Sanlúcar la Mayor,PSSM Megawatts

  14. A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that use both sensible heat transfer and mass transfer to cool. The heat and mass transfer process for a crossflow cooling tower has been modeled on an Apple II microcomputer. Various heat loads or weather conditions can be imposed on a given tower...

  15. Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenserfor Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condensertower and condenser water optimization Summary Cleanroom energy

  16. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  17. CFD MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR A-AREA AND H-AREA COOLING TOWERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Garrett, A.; Bollinger, J.

    2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical draft cooling towers are designed to cool process water via sensible and latent heat transfer to air. Heat and mass transfer take place simultaneously. Heat is transferred as sensible heat due to the temperature difference between liquid and gas phases, and as the latent heat of the water as it evaporates. Mass of water vapor is transferred due to the difference between the vapor pressure at the air-liquid interface and the partial pressure of water vapor in the bulk of the air. Equations to govern these phenomena are discussed here. The governing equations are solved by taking a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The purpose of the work is to develop a three-dimensional CFD model to evaluate the flow patterns inside the cooling tower cell driven by cooling fan and wind, considering the cooling fans to be on or off. Two types of the cooling towers are considered here. One is cross-flow type cooling tower located in A-Area, and the other is counterflow type cooling tower located in H-Area. The cooling tower located in A-Area is mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) consisting of four compartment cells as shown in Fig. 1. It is 13.7m wide, 36.8m long, and 9.4m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud without any flow communications between two adjacent cells. There are water distribution decks on both sides of the fan shroud. The deck floor has an array of about 25mm size holes through which water droplet falls into the cell region cooled by the ambient air driven by fan and wind, and it is eventually collected in basin area. As shown in Fig. 1, about 0.15-m thick drift eliminator allows ambient air to be humidified through the evaporative cooling process without entrainment of water droplets into the shroud exit. The H-Area cooling tower is about 7.3 m wide, 29.3 m long, and 9.0 m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud, but each of two corner cells has two panels to shield wind at the bottom of the cells. There is some degree of flow communications between adjacent cells through the 9-in gap at the bottom of the tower cells as shown in Fig. 2. Detailed geometrical dimensions for the H-Area tower configurations are presented in the figure. The model was benchmarked and verified against off-site and on-site test results. The verified model was applied to the investigation of cooling fan and wind effects on water cooling in cells when fans are off and on. This report will discuss the modeling and test results.

  18. Group Date Location Room No. Group Day Date Location Room No. Monday 26 September David Hume Tower 9.18 Friday 30 September David Hume Tower 9.18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tittley, Eric

    Group Date Location Room No. Group Day Date Location Room No. Monday 26 September David Hume Tower 9.18 Friday 30 September David Hume Tower 9.18 10 October David Hume Tower 9.18 14 October David Hume Tower 9.18 24 October David Hume Tower 9.18 28 October David Hume Tower 9.18 07 November David

  19. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  20. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  1. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  2. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  3. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  4. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  5. Annual General Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Congrs gnral annuel de la Socit canadienne de gnie civil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammad, Amin

    , and compares evaluation results with a set of criteria. 1. INTRODUCTION Building designers (Architects, pollution, smoke and fire propagation (Hutcheon, 1963). Yet, like the structural system, the building, the building envelope is specified in the architecture design drawings based more on rules of thumb than

  6. Analysis methods for solar heating and cooling applications: passive and active systems. 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brief descriptions of analysis methods and design tools which are valuable in performing parametric studies of candidate designs are presented in this brochure. The methods included range from rules-of-thumb for builders to the simulation packages used by researchers. (MHR)

  7. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  8. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  9. Tower of Hanoi Most of the following paragraphs were copied from wikipedia [I]. Pictures were bor-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lalín, Matilde

    Tower of Hanoi Most of the following paragraphs were copied from wikipedia [I]. Pictures were bor- rowed from [2] and [3]. The Tower of Hanoi or Towers of Hanoi is a mathematical game or puzzle known as the Tower of Brahma puzzle. It is not clear whether Lucas invented this legend or was inspired

  10. ON THE FRAME-STEWART ALGORITHM FOR THE TOWER MICHAEL RAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behrstock, Jason

    ON THE FRAME-STEWART ALGORITHM FOR THE TOWER OF HANOI MICHAEL RAND 1. Introduction The Tower is to move the entire tower to another peg, while obeying the following restrictions: · Only one disk may have been: · What is the minimum number of moves required to transfer the entire tower from one peg

  11. FMRI BOLD Cerebellar Activation of First-episode Schizophrenia Patients during the Tower of London Task

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    FMRI BOLD Cerebellar Activation of First-episode Schizophrenia Patients during the Tower of London difficulty (number of moves) when performing the Tower of London task. Left Figure: Example of a Tower Tower of London problem. (Yellow labels are for the purpose of illustration only and did not appear

  12. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference paper for WindPower 2006 held June 4-7, 2006, in Pittsburgh, PA, describing the wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites in the Central Plains of the United States.

  13. Cooling Towers - Energy Conservation and Money Making Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling towers in operation are performing at levels as low as 50% of capability. This is energy wasteful and financially foolish. There are many reasons for this deficiency, among them the present service is greater than the original requirements...

  14. Introducing an Online Cooling Tower Performance Analysis Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.; Rao, P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and variable nature of all of the factors that can influence performance; fan speed, wind speed, sump temperature, heat load, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc. This can be overwhelming for a regular operator resulting in many cooling towers being set...

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Padding Tower for Air Dehumidifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, G.; An, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and solar power as the heat source for regeneration. Hence, this system has a great latent potential for energy savings and environmental protection. The system chooses the padding tower as a dehumidifier and regenerator, which are often used...

  16. Cooling Towers - Energy Conservation and Money Making Mechanisms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of colder water conserves energy, creates profits, increases product output. In an effort to obtain greater efficiencies and conserve both energy and dollars, all too many engineers neglect the potential of the cooling tower. Many...

  17. Armor Tower Inc. Notification of Intent to Investigate

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mr. Edward Rosenbloom Chief Executive Officer Armor Tower, Inc. 9 N Main St, 2nd Floor Cortland, New York 13045 Dear Mr. Rosenbloom: This letter serves as notification of the...

  18. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  19. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  20. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  1. Biodiversity Governance: A Tower of Babel of Scales and Cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soberon, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    PERSPECTIVE Biodiversity Governance: A Tower of Babel of Scales and Cultures Jorge Soberón*, A. Townsend Peterson Biodiversity Institute and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States...) explicitly mentions as stakeholders: PLOS Biology | DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002108 March 12, 2015 1 / 5 a11111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Soberón J, Peterson AT (2015) Biodiversity Governance: A Tower of Babel of Scales and Cultures. PLoS Biol 13(3): e1002108...

  2. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  3. A Single Tower Configuration of the Modular Gamma Box Counter System - 13392

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, K.; Nakazawa, D.; Francalangia, J.; Gonzalez, H. [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT, 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT, 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Canberra's Standard Gamma Box Counter System is designed to perform accurate quantitative assays of gamma emitting nuclides for a wide range of large containers including B-25 crates and ISO shipping containers. Using a modular building-block approach, the system offers tremendous flexibility for a variety of measurement situations with wide ranges of sample activities and throughput requirements, as well as the opportunity to modify the configuration for other applications at a later date. The typical configuration consists of two opposing towers each equipped with two high purity germanium detectors, and an automated container trolley. This paper presents a modified configuration, consisting of a single tower placed inside a measurement trailer with three detector assemblies, allowing for additional vertical segmentation as well as a viewing a container outside the trailer through the trailer wall. An automatic liquid nitrogen fill system is supplied for each of the detectors. The use of a forklift to move the container for horizontal segmentation is accommodated by creating an additional operational and calibration set-up in the NDA 2000 software to allow for the operator to rotate the container and assay the opposite side, achieving the same sensitivity as a comparable two-tower system. This Segmented Gamma Box Counter System retains the core technologies and design features of the standard configuration. The detector assemblies are shielded to minimize interference from environmental and plant background, and are collimated to provide segmentation of the container. The assembly positions can also be modified in height and distance from the container. The ISOCS calibration software provides for a flexible approach to providing the calibrations for a variety of measurement geometries. The NDA 2000 software provides seamless operation with the current configuration, handling the data acquisition and analysis. In this paper, an overview of this system is discussed, along with the measured performance results, calibration methodology and verification, and minimum detectable activity levels. (authors)

  4. AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  6. Cooling of hot gases by use of a spray tower 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pendleton, Elmer Lee

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , These included a sprayhead, number 5B Sprayco, which was located either at the top of the tower (A) or at a position four feet lower in the tower (B), a hot air inlet duct (C), an air outlet duct (D), a multiport gas burner (E), a ceramic checkerwork (F.... ?ne corresnonding m?ss w?s dote?- rrnrei) n-; use ? f su ~ table scales, . ni balances. Thc spec? f? cat iona I' or :j i'- ei' 'one. ? !'. )nws: ? ncp, a! i ' sty . ? i at?i. 'Fl. ? t"nr v: . , c ie. , " F. nu=rc. ured cy Can, " c? 0?ubdzv...

  7. Comparison of Second Wind Triton Data with Meteorological Tower Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In this study, we present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art SOund Detection And Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a high-quality tower measurement program. Second Wind Inc. (Somerville, MA, USA) provided NREL with more than six months of data from a measurement program conducted near an operating wind farm in western Texas.

  8. Low-frequency forces on tubular spaceframe towers: Analysis of Cognac data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, J.P. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Marshall, P.W. (Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cognac field data indicate that the low-frequency force response components are not negligible and are significantly correlated to the wave envelope process. Although this is a well-known phenomenon in floating structures, it had previously not been validated from data recorded on fixed platforms. Simulation studies based on a vertical rigid cylinder subjected to Hurricane Frederic sea states show significant differences in applied low-frequency drag forces obtained using the Wheeler and Delta stretching schemes used to approximate near-surface fluid kinematics. Previous studies focusing on the peak hydrodynamic forces, as used for the design of fixed platforms, have shown a significant difference between predictions based on Wheeler and Delta stretching. The present study reveals that the Cognac field data could be used to discriminate between the Wheeler and Delta stretching schemes in terms of the low-frequency forces, which are potentially important in the design of compliant towers. However, such a discriminatory study would require detailed structural and hydrodynamic modeling of the Cognac tower.

  9. The Tower of Hanoi and Finite Automata Jean-Paul Allouche and J. Shallit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shallit, Jeffrey O.

    The Tower of Hanoi and Finite Automata Jean-Paul Allouche and J. Shallit Abstract Some of the algorithms for solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle can be applied "with eyes closed" or "without memory". Here we survey the solution for the classical tower of Hanoi that uses finite automata, as well as some

  10. UT tower goes dark to conserve energy by KVUE.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    UT tower goes dark to conserve energy by KVUE.com Posted on November 22, 2013 at 5:12 PM Updated, but the first time the tower turned off its lights for the initiative. In previous initiatives, the UT Energy Friday, Nov 22 at 5:51 PM AUSTIN -- The University of Texas tower will remain unlit Friday night

  11. Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature from Remote Thermal Abstract Determination of the internal temperature of a mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) from remotelyRadiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction

  12. P9.5 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FROM THE CASES-99 MAIN TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Sean

    P9.5 THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FROM THE CASES-99 MAIN TOWER Sean P. Burns #3-m tower located east of Leon, Kansas (latitude 37 Æ 38.88'N, lon- gitude 96 Æ 44.14'W). These data aspirated, slow-response tem- perature sensors maintained by ATD on the tower. These air temperature

  13. IMU Activities Tower Application and Contract 1 Indiana Memorial Union, Room 270

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    IMU Activities Tower Application and Contract 1 Indiana Memorial Union, Room 270 Bloomington space in the Student Activities Tower of the Indiana Memorial Union to student organizations registered Board office--located on the second floor of the Student Activities Tower-- IMU Room 270. Even if you

  14. The Ivory Tower: the history of a figure of speech and its cultural uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapin, Steven

    The Ivory Tower: the history of a figure of speech and its cultural uses STEVEN SHAPIN* Abstract. This is a historical survey of how and why the notion of the Ivory Tower became part of twentieth- and twenty in the ancient debate between the active and contemplative lives. Holy ivory There never was an Ivory Tower

  15. THE GOODWILLIE TOWER OF THE IDENTITY IS A GREG ARONE AND MARJA KANKAANRINTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielefeld, University of

    THE GOODWILLIE TOWER OF THE IDENTITY IS A LOGARITHM GREG ARONE AND MARJA KANKAANRINTA April 6, 1995 Abstract. We offer the point of view that the Goodwillie tower of the identity functor is a formal inverse The Goodwillie tower of the identity (see [2, 3, 4] for a general reference on the Goodwillie calculus

  16. The Use of Tall Tower Field Data for Estimating Wind Turbine Power Performance , J. Chapman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    The Use of Tall Tower Field Data for Estimating Wind Turbine Power Performance A. Swift1 , J data acquisition tower is continuously measuring and recording atmospheric conditions at multiple providing barometric pressure and temperature data. A second data acquisition tower approximately 100m

  17. Airport Tower Automation With the construction of Bergstrom International Airport in South Austin, the FAA has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browne, James C.

    Airport Tower Automation With the construction of Bergstrom International Airport in South Austin, air traffic pattern, and incoming airplanes. The control system will be called the "tower. Collisions most often occur during take-offs or landings, so the tower must ensure proper spacing between

  18. Blandford MTA Tower Wind Monitoring This document provides information not repeated in the monthly wind monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Blandford MTA Tower Wind Monitoring This document provides information not repeated in the monthly on the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority (MTA) tower at Blandford. A wind vane and two anemometers are located at two heights on the tower: 60 m and 40 m. Details of the equipment and models are: · NRG model Symphonie

  19. Semistable Models of Curves Resolution of singularities on the tower of modular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semistable Models of Curves Resolution of singularities on the tower of modular curves Jared on the tower of modular curves #12;Semistable Models of Curves Semistable models: Definition Let R Resolution of singularities on the tower of modular curves #12;Semistable Models of Curves Semistable models

  20. School of Dentistry Skourtes Tower: named $10 million 200-Seat Auditorium: named $500,000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    School of Dentistry Skourtes Tower: named $10 million 200-Seat Auditorium: named $500,000 Floor 1 Tower Floor 8: Pre-doctoral Clinic Space: named $5 million Pre-Doctoral Integrated Group (IGP) Practices $75,000 Skourtes Tower Floor 9: Pre-doctoral Clinic Space: named $5 million Pre-doctoral Integrated

  1. Marion Meteorological Tower Wind Monitoring This document provides information not repeated in the monthly wind monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Marion Meteorological Tower Wind Monitoring This document provides information not repeated on the meteorological tower at Marion: Great Hill Dairy. A wind vane and two anemometers are located at two heights on the tower: 50 m and 38 m. Details of the equipment and models are: · NRG model Symphonie Cellogger · 4 ­ #40

  2. Estimation of advective fluxes from CO2 flux profile observations at the Cabauw Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Estimation of advective fluxes from CO2 flux profile observations at the Cabauw Tower Kasper O profile observations at the Cabauw Tower Version 1.0 Date April 2012 Status Final #12;#12;Estimation of Advective Fluxes from CO2 Flux Profile Observations at the Cabauw Tower Master of Science Thesis Kasper O

  3. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power to wind speed variations, the wind shear and the tower shadow effects. The fluctuating power may be ableSILENT/PowerFactory. In this paper, the impacts of wind shear and tower shadow effects on the small signal stability of power systems

  4. THE TOWER FOUNDATION OF SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY Procurement Card Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eirinaki, Magdalini

    THE TOWER FOUNDATION OF SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY Procurement Card Application CARDHOLDER card is lost or stolen, I will notify the Tower Foundation immediately. I will surrender my Procurement Card to Tower Foundation upon termination of employment or upon reallocation of duties which do

  5. 654revision:2000-01-30modified:2000-02-01 THE AUTOMORPHISM TOWER PROBLEM REVISITED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelah, Saharon

    654revision:2000-01-30modified:2000-02-01 THE AUTOMORPHISM TOWER PROBLEM REVISITED WINFRIED JUST, SAHARON SHELAH, AND SIMON THOMAS Abstract. It is well-known that the automorphism towers of infinite) = 1. In particular, Aut G is also a centreless group. This enables us to define the automorphism tower

  6. Summer 2014 A publication of the OHSU School of Dentistry Alumni Association Hello, Skourtes Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Summer 2014 A publication of the OHSU School of Dentistry Alumni Association Hello, Skourtes Tower are securely into our new space, the Skourtes Tower OHSU School of Dentistry in the Collaborative Life Sciences. The Skourtes Tower facility is going to match the quality of our faculty and students, and it is going

  7. THE AUTOMORPHISM TOWER PROBLEM REVISITED WINFRIED JUST, SAHARON SHELAH, AND SIMON THOMAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Simon

    THE AUTOMORPHISM TOWER PROBLEM REVISITED WINFRIED JUST, SAHARON SHELAH, AND SIMON THOMAS Abstract.It is well-known that the automorphism towers of infinite centr* *e Gffwith InnGffvia the natural embedding.) The automorphism tower is said to terminate if there exists

  8. Overcoming the Boundary Layer Turbulence at Dome C: Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics versus Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, Michael C. B.

