National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for towers rn recirculating

  1. Reduction in performance due to recirculation in mechanical-draft cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, D.G. )

    1989-01-01

    The influence of recirculating warm plume air on the performance of mechanical-draft cooling towers is investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally. It is shown that the amount of recirculation that occurs is a function of the flow and the thermal and geometric characteristics of the tower. The presence of a wind wall tends to reduce the mount of recirculation. An equation is presented with which the performance effectiveness due to recirculation can be evaluated approximately for a mechanical-draft cooling tower.

  2. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air conditioners, or other process equipment to the ambient air. Heat is rejected to the environment from cooling towers through the process of evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers use significant amounts of water.

  3. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  4. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  5. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  6. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  7. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  8. SunTower Power Tower and Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph shows a Sierra SunTower power tower, one of two towers at eSolar’s 5 megawatt (MW) commercial CSP plant in Lancaster, California.

  9. Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver Emplaced at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Top of Solar Tower Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver Emplaced at Top of Solar Tower - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid

  10. Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver Placed Atop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Solar Tower Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver Placed Atop the Solar Tower - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  11. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve ...

  12. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  13. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  14. Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Power Tower Power Tower DOE funds solar research and development (R&D) in power tower (central receiver) systems as one of four concentrating solar ...

  15. Armor Tower, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mr. Edward Rosenbloom Chief Executive Officer Armor Tower, Inc. P.O. Box 49779 Charlotte, North Carolina 28277 WEL-2015-06 Dear Mr. Rosenbloom: The Office of Enterprise Assessments' Office of Enforcement has completed an investigation into an electrical shock incident involving an Armor Tower, Inc. (Armor Tower) employee at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Armor Tower is a second-tier subcontractor to Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC (BSA), which is the Department of Energy's (DOE)

  16. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  17. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  18. Solar power tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar power tower section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  19. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  20. Wind tower service lift

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  1. Tower Camera Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudry, D

    2005-01-01

    The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.

  2. Composite Tower Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    needs, including meteorological towers, weather towers, and data collection and instrumentation towers. Coordinates: 40.233765, -111.668509 Show Map Loading map......

  3. China Solar Tower Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tower Development Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar Tower Development Place: China Sector: Solar Product: Joint venture for development of solar towers in China,...

  4. Concentrating Solar Power Tower Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this b-roll, solar power towers' are systems that use an array of mirrors to focus the sun's energy on a tower-mounted heat exchanger to generate electricity.

  5. Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) Jefferson Lab's Low Energy Recirculator Facility, formerly known as the Free-Electron Laser, was developed using the lab's expertise in superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerators. As an FEL, the facility was the world's highest-power tunable infrared laser and also provided ultraviolet laser light, including vacuum ultraviolet light, and Terahertz light. Currently, the lab is using the term Low Energy Recirculator Facility, or LERF, to refer to this

  6. Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-ching; Vidt, Edward J.; Keairns, Dale L.

    1977-01-01

    A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

  7. Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Towers for Utilities - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  8. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  9. Diagnostic system for exhaust gas recirculation device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsurusaki, S.

    1988-12-27

    A diagnostic system of an exhaust gas recirculation device is described having an exhaust gas recirculation control valve which is arranged in an exhaust gas recirculation passage interconnecting an exhaust passage to an intake passage of an internal combustion engine, the diagnostic system comprising: determining whether the engine is operating in a state at which the recirculation of exhaust gas is to be carried out; detecting a temperature in the exhaust gas recirculation passage downstream of the exhaust gas recirculation control valve; having a count value which is variable between a predetermined first value and a predetermined second value, the count value being changed from the first value toward the second value when the engine is operating in a state where the recirculation of exhaust is to be carried out; means for storing a first temperature detected by the detecting means when the count value is equal to the first value; and second determining means for obtaining a difference between the first temperature and second temperature detected by the detecting means when the count value becomes equal to the second value, to thereby determine that a malfunction has occurred in the exhaust gas recirculation device when the difference is lower than a predetermined value.

  10. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  11. Concentrating Solar Power: Power Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video provides an overview of the principles, applications, and benefits of generating electricity using power towers, a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. A brief animation explains...

  12. Lattice Design for the LHEC Recirculating Linac (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lattice Design for the LHEC Recirculating Linac Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lattice Design for the LHEC Recirculating Linac In this paper, we present a lattice ...

  13. Engine control with exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodama, K.; Yamazoe, H.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling the amount of exhaust gases to be recirculated from an exhaust passage of an internal combustion engine to an intake passage of the same, comprising: (a) means for detecting various engine parameters; (b) gas sensor means for detecting the concentration of an exhaust gas in the exhaust passage; (c) means for forcibly interrupting exhaust gas recirculation when the engine is under air/fuel ratio feedback control and exhaust gas recirculation is being performed; and (d) computing means for computing a value representing a desired amount of exhaust to be recirculated using engine parameters and for: (1) producing a correction factor using an output signal from the gas sensor means; (2) obtaining a first mean value of a first plurality of feedback correction factor values during feedback control of air/fuel ratio and during exhaust gas recirculation control; (3) interrupting exhaust gas recirculation during air/fuel ratio feedback control; and (4) obtaining a second mean value of second feedback correction factor values when exhaust gas recirculation is being interrupted.

  14. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  15. Exhaust gas recirculation system with an auxiliary valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, M.

    1980-09-30

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine is described that has an exhaust gas recirculation flow control valve provided at a middle position of the exhaust gas recirculation passage, the control valve being operated depending upon comparison between target and actual values of a control parameter with regard to the amount of exhaust gas recirculation. An auxiliary valve is provided in the exhaust gas recirculation passage in series with the exhaust gas recirculation flow control valve so as to control the crosssectional area of the exhaust gas recirculation passage in accordance with the opening amount of the throttle valve provided in the intake passage of the engine.

  16. Recirculating cross-correlation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

    1985-01-18

    A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

  17. How to Build a Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volunteers - Sign Up About Science Bowl Curriculum and Activities How to Build a Motor The Great Marble Drop How to Build a Turbine How to Build a Tower Classroom...

  18. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  19. Flume simulation of sedimentation in recirculating flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, J.C. (Middlebury College, VT (USA)); Rubin, D.M. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Ikeda, H. (Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    A 4-m-wide flume at the University of Tsukuba Environmental Research Center was used to simulate flow conditions near debris fans in bedrock gorges. Flow was constricted to 2 m by a semicircular obstruction. During the authors experiments (discharge = 600 L/sec; Froude number of constricted flow = 1) a zone of recirculating current extended 25-30 m downstream from the separation point at the constriction. The pattern and velocity of surface flow was determined using time-lapse photography; subsurface velocity was measured with a two-dimensional electromagnetic current meter. During 32-hr of run time, a fine, very coarse sand mixture was fed into the flow at a rate between 0.5-1 kg/sec. Oscillation ripples developed beneath the separation surface that bounds the recirculation zone, and upstream-migrating dunes and ripples developed within the recirculation zone upstream from the reattachment point. A mid-channel expansion bar was deposited downstream from the reattachment point. Sedimentation within the recirculation zone continued by vertical aggradation and by upstream migration of dunes and ripples. Sediments within the recirculation zone were areally sorted with the finest sediment deposited near the separation point. These patterns are consistent with field observations of bars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

  20. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tower System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics August 20, 2013 - 5:06pm Addthis In power tower concentrating solar power systems, numerous large, flat, ...

  2. SMUD Kokhala Power Tower Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Henry W.; Whitney, Daniel D.; Beebe, H.I.

    1997-06-01

    Kokhala is the name of a new hybridized power tower design which integrates a nitrate-salt solar power tower with a gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. This integration achieves high value energy, low costs, and lower investor risk than a conventional solar only power tower plant. One of the primary advantages of this system is that it makes small power tower plants much more economically competitive with conventional power generation technologies. This paper is an overview of a study that performed a conceptual evaluation of a small (30 MWe) commercial plant suitable for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s (SMUD) Rancho Seco power plant site near Sacramento, California. This paper discusses the motivation for using a small hybrid solar plant and provides an overview of the analysis methodology used in the study. The results indicate that a power tower integrated with an advanced gas turbine, combined with Sacramento`s summer solar resource, could produce a low- risk, economically viable power generation project in the near future.

  3. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  4. Fluid rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-12 and RN-19, Reykjanes, Iceland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-07-24

    Results for fluid rare earth elment analyses from Reykjanes wells RN-12 and RN-19. The data have not been corrected for flashing. Samples preconcetrated using chelating resin with IDA functional group (InertSep ME-1). Analyzed using and Element magnetic sctor ICP-MS.

  5. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Water Efficiency | Department of Energy Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Fact sheet covers the key components of cooling towers and how to improve water efficiency. waterfs_coolingtowers.pdf (3.16 MB) More Documents & Publications Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Side Stream Filtration for

  6. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for engine with turbocharger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, S.; Kawai, N.