    Overcoming the Boundary Layer Turbulence at Dome C: Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics versus Tower T the boundary layer: mounting a telescope on a tower that physically puts it above the turbulent layer such a goal, two solutions can be proposed. The most intuitive one is to place a telescope on a tower

  9. Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger program and by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies heat exchangers was demonstrated to illustrate an energy efficient cooling capability. This unique

  10. Performance characteristics of an induced draft, counterflow, spray cooling tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Charles Edward

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Figuno 1. These entrance bells wore previously calibrated. by means of the pitot tube traverse method. Air flow mct r pressure readings were obtained by means of inclined . " aft gages graduated to 3. 31 inch of' water. Air was drawn through the tower...

  11. The Postnikov tower in motivic stable homotopy theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's slice tower #12;Categories of spaces Fix a field k (perfect?). · Spc := the category of simplicial sets: "spaces". · Spc(k) := the category of presheaves of spaces on Sm/k: "spaces over k". · Pointed versions Spc, Spc(k). Spc Spc(k): S "constant presheaf" S. Sm/k Spc(k): X "representable presheaf" Y Hom

  12. 800mm luxury : pencil tower phenomenon in Hong Kong, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yam, Hiu Lan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    150m2 - 40m2 - 60m3. Pencil Towers are slender pencil-like apartment buildings. They are commonly found in high-dense Asian cities such as Hong Kong, Tokyo and Singapore. Focusing on Hong Kong as the context of research, ...

  13. The Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion of perspectiveThe Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion of perspective We would like to describe a new illusion of perspective that to our knowledge has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    The Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion of perspectiveThe Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion reported before. Figure 1 shows two images of the Leaning Tower of Pisa placed next to one another. One obtains a strong impression that the tower on the right leans more, as if photographed from a different

  14. Low frequency forces on tubular spaceframe towers: Analysis of Cognac data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, J.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Marshall, P.W. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of the study presented here was to identify if field data collected from the Cognac platform can be used to discriminate between the empirical Wheeler and Delta stretching schemes to approximate near surface kinematics, in terms of the low-frequency forces which are potentially important in the design of compliant towers. Previous studies focusing on the peak hydrodynamic forces, as used for the design of fixed platforms, have shown a significant difference between predictions based on Wheeler and Delta stretching. The cognac field data indicate that the low-frequency force components are not negligible and are significantly correlated to the wave envelope process. Simulation studies based on a vertical rigid cylinder subjected to Hurricane Frederic sea states show significant differences in applied low-frequency drag forces obtained using Wheeler versus Delta stretching.

  15. Deposition and corrosion phenomena on aluminum surfaces under deluged dry cooling-tower condisions. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, K.R.; May, R.P.; Douglas, J.G.; Tylczak, J.H.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deposition and corrosion on aluminum heat exchanger surfaces resulting from deluge in wet/dry cooling towers is simulated in a laboratory Corrosion/Deposition Loop (CDL). Heat exchanger deposition buildup was found to be linearly dependent on concentration factor and number of wet/dry cycles. Deionized water rising after deluge reduced rate of deposition. Laboratory data obtained from CDL relates directly to operation of the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) demonstration cooling tower. Technology transferable to ACT shows that deposition from supersaturated solution can be effectively controlled by attention to water chemistry, pH, water conditioning, and good heat transfer design. The additional mechanism of deposition by water film evaporation is effectively managed by soft water rinsing and uniform surface wetting. Exposure of a model TRANE surface (the ACT wet/dry exchanger) produced short-term deposition extrapolating to 0.011 mm buildup in three years. Studies continue to verify 4X as maximum cycles of concentration through control of water chemistry and rinsing after deluge. Deluge water used at ACT facility is sufficiently aggressive to warrant use of Alclad to extend tube service life.

  16. Manuscript received for review, February 2008; accepted for publication, SIX CENTURIES OF FIRE HISTORY AT DEVILS TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    OF FIRE HISTORY AT DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT WITH COMMENTS ON REGIONWIDE TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE-0985 ABSTRACT--This study documents over six centuries of historic fire events at Devils Tower National Monu­climate relationships derived from Devils Tower, the Black Hills, and other Great Plains sites suggest that Devils Tower

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Las Vegas, NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Las Vegas, Nevada by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  18. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building Oakland, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be build at Oakland, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  19. Structure of Magnetic Tower Jets in Stratified Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanori Nakamura; Hui Li; Shengtai Li

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a new approach on modeling the magnetically dominated outflows from AGNs (Li et al. 2006), we study the propagation of magnetic tower jets in gravitationally stratified atmospheres (such as a galaxy cluster environment) in large scales ($>$ tens of kpc) by performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We present the detailed analysis of the MHD waves, the cylindrical radial force balance, and the collimation of magnetic tower jets. As magnetic energy is injected into a small central volume over a finite amount of time, the magnetic fields expand down the background density gradient, forming a collimated jet and an expanded ``lobe'' due to the gradually decreasing background density and pressure. Both the jet and lobes are magnetically dominated. In addition, the injection and expansion produce a hydrodynamic shock wave that is moving ahead of and enclosing the magnetic tower jet. This shock can eventually break the hydrostatic equilibrium in the ambient medium and cause a global gravitational contraction. This contraction produces a strong compression at the head of the magnetic tower front and helps to collimate radially to produce a slender-shaped jet. At the outer edge of the jet, the magnetic pressure is balanced by the background (modified) gas pressure, without any significant contribution from the hoop stress. On the other hand, along the central axis of the jet, hoop stress is the dominant force in shaping the central collimation of the poloidal current. The system, which possesses a highly wound helical magnetic configuration, never quite reaches a force-free equilibrium state though the evolution becomes much slower at late stages. The simulations were performed without any initial perturbations so the overall structures of the jet remain mostly axisymmetric.

  20. High Flux Isotopes Reactor (HFIR) Cooling Towers Demolition Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pudelek, R. E.; Gilbert, W. C.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a joint initiative between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, operated by UT-Battelle, and Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) to characterize, package, transport, treat, and dispose of demolition waste from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Cooling Tower. The demolition and removal of waste from the site was the first critical step in the planned HFIR beryllium reflector replacement outage scheduled. The outage was scheduled to last a maximum of six months. Demolition and removal of the waste was critical because a new tower was to be constructed over the old concrete water basin. A detailed sampling and analysis plan was developed to characterize the hazardous and radiological constituents of the components of the Cooling Tower. Analyses were performed for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) heavy metals and semi-volatile constituents as defined by 40 CFR 261 and radiological parameters including gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, alpha-emitting isotopes and beta-emitting isotopes. Analysis of metals and semi-volatile constituents indicated no exceedances of regulatory limits. Analysis of radionuclides identified uranium and thorium and associated daughters. In addition 60Co, 99Tc, 226Rm, and 228Rm were identified. Most of the tower materials were determined to be low level radioactive waste. A small quantity was determined not to be radioactive, or could be decontaminated. The tower was dismantled October 2000 to January 2001 using a detailed step-by-step process to aid waste segregation and container loading. The volume of waste as packaged for treatment was approximately 1982 cubic meters (70,000 cubic feet). This volume was comprised of plastic ({approx}47%), wood ({approx}38%) and asbestos transite ({approx}14%). The remaining {approx}1% consisted of the fire protection piping (contaminated with lead-based paint) and incidental metal from conduit, nails and braces/supports, and sludge from the basin. The waste, except for the asbestos, was volume reduced via a private contract mechanism established by BJC. After volume reduction, the waste was packaged for rail shipment. This large waste management project successfully met cost and schedule goals.

  1. On the Teichmuller tower of mapping class groups Allen Hatcher, Pierre Lochak and Leila Schneps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneps, Leila

    On the Teichmuller tower of mapping class groups Allen Hatcher, Pierre Lochak and Leila Schneps;nition of d GT 1 , and show that #3; acts on the tower of pro#12;nite mapping class groups bm g;n for all sketch our version of this history. A Teichmuller tower consists of a collection of (algebraic, i.e. pro

  2. Rebuilding the Tower of Babel: An introduction to freshman composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Karen

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 8 CKlly, y~c'1Dt ~:A~c~dht 0 E * d~cf t (Gl t, 111. : ~ t, 9 d 0 1972), p. 3. 9 Walker Gibson, ~Seein and ~Writin , 2nd ed. (New York: David McKay Co. , Inc, 1974), p. iii. 10 K M '(, ~CD (N Y k: Hyd E kC . , 19707, p. 27. Kelly, "Toward... Rebuilding the Tower of Babel: An Introduction to Freshman Composition. (May 1978) Karen Davis, B. A. , Southwest Texas State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Forrest Dean Burt New teachers of composition need a handbook to supplement...

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.Space DataEnergyCompressed AirEnergy »Tower

  4. Microsoft Word - PowerTower_work_2009.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE LMI-EFRCAddendumNo. 1 Contract No.Tower R&D

  5. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads intoMansoor Ghassem )Department of Energy for Tower

  6. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulating water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity). After the tower...

  7. ON THE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY OF MAGNETIC TOWER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 600 Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Ciardi, A. [LERMA, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon (France); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2BW London (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern theoretical models of astrophysical jets combine accretion, rotation, and magnetic fields to launch and collimate supersonic flows from a central source. Near the source, magnetic field strengths must be large enough to collimate the jet requiring that the Poynting flux exceeds the kinetic energy flux. The extent to which the Poynting flux dominates kinetic energy flux at large distances from the engine distinguishes two classes of models. In magneto-centrifugal launch models, magnetic fields dominate only at scales {approx}< 100 engine radii, after which the jets become hydrodynamically dominated (HD). By contrast, in Poynting flux dominated (PFD) magnetic tower models, the field dominates even out to much larger scales. To compare the large distance propagation differences of these two paradigms, we perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations of both HD and PFD stellar jets formed via the same energy flux. We also compare how thermal energy losses and rotation of the jet base affects the stability in these jets. For the conditions described, we show that PFD and HD exhibit observationally distinguishable features: PFD jets are lighter, slower, and less stable than HD jets. Unlike HD jets, PFD jets develop current-driven instabilities that are exacerbated as cooling and rotation increase, resulting in jets that are clumpier than those in the HD limit. Our PFD jet simulations also resemble the magnetic towers that have been recently created in laboratory astrophysical jet experiments.

  8. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  9. Repairs to silence Tower bells | The Daily Texan http://dailytexanonline.com/news/2012/09/27/repairs-to-silence-tower-bells 2 of 4 10/2/2012 8:55 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Lizy Kurian

    Repairs to silence Tower bells | The Daily Texan http://dailytexanonline.com/news/2012/09/27/repairs-to-silence-tower-bells 2 of 4 10/2/2012 8:55 AM #12;Repairs to silence Tower bells | The Daily Texan http://dailytexanonline.com/news/2012/09/27/repairs-to-silence-tower-bells 3 of 4 10/2/2012 8

  10. GreenCache: Augmenting Off-the-Grid Cellular Towers with Multimedia Caches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Prashant

    or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy to run cellular towers "off the grid" [4]. Today's "off the grid" cellu- lar towers operate off diesel with expensive and "dirty" diesel fuel. S

  11. PIPE CLEANER TOWERS ACTIVITY Contributors: Dr. Laura Bottomley & Heather Smolensky Page 1 of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -12+ Group Size: 3-4 Time Required: 15-20 minutes Mest-Up Factor: 1 (Setup and Mess Factor: 1 to 10 scale materials to build the tallest, free standing tower within the time constraints and using the efforts of all-tech' materials to build the tallest, free standing tower that they can within certain time constraints. Check

  12. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building John Seryak Kelly Kissock Project Engineer Associate Professor Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering... University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers...

  13. Daily Texan April 1, 2014 Keeping Tower dark for Earth Hour was

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Lizy Kurian

    of the University's Energy and Water Conservation program, said the Tower going dark was a gesture similarDaily Texan April 1, 2014 Keeping Tower dark for Earth Hour was intended to raise awareness British thermal units, of natural gas. According to the University's Utilities and Energy Management

  14. Water filtration optimization by geometric programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Duane Jimmy

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    important as a means of removing suspended and colloidal matter. Sand is the most commonly used filter media but is rapidly being replaced by a combination of anthracite, sand, and garnet for faster filtration rates. Due to the complexity... of the filtering process, the design of these filters has remained an art without ever progressing to a science. Filters are in general designed from experience and rules of thumb without any assurance that maximum efficiency is attained at minimum cost. A...

  15. Request for Degree Certification Exception Office of the Registrar, University of Memphis, 003 Wilder Tower / Ph: 678-2810

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    Wilder Tower / Ph: 678-2810 A Tennessee Board of Regents Institution An Equal Opportunity, 003 Wilder Tower. Reset S E L E C T O N E: #12;

  16. System and method for aligning heliostats of a solar power tower

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Convery, Mark R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a solar power tower heliostat alignment system and method that includes a solar power tower with a focal area, a plurality of heliostats that each reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower, an off-focal area location substantially close to the focal area of the solar power tower, a communication link between the off-focal area location and a misaligned heliostat, and a processor that interprets the communication between the off-focal area location and the misaligned heliostat to identify the misaligned heliostat from the plurality of heliostats and that determines a correction for the identified misaligned heliostat to realign the misaligned heliostat to reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower.

  17. 'Tower of Babel' technology nears The problem of compatibility between wireless devices is being addressed at an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bressler, Steven L.

    'Tower of Babel' technology nears The problem of compatibility between wireless devices is being "Tower of Babel" technology - software that can converge different wireless gadgets into a single device and Computers is being held, said: "SDR is what one could call a Tower of Babel-type technology

  18. tall tower facility and instrumentation New coNstraiNts oN the Nitrous oxide budget of agricultural ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    tall tower facility and instrumentation New coNstraiNts oN the Nitrous oxide budget of agricultural approach involves multiple tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy systems, a tall tower, automated chambers hectare. Measurements are also made at the tall tower trace gas observatory (TGO) located at RROC

  19. 1201 Lake Robbins Drive The Woodlands, Texas 77380 (832) 636-1000 DIRECTIONS TO THE ANADARKO TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    TOWER From Houston: Exit Woodlands Parkway (Exit 76B) fly-over from I-45 North. Turn right onto Woodloch entrance to the tower is the third entry on the right. Follow the directions to Visitor Parking. From right into the Tower entrance. Follow the directions to Visitor Parking. From Bush Intercontinental

  20. Methane efflux from boreal wetlands: Theory and testing of the ecosystem model Ecosys with chamber and tower flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    and tower flux measurements R. F. Grant Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton tower at a beaver pond in the BOREAS Northern Study Area. Spatial and temporal variation of CH4 effluxes in the model encompassed that measured by surface chambers and the flux tower. Both modeled and measured CH4

  1. ECE DEPARTMENT TOWER Through the team effort of Professor's Michael Carter and Richard Messner, Kingsbury Hall has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    ECE DEPARTMENT TOWER Through the team effort of Professor's Michael Carter and Richard Messner, Kingsbury Hall has sprouted a new 70 foot antenna tower this summer, which will expand the capabilities laboratory exercises in software-defined radio, the new tower will host an experimental MIMO cellular base

  2. A study of a cooling tower with variable packing heights 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, A. M. M. Farid

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the uc;x oe of . 'f ~'F. CF 'SC L'. . INC 2 August 1957 i ajor: ', iechanical Zn;. :tneering A Stud. ;; of a Coolinp, Tower with Variable Packin- Heights A Thesis li. Vi. Farid Khan Approved as to style and. content by: Chaxrman of Commi tee... the Departm;. nt i~lonth Year fLCI inc)'&lr ' JGL&)) 'n fi3 a J thor ', ;laili . . io ila&' ' I. ' ~)oi&al J ?'. )' e . I al, &Lip & vi &or Heal ' oA'c '&I'oup oI . e& Ds !:I&Ei 1''el Ills i. oi&I'I'ei jb : taei i&n for i'urili li&i 1. ?a& rial anu equip...

  3. Solar two: A molten salt power tower demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sutherland, J.P. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States); Gould, W.R. Jr. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A consortium of United States utility concerns led by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) is conducting a cooperative project with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories, and industry to convert the 10-MW Solar One Power Tower Pilot Plant to molten nitrate salt technology. The conversion involves installation of a new receiver, a new thermal storage system, and a new steam generator; it utilizes Solar One`s heliostat field and turbine generator. Successful operation of the converted plant, called Solar Two, will reduce economic risks in building initial commercial power tow projects and accelerate the commercial acceptance of this promising renewable energy technology. The estimated cost of Solar Two, including its three-year test period, is $48.5 million. The plant will begin operation in early 1996.

  4. On the quantum analogue of Galileo's leaning tower experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Md. Manirul Ali; A. S. Majumdar; Dipankar Home; Alok Kumar Pan

    2006-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum analogue of Galileo's leaning tower experiment is revisited using wave packets evolving under the gravitational potential. We first calculate the position detection probabilities for particles projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection, which exhibit mass dependence at both these points. We then compute the mean arrival time of freely falling particles using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanish in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter.

  5. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  6. On The N-Tower-Problem and Related Problems F.Thomas Bruss Guy Louchard y John W.Turner z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louchard, Guy

    On The N-Tower-Problem and Related Problems F.Thomas Bruss #3; Guy Louchard y John W.Turner z November 12, 2002 Abstract N towers contain initially n i (i = 1; 2; :::N) counters. At each step a tower is chosen at random, a counter removed which is then added to another tower also chosen at random

  7. MONITORING OF CRACKS ON THE BELL TOWER OF ST. ANASTASIA CATHEDRAL IN ZADAR CROATIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MONITORING OF CRACKS ON THE BELL TOWER OF ST. ANASTASIA CATHEDRAL IN ZADAR CROATIA Davor Uglesi 1 , Uros Bohinc 2 1 D & Z doo, Jerolima Vidulia 7, 23000 Zadar, Croatia 2 ZAG, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana

  8. LODGING IN MILFORD AREA Accomodations 10 20 minutes from Grey Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LODGING IN MILFORD AREA Accomodations 10 ­ 20 minutes from Grey Towers: Best Western Inn 120 Rtes-4414 Westfall's Motel Rtes. 6 & 209 Milford, PA 18337 (570) 491-4344 #12;Accomodations 20 ­ 30 minutes from Grey

  9. BREN Tower: A Monument to the Material Culture of Radiation Dosimetry Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Edwards

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With a height of more than 1,500 feet, the BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower dominates the surrounding desert landscape of the Nevada Test Site. Associated with the nuclear research and atmospheric testing programs carried out during the 1950s and 1960s, the tower was a vital component in a series of experiments aimed at characterizing radiation fields from nuclear detonations. Research programs conducted at the tower provided the data for the baseline dosimetry studies crucial to determining the radiation dose rates received by the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Today, BREN Tower stands as a monument to early dosimetry research and one of the legacies of the Cold War.

  10. Beyond the ivory tower : in search of a new form for campus-community relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman, Anne (Anne Renee)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The terms "ivory tower" and "town-gown" have long been used to characterize the relationship between institutions of higher education and the communities in which they reside. While these adversarial phrases reflect the ...

  11. Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puckorius, P. R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reuse of cooling tower blow down cannot only provide energy conservation, but can provide water conservation and chemical conservation. To be effective, it is critical that the water treatment program be coordinated with the treatment of the blow...

  12. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers, without mechanical equipment. A simple computer...

  13. Estimation of Blade and Tower Properties for the Gearbox Research Collaborative Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G.S.; Oyague, F.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the structural and modal properties of the blade and tower of a 3-bladed 750-kW upwind turbine to develop an aeroelastic model of the wind turbine.

  14. Exquisite corpse: a tower for the public in the era of exhausted modernity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Sungwoo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Towers in Manhattan, especially in business areas, have historically used a single overarching system in order to visualize images of their corporate identity and immerse the public in the image of development. While using ...

  15. Microsoft Word - CX-Driscoll-Naselle-TowerMove-FY13_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Stacie Hensley Project Manager - TEP-TPP-4 Proposed Action: Driscoll-Naselle No. 1 Tower Relocation Project...

  16. Thermodynamic modeling and optimization of a screw compressor chiller and cooling tower system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Rhett David

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF A SCREW COMPRESSOR CHILLER AND COOLING TOWER SYSTEM A Thesis by RHETT DAVID GRAVES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF A SCREW COMPRESSOR CHILLER AND COOLING TOWER SYSTEM A Thesis by RHETT DAVID GRAVES Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

  17. Explosive Demolition of a Fire-Water Tower At East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooksbank, R.D.; Rood, M.S.; Amrit, S.K.; Harper, M.S.; Dypolt, D.J.; Brehse, Mike [Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC, P.O. Box 4699 Oak Ridge, TN 37931 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 17, 2006, the Department of Energy (DOE) successfully demolished a {approx}60 year old fire-water tower (K-1206-E), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, TN, using strategically placed explosive charges. The subject demolition project was executed by MCM Management Corporation and Demolition Dynamics under the management of DoE's prime contractor Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). The K-1206-E Fire Water Tower (Tower) supported the ETTP fire water protection system from the mid- 1950's until 1991. The 378,500-L (100,000-gallon) Tower, elevated 53-m (175-feet) above grade, was located in a grassy area within 152-m (500-feet) of several other occupied facilities. Electrical, control circuits and supply water servicing the Tower were deactivated in 2003. Free liquids and sludge were removed from the tank prior to demolition. Demolition of a facility employing explosive demolition at a federal site in the 'post-9/11 era' was a substantial challenge. The subject paper discusses: - the planning and coordination steps that were taken to successfully overcome the challenges prior to the demolition of the empty, deactivated Tower; - the method used for the engineered demolition of the Tower; and - the factors responsible for the successful execution of this demolition project. At least two previous attempts were made to demolish the Tower. In the first attempt, the execution of the project was deferred by the re-allocation of funds. In the subsequent attempt in 2004, the execution of this project was postponed due to concerns that an adjacent facility would have to shut down operations during the duration of mobilization and execution of the project and thereby incur potential financial losses. A total of 51 cubic meters (1,800 cubic feet) of demolition debris was generated, which was compliantly disposed of at a local landfill followed by site restoration.

  18. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Barrow (METTWR4H) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights (2m, 10m, 20m and 40m) on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at the base of the tower. Additionally, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer and an Ultrasonic wind speed sensor are located near the 2m level for comparison purposes.

  19. Dynamic Resource Allocation with the arcControlTower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job management system (PanDA) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experienc...

  20. CHEP2015: Dynamic Resource Allocation with arcControlTower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job mangement system (Panda) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experience...

  1. A systems approach to conceptual design solutions for a very tall building in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ungerer, Frank Wolfgang, 1969-

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis represents a design investigation that seeks to reconsider the high-rise building. With changing uses and technologies, high-rise office towers may have become obsolete. Given the recent capabilities for ...

  2. A computational approach to the design of free form diagrid structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundberg, Jessica Nicole

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to satisfy the ever-increasing complexity of modem architectural design of tall towers, diagrid structural systems are becoming more relevant. To deal with irregular geometries, more sophisticated computational ...

  3. Model-based design of an ultra high performance concrete support structure for a wind turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zheng, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support tower is the main structure which would support rotor, power transmission and control systems, and elevates the rotating blades above the earth boundary layer. A successful design should ensure safe, efficient ...

  4. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building, Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted an energy audit on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Reno, Nevada. This report presents the findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) and completed a site visit. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  5. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) - FEMP Technical Assistance - Federal Aviation Administration - Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents an energy audit performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Boise, Idaho. This report presents findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) followed by a site visit of the facility under construction. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  6. The Water-Wise Vegetable Garden: An Analysis of the Potential for Irrigation through Rainwater Harvesting in Sunny Northern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Adrienne; Esterer-Vogel, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measure and predict, thus it was not surprising that our research uncovered numerous rules of thumb and generalized guidelines

  7. A Regenerative High-Rise Tower in Shreveport, Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrison, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zero Net Energy Buildings are increasingly being designed and constructed in response to the demand for sustainable buildings. But, we must now go beyond merely sustaining our environment for future generations we must provide regenerative designs...

  8. A Regenerative High-Rise Tower in Shreveport, Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrison, M.

    Zero Net Energy Buildings are increasingly being designed and constructed in response to the demand for sustainable buildings. But, we must now go beyond merely sustaining our environment for future generations we must provide regenerative designs...

  9. 24 m meteorological tower data report period: January through December, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.; Egami, R.; Coulombe, W.; Crow, D.; Cristani, B.; Schmidt, S.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT. This report presents results of the monitoring for January--December, 1996, providing: a status of the measurement systems during the report period and a summary of the meteorological conditions at the HAZMAT during the report period. The scope of the report is limited to summary data analyses and does not include extensive meteorological analysis. The tower was instrumented at 8 levels. Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were measured at all 8 levels. Relative humidity was measured at 3 levels. Solar and net radiation were measured at 2 meters above the ground. Barometric pressure was measured at the base of the tower and soil temperature was measured near the base of the tower.

  10. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were: 1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components. Success criteria DOE targets Wilson system LCOE DOE’s gas price $6.75/MBtu 9 cents/kWh 7.7 cents/kWh LCOE Current gas price $4.71/MBtu NA 6.9 cents/kWh Capacity factor 75% (6500hr) 75-100% Solar fraction 85% (5585hr) >5585hr Receiver cost $170/kWe $50/kWe Thermal storage cost $20/kWhth $13/kWhth Heliostat cost $120/m2 $89.8/m2

  11. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL; Muley, Nishant [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  12. Towering oak, the sun - porch house winner of the ''1982 German research award''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, G.W.P.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design for this energy-efficient house was developed to suit a benign climate with much rain, wind, and fog. The building's basic construction guarantees the most limited energy-use possible. This is achieved through a unique houseform, which encloses and warms the living spaces with a thick thermal coat: walls = 6'' semi-rigid glass fiber boards, R-19; roof = 10'' foil faced fiber glass, R = 30. Windows are located only on the south side, to ensure optimal sun-ray capture. The housefront consists of a ''sun-porch'' (Sonnenhof), which is a further development of the well-known German ''Wintergarten'' (winter garden). In this climate region, one can only expect a yearly average of five days with a summer temperature of over 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F); however, with a ''sun-porch'' the summer can make itself at home. In winter, the ''sun-porch'' protects against storms and always offers temperatures above the 7/sup 0/C (45/sup 0/F) minimum, a product of the compact roof and double glass with selective coating. On sunny winter days, one may even dine on the balconies. The estimation technique represented here is based on a procedure devised at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico, (Passive Solar Handbook, Vol. 2, J.D. Balcomb). ''Towering Oak's'' solar savings fraction = 49.0%; heating load = 2.56 BTU/sq. ft. Better results have yet to be achieved in Germany. In the USA, this could be increased to a solar fraction of up to 90%. Some modifications would, however, be necessary to suit the local climate (sun control devices, etc.).

  13. Innovative Mechanical Designs in the Sierras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    of a cooling tower, and heat recovery from a cogeneration plant. Ventilation Requirements Decoupled from Heating and Cooling Loads In any laboratory design, the first priority is proper ventilation. To meet, greatly increasing energy consumption. By decoupling sensible heating and cooling from the ventilation

  14. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., Vol. 2, Art. #8, 19 pp. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Wayne H.

    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., Vol. 2, Art. #8, 19 pp. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers potential vorticity (PV). is structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. e sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satis es the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic

  15. A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes 2006 Abstract Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy (sensible heat, H, and latent heat, LE of which include ``tall tower'' instrumentation), one grassland site, and one agricultural site, to conduct

  16. LINUDANS -Research and development of high voltage towers. Reykjavik University is working in Collaboration with Linudans, research based company specialized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    LINUDANS - Research and development of high voltage towers. Reykjavik University is working problems regarding the growing energy transport. All products of Linudans are green and environmentally voltage towers is the main focus of Linudans. The company has developed an innovative concept which serves

  17. Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Ola

    Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget P. Ola G. Persson,1 Christopher W. Fairall,2 Edgar L. Andreas,3 Peter S. Guest,4

  18. Simulated and observed fluxes of sensible and latent heat and CO2 at the WLEF-TV tower using SiB2.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Simulated and observed fluxes of sensible and latent heat and CO2 at the WLEF-TV tower using SiB2, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract Three years of meteorological data collected at the WLEF-TV tower were used the WLEF tower, which were not present in the SiB simulation. The model overestimated the magnitude

  19. Timber tower : a flexible fabrication method for reconfigurable housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, James (James Richard)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "Prefabricating Housing...again", this time it's going to be different. Fabrication machine functionality is bracketed by the physical configuration and componentry of the system. Traditionally, a machine designer engineers ...

  20. Hyper-light architecture : composite tower for Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsui, Jeffrey (Jeffrey Ling Siu), 1975-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial concept of the thesis beg ins with an interest in understanding the materials, manufacturing and aesthetics of modern product design and its relation ship with architecture and space . The approach to the problem ...

  1. LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation A. Pintea*, N of power produced by two bladed horizontal variable speed wind turbines. The proposed controller ensures not only an optimal operation of turbines but also enables a compromise with the minimization of the blade

  2. Closing the carbon budget of estuarine wetlands with tower-based measurements and MODIS time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Closing the carbon budget of estuarine wetlands with tower-based measurements and MODIS time series, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China, wDepartment of Environmental have distinct carbon flux dynamics ­ the lateral carbon flux incurred by tidal activities, and methane

  3. 2010 Towers Watson. All rights reserved. What have you got in mind?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baia, Margarida

    and Towers Watson client use only. What do actuaries do? As well as communicating complex financial issues in an understandable way, actuaries: Apply their statistical, economic and mathematical expertise and knowledge · Chile · Colombia · Mexico · Uruguay NORTH AMERICA · Bermuda · Canada · United States Our 14

  4. August 30-31, 2005 Augusta Towers Hotel and Convention Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    August 30-31, 2005 Augusta Towers Hotel and Convention Center Augusta, GA Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, more than 45 researchers and industry experts representing industrial gas and energy companies

  5. Top: Rudder Tower is one of 24 Texas A&M buildings undergoing energy efficiency upgrades.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Top: Rudder Tower is one of 24 Texas A&M buildings undergoing energy efficiency upgrades. Bottom: From the left: Jeff Murray, Siemens; Jim Riley, Director Utilities & Energy Management, Texas A&M; Jacob Richardson, Siemens; Les Williams, Associate Director Utilities & Energy Management, Texas A

  6. Ilchmann, Achim; Pahl, M. : Adaptive Multivariable pH Regulation of a Biogas Tower Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    Ilchmann, Achim; Pahl, M. : Adaptive Multivariable pH Regulation of a Biogas Tower Reactor Zuerst for a biogastower reactor.The reactor is a new type for anaerobic treatment of waste water. It has been developed. There are uunterollsapplicationsof control theory resr-rltsto single-inpr-rtsingle-outputpH control of stirred tarrk reactors: see

  7. ECON 162B -A0, A1 Kenny Christianson Fall 2010 office: Library Tower 1013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    ECON 162B - A0, A1 Kenny Christianson Fall 2010 office: Library Tower 1013 lecture A0: MWF 9, the stock market, and the role of the Federal Reserve in changing interest rates; the potential for double-dip recession and the rate of growth of GDP; inflation and deflation; the national debt and growing budget

  8. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

  9. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 39 mm), after which average lengths increased to 294 {+-} 145 mm for mid-November though early December. Fish behavior analysis indicates milling in front of the intake tower was the most common behavior observed throughout the study period (>50% of total fish events). The next most common movement patterns were fish traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east. The proportion of fish events seen moving into (forebay to tower) or out of (tower to forebay) the tower was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall for both directions combined. From mid-December 2010 through the end of the study, the combined proportions of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher than previous months of this study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring from late April through mid-June. Schooling events were present in 30 - 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak in mid-May. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring, fall, and winter months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours. No schooling was observed at night. Predator activity was observed during late spring, when fish abundance and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months. For the two days of BlueView data analyzed for vertical distribution in the forebay, a majority of fish (>50%) were present in the middle of the water column (10 - 20 m deep). Between 20 and 41 % of total fish abundance were found in the bottom of the water column (20 - 30 m deep). Few fish were observed in the top 10 m of the water column.

  10. Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)] [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (?g) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (?? < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under ?g conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for ?g combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

  11. Evidence of a Threshold Wind Speed in Tower-mounted Scatterometer Data David W. Draper and David G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    . Evidence of the threshold wind speed and a hysteresis effect have been observed in airship and wave tank in airship data [2]. YSCAT, an ultra-wideband (2-14 GHz) tower-mounted scat- terometer, provides significant

  12. Effects of adding wash tower effluent to Ano Liossia landfill to enhance bioreaction c by Olympia Galenianou.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galenianou, Olympia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study was performed on the effects of adding sulfate-rich wash tower effluent from the Athens hospital waste incinerator to the Ano Liossia landfill of Athens. The method of mass balance was used to examine ...