    1987-06-02

    This patent describes an exhaust gas recirculation apparatus for an internal combustion engine having an intake air passage and an exhaust gas passage connected thereto. The apparatus comprises: an exhaust gas recirculation passage connecting the exhaust gas passage to the intake air passage for recirculating the exhaust gas into the intake air passage; and a vacuum-operated exhaust gas recirculation control valve disposed in the exhaust gas recirculation passage for controlling the flow of the exhaust gas to be recirculated. The exhaust gas recirculation control valve comprises a diaphragm for receiving admitted operating vacuum such that the valve closes when the absolute value of the admitted operating vacuum is lower than the absolute value of a first predetermined vacuum value and opens when the absolute value of the admitted operating vacuum is higher than the absolute value of the first Predetermined vacuum value.

  7. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  8. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  9. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  10. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation coolers from 7 engine manufacturers, discussed differences and commonalities, and provided understanding of cooler fouling and prevention.

  11. Preliminary Study on Emittance Growth in the LHEC Recirculating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and synchrotron radiation (SR) fluctuations in the recirculating arcs. 6-D multi-particle tracking is launched to calculate the emittance from the statistical point of view. ...

  12. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation coolers from 7 engine manufacturers, discussed differences and commonalities, and provided understanding of cooler fouling and ...

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  14. GreenTower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Developer of a solar chimney technology, with greenhouses for food production. Hopes to deploy this in Namibia. References: GreenTower1 This article...

  15. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aerosol-tower-eml

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AEROSOL-TOWER-EML) Instrument Categories Aerosols Campaigns Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Field Evaluation Download Data Southern Great Plains, 1994.04.01 - 1994.05.31...

  16. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Krumhansl, James L.; Chwirka, Joseph D.

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  17. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  18. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  19. The Effect of CO2 on the Measurement of 220Rn and 222Rn with Instruments Utilising Electrostatic Precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lane-Smith, Derek; Sims, Kenneth

    2013-06-09

    In some volcanic systems, thoron and radon activity and CO2 flux, in soil and fumaroles, show a relationship between (220Rn/222Rn) and CO2 efflux. It is theorized that deep, magmatic sources of gas are characterized by high 222Rn activity and high CO2 efflux, whereas shallow sources are indicated by high 220Rn activity and relatively low CO2 efflux. In this paper we evaluate whether the observed inverse relationship is a true geochemical signal, or potentially an analytical artifact of high CO2 concentrations. We report results from a laboratory experiment using the RAD7 radon detector, known 222Rn (radon) and 220Rn (thorn), and amore » controllable percentage of CO2 in the carrier gas. Our results show that for every percentage of CO2, the 220Rn reading should be multiplied by 1.019, the 222Rn radon should be multiplied by 1.003 and the 220Rn/222Rn ratio should be multiplied by 1.016 to correct for the presence of the CO2.« less

  20. Cooling tower environmental considerations for cogeneration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, K.L.; Putnam, R.A.; Schott, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Careful consideration must be given to the potential environmental impacts resulting from cooling tower operations in cogeneration projects. Concerns include visible plumes, fogging and icing of nearby roadways, emissions, water use, aesthetics, and noise. These issues must be properly addressed in order to gain public acceptance and allow for easier permitting of the facility. This paper discusses the various evaporative type cooling tower technologies from an environmental standpoint. In addition, typical concerns and questions raised by the public are presented, along with suggested guidelines for addressing these concerns. The use of modeling to predict the potential environmental impacts from cooling tower operations is sometimes required by regulatory agencies as a condition for obtaining approval for the facility. This paper discusses two of the models that are currently available for predicting cooling tower environmental impacts such as fogging, icing, salt deposition, and visible plumes. The lack of standardized models for cooling tower noise predictions, and the means by which the modeling requirements may be achieved are also addressed. An overview of the characteristics of cooling tower noise, the various measures used for noise control and the interdependency of the control measures and other cooling tower performance parameters are presented. Guidance is provided to design cost effective, low noise installations. The requirements for cooling tower impact assessments to support permitting of a cogeneration facility are also presented.

  1. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  2. Enforcement Letter, Armor Tower, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Armor Tower, Inc. Enforcement Letter, Armor Tower, Inc. December 4, 2015 Worker Safety and Health Enforcement Letter issued to Armor Tower, Inc. On December 4, 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enterprise Assessments' Office of Enforcement issued an Enforcement Letter (WEL-2015-06) to Armor Tower, Inc., relating to a worker electrical shock that occurred while working on a meteorological tower at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory. Enforcement Letter, Armor Tower, Inc.

  3. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint 34851.pdf (366.26 KB) More ...

  4. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee ...

  5. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  6. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  7. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Fact sheet provides an overview of side stream ...

  8. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. ...

  9. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Advanced Cooling Tower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Advanced Cooling Tower Controls The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified advanced cooling tower controls as a water-saving ...

  10. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption. ...

  11. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. ...

  12. Cooling tower water treatment and reuse. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cooling tower water treatment and reuse. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cooling tower water treatment and reuse. No abstract prepared. Authors: Brady, Patrick Vane ; ...

  13. Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians - Wind Meteorological Tower...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Band of Kumeyaay Indians Meteorlogical Tower Deployment and Data Measurement and Analysis ... from the previously collected raw wind data and correlations among the towers show: * ...

  14. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  15. Recirculating Linac Accelerators For Future Muon Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yves Roblin, Alex Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Kevin Beard

    2012-04-01

    Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of shortlived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness. We discuss the optics and technical requirements for RLA designs, using RF cavities capable of simultaneous acceleration of both m+ and m- species. The design will include the optics for the multi-pass linac and droplet-shaped return arcs.

  16. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  17. Exhaust gas recirculation system for a V-type engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choushi, M.; Ishimi, H.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes an exhaust gas recirculation system for a V-type engine having a pair of cylinder banks arranged at an angle to each other on opposite sides of a crankshaft, each cylinder bank having cylinders therein and an intake passage being separately provided for each cylinder. The improvement described here comprises that the intake passages have respective proximate portions at which the intake passages to the cylinders in one cylinder bank and the intake passages to the cylinders in the other cylinder bank are aligned with each other as viewed in the direction of the crankshaft. The proximate portions are in the middle of the engine between the cylinder banks, and an exhaust recirculation passage for recirculating exhaust gas from an exhaust passage to the cylinders extending along the proximate portions in the direction of the crankshaft and communicating with each intake passage by way of a communicating aperture, an exhaust recirculation valve, for controlling the amount of exhaust gas, in the open end of the exhaust recirculation passage, and a branch exhaust passage, one end of which communicates with the exhaust recirculation passage by way of the exhaust recirculation valve and the other end of which communicates with an exhaust passage of the engine.

  18. Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 (1.94 MB) More Documents & Publications 2011: Air Quality Regulations Report 2011 Air Quality Regulations Report Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010

  19. American Tower Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Tower Company Address: P.O. Box 29 Place: Shelby, Ohio Zip: 44875 Sector: Wind energy Product: Agriculture;Business and legal...

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Power Tower Projects | Concentrating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power | NREL Power Tower Projects Aerial photo of a power tower system, showing numerous large, reflective mirrors in concentric circular rows. Tracking the sun, each mirror reflects onto the top of the tower at the center of the circle of mirrors. The receiver at the top of the tower is glowing. Stretched-membrane heliostats with silvered polymer reflectors surround the Solar Two power tower in Daggett, California. Credit: Sandia National Laboratories / PIX 00036 Concentrating solar

  1. Seismic response of offshore guyed towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, A.K.; Bisht, R.S.

    1993-12-31

    Seismic stresses in the offshore Guyed Tower assumes importance because of its flexural modes having smaller periods (in the range of 1 to 3 sec), which may attract considerable seismic forces. Since the displacement of the offshore Guyed Tower is generally guided by the rigid body mode corresponding to the fundamental period which lies between 20 to 40 sec., seismic excitation is relatively unimportant in relation to the towers` overall displacement behavior. The response of offshore Guyed Tower to ransom ground motion (E1 Centro earthquake, 1940) is investigated. The guyed tower is modeled as a uniform shear beam with a rotational spring at the base of the tower. The guylines are represented by a linearized spring whose force-excursion relationship is derived from a separate static analysis of the guylines. The dynamic equation of motion duly takes into account the pressure-drag effect produced due to fluid-structure interaction. The response is obtained in tim- domain using Newmark`s {beta} Time Integration Scheme.

  2. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A.; Berry, David A.

    2008-10-28

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  3. The Pebble Recirculation Experiment (PREX) for the AHTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardet, P.; An, J.Y.; Franklin, J.T.; Huang, D.; Lee, K.; Mai, A.; Toulouse, M.; Peterson, P.F.