  13. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  14. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D eReview |Panel HydrogenM M aDesign |

  15. Reliability Analysis of Cooling Towers: Influence of Rebars Corrosion on Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudret, Bruno [Electricite de France - EDF, Research and Development Division, Dpt of Materials and Mechanics of Components, Site des Renardieres, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France); Pendola, Maurice [PHI-MECA Engineering, 1 Allee Alan Turing, 63170 - Aubiere (France)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-draught cooling towers are used in nuclear power plants as heat exchangers. These structures are submitted to environmental loads such as wind and thermal gradients that are stochastic in nature. A probabilistic framework has been developed by EDF (Electricite de France) for assessing the durability of such structures. In this paper, the corrosion of the rebars due to concrete carbonation and the corresponding weakening of the reinforced concrete sections is considered. Due to the presence of time in the definition of the limit state function associated with the loss of serviceability of the cooling tower, time-variant reliability analysis has to be used. A novel approach is proposed to take into account the random 'initiation time', which corresponds to the time necessary for the carbonation to attain the rebars. Results are given in terms of the probability of failure of the structure over its life time. (authors)

  16. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  17. The Worlds First Ever Cooling Tower Acceptance Test Using Process Data Reconciliation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnus Langenstein; Jan Hansen-Schmidt [BTB-Jansky GmbH, Gerlingerstrasse 151, D-71229 Leonberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cooling capacity of cooling towers is influenced by multiple constructive and atmospheric parameters in a very complex way. This leads to strong variations of the measured cold-water temperature and causes unacceptable unreliability of conventional acceptance tests, which are based on single point measurements. In order to overcome this lack of accuracy a new approach to acceptance test based on process data reconciliation has been developed by BTB Jansky and applied at a nuclear power plant. This approach uses process data reconciliation according to VDI 2048 to evaluate datasets over a long period covering different operating conditions of the cooling tower. Data reconciliation is a statistical method to determine the true process parameters with a statistical probability of 95% by considering closed material-, mass-and energy balances. Datasets which are not suitable for the evaluation due to strong transient gradients are excluded beforehand, according to well-defined criteria. The reconciled cold-water temperature is then compared, within a wet bulb temperature range of 5 deg. C to 20 deg. C to the manufacturer's guaranteed temperature. Finally, if the average deviation between reconciled and guaranteed value over the evaluated period is below zero, the cooling tower guarantee is fulfilled. (authors)

  18. Stability and Turbulence in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Comparison of Remote Sensing and Tower Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, K.; Lundquist, J. K.; Aitken, M.; Kalina, E. A.; Marshall, R. F.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When monitoring winds and atmospheric stability for wind energy applications, remote sensing instruments present some advantages to in-situ instrumentation such as larger vertical extent, in some cases easy installation and maintenance, measurements of vertical humidity profiles throughout the boundary layer, and no restrictions on prevailing wind directions. In this study, we compare remote sensing devices, Windcube lidar and microwave radiometer, to meteorological in-situ tower measurements to demonstrate the accuracy of these measurements and to assess the utility of the remote sensing instruments in overcoming tower limitations. We compare temperature and wind observations, as well as calculations of Brunt-Vaisala frequency and Richardson numbers for the instrument deployment period in May-June 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The study reveals that a lidar and radiometer measure wind and temperature with the same accuracy as tower instruments, while also providing advantages for monitoring stability and turbulence. We demonstrate that the atmospheric stability is determined more accurately when the liquid-water mixing ratio derived from the vertical humidity profile is considered under moist-adiabatic conditions.

  19. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, the average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 54 mm), after which average lengths increased to 295 {+-} 148 mm for mid-November though early December. From mid-December through January the average fish length decreased to 151 {+-} 76 mm. Milling in front of the WTC tower was the most common fish behavior observed throughout the study period. Traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east, was the next common behavior. The percentage of fish events showing movement from the forebay to the tower or from the tower to the forebay was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall (0 to 30% for both directions combined, March through early November). From mid-November 2010 through the end of the study (January 31, 2011), the combined percentages of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher (25 to 70%) than during previous months of the study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring. Schooling events were present in 30 to 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak on May 19. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. With the exception of some schooling in mid-December, few to no schooling events were observed in the fall and winter months. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring and fall months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours and no schooling was observed at night. However, in December, schooling occurred at night, after midnight, and during daylight hours. Predator activity, most likely bull trout or rainbow trout according to a USACE biologist, was observed during late spring, when fish abundance index and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months.

  20. A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galvin, David

    : a distillation tower, which takes in crude oil, up to a maximum of 650,000 barrels per day (bbl/day) and produces that maximizes profit. Note: Taha's Example 2.3-7 has distillation tower capacity 1,500,000 bbl/day, and is otherwise the same. 1 #12;Solution Let x1 be daily input to distillation tower Constraint: 0 x1 650000

  1. Trigger LVL1 "Tower Builder" Add: Cables transmission of fast pulses for: The level 1 calorimeter-trigger in ATLAS (sent on 24-01-1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascual, J

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trigger LVL1 "Tower Builder" Add: Cables transmission of fast pulses for: The level 1 calorimeter-trigger in ATLAS (sent on 24-01-1995)

  2. We are on a two-acre site near the CSU campus in Fort Collins. We have a 40-foot climbing tower and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tower and several high elements set on poles up to 40 feet in the air. But our Challenge course is more

  3. Measurement of the atmospheric muon depth intensity relation with the NEMO Phase-2 tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Aiello; F. Ameli; M. Anghinolfi; G. Barbarino; E. Barbarito; F. Barbato; N. Beverini; S. Biagi; B. Bouhadef; C. Bozza; G. Cacopardo; M. Calamai; C. Calì; A. Capone; F. Caruso; A. Ceres; T. Chiarusi; M. Circella; R. Cocimano; R. Coniglione; M. Costa; G. Cuttone; C. D'Amato; A. D'Amico; G. De Bonis; V. De Luca; N. Deniskina; G. De Rosa; F. Di Capua; C. Distefano; P. Fermani; L. A. Fusco; F. Garufi; V. Giordano; A. Gmerk; R. Grasso; G. Grella; C. Hugon; M. Imbesi; V. Kulikovskiy; G. Larosa; D. Lattuada; K. P. Leismueller; E. Leonora; P. Litrico; A. Lonardo; F. Longhitano; D. Lo Presti; E. Maccioni; A. Margiotta; A. Martini; R. Masullo; P. Migliozzi; E. Migneco; A. Miraglia; C. M. Mollo; M. Mongelli; M. Morganti; P. Musico; M. Musumeci; C. A. Nicolau; A. Orlando; R. Papaleo; C. Pellegrino; M. G. Pellegriti; C. Perrina; P. Piattelli; C. Pugliatti; S. Pulvirenti; A. Orselli; F. Raffaelli; N. Randazzo; G. Riccobene; A. Rovelli; M. Sanguineti; P. Sapienza; V. Sciacca; I. Sgura; F. Simeone; V. Sipala; F. Speziale; M. Spina; A. Spitaleri; M. Spurio; S. M. Stellacci; M. Taiuti; G. Terreni; L. Trasatti; A. Trovato; C. Ventura; P. Vicini; S. Viola; D. Vivolo

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the analysis of the data collected with the NEMO Phase-2 tower, deployed at 3500 m depth about 80 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy), are presented. Cherenkov photons detected with the photomultipliers tubes were used to reconstruct the tracks of atmospheric muons. Their zenith-angle distribution was measured and the results compared with Monte Carlo simulations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is also included. The associated depth intensity relation was evaluated and compared with previous measurements and theoretical predictions. With the present analysis, the muon depth intensity relation has been measured up to 13 km of water equivalent.

  4. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType Jump to:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross Jump to: navigation,

  5. Workers Safely Tear Down Towers at Manhattan Project Site | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|ofEvents »SSLEnergy Workers Safely Tear Down Towers

  6. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon tomography : a calibration experiment using a water tower tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Jourde; Dominique Gibert; Jacques Marteau; Jean de Bremond d'Ars; Serge Gardien; Claude Girerd; Jean-Christophe Ianigro

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of using secondary cosmic muons to scan the internal structure of a given body has known significant developments since the first archaeological application by Alvarez and collaborators on the Gizah pyramids. Recent applications cover the fields of volcanology, hydrology, civil engineering, mining, archaeology etc. Muon radiography features are essentially identical to those of medical X-ray imaging techniques. It is a contrast densitometry method using the screening effect of the body under study on the natural flux of cosmic muons. This technique is non-invasive and complements the standard geophysical techniques, e.g. electrical tomography or gravimetry. It may be applied to a large variety of geological targets, among which the domes of active volcanoes. In this context muon tomography presents the noticeable advantage to perform measurements of large volumes, with a large aperture, from a distant point, far from the potentially dangerous zones. The same conclusions apply regarding the monitoring of the volcano's activity since muon tomography provides continuous data taking, provided the muon detectors are sufficiently well designed and autonomous. Recent measurements on La Soufri\\`ere of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles, France) show, over a one year period, large modulations of the crossing muon flux, correlated with an increase of the activity in the dome. In order to firmly establish the sensitivity of the method and of our detectors and to disentangle the effects on the muon flux modulations induced by the volcano's hydrothermal system from those induced by other sources, e.g. atmospheric temperature and pressure, we perform a dedicated calibration experiment inside a water tower tank. We show how the method is fully capable of dynamically following fast variations in the density.

  7. Hypercolor tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Zubkov

    2009-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct the ultraviolet completion of the Standard Model that contains an infinite sequence of Hypercolor gauge groups. So, the whole gauge group of the theory is $... \\otimes SU(5)\\otimes SU(4) \\otimes SU(3) \\otimes SU(2) \\otimes U(1)$. Here SU(4) is the Technicolor group of Farhi - Susskind model. The breakdown of chiral symmetry due to the the Technicolor gives rise to finite $W$ and $Z$ boson masses in a usual way. The other Hypercolor groups are not confining. We suggest the hypothesis that the fermion masses are not related in any way to technicolor gauge group. We suppose that the fermion mass formation mechanism is related to the energies much higher than the technicolor scale. Formally the fermion masses appear in our model as an external input. In the construction of the theory we use essentially the requirement that it posseses an additional discrete symmetry $\\cal Z$ that is the continuation of the $Z_6$ symmetry of the Standard Model. It has been found that there exists such a choice of the hypercharges of the fermions that the chiral anomaly is absent while the symmetry $\\cal Z$ is preserved.

  8. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  9. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  10. A l i f Eiff l T (CEE 4404 C A l i f S I)Analysis of Eiffel Tower (CEE 4404 Computer Analysis of Structures I)Analysis of Eiffel Tower (CEE 4404 Computer Analysis of Structures I) A d M h H hil P l Li M Ti GAnanda Mehta, Harshil Patel, Li Ma, Tian GaoAnan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    A l i f Eiff l T (CEE 4404 C A l i f S I)Analysis of Eiffel Tower (CEE 4404 Computer Analysis of Structures I)Analysis of Eiffel Tower (CEE 4404 Computer Analysis of Structures I) A d M h H hil P l Li M Ti s s g S 000Introduction 18 4¡ã 18 4 ã The Eiffel tower the global icon of France is an iron Assumptions

  11. Maniatis suggests that the Leaning Tower illusion (figure 1a) is not an illusion of perspective, as proposed by us (Kingdom et al 2007a, 2007b), but a variant of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    Maniatis suggests that the Leaning Tower illusion (figure 1a) is not an illusion of perspective that the Jastrow illusion is an example of simulta- neous size contrast, and that the Leaning Tower illusion is the orientation analog of the Jastrow. In other words the Leaning Tower illusion is an example of simultaneous

  12. Approach High dynamic fidelity is needed for perceptual stability of the virtual objects that are the aircraft symbols, a feature needed for the user sense that the objects can be seen stably through the tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that are the aircraft symbols, a feature needed for the user sense that the objects can be seen stably through the tower for air traffic controllers in the control tower. Visual flight rules could then be extended into new and software. The current work is directed toward: Augmented Reality Displays for the Control Tower Improving

  13. California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 1646. Tower Scaffolds and Rolling Scaffolds, Wood or Metal. This information is provided free of charge by the Department of Industrial Relations from its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 1646. Tower Scaffolds and Rolling Scaffolds, Wood://www.dir.ca.gov/od_pub/disclaimer.html. Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders Article 22. Scaffolds--Various Types New query §1646. Tower-standing tower or rolling scaffold shall not be less than 1/3 the height of the scaffold unless such scaffold

  14. Measurements of Atmospheric O2 Variations at the WLEF Tall-tower Site Figure 4. Comparison to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    adapted a commercially available fuel-cell detector to make the first atmospheric O2 measurements from. The fuel-cell instrument has successfully measured O2 concentrations at the WLEF tall-tower research site in Environmental Sciences, CU, Boulder, Colorado, 2 NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder

  15. Concept study and validation of Antarctic telescope tower SPIE vol. 6268, Advances in Stellar Interferometry, paper 41, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    analysis yielded lateral deflections at the top of 0.3 mm for typical winds and 12.1 mm for extreme gusts to achieve imaging performance comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope at relatively low cost using for telescope towers. Using data for typical and extreme wind at Dome C to generate wind loads, finite element

  16. A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3 4 Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824 USA.25 #12;RANDOM ERRORS IN ENERGY AND CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENTS Richardson et al. 1 January 13, 2006 Abstract1 Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy

  17. Restoration and repair of 30-year old cooling towers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Phase I. Draft 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, M.F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early in 1980, a comprehensive reliability study was made to ascertain the ability of the present 30-year old recirculating water system to meet the anticipated load demand through the year 2000. The findings and recommendations of this study were used as a guide to schedule uprating and repairs. This paper deals with the underground distribution system and cooling tower repairs.

  18. Study plan for conducting a section 316(a) demonstration: K-Reactor cooling tower, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M.H.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) began operation in 1954. The K-Reactor pumped secondary cooling water from the Savannah River and discharged directly to the Indian Grave Branch, a tributary of Pen Branch which flows to the Savannah River. During earlier operations, the temperature and discharge rates of cooling water from the K-reactor were up to approximately 70{degree}C and 400 cfs, substantially altering the thermal and flow regimes of this stream. These discharges resulted in adverse impacts to the receiving stream and wetlands along the receiving stream. As a component of a Consent Order (84-4-W as amended) with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated the alternatives for cooling thermal effluents from K Reactor and concluded that a natural draft recirculating cooling tower should be constructed. The cooling tower will mitigate thermal and flow factors that resulted in the previous impacts to the Indian Grave/Pen Branch ecosystem. The purpose of the proposed biological monitoring program is to provide information that will support a Section 316(a) Demonstration for Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch when K-Reactor is operated with the recirculating cooling tower. The data will be used to determine that Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch support Balanced Indigenous Communities when K-Reactor is operated with a recirculating cooling tower. 4 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  19. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide direction for conducting performance acceptance testing for large power tower solar systems that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The recommendations have been developed under a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract and reviewed by stakeholders representing concerned organizations and interests throughout the concentrating solar power (CSP) community. An earlier NREL report provided similar guidelines for parabolic trough systems. These Guidelines recommend certain methods, instrumentation, equipment operating requirements, and calculation methods. When tests are run in accordance with these Guidelines, we expect that the test results will yield a valid indication of the actual performance of the tested equipment. But these are only recommendations--to be carefully considered by the contractual parties involved in the Acceptance Tests--and we expect that modifications may be required to fit the particular characteristics of a specific project.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rule of thumb is that boiler efficiency can be increased bytemperature, and boiler efficiency. They are a recommendedresult is improved boiler efficiency. Turbulator installers

  1. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  2. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the Geophysical Institute/International Arctic Research Center, both located in Fairbanks (Barboza and Trebelhorn 2001)

  3. Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    compressors working in parallel is the most technical and economic configuration for the TowerLab based on the overall costs provided by the supplier, the footprint but most importantly the flexibility. The design of the pressure vessel required a cylindrical...

  4. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  5. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: First 5-Tower Data and Improved Understanding of Ionization Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Catherine N.; /Case Western Reserve U.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with cryogenic particle detectors. These detectors have the ability to discriminate between nuclear recoil candidate and electron recoil background events by collecting both phonon and ionization energy from recoils in the detector crystals. The CDMS-II experiment has completed analysis of the first data runs with 30 semiconductor detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, resulting in a world leading WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section limit for WIMP masses above 44 GeV/c{sup 2}. As CDMS aims to achieve greater WIMP sensitivity, it is necessary to increase the detector mass and discrimination between signal and background events. Incomplete ionization collection results in the largest background in the CDMS detectors as this causes electron recoil background interactions to appear as false candidate events. Two primary causes of incomplete ionization collection are surface and bulk trapping. Recent work has been focused on reducing surface trapping through the modification of fabrication methods for future detectors. Analyzing data taken with test devices has shown that hydrogen passivation of the amorphous silicon blocking layer worsens surface trapping. Additional data has shown that the iron-ion implantation used to lower the critical temperature of the tungsten transition-edge sensors causes a degradation of the ionization collection. Using selective implantation on future detectors may improve ionization collection for events near the phonon side detector surface. Bulk trapping is minimized by neutralizing ionized lattice impurities. Detector investigations at testing facilities and in situ at the experimental site have provided methods to optimize the neutralization process and monitor running conditions to maintain full ionization collection. This work details my contribution to the 5-tower data taking, monitoring, and analysis effort as well as the SuperCDMS detector development with the focus on monitoring and improving ionization collection in the detectors.

  6. Magnetar-Driven Magnetic Tower as a Model for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Asymmetric Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri A. Uzdensky; Andrew I. MacFadyen

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a newly-born millisecond magnetar, focusing on its interaction with the dense stellar plasma in which it is initially embedded. We argue that the confining pressure and inertia of the surrounding plasma acts to collimate the magnetar's Poynting-flux-dominated outflow into tightly beamed jets and increases its magnetic luminosity. We propose this process as an essential ingredient in the magnetar model for gamma-ray burst and asymmetric supernova central engines. We introduce the ``pulsar-in-a-cavity'' as an important model problem representing a magnetized rotating neutron star inside a collapsing star. We describe its essential properties and derive simple estimates for the evolution of the magnetic field and the resulting spin-down power. We find that the infalling stellar mantle confines the magnetosphere, enabling a gradual build-up of the toroidal magnetic field due to continuous twisting. The growing magnetic pressure eventually becomes dominant, resulting in a magnetically-driven explosion. The initial phase of the explosion is quasi-isotropic, potentially exposing a sufficient amount of material to $^{56}$Ni-producing temperatures to result in a bright supernova. However, if significant expansion of the star occurs prior to the explosion, then very little $^{56}$Ni is produced and no supernova is expected. In either case, hoop stress subsequently collimates the magnetically-dominated outflow, leading to the formation of a magnetic tower. After the star explodes, the decrease in bounding pressure causes the magnetic outflow to become less beamed. However, episodes of late fallback can reform the beamed outflow, which may be responsible for late X-ray flares.

  7. Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Steve

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    eliminating the need for compressor cooling. The plant modelunique design (using compressor cooling only when needed by

  8. A review of "Murder in the Tower and Other Tales from the State Trials." by Alan Wharam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellen J. Jenkins

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REVIEWS 87 a fuller understanding of the trial and execution of ?that man of blood.? Alan Wharam. Murder in the Tower and Other Tales from the State Trials. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2001. x + 286 pp. + 12 b&w illus. $84.95. Review by ELLEN J.... JENKINS, ARKANSAS TECH UNIVERSITY. The twists and turns of criminal misdeeds, murder mysteries, and court trials continue to fascinate and intrigue us, a phenomenon that explains the considerable increase over the past few years of cable and network...

  9. Verification survey report of the south waste tank farm training/test tower and hazardous waste storage lockers at the West Valley demonstration project, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A team from ORAU's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program performed verification survey activities on the South Test Tower and four Hazardous Waste Storage Lockers. Scan data collected by ORAU determined that both the alpha and alpha-plus-beta activity was representative of radiological background conditions. The count rate distribution showed no outliers that would be indicative of alpha or alpha-plus-beta count rates in excess of background. It is the opinion of ORAU that independent verification data collected support the site?s conclusions that the South Tower and Lockers sufficiently meet the site criteria for release to recycle and reuse.

  10. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard) solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report also discusses plant performance, operations and maintenance, development, and facility cost estimate and economic analysis.

  11. Construction management and its application to the delivery of the Lamar Towers in Saudi Arabia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassouf, Ronald Elie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction Management (CM) is becoming the delivery method of choice for constructing complicated projects. Previously, the most common method to employ was the General Contracting method, where the contractor and designer ...

  12. Transcending the Tower of Babel: Supporting Access to Multilingual Information with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oard, Doug

    the potential to balkanize the information space. This chapter describes what we now know about the design dominated commercial and intellectual pursuits in the Western world, from Greek to Latin to German, and now

  13. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/36 7.1 Humid air #12;23.11.2014 Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

  14. Survival of zooplankton entrained into the cooling water system and supplemental cooling towers of a steam-electric generating station located on Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chase, Cathleen Louise

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is not an unlimited resource. Another method supplements the open ? cycle system with external cooling facilities, through which the heated water passes before it flows into the receiving body. Ex- ternal cooling facilities may be wet-cooling towers, dry-cooling...

  15. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    -Kellogg was awarded a cont~act to double the capacity of the Alkylation Umt and determined quite early in the engineering phase of the program that the cooling tower ~as Indeed a weak link in the process. To yIeld the projected quantity of increased p~oduct. 10...

  16. Performance of concrete in fire: a review of the state of the art, with a case study of the windsor tower fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Ian A; Borg, Audun; Hitchen, Neil; Welch, Stephen

    has embarked upon detailed studies of the serious fire in the Windsor Tower, Madrid. In order to properly characterise the fire and the performance of the structure a data-gathering exercise has been undertaken and computer modelling tools are being...

  17. Eastgate seen from the south-east, in front of Harare's glass and concrete towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    officesEastgate offices Level two #12;Sections showing the passive cooling system #12;Cooling the office the temperature between 30 and 31 centigrade. This became our design model for the project from the beginning. #12;Roofscapef p · Chimneys for air extract · Solar panels for water heating · Window hoods for sun shielding Gl

  18. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Green Towers Vertical Aquaponic Microfarm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    to be organized and stored inside of the container via the shelving system. Objectives The objective of the project was to design a grow bed and shelving support structure for the vertical garden as well as conduct to create a list of needs for the grow bed and shelving support structure Researched relevant patents

  19. Wind shear for large wind turbine generators at selected tall tower sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.L.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the study described in this report is to examine the nature of wind shear profiles and their variability over the height of large horizontal-axis wind turbines and to provide information on wind shear relevant to the design and opertion of large wind turbines. Wind turbine fatigue life and power quality are related through the forcing functions on the blade to the shapes of the wind shear profiles and their fluctuations over the disk of rotation.

  20. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 1. Design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report discusses in detail the design of the collector system, heat transport system, thermal storage subsystem, heat transport loop, steam generation subsystem, electrical, instrumentation, and control systems, power conversion system, master control system, and balance of plant. The performance, facility cost estimate and economic analysis, and development plan are also discussed.

  1. Green Building Technological Approaches for Re-alization from an Investors Perspective based on the MUNICH RE Tower as an Example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garzorz, H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AssetManagement GmbH Oskar-von-Miller Ring 18 80333 M?nchen 00 49 89/ 24 89 - 25 76 hgarzorz@meag.com Green Building - Technological Approaches for Re-alization from an Investors Perspective based on the MUNICH RE Tower as an example...8th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations - ICEBO?08 Conference Center of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology Berlin, October 20 - 22, 2008 Hubert Garzorz Leiter Entwicklung Immobilien MEAG MUNICH ERGO...

  2. Heat-transfer characteristics of a dry and wet/dry advanced condenser for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, H.D.; McIlroy, K.; Webster, D.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An EPRI-funded, experimental evaluation of two types of advanced, air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase-change dry/wet cooling system for electric power plants is described. Condensers of similar design, but much bigger, are being tested in a 15 MWe demonstration plant at the Pacific Gas and Electric Kern Power Station in Bakersfield, California. These condensers, featuring different air-side augmentation, were tested in Union Carbide's ammonia phase-change pilot plant (0.3 MWe). The first unit consisted of the Curtiss-Wright integral shaved-fin extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (600 to 1000 FPM) and initial temperature differences, ITD (20 to 60/sup 0/F). Overall heat transfer coefficients (based on air-side surface), U, ranged between 7.0 to 8.6 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. The second configuration constituted the Hoterv aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly of which two different sizes (5 ft/sup 2/ and 58 ft/sup 2/ frontal area) were performance tested; in both dry and wet modes at 200 to 800 FPM air face velocities, ITD's of 10 to 60/sup 0/F and at water deluge rates up to 3.0 gpm/ft. of core width. In the dry mode, U's ranged from 7.0 to 12.0 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ F. Increasing water deluge greatly enhanced the heat rejection capacity over dry operation - as high as 4 times, depending on operating conditions. This deluge augmentation was greater for lower air relative humidities and lower ITD's. A brief description of the recently completed ammonia phase-change dry/wet-dry cooling demonstration plant at the Kern Power Station concludes this document.

  3. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; S. Oser; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; D. A. Williams; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was energy threshold of E_{th} = 190 \\pm 60\\unit{GeV}, and a measured integral flux of I (E > E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies.

  4. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oser, S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schuette, D R; Theoret, C G; Tumer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies...

  5. Siting Samplers to Minimize Expected Time to Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Travis; Lorenzetti, David M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a probabilistic approach to designing an indoor sampler network for detecting an accidental or intentional chemical or biological release, and demonstrate it for a real building. In an earlier paper, Sohn and Lorenzetti(1) developed a proof of concept algorithm that assumed samplers could return measurements only slowly (on the order of hours). This led to optimal detect to treat architectures, which maximize the probability of detecting a release. This paper develops a more general approach, and applies it to samplers that can return measurements relatively quickly (in minutes). This leads to optimal detect to warn architectures, which minimize the expected time to detection. Using a model of a real, large, commercial building, we demonstrate the approach by optimizing networks against uncertain release locations, source terms, and sampler characteristics. Finally, we speculate on rules of thumb for general sampler placement.

  6. The 1996 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavroidis, Constantinos

    -reach, deployable, flexible structure. The repair of high voltage power transmission towers and lines, the inspec

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be considered separately when deciding on an approach for reducing the salt discharge to the subsurface. The smaller units may justify moderate changes to equipment, and may benefit from increased cleaning frequencies, more accurate and suitable chemical treatment, and sources of make up water and discharge re-use. The larger cooling towers would be more suitable for automated systems where they don't already exist, re-circulation and treatment of blow down water, and enhanced chemical dosing strategies. It may be more technically feasible and cost efficient for the smaller cooling towers to be replaced by closed loop dry coolers or hybrid towers. There are several potential steps that could be taken at each location to reduce the TDS concentration and/or water use. These include: sump water filtration, minimization of drift, accurate chemical dosing, and use of scale and corrosion coupons for chemical calibration. The implementation of some of these options could be achieved by a step-wise approach taken at two representative facilities. Once viable prototype systems have been proven in the field, systematic implementation should proceed for the remaining systems, with cost, desired reduction, and general feasibility taken into consideration for such systems.

  8. User's manual for DELSOL2: a computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar-thermal central-receiver plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dellin, T.A.; Fish, M.J.; Yang, C.L.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DELSOL2 is a revised and substantially extended version of the DELSOL computer program for calculating collector field performance and layout, and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. The advantages of speed and accuracy characteristic of Version I are maintained in DELSOL2.

  9. Design, maintenance extend FGD system slurry valve life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMay, B. [St. John`s River Power Park, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Willyard, B. [Grand River Dam Authority, Chouteau, OK (United States); Polasek, S. [Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, TX (United States); Clarkson, C.W. [Clarkson Co., Sparks, NV (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how power plants in Florida, Oklahoma and Texas adopted improved maintenance techniques and sought better design criteria to gain greater slurry valve reliability. Slurry valves, a vital part of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, are critical to a power plant`s ability to meet or exceed acid rain emission requirements. The performance and reliability of these valves can significantly affect unit operation and load capacity. For example, slurry valves installed on the suction and discharge ends of scrubber tower pumps are a main point of isolation. When these valves malfunction, the scrubber tower must be shut down. Problems with valves that control the feed system and reaction tank alter slurry pH and density, and also affect unit load. In addition, a single valve that serves dual-pumping systems from the slurry storage tank to the reaction tank can cause a system outage. Because of their key role in system operation, specific maintenance approaches were developed at several power plants to improve slurry valve reliability and run times.

  10. Cooling Towers Make Money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    20 year life cycle costs for energizing the fan horsepower they proposed installing. The purchasing department issued an order for the low bid of $650,000.000, as opposed to the next bidder who quoted $790,000.00. This looked like a $140... constant 8 cent per kilowatt hour costs, Illustration 2 shows that after 19 months of operation the purchase price plus energizing the four fan motors would costs the same and beyond that for 20 year analysis, the difference would be over one and one...

  11. Devils Tower folio, Wyoming 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darton, Nelson Horatio, 1865-1948.; O'Harra, Cleophas C. (Cleophas Cisney), 1866-1935.

    1907-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous hydrologic models of flow in Bear Creek Valley have presented lateral flow as occurring through the Nolichucky Shale in parallel to strike fractures within thin carbonate beds; the effects of faults were not considered. This study presents...

  12. Albritton Bell Tower - 39 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated...

  13. Rebuilding the Babel Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.W.

    Johnson,C.W. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Human Computer Interaction for Mobile Devices Dept of Computing Science, University of Glasgow

  14. Phase Change Material Tower

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and| Department ofPersonnelPeter W.Hawaiian

  15. ANL-78-XX-95 Energy Level Structure and Transition Probabilities

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    given by Newman and Taylor (1972). A summary of the parameters derived from LaCl, crystal studies is given in Table 1, Crosswhite (1977). As a rule of thumb for estimating atomic...

  16. What Oracle doesn`t tell you about CASE: An incremental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, A.M.

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Oracle CASE is a very large, complex software tool. The incremental-approach method described here helps developers break the analysis paralysis syndrome by using a group of rules of thumb to build more and better applications faster.

  17. Receiver subsystem analysis report (RADL Item 4-1). 10-MWe Solar Thermal Central-Receiver Pilot Plant: solar-facilities design integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results are presented of those thermal hydraulic, structural, and stress analyses required to demonstrate that the Receiver design for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant will satisfy the general design and performance requirements during the plant's design life. Recommendations resulting from those analyses and supporting test programs are presented regarding operation of the receiver. The analyses are limited to receiver subsystem major structural parts (primary tower, receiver unit core support structure), pressure parts (absorber panels, feedwater, condensate and steam piping/components, flash tank, and steam mainfold) and shielding. (LEW)

  18. Conceptual design for the STAR barrel electromagnetic calorimeter support rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bielick, E.; Fornek, T.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The STAR electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be used to measure the energy of photons and electrons from collisions of beams of particles in the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is documented in the EMC Conceptual Design Report, and consists of a cylindrical barrel and two flat endcap calorimeter sections. The barrel EMC will consist of 120 modules, each subtending 6{degrees} in azimuthal angle about the beam ({phi}), and half the barrel length. Each module will be subdivided into ``towers`` of alternating scintillator and lead, which project to the nominal interaction point. There is a strong coupling between the designs for the EMC and for the conventional solenoidal magnet, which will be located immediately outside the barrel EMC. For example, the inner radius of the magnet must be minimized to lower costs and to reduce the STAR detector`s outer diameter to fit within constraints of the existing detector building. This condition requires the calorimeter modules to be just thick enough to accomplish physics goals and to support their weight with small deflections. This note describes progress in the design of the EMC support rings. Several ring designs and methods of construction have been considered. In addition, installation and alignment problems for both the rings and the rails have been considered in more depth. Finally, revised stress calculations for the recommended ring designs have been performed. Most of this work has been done in close collaboration with the STAR magnet subgroup.

  19. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  20. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2010 Kenya Water Well Drill Rig Redesign of Engine Drive Train System & Support Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2010 Kenya Water Well Drill Rig ­ Redesign the engine drive train system and support structure for a water drill rig to be used in Kenya. The original not replicable in Kenya. The original support structure also had design flaws as it failed during operation

  1. Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Tarunraj

    motion of transmission line towers [3]. Since the vibration absorber was introduced in 1909 by Frahm [4

  2. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  3. Large Amplitude Spatial and Temporal Gradients in Atmospheric Boundary Layer CO2 Mole Fractions Detected With a Tower-Based Network in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Andrews, A.; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Crosson, Eric R.

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents observations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} mole fraction from a nine-tower, regional network deployed during the North American Carbon Program's Mid-Continent Intensive during 2007-2009. Within this network in a largely agricultural area, mean atmospheric CO{sub 2} gradients were strongly correlated with both ground-based inventory data and estimates from satellite remote sensing. The average seasonal drawdown for corn-dominated sites (35 ppm) is significantly larger than has been observed at other continental boundary layer sites. Observed growing-season median CO{sub 2} gradients are strongly dependent on local flux. The gradients between cross-vegetation site-pairs, for example, average 2.0 ppm/100 km, four times larger than the similar-vegetation site-pair average. Daily-timescale gradients are as large as 5.5 ppm/100 km, but dominated by advection rather than local flux. Flooding in 2008 led to a region-wide 23 week delay in growing-season minima. The observations show that regional-scale CO{sub 2} mole fraction networks yield large, coherent signals governed largely by regional sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}.

  4. Designer Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce A. Bassett; David Parkinson; Robert C. Nichol

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We highlight the flexibility of the IPSO experiment-design framework by contrasting its application to CMB, weak lensing and redshift surveys. We illustrate the latter with a 10 parameter MCMC D-optimisation of a dark energy redshift survey. When averaged over a standard dark energy model space the resulting optimal survey typically has only one or two redshift bins, located at zoptimisation we show how the statistical power of such surveys is significantly enhanced. Experiment design is aided by the richness of the figure of merit landscape which means one can impose secondary optimisation criteria at little cost. For example, one may choose either to maximally test a single model (such as \\Lambda CDM) or to get the most general model-independent constraints possible (e.g. on a whole space of dark energy models). Such freedom points to a future where cosmological experiments become increasingly specialised and optimisation increasingly important.