    2007-07-01

    Conceptual design studies for the liquid-salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) have identified three candidate TRISO fuel geometries: prismatic, pebble, and stringer fuels. This paper presents experimental results from the integral Pebble Recirculation Experiment (PREX) that verifies the viability of pebble recirculation in a Pebble Bed AHTR (PB-AHTR). The experiments conducted include injection and extraction of buoyant pebbles, measurements of packing density and pressure losses, and observations of pebble landing dynamics and bed formation. (authors)

  4. Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers EGR coolers donated by industry and analyzed at ORNL contained lacquer-like deposits, which can be prevented by maintaining the cooler above the dew point of the hydrocarbons. deer12_lance.pdf (1.37 MB) More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems (Agreement ID:18571) Project

  5. Exhaust gas recirculation control system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, M.; Inoue, N.

    1988-03-01

    An exhaust gas recirculation control system for an internal combustion engine is described which comprises; an exhaust gas recirculation control valve for controlling a recirculation rate for exhaust gas to be mixed with intake air which is supplied to the internal combustion engine, an oxygen sensor disposed in an intake air passage downstream of the control valve to detect the concentration of oxygen in the intake air, a control means which compares the oxygen concentration detected by the oxygen sensor with a desired oxygen concentration previously determined depending on operational conditions of the engine and controls the degree of opening of the exhaust gas recirculation control valve so as to cancel the deviation between the detected oxygen concentration and the desired oxygen concentration, a detecting means for detecting the exhaust gas recirculation rate being zero to supply a signal to the control means on the basis of the detection, and a correcting means for correcting the corresponding relation between the output of the oxygen sensor and the detected oxygen concentration on the basis of the output of the oxygen sensor when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is zero.

  6. ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera Three Meter Tower: video camera Authors: Scott Smith ; Martin...

  7. ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Three Meter Tower: video camera Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Three Meter Tower: video camera Three Meter Tower: video camera Authors: Scott Smith ; Martin...

  8. ARM: Forty Meter Tower: video camera (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Forty Meter Tower: video camera Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Forty Meter Tower: video camera Forty Meter Tower: video camera Authors: Scott Smith ; Martin...

  9. Fill fouling experiences on both mechanical and natural draft towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraze, R.O. )

    1992-01-01

    Fouling of the film fill in cooling towers is becoming an increasingly serious problem in the Utility Industry. This paper discusses Florida Power Corporation's experience with fouling of film type fill in two mechanical draft and two natural draft towers. The two mechanical draft towers were placed in service as helper towers at the Anclote Plant in 1981. The two natural draft towers went into service at the Crystal River North Site in 1982 and 1984 for closed cycle cooling. All the towers are on salt water systems.

  10. Status of experiments leading to a small recirculator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangster, C.T.; Barnard, J.J.; Cianciolo, T.V.

    1998-01-16

    A heavy ion linear induction accelerator is considered to be the leading driver candidate for an Inertial Fusion Energy reactor. To deliver a space-charge-dominated beam at the appropriate energy (several GeV), such an accelerator would be several kilometers in length. Since total length has a strong influence on accelerator cost, we are considering the potential advantages and practical implementation of a recirculating induction accelerator. To address the critical scientific and technical challenges of a recirculating space-charge-dominated heavy ion beam, we have begun to develop the elements of a scaled ``small recirculator``. An operating recirculator must demonstrate full beam control including multi-lap operation, beam insertion/extraction, acceleration and pulse compression. At present, experiments have been conducted using a 2mA, 80keV K{sup +} beam transported through a 45{degree} bend; experiments on a 90{degree} bend with five induction modulators will begin soon. This paper briefly summarizes the recirculator specifications and operational features and reports the latest experimental data as well as the developmental status of beam diagnostics.

  11. Phase Change Material Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phase Change Material Tower Phase Change Material Tower This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_erickson.pdf (1.04 MB) More Documents & Publications Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 2014 SunShot Initiative Peer Review Report

  12. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  13. Power Tower System Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The cool heat-transfer fluid exiting the turbine flows into a steam condenser to be cooled and sent back up the tower to the receiver. In power tower concentrating solar power ...

  14. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines David ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test ...

  15. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. You are accessing a ...

  16. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  17. Project Profile: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Baseload Power Tower Project Profile: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower Wilson logo Wilson Solarpower, under the Baseload CSP FOA, proposed a utility-scale, Brayton cycle baseload power tower system with a capacity factor of at least 75% and LCOE of $0.09/kWh. Approach Photo of a tower in the background with slanted panels connected by a wire in the foreground. Wilson developed, built, tested, and evaluated two prototype components-an unpressurized thermal storage system and an

  18. New North Dakota Factory to Produce Wind Towers, Jobs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind tower factory could bring back some of the jobs lost when a machine manufacturing plant closed.

  19. Boise Air Traffic Control Tower: High Performance and sustainable Building Guiding Principles Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Goel, Supriya; Henderson, Jordan W.

    2013-09-01

    Overview of energy efficiency opportunities for new FAA tower construction using the Boise Air Traffic Control Tower as an example.

  20. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko -Jen

    2015-09-15

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a compressor housing includes a compressor inlet in fluid communication with a compressor volute configured to house a compressor wheel, the compressor inlet configured to provide a first air flow to the compressor wheel and a compressor outlet in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the compressor outlet configured to direct a compressed gas to an intake manifold. The compressor housing further includes an exhaust gas recirculation inlet port in fluid communication with the compressor volute, the exhaust gas recirculation inlet port being configured to combine an exhaust gas flow with the air flow to the compressor wheel.

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Tower Plant Illustration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This graphic illustrates numerous large, flat, sun-tracking mirrors, known as heliostats, that focus sunlight onto a receiver at the top of a tower. A heat-transfer fluid heated in the receiver is used to generate steam, which, in turn, is used in a conventional turbine generator to produce electricity.

  2. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  3. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  4. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  5. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meot, F.; Brooks, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  6. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-07-19

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

  7. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.

    1989-01-01

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

  8. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, Jr., John E.

    1985-01-01

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  9. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister Jr., J. E.

    1985-02-12

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  10. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Report assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings and provide information about specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This report provides an overview of the characterization of

  11. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  12. Project Profile: Solar Power Tower Improvements with the Potential to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Costs | Department of Energy Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: Solar Power Tower Improvements with the Potential to Reduce Costs Project Profile: Solar Power Tower Improvements with the Potential to Reduce Costs Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne logo Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, under the Baseload CSP FOA, designed and tested several components of a molten salt solar power tower that is in line with SunShot Initiative cost targets. Approach Receiver test panel design

  13. Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool for Solar Power Towers |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool for Solar Power Towers The Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool (SolarPILOT(tm)) generates and characterizes power tower (central receiver) systems. This software was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). SolarPILOT consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) and an application programming interface (API) through which external programs can access SolarPILOT's functionality.

  14. High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receivers | Department of Energy High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_ambrosini.pdf (3.05 MB) More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower

  15. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-08

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  16. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Lower Cost of Energy" intends to support partnerships that lead to innovative designs and processes for wind turbine tower manufacturing and turbine system installation. ...

  17. NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia ... Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy Systems ...

  18. Don Ana Sun Tower Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Don Ana Sun Tower Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power Developer NRG EnergyeSolar Location Dona Ana County, New Mexico Coordinates 32.485767,...

  19. Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background SolarPILOT(tm) offers several unique capabilities compared to other software tools. Unlike exclusively ...

  20. Building a Better Transmission Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Better Transmission Tower Building a Better Transmission Tower May 20, 2011 - 9:41am Addthis A helicopter hoists platforms for linemen during the construction of this single-circuit 500-kilovolt tower – one of hundreds on the McNary-John Day line saving BPA big bucks. | Photo courtesy of Bonneville Power Administration A helicopter hoists platforms for linemen during the construction of this single-circuit 500-kilovolt tower - one of hundreds on the McNary-John Day line saving BPA big

  1. A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E.

    1998-12-31

    Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

  2. Meteorological Towers Display for Windows NT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-20

    The Towers Display Program provides a convenient means of graphically depicting current wind speed and direction from a network of meteorological monitoring stations. The program was designed primarily for emergency response applications and, therefore, plots observed wind directions as a transport direction, i.e., the direction toward which the wind would transport a release of an atmospheric contaminant. Tabular summaries of wind speed and direction as well as temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence measured atmore » each monitoring station can be displayed. The current implementation of the product at SRS displays data from eight Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System meteorological towers at SRS, meteorological stations established jointly by SRS/WSRC and the Augusta/Richmond County Emergency Management Agency in Augusta, GA, and National Weather Service stations in Augusta, GA. Wind speed and direction are plotted in a Beaufort scale format at the location of the station on a geographic map of the area. A GUI provides for easy specification of a desired date and time for the data to be displayed.« less

  3. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added ...

  4. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil- Impact on Wear

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of completed study on the effect of four exhaust gas recirculation levels on diesel engine oil during standard test with an API Cummins M-11 engine.

  5. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. , Carlson; Bryan J. , Wingo; Robert M. , Robison; Thomas W.

    2012-08-07

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  6. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  7. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  8. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  9. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  10. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  11. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  12. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  13. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  14. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  15. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  16. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  17. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- News & Views Bren Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At 1,527 Feet, BREN Tower Dominates Nevada National Security Site Skyline Photo - 1,527-foot BREN Tower The BREN Tower 1,527 feet tall, has been a focal point of attention ever since it was erected on the Nevada National Security Site in 1962. During its 30 years, it has been part of the Yucca and Jackass Flat skylines, and a platform for two important experiments --Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada (BREN), and the High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment (HENRE). It was built by the Dresser-Ideco

  18. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  19. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  20. CfRN-Developing a Low Carbon Growth Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices, Publications Website: www.rainforestcoalition.org CfRN Low...

  1. PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland PAUL

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  2. Exxon's guyed tower nears load-out date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasscock, M.S.; Finn, L.D.

    1983-04-01

    Exxon's Lena guyed tower, installed in 1,000ft. water in the Gulf of Mexico, is discussed. The Lena tower is designed to move in response to wave forces rather than resist them rigidly, as is the case with conventional platforms. Selection of tower components to satisfy requirements resulted in a complex geometry which presented design challenges. Buoyancy will serve as a stabilizing force for the tower by adding to the restoring force of the guying system. Flexible J-tube pipeline risers were developed to avoid excessive stresses in the pipelines and J-tube pipelines and J-tubes at the mudline. Exxon's Lena platform is to-date in the second deepest water in the world, and at 1,305 ft total height, is the tallest.

  3. Alpine SunTower Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.renewableenergyfocus.comview2513pge-and-nrg-energy-collaborate-on-92-mw-solar-thermal-power Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAlpineSunTowerSola...

  4. Flow Distortion Study Completed for the Chesapeake Light Tower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    With the light tower similar in profile to offshore oil platforms, one concern was whether its bulky cross section would disturb the wind blowing around it so that measurements on ...

  5. CDX 4608, Guard Tower Power and Fiber Reroute (4608)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guard Tower Power and Fiber Reroute (4608) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee The proposed action is to design and re-route power and fiber to 9949-AR (Guard...

  6. RECENT PROGRESS TOWARD A MUON RECIRCULATING LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slawomir Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Yves Roblin, Kevin Beard

    2012-07-01

    Both Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require very rapid acceleration due to the short lifetime of muons. After a capture and bunching section, a linac raises the energy to about 900 MeV, and is followed by one or more Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA), possibly followed by a Rapid Cycling Synchnotron (RCS) or Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring. A RLA reuses the expensive RF linac section for a number of passes at the price of having to deal with different energies within the same linac. Various techniques including pulsed focusing quadruopoles, beta frequency beating, and multipass arcs have been investigated via simulations to improve the performance and reduce the cost of such RLAs.

  7. Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor SWRI logo -- This project is inactive -- The Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) and its partners, under the 2012 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) SunShot R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing an external combustor capable of operating at much higher temperatures than the current state-of-the-art technology. Approach Illustration with a horizontal

  8. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  9. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tower Manufacturing and Installation Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation December 18, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis The DOE Wind Program has issued a Notice of Intent for a funding opportunity that it intends to post early in 2014, pending Congressional appropriations. The funding opportunity, tentatively titled "U.S. Wind Manufacturing: Taller Hub Heights to Access Higher Wind Resources, and Lower Cost of Energy" intends to support

  10. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design | Department of Energy in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint 34851.pdf (366.26 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis Final Report DE-EE0005380 - Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage

  11. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-05-07

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports.

  12. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  13. Picosecond Pulse Recirculation for High Average Brightness Thomson Scattering-based Gamma-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenov, V. A.

    2009-06-12

    Pulse recirculation has been successfully demonstrated with the interaction laser system of LLNL's Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray (T-REX) source. The recirculation increased twenty-eight times the intensity of the light coming out of the laser system, demonstrating the capability of increasing the gamma-ray flux emitted by T-REX. The technical approach demonstrated could conceivably increase the average gamma-ray flux output by up to a hundred times.

  14. Conversion of Solar Two to a Kokhala hybrid power tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, H.W.

    1997-06-01

    The continued drop in energy prices and restructuring of the utility industry have reduced the likelihood that a follow-on commercial 100-MW, power tower project will be built immediately following the Solar Two demonstration project. Given this, it would be desirable to find a way to extend the life of the Solar Two project to allow the plant to operate as a showcase for future power tower projects. This paper looks at the possibility of converting Solar Two into a commercial Kokhala hybrid power tower plant at the end of its demonstration period in 1998. The study identifies two gas turbines that could be integrated into a Kokhala cycle at Solar Two and evaluates the design, expected performance, and economics of each of the systems. The study shows that a commercial Kokhala project at Solar Two could produce power at a cost of less than 7 e/kWhr.

  15. Removal of {sup 222}Rn daughters from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuzel, G.; Wojcik, M.; Majorovits, B.; Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P.

    2015-08-17

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from copper, stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning techniques etching and electro-polishing was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements electro-polishing was always more efficient compared to etching and in case of copper the activity reduction factors for {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po were between 200 and 400. Etching does not remove {sup 210}Po from copper but works very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi for etched stainless steel were worse but still slightly better than those achieved for copper.

  16. Solar Two: A successful power tower demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REILLY,HUGH E.; PACHECO,JAMES E.

    2000-03-02

    Solar Two, a 10MWe power tower plant in Barstow, California, successfully demonstrated the production of grid electricity at utility-scale with a molten-salt solar power tower. This paper provides an overview of the project, from inception in 1993 to closure in the spring of 1999. Included are discussions of the goals of the Solar Two consortium, the planned-vs.-actual timeline, plant performance, problems encountered, and highlights and successes of the project. The paper concludes with a number of key results of the Solar Two test and evaluation program.

  17. 2010sr27[cooling_tower_complete].doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Friday, September 17, 2010 james-r.giusti@srs.gov Paivi Nettamo, SRNS, (803) 952-6938 paivi.nettamo@srs.gov K Cooling Tower Project Reaches Completion Aiken, S.C. - One of the most visual milestones of cleanup projects underway within the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management was the demolition of the K-Reactor Cooling Tower at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Now, this American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project has been completed one month ahead of schedule, with debris

  18. MULTI-TUBE POWER LEADS TOWER FOR BEPCII IR MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JIA,L.X.; ZHANG,X.B.; WANG,L.; WANG,T.H.; YAO,Z.L.

    2004-05-11

    A power lead tower containing the multi-tube power leads is designed and under fabrication for the superconducting IR quadrupole magnets in the Beijing Electron Position Collider Upgrade (BEPCII). The lead tower consists of six pairs of gas-cooled leads for seven superconducting coils at various operating currents. The power lead is designed in a modular fashion, which can be easily applied to suit different operating current. The end copper block of the tube lead has a large cold mass that provide a large time constant in case of cooling flow interruption. A novel cryogenic electrical isolator is used for the leads.

  19. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lingTowerWaterUseWinterGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  20. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  1. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent& Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  2. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent and Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  3. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  4. Workers Safely Tear Down Towers at Manhattan Project Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – After decades dominating the Los Alamos National Laboratory skyline, two water towers were safely demolished by workers in a matter of hours recently, bringing EM’s Environmental Projects Office at Los Alamos a step closer to transferring the land for future commercial or industrial use.

  5. Add helper cooling towers to control discharge temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, J.; Christensen, G.

    1993-04-01

    This article describes the retrofitting of helper cooling towers to the Crystal River energy complex to reduce thermal pollution to the Gulf of Mexico. The topics of the article include the design concept, evaluation of design alternatives, a project description, economic evaluation, marine organism control, power requirements, and auxiliary systems.

  6. Method and apparatus for control of coherent synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David R; Tennant, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A modulated-bending recirculating system that avoids CSR-driven breakdown in emittance compensation by redistributing the bending along the beamline. The modulated-bending recirculating system includes a) larger angles of bending in initial FODO cells, thereby enhancing the impact of CSR early on in the beam line while the bunch is long, and 2) a decreased bending angle in the final FODO cells, reducing the effect of CSR while the bunch is short. The invention describes a method for controlling the effects of CSR during recirculation and bunch compression including a) correcting chromatic aberrations, b) correcting lattice and CSR-induced curvature in the longitudinal phase space by compensating T.sub.566, and c) using lattice perturbations to compensate obvious linear correlations x-dp/p and x'-dp/p.

  7. NREL: MIDC/National Wind Technology Center M2 Tower (39.91 N, 105.235 W,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1855 m, GMT-7) National Wind Technology Center M2 Tower

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    considered separately when deciding on an approach for reducing the salt discharge to the subsurface. The smaller units may justify moderate changes to equipment, and may benefit from increased cleaning frequencies, more accurate and suitable chemical treatment, and sources of make up water and discharge re-use. The larger cooling towers would be more suitable for automated systems where they don't already exist, re-circulation and treatment of blow down water, and enhanced chemical dosing strategies. It may be more technically feasible and cost efficient for the smaller cooling towers to be replaced by closed loop dry coolers or hybrid towers. There are several potential steps that could be taken at each location to reduce the TDS concentration and/or water use. These include: sump water filtration, minimization of drift, accurate chemical dosing, and use of scale and corrosion coupons for chemical calibration. The implementation of some of these options could be achieved by a step-wise approach taken at two representative facilities. Once viable prototype systems have been proven in the field, systematic implementation should proceed for the remaining systems, with cost, desired reduction, and general feasibility taken into consideration for such systems.