  5. Tips for Daylighting with Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alastair; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing “how-to” practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decision—which typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.

  6. Baseline Design of a Hurricane-Resilient Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Schreck, S.; Maples, B.; Anderson, M.; Finucane, Z.; Raina, A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored research FOA 415, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led a team of research groups to produce a complete design of a large wind turbine system to be deployable in the western Gulf of Mexico region. As such, the turbine and its support structure would be subjected to hurricane-loading conditions. Among the goals of this research was the exploration of advanced and innovative configurations that would help decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of the design, and the expansion of the basic IEC design load cases (DLCs) to include hurricane environmental conditions. The wind turbine chosen was a three-bladed, downwind, direct-drive, 10-MW rated machine. The rotor blade was optimized based on an IEC load suite analysis. The drivetrain and nacelle components were scaled up from a smaller sized turbine using industry best practices. The tubular steel tower was sized using ultimate load values derived from the rotor optimization analysis. The substructure is an innovative battered and raked jacket structure. The innovative turbine has also been modeled within an aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool, and future papers will discuss results of the dynamic response analysis for select DLCs. Although multiple design iterations could not be performed because of limited resources in this study, and are left to future research, the obtained data will offer a good indication of the expected LCOE for large offshore wind turbines to be deployed in subtropical U.S. waters, and the impact design innovations can have on this value.

  7. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resor, Brian Ray; Maniaci, David Charles; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  8. Considerations for efficient airflow design in cleanrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance cleanroom should provide efficient energy performance in addition to effective contamination control. Energy-efficient designs can yield capital and operational cost savings, and can be part of a strategy to improve productivity in the cleanroom industry. Based upon in-situ measurement data from ISO Class 5 clean rooms, this article discusses key factors affecting cleanroom air system performance and benefits of efficient airflow design in clean rooms. Cleanroom HVAC systems used in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, and healthcare industries are very energy intensive, requiring large volumes of cleaned air to remove or dilute contaminants for satisfactory operations. There is a tendency, however, to design excessive airflow rates into cleanroom HVAC systems, due to factors such as design conservatism, lack of thorough understanding of airflow requirements, concerns about cleanliness reliability, and potential design and operational liabilities. Energy use of cleanroom environmental systems varies with system type and design, cleanroom functions, and the control of critical parameters such as temperature and humidity. In particular, cleanroom cleanliness requirements specified by cleanliness class have an impact on overall energy use. A previous study covering Europe and the US reveals annual cleanroom electricity usage for cooling and fan energy varies significantly depending on cleanliness class, and may account for up to three-quarters of total annual operating costs. A study on a semiconductor cleanroom in Japan found air delivery systems account for more than 30% of total power consumption. It is evident that the main factors dictating cleanroom operation energy include airflow rates and HVAC system efficiency. Improving energy efficiency in clean rooms may potentially contribute to significant savings in the initial costs of the facilities as well as operation and maintenance costs. For example, energy consumption by a typical chip manufacturer can be cut 40% or more, and the associated greenhouse emissions even more. Cleanroom HVAC systems provide huge opportunities for energy savings in the semiconductor industry. In addition to direct cost reductions in cleanroom investment and operation, energy-efficient designs can reduce maintenance costs, increase power reliability, improve time-to-market in cleanroom production, and improve environmental quality. Companies that use energy efficiency to lower costs and increase productivity can gain a competitive advantage and achieve a higher return on investment. In addition, energy-efficient cleanroom systems conserve energy and natural resources, heightening the company's reputation as an environmentally conscious leader in the community and the industry. A significant portion of energy use in cleanroom environmental systems is associated with recirculating air systems. We will review and analyze design factors and operational performance of airflow systems in ISO Class 5 clean rooms. We will also discuss benefits of efficient cleanroom airflow designs in conjunction with effective cleanroom contamination control. We will consider the following common recirculating air system designs: fan-tower (FT) with pressurized-plenum; distributed air handler unit (AHU); and fan-filter unit (FFU).

  9. Solar Updraft TowersSolar Updraft Towers Presentation 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    Colonel of the spanish army Isidoro Cabanyes first proposed a solar chimney power plant in the magazine La energía eléctrica. One of the earliest descriptions of a solar chimney power plant was written in 1931 in SpainPrototype in Spain small-scale experimental model of a solar chimney power plant Built in 1982

  10. TOWER SOCIETY The Tower Society was established in 1997, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    * Jeffrey and Sheila Lipinsky Charles S. and Robin B. Luby Betsy Manchester Doug Manchester Edward E. Marsh and Janet Sinegal Dwight E.* and Fern S.* Stanford David R. Stepsay John W. Terhune* Carey Gail Wall G. Pitt

  11. Strong Links Between Teleconnections and Ecosystem Exchange Found at a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest from Flux Tower and MODIS EVI Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Chasmer, L; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Variability in three Pacific teleconnection patterns are examined to see if net carbon exchange at a low-elevation, old-growth forest is affected by climatic changes associated with these periodicities. Examined are the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Pacific/North American Oscillation (PNA) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We use nine years of eddy covariance CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and energy fluxes measured at the Wind River AmeriFlux site, Washington, USA and eight years of tower-pixel remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to address this question. We compute a new Composite Climate Index (CCI) based on the three Pacific Oscillations to divide the measurement period into positive- (2003 and 2005), negative- (1999 and 2000) and neutral-phase climate years (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2007). The forest transitioned from an annual net carbon sink (NEP = + 217 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}, 1999) to a source (NEP = - 100 g C m{sup -2} year{sup -1}, 2003) during two dominant teleconnection patterns. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP), water use efficiency (WUE) and light use efficiency (LUE) were significantly different (P < 0.01) during positive (NEP = -0.27 g C m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, WUE = 4.1 mg C/g H{sub 2}O, LUE = 0.94 g C MJ{sup -1}) and negative (NEP = +0.37 g C m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, WUE = 3.4 mg C/g H{sub 2}O, LUE = 0.83 g C MJ{sup -1}) climate phases. The CCI was linked to variability in the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) but not to MODIS Fraction of absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR). EVI was highest during negative climate phases (1999 and 2000) and was positively correlated with NEP and showed potential for using MODIS to estimate teleconnection-driven anomalies in ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange in old-growth forests. This work suggests that any increase in the strength or frequency of ENSO coinciding with in-phase, low frequency Pacific oscillations (PDO and PNA) will likely increase CO{sub 2} uptake variability in Pacific Northwest conifer forests.

  12. Health physics manual of good practices for plutonium facilities. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Heid, K.R.; Herrington, W.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Munson, L.F.; Munson, L.H.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual consists of six sections: Properties of Plutonium, Siting of Plutonium Facilities, Facility Design, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, and Decontamination and Decommissioning. While not the final authority, the manual is an assemblage of information, rules of thumb, regulations, and good practices to assist those who are intimately involved in plutonium operations. An in-depth understanding of the nuclear, physical, chemical, and biological properties of plutonium is important in establishing a viable radiation protection and control program at a plutonium facility. These properties of plutonium provide the basis and perspective necessary for appreciating the quality of control needed in handling and processing the material. Guidance in selecting the location of a new plutonium facility may not be directly useful to most readers. However, it provides a perspective for the development and implementation of the environmental surveillance program and the in-plant controls required to ensure that the facility is and remains a good neighbor. The criteria, guidance, and good practices for the design of a plutonium facility are also applicable to the operation and modification of existing facilities. The design activity provides many opportunities for implementation of features to promote more effective protection and control. The application of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principles and optimization analyses are generally most cost-effective during the design phase. 335 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. How to Build a Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives Finance & Rates Expand Finance & Rates Involvement & Outreach Expand Involvement &...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    top ... Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article On September 6, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, EC, Energy, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, Partnership,...

  15. Cooling Tower Energy Conservation Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    Energy conservation strategies involve more than examination of fan horsepower. Colder water and pumping head provide vast savings potentials. What is dollar value of 1°F in your process? What is dollar cost of pumping water to distribution system...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CSP R&D Activities at Sandia On March 3, 2011, in Sandia supports the DOE Concentrating Solar Power Program and the CSP industry by providing: R&D on CSP components and systems;...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  18. Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNS Electric, Inc.Department ofAmountAtomic7951FossilPower North

  19. Idaho_RexburgWaterTower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot Springs Site #0104

  20. Structural Composites Industries 4 kilowatt wind system development. Phase I: design and analysis, technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkine, N.; Bottrell, G.; Weingart, O.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4 kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) has been designed for residential applications in which relatively low (10 mph) mean annual wind speeds prevail. The objectives were to develop such a machine to produce electrical energy at 6 cents per kWh while operating in parallel with a utility grid or auxiliary generator. The Phase I effort began in November, 1979 and was carried through the Final Design Review in February 1981. During this period extensive trade, optimization and analytical studies were performed in an effort to provide the optimum machine to best meet the objectives. Certain components, systems and manufacturing processes were tested and evaluated and detail design drawings were produced. The resulting design is a 31-foot diameter horizontal axis downwind machine rated 5.7 kW and incorporating the following unique features: Composite Blades; Free-Standing Composite Tower; Torque-Actuated Blade Pitch Control. The design meets or exceeds all contract requirements except that for cost of energy. The target 6 cents per kWh will be achieved in a mean wind speed slightly below 12 mph instead of the specified 10 mph.

  1. An Optimization Approach to the Design of Multi-Size Heliostat fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    May 28, 2014 ... Power Tower system with heliostats of different sizes is addressed. Maximizing the effi- ..... URL: http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.

  2. Student Union: The Architecture and Social Design of Postwar Campus Community Centers in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Clare Montomgery

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lunchroom, and the glass curtain wall that framed a view ofpartition walls, and glass curtain walls allowed architectsfirm’s projects, glass curtain walls sheathed office towers,

  3. Microsoft Word - BPA I-5 Corridor Reinforcement_Scoping Meeting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and through Oregon to reach a proposed substation in Troutdale. Transmission tower design: Some suggested that any additional towers placed in an existing ROW be aligned with...

  4. Computation & design for nanophotonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oskooi, Ardavan F

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The versatility of computational design as an alternative to design by nanofabrication has made computers a reliable design tool in nanophotonics. Given that almost any 2d pattern can be fabricated at infrared length scales, ...

  5. Measuring the Cosmological 21 cm Monopole with an Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presley, Morgan; Parsons, Aaron

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement of the cosmological 21 cm signal remains a promising but as-of-yet unattained ambition of radio astronomy. A positive detection would provide direct observations of key unexplored epochs of our cosmic history, including the cosmic dark ages and reionization. In this paper, we concentrate on measurements of the spatial monopole of the 21 cm brightness temperature as a function of redshift (the "global signal"). Most global experiments to date have been single-element experiments. In this paper, we show how an interferometer can be designed to be sensitive to the monopole mode of the sky, thus providing an alternate approach to accessing the global signature. We provide simple rules of thumb for designing a global signal interferometer and use numerical simulations to show that a modest array of tightly packed antenna elements with moderately sized primary beams (full-width-half-max of $\\sim$40$^\\circ$) can compete with typical single-element experiments in their ability to constrain phenomenologi...

  6. Energy conservation technology selection: An agent-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBaillie, L.P.; Nemeth, R.J.; Case, M.P.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter presents an automation model designed to manage the required data and the calculation of technology ranking criteria such as investment payback, energy savings, and pollution abatement on a national level. The model is under development at the United States Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) in MicroSoft Windows 3.1 on a personal computer using Designer Software, an agent-based and object-oriented modeling environment. Small rule-based systems called agents evaluate each technology based upon information contained in a shared database called a blackboard. The blackboard contains data such as installation fuel prices, building data, and weather information. Each agent represents a particular energy conservation technology and evaluates the potential of that technology based upon this shared data. The model is constructed in a modular fashion to facilitate the modification and addition of new technologies by adding or modifying agents. A rule-based system applies each agent`s heuristics (rules-of-thumb) and algorithms to produce analysis results. A spreadsheet data link has been implemented to input external data or to output analysis results.

  7. Interpretation of Ground Penetrating Radar data at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Mitchell, T.H.; Kunk, J.R.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being used extensively during characterization and remediation of chemical and radioactive waste sites at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Time and money for GPR investigations are often not included during the planning and budgeting phase. Therefore GPR investigations must be inexpensive and quick to minimize impact on already established budgets and schedules. An approach to survey design, data collection, and interpretation has been developed which emphasizes speed and budget with minimal impact on the integrity of the interpretation or quality of the data. The following simple rules of thumb can be applied: (1) Assemble as much pre-survey information as possible, (2) Clearly define survey objectives prior to designing the survey and determine which combination of geophysical methods will best meet the objectives, (3) Continuously communicate with the client, before, during and after the investigation, (4) Only experienced GPR interpreters should acquire the field data, (5) Use real-time monitoring of the data to determine where and how much data to collect and assist in the interpretation, (6) Always ``error`` in favor of collecting too much data, (7) Surveys should have closely spaced (preferably 5 feet, no more than 10 feet), orthogonal profiles, (8) When possible, pull the antenna by hand.

  8. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  9. Design and testing of a control strategy for a large naturallyventilated office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrilho da Graca, Guilherme; Linden, Paul F.; Haves, Philip

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The design for the new Federal Building for San Franciscoincludes an office tower that is to be naturally ventilated. Each flooris designed to be cross-ventilated, through upper windows that arecontrolled by the building management system (BMS). Users have controlover lower windows, which can be as much as 50 percent of the totalopenable area. There are significant differences in the performance andthe control of the windward and leeward sides of the building, andseparate monitoring and control strategies are determined for each side.The performance and control of the building has been designed and testedusing a modified version of EnergyPlus. Results from studies withEnergyPlus and CFD are used in designing the control strategy. EnergyPluswas extended to model a simplified version of the airflow patterndetermined using CFD. Wind-driven cross-ventilation produces a main jetthrough the upper openings of the building, across the ceiling from thewindward to the leeward side. Below this jet, the occupied regions aresubject to a recirculating air flow. Results show that temperatureswithin the building are predicted to be satisfactory, provided a suitablecontrol strategy is implemented uses night cooling in periods of hotweather. The control strategy has 10 window opening modes. EnergyPlus wasextended to simulate the effects of these modes, and to assess theeffects of different forms of user behavior. The results show how userbehavior can significantly influence the buildingperformance.

  10. Solar Design Workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  11. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  12. Locomotive design and construction /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maris, James Clyde.

    1919-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gear design, Stephenson valve gear design, errors in link motion, setting Y/alschaert valve gear, setting Stephenson valve gear. Locomotive Cylinders 94 Design and Manufacture. Pistons and Piston Rods 98 Crossheads 103 Locomotive Guide Bars 107... Driving Boxes 109 Locomotive Frames 113 Connecting and Side Rods 115 Crank Pins and Axles 119 Throttles, Dry Pipes, and Steam Passages 121 Reversing Links 124 Jig Design for Locomotive Parts 127 Forge Block Design for Forging Locomotive Parts 130...

  13. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  14. Designing Asynchronous Microprocessors Design Process Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Alain

    ) Parallel CHP Parallel CHP Sequential CHP informal translation ISA process decomposition process decomposition compilation #15; Design process is a sequence of provably correct transformations. #15; First CHP the CHP decomposition. #15; The design style tends to em- phasize concurrency issues. 2 #12; Sequential

  15. ERISII Initial Design Document I . Design Goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiederhold, Gio

    ERISII Initial Design Document I . Design Goals The goals behind the ERISII system are to present the directions of I*3 technology in general. In the first half of this document, we will examine the particular thee primary prototype will be used by environmental restoration managers, while being flexible enough

  16. Final Design Completion The Comprehensive Final Design Review1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    a complete and satisfactory design basis for the system design. FMEAs should be performed and documented

  17. Designing decommissioning into new reactor designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devgun, J.S.; CHMM, Ph.D. [Nuclear Power Technologies, Sargent and Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the lessons learned from decommissioning of existing reactors has been that decommissioning was not given much thought when these reactors were designed some three or four decades ago. Recently, the nuclear power has seen a worldwide resurgence and many new advanced reactor designs are either on the market or nearing design completion. Most of these designs are evolutionary in nature and build on the existing and proven technologies. They also incorporate many improvements and take advantage of the substantial operating experience. Nevertheless, by and large, the main factors driving the design of new reactors are the safety features, safeguards considerations, and the economic factors. With a large decommissioning experience that already exists in the nuclear industry, and with average decommissioning costs at around six hundred million dollars for each reactor in today's dollars, it is necessary that decommissioning factors also be considered as a part of the early design effort. Even though decommissioning may be sixty years down the road from the time they go on line, it is only prudent that new designs be optimized for eventual decommissioning, along with the other major considerations. (authors)

  18. Current fouling problems of PVC film fills and research into new designs to eliminate fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, M.R. (Brentwood Industries, Inc. (US)); Massey, T. (National Power, Research and Technology, Leatherhead, Surrey (GB))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fouling of film fills in power plant cooling towers represents a major problem in loss of performance of the cooling tower and loss of efficiency of the power plant. The results of this loss in performance is higher energy consumption to drive the fans to move air through the cooling tower in mechanical draft towers. Higher fuel consumption in plant operations or reduced peak load output and the discharge of warmer water which poses environmental concerns to our rivers and lakes. This paper discusses the effects of fouling on cooling tower performance and the current knowledge of how this fouling may occur, industry practices of controlling cleaning and eliminating the problem using new film fill products.