  9. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  10. Wind Turbine Tower for Storing Hydrogen and Energy - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Wind Turbine Tower for Storing Hydrogen and Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Around the world, there is an increasing demand for satisfying energy requirements in ways that use less or no fossil fuels. These alternatives need to be reliable, cost effective, and environmentally

  11. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Towers (photo from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) * Scaling: Scaling is the precipitation of dissolved mineral components that have become saturated in solution, which can lower effciency of the system. * Fouling: Fouling occurs when suspended particles or biologic growth forms an insulating flm on heat transfer surfaces. Common foulants include organic matter, process oils, and silt, which can also lower system performance. * Microbiological Activity: Microbiological activity

  12. Measurement of SRS reactor recirculation pump performance using pump motor power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    In order to accurately predict reactor hydraulic behavior during a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA) the performance of reactor coolant pumps under off-design conditions must be understood. The LOCA of primary interest for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors involves the aspiration of air into the recirculated heavy water flow as reactor tank inventory is lost (system temperatures are too low to result in significant flashing of water coolant into steam). Entrained air causes degradation in the performance of the large recirculation pumps. The amount of degradation is a parameter used in computer codes which predict the course of the accident. This paper describes the analysis of data obtained during in-reactor simulated LOCA tests, and presents the head degradation curve for the SRS reactor recirculation pumps. The greatest challenge of the analysis was to determine a reasonable estimate of mixture density at the pump suction. Specially designed three-beam densitometers were used to determine mixture density. Since it was not feasible to place them in the most advantageous location the measured pump motor power, along with other techniques (pressure corrected gamma densitometer void fraction), were used to calculate the average mixture density at the pump impeller. These techniques provided good estimates of pump suction mixture density. Measurements from more conventional instruments were used to arrive at the value of pump two-component head over a wide range of flows. The results were significantly different from previous work with commercial reactor recirculation pumps.

  13. Achromatic recirculated chicane with fixed geometry and independently variable path length and momentum compaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.; Neil, George R.

    2005-04-26

    A particle beam recirculated chicane geometry that, through the inducement of a pair of 180 degree bends directed by the poles of a pair of controllable magnetic fields allows for variation of dipole position, return loop radii and steering/focussing, thereby allowing the implementation of independent variation of path length and momentum compaction.

  14. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a

  15. Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    provides information useful in power plant cycle optimization, including tower dimensions, water consumption rate, exit air temperature, power requirements and construction cost. ...

  16. AmeriFlux US-Skr Shark River Slough (Tower SRS-6) Everglades...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The tower was offline until the following October in order to continue temporally consistent measurements. In post-hurricane conditions, ecosystem respiration rates and solar ...

  17. NREL: Technology Deployment - Resource Maps for Taller Towers Reveal New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Areas for Wind Project Development Resource Maps for Taller Towers Reveal New Areas for Wind Project Development News Mapping the Frontier of New Wind Power Potential Publications Southeastern Wind Coalition fact sheets Southeast Wind Energy Fact Sheet Enabling Wind Power Nationwide Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States Sponsors AWS Truepower Southeastern Wind Coalition Key Partners U.S. Department of Energy Contact Ian Baring-Gould, 303-384-7021 A picture of a tall wind

  18. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  19. ON THE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY OF MAGNETIC TOWER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E. G.; Ciardi, A.; Hartigan, P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.

    2012-09-20

    Modern theoretical models of astrophysical jets combine accretion, rotation, and magnetic fields to launch and collimate supersonic flows from a central source. Near the source, magnetic field strengths must be large enough to collimate the jet requiring that the Poynting flux exceeds the kinetic energy flux. The extent to which the Poynting flux dominates kinetic energy flux at large distances from the engine distinguishes two classes of models. In magneto-centrifugal launch models, magnetic fields dominate only at scales {approx}< 100 engine radii, after which the jets become hydrodynamically dominated (HD). By contrast, in Poynting flux dominated (PFD) magnetic tower models, the field dominates even out to much larger scales. To compare the large distance propagation differences of these two paradigms, we perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations of both HD and PFD stellar jets formed via the same energy flux. We also compare how thermal energy losses and rotation of the jet base affects the stability in these jets. For the conditions described, we show that PFD and HD exhibit observationally distinguishable features: PFD jets are lighter, slower, and less stable than HD jets. Unlike HD jets, PFD jets develop current-driven instabilities that are exacerbated as cooling and rotation increase, resulting in jets that are clumpier than those in the HD limit. Our PFD jet simulations also resemble the magnetic towers that have been recently created in laboratory astrophysical jet experiments.

  20. Effect of recirculation pump trip following anticipated transients without scram at Big Rock Point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    As requested by the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) in their Technical Report on Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) for Water-Cooled Reactors (WASH-1270), Consumers Power Company has submitted analyses which describe the response of their Big Rock Point (BRP) Plant to ATWS. The original analyses were submitted on Febuary 21, 1975, and results indicated that a recirculation pump trip (RPT) was effective in limiting the consequences of an ATWS. The response of BRP to an ATWS was reanalyzed as a part of the Big Rock Point Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Results of the analysis were submitted on February 26, 1981, with the conclusion that automatic RPT provides little safety improvement at BRP. Purpose of this report is to evaluate the submitted analyses to determine the effectiveness of Recirculation Pump Trip in ATWS recovery.

  1. Performance degradation of a large production reactor recirculation pump during off-design conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    In order to accurately predict reactor hydraulic behavior during a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA) the performance of reactor coolant pumps under off-design conditions must be understood. The LOCA of primary interest for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors involves the aspiration of air into the recirculated heavy water flow as reactor tank inventory is lost, (system temperatures are too low to result in significant flashing of water coolant into steam). Entrained air causes degradation in the performance of the large recirculation pumps. The amount of degradation is a parameter used in computer codes which predict the course of the accident. This paper describes the analysis of data obtained during in-reactor simulated LOCA tests, and presents the head degradation curve for the SRS reactor recirculation pumps. The greatest challenge of the analysis was to determine a reasonable estimate of mixture density at the pump suction. Specially designed three-beam densitometers were used to determine mixture density. Since it was not feasible to place them in the most advantageous location, measured pump motor power along with other techniques, were used to calculate the average mixture density at the pump impeller. This technique provides a good estimate of pump suction mixture density. Measurements from more conventional instruments were used to arrive at the value of pump two-component head over a wide range of flows. The results were significantly different from previous work with commercial reactor recirculation pumps. Further experimental work using a 1/4 scale model of the SRS pump should provide an opportunity to confirm these results, and is currently in progress.

  2. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  3. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Mike S.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  4. System and method for aligning heliostats of a solar power tower

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Convery, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar power tower heliostat alignment system and method that includes a solar power tower with a focal area, a plurality of heliostats that each reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower, an off-focal area location substantially close to the focal area of the solar power tower, a communication link between the off-focal area location and a misaligned heliostat, and a processor that interprets the communication between the off-focal area location and the misaligned heliostat to identify the misaligned heliostat from the plurality of heliostats and that determines a correction for the identified misaligned heliostat to realign the misaligned heliostat to reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower.

  5. Overview of Hazard Assessment and Emergency Planning Software of Use to RN First Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, E; Millage, K; Blakely, W F; Ross, J A; Mercier, J R; Sandgren, D J; Levine, I H; Dickerson, W E; Nemhauser, J B; Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Homann, S; Buddemeier, B R; Curling, C A; Disraelly, D S

    2008-08-26

    There are numerous software tools available for field deployment, reach-back, training and planning use in the event of a radiological or nuclear (RN) terrorist event. Specialized software tools used by CBRNe responders can increase information available and the speed and accuracy of the response, thereby ensuring that radiation doses to responders, receivers, and the general public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Software designed to provide health care providers with assistance in selecting appropriate countermeasures or therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion can improve the potential for positive patient outcome. This paper reviews various software applications of relevance to radiological and nuclear (RN) events that are currently in use by first responders, emergency planners, medical receivers, and criminal investigators.

  6. Simulations on Head-Tail Radio Galaxies Using Magnetic Tower Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Zhaoming; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Yuan, Feng

    2015-08-19

    The presentation is a series of slides showing diagrams, equations, and various photographs. In summary, a detailed comparison was carried out between hydrodynamic jet and MHD jet models (the magnetic tower jet, more precisely), in an effort to understand the underlying physics of observed radio galaxies, and also its possible indications for jet feedback. It was found that the results of magnetic tower model usually lie in a reasonable regime, and in several aspects, the magnetic tower jet seems more preferred than pure hydrodynamic jet models.

  7. Structures of {sup 201}Po and {sup 205}Rn from EC/{beta}{sup +}-decay studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, A. Y.; Podolyak, Zs.; Walker, P. M.; Farrelly, G.; Gelletly, W.; Algora, A.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Estevez, E.; Fraile, L. M.; Al-Dahan, N.; Alkhomashi, N.; Briz, J. A.; Maira, A.; Herlert, A.; Koester, U.; Singla, S.

    2010-02-15

    Several low-lying excited states in {sub 86}{sup 205}Rn{sub 119} and {sub 84}{sup 201}Po{sub 117} were identified for the first time following EC/{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 205}Fr and {sup 201}At, respectively, using {gamma}-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy at the CERN isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility. The EC/{beta}{sup +} branch from {sup 205}Fr was measured to be 1.5(2)%. The excited states of the daughter nuclei are understood in terms of the odd nucleon coupling to the neighboring even-even core. The neutron single-particle energies of the p{sub 3/2} orbital relative to the f{sub 5/2} ground state in {sup 205}Rn, and the f{sub 5/2} orbital relative to the p{sub 3/2} ground state in {sup 201}Po, were determined to be 31.4(2) and 5.7(3) keV, respectively. We tentatively identify a (13/2){sup +} isomeric level at 657.1(5) keV in {sup 205}Rn. The systematic behavior of the (13/2){sup +} and (3/2){sup -} levels is also discussed.

  8. A Study of NO{sub x} Reduction by Fuel Injection Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub X}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub X} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. Numerical simulations of H{sub 2}-air and CH{sub 4}-air counterflow diffusion flames using full kinetics were performed and NO{sub X} emission indices calculated for various conditions. Studies were conducted in which a N{sub 2} diluent was added either on the fuel- or air-side of the flame for conditions of either fixed initial velocities or fixed fuel mass flux. Results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in diluent effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side verses air-side dilution. Simulations in which flow velocities were fixed as diluent was added either to the air or fuel stream showed lower NO{sub X} emissions for air-side dilution; however, if instead, fuel mass fluxes were fixed as diluent was added, which results in an increase in the velocity of the streams, fuel-side dilution was more effective. These results were independent of whether H{sub 2} or Ch

  9. Evaluation of a paint spray booth utilizing air recirculation. Final report June 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, L.E.; Bryan, R.J.; Becvar, D.P.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the recirculating air spray booth process at the Deere and Company facility in Davenport, Iowa. The effort involved a field measurement program and subsequent analysis of flow rates and emission data from the spray booth to define the degree of enhancement of the emissions stream and permit more efficient and economical control of spray booth emissions. Energy conservation became a matter of concern for industrial operators during the late 1970s when energy costs began to climb rapidly. Deere and Company engineers noted

  10. BREN Tower: A Monument to the Material Culture of Radiation Dosimetry Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Edwards

    2008-05-30

    With a height of more than 1,500 feet, the BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower dominates the surrounding desert landscape of the Nevada Test Site. Associated with the nuclear research and atmospheric testing programs carried out during the 1950s and 1960s, the tower was a vital component in a series of experiments aimed at characterizing radiation fields from nuclear detonations. Research programs conducted at the tower provided the data for the baseline dosimetry studies crucial to determining the radiation dose rates received by the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Today, BREN Tower stands as a monument to early dosimetry research and one of the legacies of the Cold War.

  11. SNR Denton US LLP 1301 K Street, NW Suite 600, East Tower Washington...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SNR Denton US LLP 1301 K Street, NW Suite 600, East Tower Washington, DC 20005-3364 USA Thomas C. Jensen Partner thomas.jensen@snrdenton.com D +1 202 408 3956 M 703 304 5211 T +1 ...

  12. Tall Tower Wind Energy Monitoring and Numerical Model Validation in Northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koracin, D.; Kaplan, M.; Smith, C.; McCurdy, G.; Wolf, A.; McCord, T.; King, K.; Belu, R.; Horvath, K.

    2015-10-01

    The main objectives of this project were to conduct a tall-tower and sodar field campaign in complex terrain, investigate wind properties relevant to wind energy assessment, and evaluate high-resolution models with fixed and adaptive grid structures. Two 60-m towers at Virginia Peak ridges near Washoe Valley, Nevada, were instrumented with cup and vane anemometers as well as sonic anemometers, and an acoustic sounder (hereafter sodar) was installed near one of the towers. The towers were located 2,700 m apart with a vertical distance of 140 m elevation between their bases. Each tower had a downhill exposure of rolling complex terrain, with the nearby valley floor 3,200 m to the west and 800 m below the summit. Cup anemometers were installed at both towers at 20, 40, and 60 m, wind vanes at 20 and 60 m, and sonic anemometers at 20 and 60 m. The sodar measurements were nominally provided every 10 m in vertical distance from 40 to 200 m with the quality of the data generally decreasing with height. Surface air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and radiation measurements were conducted at 1.5 m AGL at both of the towers. Although the plan was to conduct a 1-year period of data collection, we extended the period (October 5, 2012 through February 24, 2014) to cover for possible data loss from instrument or communication problems. We also present a preliminary analysis of the towers and sodar data, including a detailed inventory of available and missing data as well as outliers. The analysis additionally includes calculation of the Weibull parameters, turbulence intensity, and initial computation of wind power density at various heights.

  13. Probabilistic Analysis of Power Tower Systems to Achieve SunShot Goals

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Presentation). (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Probabilistic Analysis of Power Tower Systems to Achieve SunShot Goals (Presentation). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probabilistic Analysis of Power Tower Systems to Achieve SunShot Goals (Presentation). Abstract not provided. Authors: Ho, Clifford Kuofei ; Mehos, Mark ; Turchi, Craig ; Wagner, Michael Publication Date: 2013-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1110670 Report Number(s): SAND2013-7783C 474170 DOE Contract Number:

  14. Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Morozov, S.A. Bogacz, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

    2012-06-01

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.

  15. Cooling tower and plume modeling for satellite remote sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, B.J.

    1995-05-01

    It is often useful in nonproliferation studies to be able to remotely estimate the power generated by a power plant. Such information is indirectly available through an examination of the power dissipated by the plant. Power dissipation is generally accomplished either by transferring the excess heat generated into the atmosphere or into bodies of water. It is the former method with which we are exclusively concerned in this report. We discuss in this report the difficulties associated with such a task. In particular, we primarily address the remote detection of the temperature associated with the condensed water plume emitted from the cooling tower. We find that the effective emissivity of the plume is of fundamental importance for this task. Having examined the dependence of the plume emissivity in several IR bands and with varying liquid water content and droplet size distributions, we conclude that the plume emissivity, and consequently the plume brightness temperature, is dependent upon not only the liquid water content and band, but also upon the droplet size distribution. Finally, we discuss models dependent upon a detailed point-by-point description of the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the plume dynamics and those based upon spatially integrated models. We describe in detail a new integral model, the LANL Plume Model, which accounts for the evolution of the droplet size distribution. Some typical results obtained from this model are discussed.

  16. An Evaluation of Molten-Salt Power Towers Including Results of the Solar Two Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REILLY, HUGH E.; KOLB, GREGORY J.

    2001-11-01

    This report utilizes the results of the Solar Two project, as well as continuing technology development, to update the technical and economic status of molten-salt power towers. The report starts with an overview of power tower technology, including the progression from Solar One to the Solar Two project. This discussion is followed by a review of the Solar Two project--what was planned, what actually occurred, what was learned, and what was accomplished. The third section presents preliminary information regarding the likely configuration of the next molten-salt power tower plant. This section draws on Solar Two experience as well as results of continuing power tower development efforts conducted jointly by industry and Sandia National Laboratories. The fourth section details the expected performance and cost goals for the first commercial molten-salt power tower plant and includes a comparison of the commercial performance goals to the actual performance at Solar One and Solar Two. The final section summarizes the successes of Solar Two and the current technology development activities. The data collected from the Solar Two project suggest that the electricity cost goals established for power towers are reasonable and can be achieved with some simple design improvements.

  17. Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemi, M. M.; Parvin, P. Moosakhani, A.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A.; Majdabadi, A.; Abachi, S.

    2014-06-15

    Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb) were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air), relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

  18. End-to-end 9-D polarized bunch transport in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator, some aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meot, F.; Meot, F.; Brooks, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2015-05-03

    This paper is a brief overview of some of the numerous beam and spin dynamics investigations undertaken in the framework of the design of the FFAG based electron energy recovery re-circulator ring of the eRHIC electron-ion collider project

  19. Corrosion test qualification for in situ stress relief of recirculating steam generators' U-bends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monter, J.V.; Miglin, B.P.; Lauer, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    Highly stressed alloy 600 is susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-purity water at nuclear steam generator (NSG) operating temperatures. Two regions in recirculating steam generators (RSG) are particularly prone to primary-side-initiated SCC: tube expansion transitions of the tube in the tubesheet and tight radii tube bends. One remedial measure to improve IGSCC in these regions is to heat the tubes and thus relieve the residual stresses that contribute significantly to the cracking problem. This article describes a corrosion test program using the accelerated SCC environments of sodium tetrathionate and sodium hydroxide to qualify an in situ stress-relief process for the most SCC-susceptible U-bends in an RSG.

  20. Parameter choices for a muon recirculating linear accelerator from 5 to 63 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, J. S.

    2014-06-19

    A recirculating linear accelerator (RLA) has been proposed to accelerate muons from 5 to 63 GeV for a muon collider. It should be usable both for a Higgs factory and as a stage for a higher energy collider. First, the constraints due to the beam loading are computed. Next, an expression for the longitudinal emittance growth to lowest order in the longitudinal emittance is worked out. After finding the longitudinal expression, a simplified model that describes the arcs and their approximate expression for the time of flight dependence on energy in those arcs is found. Finally, these results are used to estimate the parameters required for the RLA arcs and the linac phase.

  1. CSR induced microbunching gain estimation including transient effects in transport and recirculation arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Cheng; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui

    2015-09-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in the microbunching instability (?BI). To accurately quantify the direct consequence of this effect, we further extend our previously developed semi-analytical Vlasov solver to include more relevant coherent radiation models than the steady-state free-space CSR impedance, such as the entrance and exit transient effects derived from upstream beam entering to and exiting from individual dipoles. The resultant microbunching gain functions and spectra for our example lattices are presented and compared with particle tracking simulation. Some underlying physics with inclusion of these effects are also discussed.

  2. Impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the oxidative reactivity of diesel engine soot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Boehman, Andre L.