  19. Sharing tacit design knowledge in a distributed design environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Jeong-Han

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    investigates the impact of tacit design knowledge on design performance in a distributed design environment supported by CMC software. The software was developed and tested in three design studios in which design students sought advice from experts in remote...

  20. Energy design for architects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, A. (ed.)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  1. Designated Team Leader

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Designated Team Leader Each user project is coordinated by a Designated Team Leader (DTL) who may also be the Principal Investigator (PI). The DTL must provide details of all...

  2. Design of intelligent interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonanni, Leonardo Amerigo, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ubiquitous computing is transforming interior design by allowing utilities, goods and information to be delivered where and when we need them. How will new information technologies impact the design of interior spaces? ...

  3. System Design Stage

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter addresses translating the user-oriented functional design specifications into a set of technical, computer-oriented system design specifications; and designing the data structure and processes to the level of detail necessary to plan and execute the Programming and Installation Stages.

  4. Pavement Thickness Design Parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavement Thickness Design Parameter Impacts 2012 Municipal Streets Seminar November 14, 2012 Paul D. Wiegand, P.E. #12;Pavement Thickness Design · How do cities decide how thick to build their pavements;Pavement Thickness Design · Correct answer ­ A data-based analysis! · Doesn't have to be difficult and time

  5. Shock Tube Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koppenberger, Peter K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    , and provide two driver sections to allow for dual shock capability. The tube was designed to accommodate a 2.5 MACH shockwave, and incorporated a factor of safety of 3 in the design. A modular approach to design was followed to allow further diversification...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN CONSULTANTS + LIGHTING DESIGNERS | atelierten.com Sustainable Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    -fitting of renewable energy systems or other technologies. Create a high-performance, energy efficient, thermally Strategies · Proposed Design & Alternate Energy Efficiency Measures · Earth Duct analysis · High Performance zero energy, carbon, and water performance. · Improve campus connectivity and exemplify best practices

  7. Foundation Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, John [Center for Sustainable Building Research, University of Minnesota; Mosiman, Garrett [Center for Sustainable Building Research, University of Minnesota; Handeen, Daniel [Center for Sustainable Building Research, University of Minnesota; Huelman, Patrick [Cold Climate Housing Program, University of Minnesota; Christian, Jeffery [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information that will enable designers, builders, and homeowners to understand foundation design problems and solutions. The foundation of a house is a somewhat invisible and sometimes ignored component of the building. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction has significant benefits to the homeowner and the builder, and can avoid some serious future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice means not only insulating to save energy, but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques where appropriate.

  8. Attached sunspace design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An introduction to new design analysis information for attached sunspaces is presented. The 28 sunspace reference designs are described. Note is taken of those designs (the semi-enclosed geometries) analyzed more recently than the previously published reports. The role of sensitivity studies is discussed, and some sample plots of sunspace performance sensitivity to key design parameters are presented. The monthly solar load ratio (SLR) correlations are reviewed with emphasis on the modified SLR used in the sunspace analysis. The application of the sunspace SLR correlations to monthly design analysis is outlined.

  9. Design Space Exploration of Parameterized Systems using Design of Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is known as a full factorial design: --- (A off, B off, Cknown as fractional factorial design involving experimentsetc. ) of the full factorial design. Numerous fractional

  10. Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices November 18, 2014 1:00PM to 2:30PM EST...

  11. Cooperative Modeling and Design History Tracking Using Design Tracking Matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jonghyun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis suggests a new framework for cooperative modeling which supports concurrency design protocol with a design history tracking function. The proposed framework allows designers to work together while eliminating design conflicts...

  12. Information Architecture: The Design Behind The Design Presenter: Mary Peterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Information Architecture: The Design Behind The Design Presenter: Mary Peterson Information architecture (often abbreviated "IA") is the practice of structuring information for a purpose. Organizing the information they require. User Centered Design Design the architecture around the needs and capabilities

  13. Magnetic shielding design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, J.A.; LaPaz, A.D.; Fabyan, J.

    1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two passive magnetic-shielding-design approaches for static external fields are reviewed. The first approach uses the shielding solutions for spheres and cylinders while the second approach requires solving Maxwell's equations. Experimental data taken at LLNL are compared with the results from these shieldings-design methods, and improvements are recommended for the second method. Design considerations are discussed here along with the importance of material gaps in the shield.

  14. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    machine think? ” [223], Alan Turing revives what is perhapsone day be designed, to Alan Turing’s 1950 hand-simulation

  15. Effective Design Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As described in the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG), all Federal agencies are required to follow the Guiding Principles for New Construction and Major Renovations, which include considerations...

  16. Exercise Design Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Emergency Operations Training Academy (EOTA), NA 40.2, Readiness and Training, Albuquerque, NM is pleased to announce the EXR231, Exercise Design Laboratory course

  17. LSST Camera Optics Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

    2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  18. Concentration in Green Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    , energy, infrastructure or transport. Participants in this specialization area work closely with the GreenConcentration in Green Design Research and Education Opportunities Carnegie Mellon University Civil and Environmental Engineering www.ce.cmu.edu M.S. Concentration Green Design - Course Only Track As an extension

  19. 2014 Design Report Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimon, Elon

    standard performance test procedures, laying a base line for next year's improvements. 2. Important design accuracy. 3. Decision making: Material and design: High strength Magnesium alloy was chosen for most parts in multiple load scenarios ­ turn, brake, acceleration and combined action. The final masses of the uprights

  20. Dale M. Meade MFE Plenary Session on ITER Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale M. Meade MFE Plenary Session on ITER Costs 2002 Fusion Summer Study Snowmass, CO July 9, 2002 FIRE Lighting the Way to Fusion http://fire.pppl.gov A Comparison of Unit Costs for FIRE and ITER #12;A Comparison of Unit Costs for FIRE and ITER · A simple rule of thumb for comparing costs of similar devices

  1. Water: The Forgotten Nutrient Sharon Francey Robinson, PhD, RD, LD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehydration is a common problem for people of all ages, especially during the hot Texas summers. Many people Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race (beverages) people should drink. In the past a general rule of thumb was to consume about 6 to 8 eight

  2. Archetypes: Durer's Rhino and the Recycling of Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, John P.

    Chapter 17 Archetypes: D¨urer's Rhino and the Recycling of Images 17.1 Introduction: Aref's Rule Rule-of-Thumb 5 (Aref's Rule) Never publish the same graph more than once. As we shall below, recycling illustrate when recycling of previously published images is good, and also when and how it can go

  3. This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (http://www.hvac.okstate.edu).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group that is typically only the case for envelope-dominated buildings in a given location. · Reasonably constant ground thermal properties between locations for which the rule-of-thumb would be applied. The main example

  4. Environmental Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edge, D.

    Period ... Varies for company to company ... 2 years is a rule of thumb Net Present Value (AmtuaI Gmt Flow), NPV= Lito.) (l+diimmttnter e subtnJct capitIII b" arJb fPv eD=years 133 ESL-IE-00-04-21 Proceedings from the Twenty-second National...

  5. Bottleneckology: evaluating supercomputers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worlton, J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluating supercomputer performance is more difficult than evaluating performance for other types of computers because of the wide range of performances encountered. Depending on the purpose of the evaluation, methods of evaluation can be used that trade off level of effort and accuracy, including rules of thumb, analytical models, testing, and simulation.

  6. Brad Hanson, UC Davis 1 OFF-SITE MOVEMENT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Brad

    conditions Herbicide Availability AIRKH WATERWATER Henry's Law Constant - Related to solid:gas phase shoulders, fence rows, lawn/landscape) Individual plants Any herbicide that misses or moves from) but normalized for carbon content Rules of Thumb Henry's Law Constant (KH) Lower value = product tends toward

  7. The"Core"of the Workout Should Be on the Ball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    priced machines and equipment that claim to aid in enhancing performance have inundated the market. Another rule of thumb for sizing is to sit on the ball and visually determine if the top of the thighs the core, the transfer of energy and force from lower to upper extremity is higher N NSCA's Performance

  8. Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Resor, B.; Platt, A.; Guo, Y.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Parsons, T.; Petch, D.; Veers, P.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the effect of tip-velocity constraints on system levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The results indicate that a change in maximum tip speed from 80 to 100~m/s could produce a 32% decrease in gearbox weight (a 33% reduction in cost) which would result in an overall reduction of 1%-9% in system LCOE depending on the design approach. Three 100~m/s design cases were considered including a low tip-speed ratio/high-solidity rotor design, a high tip-speed ratio/ low-solidity rotor design, and finally a flexible blade design in which a high tip-speed ratio was used along with removing the tip deflection constraint on the rotor design. In all three cases, the significant reduction in gearbox weight caused by the higher tip-speed and lower overall gear ratio was counterbalanced by increased weights for the rotor and/or other drivetrain components and the tower. As a result, the increased costs of either the rotor or drivetrain components offset the overall reduction in turbine costs from down-sizing the gearbox. Other system costs were not significantly affected, whereas energy production was slightly reduced in the 100~m/s case low tip-speed ratio case and increased in the high tip-speed ratio case. This resulted in system cost of energy reductions moving from the 80~m/s design to the 100~m/s designs of 1.2% for the low tip-speed ratio, 4.6% for the high tip-speed ratio, and 9.5% for the final flexible case (the latter result is optimistic because the impact of deflection of the flexible blade on power production was not modeled). Overall, the results demonstrate that there is a trade-off in system design between the maximum tip velocity and the overall wind plant cost of energy, and there are many trade-offs within the overall system in designing a turbine for a high maximum tip velocity.

  9. Research and development of a 3 MW power plant from the design, development, and demonstration of a 100 KW power system utilizing the direct contact heat exchanger concept for geothermal brine recovery project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, A.W.; Wall, D.A.; Herlacher, T.L.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design phase for the 100 KW unit consumed the months of May through November 1978, with the final design selected as having a direct contact boiler and condenser, a single-stage radial inflow induction turbine-generator using isopentane as the working fluid, and a single cell ejector-type cooling tower. The unit was constructed on two, forty-foot flatbed trailers between the months of October 1978 and June 1979. Systems start-up testing, in-field modifications, unit operation, and performance testing were performed between July and December 1979. AP and L (Arkansas Power and Light) personnel assumed responsibility of the unit at that time and conducted further maintenance, operations, and testing through August 1980.

  10. Rampressor Turbine Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a unique gas turbine engine is presented. The first Rampressor Turbine engine rig will be a configuration where the Rampressor rotor is integrated into an existing industrial gas turbine engine. The Rampressor rotor compresses air which is burned in a traditional stationary combustion system in order to increase the enthalpy of the compressed air. The combustion products are then expanded through a conventional gas turbine which provides both compressor and electrical power. This in turn produces shaft torque, which drives a generator to provide electricity. The design and the associated design process of such an engine are discussed in this report.

  11. Design of Vitrification Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Todd William

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ), and if it is capable of reliably and repeatedly controlling the Petri Dish Tray. These tests will serve to evaluate both the machine’s physical design as well as its software design. Along with the machine’s actual function, its overall design will be evaluated... the specimen is then moved through of series of Petri dishes containing cryo-protectant fluids, generally up to four (personal interview, Medical Advisor, Dr. Kim), using tweezers (alternatively, a pipette system may be employed). The technician must monitor...

  12. Passive solar design handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume Three updates Volume Two by presenting extensive new data on the optimum mix of conservation and solar direct gain, sunspaces, thermal storage walls, and solar radiation. The direct gain, thermal storage wall, and solar radiation data are greatly expanded relative to the Volume 2 coverage. The needed flexibility to analyze a variety of system designs is accommodated by the large number of reference designs to be encompassed - 94 in contrast to 6 in Volume two - and the large amount of sensitivity data for direct gain and sunspace systems - approximately 1100 separate curves.

  13. CREATIVE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: EXTENDING THE SCOPE BY INFUSED DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shai, Offer

    1 CREATIVE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: EXTENDING THE SCOPE BY INFUSED DESIGN Offer Shai School of Mechanical infused design that guarantees generating design solutions by transforming systems and methods from remote. This process is partially supported by a computer tool. We describe the method of infused design and illustrate

  14. Design of nanomanufacturing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slocum, Alexander Henry, Jr

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 100 years of manufacturing knowledge and experience are available to a design engineer when considering the integration of a machine tool enabling macro-scale processes (milling, turning, welding, water-jet cutting) ...

  15. Transformation inverse design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, David

    We present a new technique for the design of transformation-optics devices based on large-scale optimization to achieve the optimal effective isotropic dielectric materials within prescribed index bounds, which is ...

  16. ITER breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E. [ITER Joint Central Team, Garching (Germany)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

  17. Relationships in design build

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wampler, Charles Wilson

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As design build (DB) becomes more popular, different ways of writing contracts and forming relationships with the various parties are being considered. The main point of this paper is to look at the relationships between ...

  18. Alternative energy design toolkit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukkasi, Sittha

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis concerns the concepts, structure, and applications of the Alternative Energy Design Toolkit. The toolkit is aimed to provide a widely accessible, easy to use, flexible, yet powerful modeling environment for ...

  19. Expert assistants for design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldridge, J.; Cerutti, J.; Draisin, W.; Steuerwalt, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two expert programs currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, PROCON and the Designer's Apprentice, are briefly described. Both codes define interface to simulations that provide a wide variety of information about the performance of complex devices. (BCS)

  20. Cogeneration System Design Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    The commercial or industrial firm contemplating cogeneration at its facilities faces numerous basic design choices. The possibilities exist for fueling the system with waste materials, gas, oil, coal, or other combustibles. The choice of boiler...

  1. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extraction Utility Design Specification January 11, 2011 Document Version 1.9 1 Revision History Date Version Section and Titles Author Summary of Change January 15, 2010 1.0 All...

  2. Advanced Energy Design Guides

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    hotels up to 80 rooms and 4 stories Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Hospitals and Health- care Facilities ASHE, ASHRAE, AIA, IES, USGBC, DOE Small healthcare facilities up...

  3. Transmission line: design manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, H.H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this manual is to outline the various requirements for, and the procedures to be followed in the design of power transmission lines by the Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior. Numerous design studies, which have been made on specific aspects of transmission line design, are included with explanations of their applications. Information is presented concerning such aspects as selection of type of construction, conductor sags and tensions, insulation, lightning protection, clearance patterns, galloping conductors, structure limitation and guying charts, and structure spotting. Structure design examples are limited to wood-pole construction. Interpretations of the National Electrical Safety Code and other codes are made as required. Some of the example problems were developed when the sixth edition of NESC was current, and are so noted; however, most examples use the 1977 edition of NESC.

  4. Engineering Structures 23 (2001) 365375 www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savory, Eric

    and microburst-induced wind loading and failure of a lattice transmission tower Eric Savory * , Gerard A.R. Parke 2000 Abstract Many transmission line and tower failures worldwide are attributed to high intensity. All rights reserved. Keywords: Wind; Tower; Failure 1. Introduction When designing transmission towers

  5. Green Buildings: Construction Design Firms' Implementation of Sustainable Design Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malone, Nathan

    2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is written to show the importance of green buildings and therefore the need for sustainable design. The paper describes why a construction design firm must take the steps necessary to properly integrate these sustainable design standards...

  6. Design Space Exploration of Parameterized Systems using Design of Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 2.1 Design space exploration for system specific tuningShin Figure 5: Noxim NoC design space with over 60,00030: Percent of the design space that needs to be explored in

  7. Metallurgical Process Design A tribute to Douglas' conceptual design approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    and systematic flowsheet generation1-2. . Although perfected for continuous petrochemical processes, this work1 Metallurgical Process Design ­ A tribute to Douglas' conceptual design approach Andreas A. Linninger Laboratory for Product and Process Design Department of Chemical Engineering, University

  8. MSENGR Product Design Program Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    MSENGR Product Design Program Proposal Rev 6/2007 p. 1 New Proposal Revision First graduate Language 3 ME216A Advanced Product Design: Need Finding 4 ME312 Advanced Product Design: Form Giving 4 ARTSTUDI160 Design II: The Bridge 3 ME216B Advanced Product Design: Implementation 4 ME316

  9. A Novel Actuated Tether Design for Rescue Robots Using Hydraulic Transients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Center (WTC) disaster, on Sept. 11, 2001. In the chaotic environment of the collapsed towers, radio of their deployment the robots encountered a number of difficulties involving radio transmission inefficiency [1] [2

  10. Designed for Work, but not from Here: Rural and Remote Perspectives on Networked Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federal Communications Commission (FCC) report indicated that 16,000 towers would need to be added in 2010 by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), in Canada, 16

  11. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  12. Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crozier, R. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been...

  13. An innovative concept for deep water oil production platform design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Racine, Florian

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Off loading Tower) is studied in this thesis. Instead of using a single large cylindrical structure as in the spar configuration, the FPSOT utilizes a jacket-type framed structure supported by a buoyancy/storage tank deep below the ocean surface...

  14. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  15. Adaptive Survey Design Andrew Sage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    . Andrew Sage Iowa State University CSSM March 14, 2014 2 / 35 #12;Adaptive and Responsive Designs collection, although they may be revised during data collection. A responsive design is an adaptive design

  16. Design of a bicycle rig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Racz, Rastislav

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design of a bicycle (bike) rig was conducted. This bike rig is designed to be used for aerodynamics measurement testing of bicycles, cyclists and cycling related items in a wind tunnel. This paper discusses the design ...

  17. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  18. Interactive design center.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomplun, Alan R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia's advanced computing resources provide researchers, engineers and analysts with the ability to develop and render highly detailed large-scale models and simulations. To take full advantage of these multi-million data point visualizations, display systems with comparable pixel counts are needed. The Interactive Design Center (IDC) is a second generation visualization theater designed to meet this need. The main display integrates twenty-seven projectors in a 9-wide by 3-high array with a total display resolution of more than 35 million pixels. Six individual SmartBoard displays offer interactive capabilities that include on-screen annotation and touch panel control of the facility's display systems. This report details the design, implementation and operation of this innovative facility.

  19. Designer de Sitter Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Schleich; D. M. Witt

    2008-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations in cosmology indicate an accelerating expansion of the universe postulated to arise from some form of dark energy, the paradigm being positive cosmological constant. De Sitter spacetime is the well-known isotropic solution to the Einstein equations with cosmological constant. However, as discussed here, it is not the most general, locally isotropic solution. One can construct an infinite family of such solutions, designer de Sitter spacetimes, which are everywhere locally isometric to a region of de Sitter spacetime. However, the global dynamics of these designer cosmologies is very different than that of de Sitter spacetime itself. The construction and dynamics of these designer de Sitter spacetimes is detailed along with some comments about their implications for the structure of our universe.

  20. THE EMMA LATTICE DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERG,J.S.; RUGGIERO, A.; MACHIDA, S.; KOSCIELNIAK, S.

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    EMMA is a 10 to 20 MeV electron ring designed to test our understanding of beam dynamics in a relativistic linear non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG). This paper describes the design of the EMMA lattice. We begin with a summary of the experimental goals that impact the lattice design, and then outline what motivated the choice for the basic lattice parameters, such as the type of cells, the number of cells, and the RF frequency. We next list the different configurations that we wish to operate the machine in so as to accomplish our experimental goals. Finally, we enumerate the detailed lattice parameters, showing how these parameters result from the various lattice configurations.

  1. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  2. Requirements and Design Requirements Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razak, Saquib

    at a time. #12;Unit 24 8 Design Phase The next step in the SDLC is the Design phase which translates

  3. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  4. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  5. Designing radiation protection signs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines.

  6. School of Design www.design.cmu.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmerman, John

    project. This may require scanning materials or taking good quality digital photographs of your original the Design Project. You are expected to provide the tools, media, and materials (designed to be inexpensive Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Design Project If you have limited work in your portfolio, the Design Project

  7. Artificial Heart Valve Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Artificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction

  8. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  9. Road Design Susan Handy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    conditions for non-motorized street users." - ITE Subcommittee on Traffic Calming #12;Speed Control Measures design · Traffic control (if we have time) #12;Level Agencies Primary concern Roles Federal FHWA FTA;Innovations/Trends · Traffic Calming · Skinny Streets · Road Diets · Complete Streets · Green Streets

  10. Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrantelli, Andrea; Räikkönen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  12. The division of Machine Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    Requirement engineering Simulation Multi- disciplinary design VR CAD Robust optimization 3D- printing Product

  13. FEMP Designated Product: Lavatory Faucets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP suspended its product designation and purchasing specification for commercial faucets until further notice.

  14. Energy Efficient Nanoelectronic System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    ://www.newairplane.com One 787 Battery: 12 Cells / 32 V DC 05/21/2013 6 #12;Why Energy Efficient Design ? Environmental energy-efficient designs. How to perform high-yield, energy efficient designs. How to perform effortless, high-yield, energy efficient designs. Gate Gate Gate Source D rain Graphene Layer 05/21/2013 14

  15. Design of a Spacer Grid Using Axiomatic Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, K.N.; Yoon, K.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, B.S.; Park, G.J. [Hanyang University, 249-1, Kyomoon-dong, Kuri-si, Kyounggi-do 471-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.K. [Korea Rolling Stock Corporation, Kyunggi-Do, 437-040 (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, much attention has been focused on the design of the fuel assemblies in the Pressurized Light Water Reactor (PLWR). The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in a fuel assembly. It supports fuel rods, guides cooling water, and maintains geometry from the external impact loads. In this research, a new shape of the spacer grid is designed by the axiomatic approach. The Independence Axiom is utilized for the design. For the conceptual design, functional requirements (FRs) are defined and corresponding design parameters (DPs) are found to satisfy FRs in sequence. Overall configuration and shapes are determined in this process. Detailed design is carried out based on the result of the axiomatic design. For the detailed design, the system performances are evaluated by using linear and nonlinear finite element analysis. The dimensions are determined by optimization. Some commercial codes are utilized for the analysis and design. (authors)

  16. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  17. CSNS LINAC DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FU, S.; FANG, S.; WEI, J.

    2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    China Spallation Neutron Source has been approved in principle by the Chinese government. CSNS can provide a beam power of 100kW on the target in the first phase, and then 200kW in the second phase. The accelerator complex of CSNS consists of an H- linac of 81MeV and a rapid cycling synchrotron of 1.6GeV at 25Hz repetition rate. In the second phase, the linac energy will be upgraded to 132MeV and the average current will be doubled. The linac has been designed, and some R&D studies have started under the support from Chinese Academy of Sciences. The linac comprises a H- ion source, an RFQ and a conventional DTL with EMQs. This paper will present our major design results and some progresses in the R&D of the linac.

  18. Materials in design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perata, Alfredo Ferando

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the strength, hardness and wear resistance has been increased. S rin Materials Since in many cases equipment requires that springs have to operate properly at conditions of excessive vibration, corrosive environment, extremes temperatures. A great care has...) It is considered a good long wearing bearing metal where good bearing conditions are present once the design has been done very good. (Accurate filling, good oil clearance; good lubrication, non-corrosive oil). It can be used with hardened shafts. B ' g B Tin...

  19. Materials in design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perata, Alfredo Ferando

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alloys have good machinability. Melding has two -25- critical factors, the weakness of aluminum alloys at high temperatures and oxidation. However, aluminum derives its corrosion ? resistance quality from this oxide, It has to removed before welding...-Ferrous Metals Copper alloys Aluminum Magnesium Lead Zinc Tin Non-Metallic Materials Wood Stone Brick Cement Cont rete Rubber Leather Asbestos Mica Ceramics Glass Engineering design has to have in consideration, the use to which the material...

  20. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mechanism b. Scrubbers: venturi, spray, packed tower 11. Control of Gases & Vapors II a. Scrubber design 12

  1. GEM Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  2. Interim Design Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Abrams; S. K. Agarwalla; A. Alekou; C. Andreopoulos; C. M. Ankenbrandt; S. Antusch; M. Apollonio; M. Aslaninejad; J. Back; P. Ballett; G. Barker; K. B. Beard; E. Benedetto; J. R. J. Bennett; J. S. Berg; S. Bhattacharya; V. Blackmore; M. Blennow; A. Blondel; A. Bogacz; M. Bonesini; C. Bontoiu; C. Booth; C. Bromberg; S. Brooks; A. Bross; O. Caretta; A. Cervera-Villanueva; S. Choubey; D. Cline; J. Cobb; P. Coloma; L. Coney; M. A. C. Cummings; T. Davenne; A. de Gouvea; C. Densham; X. Ding; A. Donini; P. Dornan; M. Dracos; F. Dufour; R. Eccleston; R. Edgecock; I. Efthymiopoulos; M. Ellis; E. Fernandez-Martinez; R. Fernow; G. Flanagan; J. C. Gallardo; R. Gandhi; R. Garoby; B. Gavela; S. Geer; S. Gilardoni; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas; S. Goswami; V. B. Graves; R. Gupta; G. Hanson; P. Harrison; T. Hart; P. Hernandez; P. Huber; D. Indumathi; R. P. Johnson; C. Johnstone; Y. Karadzhov; D. Kelliher; H. Kirk; J. Kopp; Y. Kudenko; Y. Kuno; A. Kurup; P. Kyberd; A. Laing; T. Li; M. Lindner; K. Long; J. Lopez Pavon; P. Loveridge; S. Machida; D. Majumdar; M. Maltoni; J. Martin-Albo; M. Martini; R. Matev; K. T. McDonald; A. McFarland; D. Meloni; M. Mezzetto; P. Migliozzi; S. R. Mishra; N. Mokhov; N. Mondal; J. Morfin; Y. Mori; V. Morozov; D. Neuffer; T. Ota; V. Palladino; S. Parke; S. Pascoli; J. Pasternak; J. Peltoniemi; R. Petti; T. Planche; M. Popovic; J. Pozimski; G. Prior; C. Prior; G. Rees; S. Rigolin; T. J. Roberts; Y. Roblin; C. Rogers; R. Samulyak; T. Schwetz; N. Simos; N. Sinha; G. Skoro; P. Snopok; F. J. P. Soler; N. Souchlas; J. Strait; D. Stratakis; S. Striganov; J. Tang; J. W. G. Thomason; L. Tortora; R. Tsenov; W. Winter; H. Witte; O. Yasuda; C. Y. Yoshikawa; M. Zisman

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites should not be interpreted as implying a preferred choice of site for the facility.

  3. Office of the President 1050 KANEFF TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a national workforce in Canada of 100 or more employees, and who receive federal government goods or services contracts of $1 million or more. As a condition for bidding on large federal contracts, such contractors

  4. Ghost towers : distressed condominium investing in Atlanta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whalen, Faraji L

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to explore investment opportunities in these now-distressed residential condo properties. The paper will characterize the economic and development environment to determine the extent of ...

  5. Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunesh, J.G. [Fractionation Research, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Inc., Alhambra (Canada); Lockett, M.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  7. Hydraulic Cooling Tower Driver- The Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, J. A.

    -drive eliminates these items from the drive train and puts the same electric motor HP at ground level close coupled to a hydraulic pump, filters, and oil reservoir. Hydraulic lines bring oil pressure to the hydraulic motor, which is more than 75% less weight than...

  8. THE EXAMPLE THE TOWER OF HANOI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducasse, Stéphane

    from A to B--we already know how to move two disks from one peg to another. Next, move the third disk

  9. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Southwest Research Institute is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced power cycles. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aerosol-tower-eml

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATIONCLASIC Sciencecf

  12. Towering Cumulus Stage Mature Stage Dissipating Stage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0Coupled Earth

  13. Sandia Energy - Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution Grid IntegrationOffshoreLiveSustainable Power

  14. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus GroupSherrell R. Greene AboutSide Stream

  15. Radio Towers Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:b <RGS Development BVRadiantRadio

  16. American Tower Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORT Americium/CuriumAgua Caliente SolarAltenoASES Jump

  17. China Solar Tower Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergy Offshore Place: SpainGuajirugroSolarCurtainChina Solar

  18. Microsoft Word - Cooling Tower Report.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions forCheneyNovember S. DEPARTMENTthe UseCR-091 November11138 Takoma

  19. Phase Change Material Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en YMedicine -CERCLADepartment ofofPPMPeter J.PetraPhase

  20. Composite Tower Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, NorthCommunitySouth

  1. BEHAVIOUR AND DESIGN OF COLD-FORMED STEEL ANGLES by Dimos Polyzoisl, A. M. ASCE, and Sami Rizkalla2, F. ASCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an attractive alternative to the traditional hot-rolled angles in the construction of transmission and hydro-electric towers. The major advantage in using cold-fonned steel is the savings associated with the cost-electric towers, for examples. are subject to large temperature fluctuations which could effect the performance

  2. Informing design decisions : an approach to corporate building design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Marc A

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is an investigation into design methodologies. How do we, as designers, prepare ourselves for decision making and evaluate our assumptions and decisions? The intent is to employ this information as a basis for ...

  3. Design - Make : the translation of design intention to fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLain, James R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of making innovative buildings is stifled by our current methodology of communicating design information. Advances in new techniques, technologies, methods, materials and knowledge for both designers and ...

  4. Design space exploration and optimization using modern ship design tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Adam T. (Adam Thomas)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern Naval Architects use a variety of computer design tools to explore feasible options for clean sheet ship designs. Under the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division ...

  5. Applying "Design for Disassembly" to connection design in steel structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silverstein, Scott A. (Scott Aaron)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design for Disassembly (DfD), also known as Design for Deconstruction, is an emerging initiative of sustainable construction that favors disassembly over demolition, considering a building's full life cycle during the ...

  6. Design tool: a software for capturing design intent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velamakanni, Ravindra

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The central purpose of design is to create products that satisfy societal needs within specified constraints. This is a daunting task that involves making a large number of design decisions usually with insufficient information. This results...

  7. Probing the black box : experiments in design and design education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulvey, Christopher P. (Christopher Paul), 1975-

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional analysis and design methods based on preexisting methods and assumptions preconditions and limits the designer's level of engagement with the specific context that is under investigation. A structural analysis ...

  8. Data Base Design andData Base Design and Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jing

    9/30/2010 1 ITCS 3160 Data Base Design andData Base Design and Implementation Jing Yang 2010 Fall should we store in the database? ­ What are the integrity constraints or business rules that hold

  9. Teaching Design for Environment in Product Design Classes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baeriswyl, Michael C.

    The paper presents an approach to teaching design for environment (DFE) in the context of a product design and development course. The teaching method has been applied in our classes for graduate engineering, business, and ...

  10. Design Patterns: Abstraction and Reuse of Object-Oriented Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griswold, William G.

    of responsibilities. Design patterns play many roles in the object-oriented development process: they provide a common

  11. Design for manufacturing (DFM) in submicron VLSI design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Ke

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING (DFM) IN SUBMICRON VLSI DESIGN A Dissertation by KE CAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2007 Major... Subject: Computer Engineering DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURING (DFM) IN SUBMICRON VLSI DESIGN A Dissertation by KE CAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  12. DesignMinders: Preserving and Sharing Informal Software Design Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Hoek, André

    DesignMinders: Preserving and Sharing Informal Software Design Knowledge Gerald Bortis and André knowledge. For example, knowledge management systems that allow developers to populate and search, andre}@ics.uci.edu Abstract. Software design is a knowledge-intensive activity. Knowledge is both

  13. Site Design Considerations for Search Engine Optimization Site Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Site Design Considerations for Search Engine Optimization Site Design No frames No Flash intro o with links are OK Image maps are not OK ­ search engine crawlers will not follow the links Implement a site. Proprietary 1 March 2007 #12;Site Design Considerations for Search Engine Optimization There should

  14. 1 Design by Autonomous Learning Design by Autonomous Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prabhakar, Sattiraju

    can design a new drilling rig for its needs in mines, or design a bridge on the surface of Mars of Devices Sattiraju Prabhakar Greg Smith School of Computing Sciences University of Technology, Sydney PO of the environment and reorganise the environment such that it delivers a new functionality. An example design robot

  15. Control system design method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  16. Design for testability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Jacqueline E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 3. For each memory access in addition to the initial read requirement, add 1 point. 4. For each clock cycle required, add 1 point. 5. For each conditional flag that could be affected, add 1 point (up to a maximum of 2). 6. For each... 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 10100000 11110001 00000010 01010011 11000100 00010101 11100110 10100101 AO Fl 02 C4 15 E6 A5 AO 91 E6 AA BF A5 A5 20 The RAM device has specific tests which are designed to detect the different...

  17. Memorable Logo Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampe, Lori

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    of the favored faded blue color come from the Royal Navy. Naval uniforms were dyed blue and ultimately, ?a sailor?s length of service could be read by how faded his uniform had become? (Peterson, 2000). Therefore, young recruits didn?t 13 want to look even... of design that greatly influences customer?s perceptions of the company or product. Think of particular businesses that have a distinct color that defines them: the golden arches of McDonalds, red Coca-Cola label, or blue AT&T globe. ?In 8 each...

  18. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt |Exelon GenerationExtraction Utility Design

  19. FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FOR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1,EnergyExploringGamma-ray2As atoActFATIGUE DESIGN

  20. Seismic Design Expectations Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium Transfer to FundPreparedContinuingHearings »Seismic Design