    2008-12-15

    This paper expands the consideration of the factors affecting the nanostructure and oxidative reactivity of diesel soot to include the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Past work showed that soot derived from oxygenated fuels such as biodiesel carries some surface oxygen functionality and thereby possesses higher reactivity than soot from conventional diesel fuel. In this work, results show that EGR exerts a strong influence on the physical properties of the soot which leads to enhanced oxidation rate. HRTEM images showed a dramatic difference between the burning modes of the soot generated under 0 and 20% EGR. The soot produced under 0% EGR strictly followed an external burning mode with no evidence of internal burning. In contrast, soot generated under 20% EGR exhibited dual burning modes: slow external burning and rapid internal burning. The results demonstrate clearly that highly reactive soot can be achieved by manipulating the physical properties of the soot via EGR. (author)

  3. Use of exhaust gas recirculation as a control approach for thermoacoustic instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranalli, J.; Ferguson, D.

    2011-10-09

    Investigation into exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a method for reducing costs of postcombustion carbon capture in gas turbine systems reveals that EGR offers potential applications as a control strategy for thermoacoustic instabilities. Introduction of EGR allows semi-independent variation of the operating parameter of flame temperature and characteristic flame length scales, known to play a primary role in the phase of the thermoacoustic coupling mechanism. Measurements were made showing the ability of EGR to reduce the amplitude of thermoacoustic oscillations over a range of operating conditions in a laboratory scale, swirled dump combustor, without affecting the flame temperature. Theoretical analysis was also performed to investigate the limitations on the ability of this approach to influence dynamics.

  4. Economizer recirculation for low-load stability in heat recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuscino, R.T.; Shade, R.L. Jr.

    1986-04-15

    An economizer system is described for heating feedwater in a heat recovery steam generator which consists of: at least first and second economizer tube planes; each of the economizer tube planes including a plurality of generally parallel tubes; the tubes being generally vertically disposed; each of the economizer tube planes including a top header and a bottom header; all of the plurality of tubes in each economizer tube plane being connected in parallel to their top and bottom headers whereby parallel feedwater flow through the plurality of tubes between the top and bottom headers is enabled; one of the top and bottom headers being an inlet header; a second of the top and bottom headers being an outlet header; a boiler feed pump; the boiler feed pump being effective for applying a flow of feedwater to the inlet header; means for serially interconnecting the economizer tube planes; the means for serially interconnecting including means for flowing the feedwater upward and downward in tubes of alternating ones of the economizer tube planes between the inlet header and the outlet header; means for conveying heated feedwater from the outlet header to a using process; means for recirculating at least a portion of the heated feedwater from the outlet header to an inlet of the boiler feed pump; and the means for recirculating including means for relating the portion to a steam load in the using process whereby an increased flow is produced through all of the economizer tube planes at values of the steam load below a predetermined value and a condition permitting initiation of reverse flow in any of the tubes is substantially reduced.

  5. 24 m meteorological tower data report period: January through December, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.; Egami, R.; Coulombe, W.; Crow, D.; Cristani, B.; Schmidt, S.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT. This report presents results of the monitoring for January--December, 1996, providing: a status of the measurement systems during the report period and a summary of the meteorological conditions at the HAZMAT during the report period. The scope of the report is limited to summary data analyses and does not include extensive meteorological analysis. The tower was instrumented at 8 levels. Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were measured at all 8 levels. Relative humidity was measured at 3 levels. Solar and net radiation were measured at 2 meters above the ground. Barometric pressure was measured at the base of the tower and soil temperature was measured near the base of the tower.

  6. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were: 1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components. Success criteria DOE targets Wilson system LCOE DOE’s gas price $6.75/MBtu 9 cents/kWh 7.7 cents/kWh LCOE Current gas price $4.71/MBtu NA 6.9 cents/kWh Capacity factor 75% (6500hr) 75-100% Solar fraction 85% (5585hr) >5585hr Receiver cost $170/kWe $50/kWe Thermal storage cost $20/kWhth $13/kWhth Heliostat cost $120/m2 $89.8/m2

  7. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell; Non-Nstec Authors: G. Pyles and Jon Carilli

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  8. Recirculating industrial air: The impact on air compliance and workers. Safety case study: Hill Air Force Base C-130 painting operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaPuma, P.T.

    1998-06-29

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment resulted in new environmental regulations called the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Industries such as painting facilities may have to treat large volumes of air, which drives the cost of an air control system. Recirculating a portion of the air back into the facility is an option to reduce the amount of air to be treated. A guided computer model written in Microsoft Excel 97% is developed to analyze worker safety and compliance costs with a focus on recirculation. The model has a chemical database containing over 1300 chemicals and requires inputs such as tasks performed, hazardous products used, and chemical make-up of the products. The model will predict indoor air concentrations in relation to occupational exposure limits (OELs). A case study is performed on a C-130 aircraft painting facility at Hill AFB, UT. The Aerospace NESHAP requires air pollution reductions in aircraft painting operations. The model predicts strontium chromate concentrations found in primer paints will reach 1000 times the OEL. Strontium chromate and other solid particulates are nearly unaffected by recirculation because the air is filtered prior to recirculation. The next highest chemical, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), increases from 2.6 to 10.5 times the OEL at 0% and 75% recirculation, respectively. Due to the level of respiratory protection required for the strontium chromate, workers are well protected from the modest increases in concentrations caused by recirculating 75%. The initial cost of a VOC control system with no recirculation is $4.5 million and $1.8 million at 75% recirculation. To decide the best operating conditions for a facility, all options such as product substitution, operational changes or recirculation should be explored. The model is an excellent tool to evaluate these options.

  9. Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown

  10. Characteristics study of Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center (TLMRC) wind tower data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, L. )

    1992-10-01

    To initiate and develop EPRI's wind loading research program, an experimental wind tower was erected at the TLMRC site. A number of anemometers were placed at different elevation levels of the wind tower. Strain gages were also mounted on the leg posts of the tower. The purposes of this experiment were to establish the wind characteristics at the TLMRC site, and to gain experience using different types of instrumentation and data acquisition techniques in field-wind loading experiments. Three sets of wind data collected from the TLMRC wind tower were validated and analyzed in this study. Since the characteristics of wind and response data can be described in different terms and by various methods, the study describes the concept, Identifies the focal point, and discusses the results of each method used in this report. In addition, some comments are provided on how to conduct the field-wind loading experiments as well as how to analyze the wind and response data. The results of this study show that: (1) the magnitudes of wind velocity and direction can vary considerably during a short period of time; (2) the mean vertical wind profile does not hold constant as usually assumed; (3) the turbulence intensity and the gust factor increase as the height above ground decreases; (4) the averaging time can greatly influence the results of wind data analysis; (5) although wind contains lime energy beyond 1 Hz, structural responses above 1 Hz can be excited; (6) strong relationships exist between the wind velocity and the responses in the leg posts of the wind tower. System identification, a tool for establishing models of dynamic systems based in observed data, is successfully used in a trial application which estimates the relationship between the wind velocity and the responses in the wind tower.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, J. William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  12. Removal of long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Cushman, P.; Pepin, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Guiseppe, V. E. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 ?m from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screeners energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  13. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  14. Impact of environmental concerns on cooling-tower design and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensley, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    New and sometimes unexpected environmental concerns surface from time to time, and each has its special effect on the selection, pricing, and operation of cooling towers. This paper discusses the following concerns, which are either current or are becoming significant: water conservation, energy conservation, noise, drift, blowdown, visual impact, and construction materials that are environmentally sensitive. 3 refs.

  15. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  16. Experimental optimization of cooling-tower-fan control based on field data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    Energy costs continue to play an important role in the decision-making process for building design and operation. Since the chiller, cooling tower fans, and associated pumps consume the largest fraction of energy in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, the control of these components is of major importance in determining building energy use. A significant control parameter for the chilled water system is the minimum entering condenser water set point temperature at which the cooling tower fans are cycled on and off, several studies have attempted to determine the optimum value for this minimum set point temperature, but direct measurements are not available to validate these studies. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the optimum minimum entering condenser water set point temperature from field data based on minimum energy consumption and to validate a chilled water system analytical model previously developed in earlier work. The total chiller system electrical consumption (chiller and cooling tower fan energy) was measured for four entering condensor water set point temperatures (70, 75, 80, and 85 deg F). The field results were compared to results obtained using an analytical model previously developed in a thesis entitled Optimized Design of a Commercial Building Chiller/Cooling Tower System, written by Joyce.

  17. Oak Ridge’s EM Program Demolishes North America’s Tallest Water Tower

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    OAK RIDGE, Tenn. – Oak Ridge’s EM program recently demolished one of the most iconic structures at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The 382-foot checkerboard water tower — the tallest in North America — dominated the site’s skyline since its construction in 1958.

  18. Consequences of bounds on longitudinal emittance growth for the design of recirculating linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    Recirculating linear accelerators (RLAs) are a cost-effective method for the acceleration of muons for a muon collider in energy ranges from a couple GeV to a few 10s of GeV. Muon beams generally have longitudinal emittances that are large for the RF frequency that is used, and it is important to limit the growth of that longitudinal emittance. This has particular consequences for the arc design of the RLAs. I estimate the longitudinal emittance growth in an RLA arising from the RF nonlinearity. Given an emittance growth limitation and other design parameters, one can then compute the maximum momentum compaction in the arcs. I describe how to obtain an approximate arc design satisfying these requirements based on the deisgn in [1]. Longitudinal dynamics also determine the energy spread in the beam, and this has consequences on the transverse phase advance in the linac. This in turn has consequences for the arc design due to the need to match beta functions. I combine these considerations to discuss design parameters for the acceleration of muons for a collider in an RLA from 5 to 63 GeV.

  19. Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2003-12-16

    A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.

  20. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  1. Use of Multipass Recirculation and Energy Recovery In CW SRF X-FEL Driver Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Akers, Walt; Benson, Stephen V.; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisk, Sally; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, J.; Legg, Robert; Li, Rui; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven W.; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shin, Ilkyoung; Shinn, Michelle D.; Tennant, Christopher; Terzic, Balsa; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn P.; Wilson, G.; Zhang, Shukui

    2010-08-01

    We discuss the use of multipass recirculation and energy recovery in CW SRF drivers for short wavelength FELs. Benefits include cost management (through reduced system footprint, required RF and SRF hardware, and associated infrastructure - including high power beam dumps and cryogenic systems), ease in radiation control (low drive beam exhaust energy), ability to accelerate and deliver multiple beams of differing energy to multiple FELs, and opportunity for seamless integration of multistage bunch length compression into the longitudinal matching scenario. Issues include all those associated with ERLs compounded by the challenge of generating and preserving the CW electron drive beam brightness required by short wavelength FELs. We thus consider the impact of space charge, BBU and other environmental wakes and impedances, ISR and CSR, potential for microbunching, intra-beam and beam-residual gas scattering, ion effects, RF transients, and halo, as well as the effect of traditional design, fabrication, installation and operational errors (lattice aberrations, alignment, powering, field quality). Context for the discussion is provided by JLAMP, the proposed VUV/X-ray upgrade to the existing Jefferson Lab FEL.

  2. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; FINNEY, Charles E A

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  3. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  4. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella

  5. Sandia Energy Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    feed 0 Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver Emplaced at Top of Solar Tower http:energy.sandia.govsandias-continuously-recirculating-falling-particle-r...

  6. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final technical report, February 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-01

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

  7. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  8. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions

  9. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus

  10. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

  11. Feasibility study for a recirculating linac-based facility for femtosecond dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Barletta, W.A.; Byrd, J.M.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Heimann, P.; Kairan, D.; Kujawski, E.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.; Luft, P.; McClure, R.; Parmigiani, F.; Petroff, Y.; Pirkl, W.; Placidi, M.; Reavill, D.; Reichel, I.; Rimmer, R.A.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.E.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Truchlikova, D.; Wan, W.; Wang, S.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

    2002-12-21

    LBNL is pursuing design studies and the scientific program for a facility dedicated to the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration, for application in dynamical studies of processes in physics, biology, and chemistry. The proposed x-ray facility has the short x-ray pulse length ({approx}60 fs FWHM) necessary to study very fast dynamics, high flux (up to approximately 10E11 photons/sec/0.1 percentBW) to study weakly scattering systems, and tuneability over 1-12 keV photon energy. The hard x-ray photon production section of the machine accommodates seven 2-m long undulators. Design studies for longer wavelength sources, using high-gain harmonic generation, are in progress. The x-ray pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz is matched to studies of dynamical processes (initiated by ultra-short laser pulses) that typically have a long recovery time or are not generally cyclic or reversible and need time to allow relaxation, replacement, or flow of the sample. The technique for producing ultra-short x-ray pulses uses relatively long electron bunches to minimize high-peak-current collective effects, and the ultimate x-ray duration is achieved by a combination of bunch manipulation and optical compression. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to sample excitation signals is expected to be of order 50 - 100 fs. Techniques for making use of the recirculating geometry to provide beam-based signals from early passes through the machine are being studied.

  12. Validation of SWAY Wind Turbine Response in FAST, with a Focus on the Influence of Tower Wind Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, R.; Yin Kwee Ng, E.

    2015-04-23

    Need to modify simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions. the SWAY system in both turbine operating and nonoperating conditions. Mixed results were observed when comparing the simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions. without the new tower-load capability to examine its influence on the response characteristics of the system. This is important in situations when the turbine is parked in survival conditions. The simulation results were then compared to measured data from the SWAY system in both turbine operating and nonoperating conditions. Mixed results were observed when comparing the simulated system behavior to the measured data, but the tower wind loads improved the comparison for nonoperating conditions.

  13. Final Report- Optimizing the CSP Tower Air Brayton Cycle System to Meet the SunShot Objectives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Awardee: Southwest Research InstituteLocation: San Antonio, TXSubprogram: Concentrating Solar PowerFunding Program: SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&DProject: Optimizing the CSP Tower Air...

  14. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  15. Current and future costs for parabolic trough and power tower systems in the US market.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig; Kolb, Gregory J.; Mehos, Mark Steven; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-08-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  16. The trigger and data acquisition for the NEMO-Phase 2 tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, C.; Biagi, S.; Fusco, L. A.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M.; Chiarusi, T.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the framework of the Phase 2 of the NEMO neutrino telescope project, a tower with 32 optical modules is being operated since march 2013. A new scalable Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) has been developed and extensively tested with the data from this tower. Adopting the all-data-to-shore concept, the NEMO TriDAS is optimized to deal with a continuous data-stream from off-shore to on-shore with a large bandwidth. The TriDAS consists of four computing layers: (i) data aggregation of isochronal hits from all optical modules; (ii) data filtering by means of concurrent trigger algorithms; (iii) composition of the filtered events into post-trigger files; (iv) persistent data storage. The TriDAS implementation is reported together with a review of dedicated on-line monitoring tools.

  17. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  18. Simulation of lightning attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratnamahilan, P.; Hoole, P. . Dept. of Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering); Ratnajeevan, S.; Hoole, H. . Dept. of Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    The characteristics of lightning waveforms are important in taking protective measures against it. However, many of these characteristics cannot be measured. This paper employs a mathematical model of lightning currents to write a software package to simulate all manner of lightning flashes. The capabilities available to us through this are demonstrated by extracting the behavior of lightning waveforms following attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft.

  19. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  20. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  1. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  2. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  3. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  4. C2R2. Compact Compound Recirculator/Recuperator for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficient Thermochemical Processing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermanoski, Ivan; Orozco, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    In this report we present the development of a packed particle bed recirculator and heat exchanger. The device is intended to create countercurrent flows of packed particle beds and exchange heat between the flows. The project focused on the design, fabrication, demonstration, and modifications of a simple prototype, in order to attain high levels of heat exchange between particle flows while maintaining an effective particle conveying rate in a scalable package. Despite heat losses in a package not optimized for heat retention, 50% heat recovery was achieved, at a particle conveying efficiency of 40%.

  5. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer

  6. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  7. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

  8. Instability due to a two recirculation pump trip in a BWR using RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1993-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in a BWR due to a two recirculation pump trip event using the RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics. It is concluded that a high-power (100%) and low-flow (75%) initial condition would most likely lead to in-phase density wave oscillations after the tripping of both recirculation pumps, and that RAMONA-4B is capable of predicting such thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in BWR and in SBWR.

  9. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore » receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  10. A Single Tower Configuration of the Modular Gamma Box Counter System - 13392

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, K.; Nakazawa, D.; Francalangia, J.; Gonzalez, H.

    2013-07-01

    Canberra's Standard Gamma Box Counter System is designed to perform accurate quantitative assays of gamma emitting nuclides for a wide range of large containers including B-25 crates and ISO shipping containers. Using a modular building-block approach, the system offers tremendous flexibility for a variety of measurement situations with wide ranges of sample activities and throughput requirements, as well as the opportunity to modify the configuration for other applications at a later date. The typical configuration consists of two opposing towers each equipped with two high purity germanium detectors, and an automated container trolley. This paper presents a modified configuration, consisting of a single tower placed inside a measurement trailer with three detector assemblies, allowing for additional vertical segmentation as well as a viewing a container outside the trailer through the trailer wall. An automatic liquid nitrogen fill system is supplied for each of the detectors. The use of a forklift to move the container for horizontal segmentation is accommodated by creating an additional operational and calibration set-up in the NDA 2000 software to allow for the operator to rotate the container and assay the opposite side, achieving the same sensitivity as a comparable two-tower system. This Segmented Gamma Box Counter System retains the core technologies and design features of the standard configuration. The detector assemblies are shielded to minimize interference from environmental and plant background, and are collimated to provide segmentation of the container. The assembly positions can also be modified in height and distance from the container. The ISOCS calibration software provides for a flexible approach to providing the calibrations for a variety of measurement geometries. The NDA 2000 software provides seamless operation with the current configuration, handling the data acquisition and analysis. In this paper, an overview of this system is discussed

  11. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650C to 1000C. Selective efficiency (?sel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ?sel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  12. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  13. AmeriFlux US-Ho2 Howland Forest (west tower)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, David; Hollinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ho2 Howland Forest (west tower). Site Description - Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.

  14. AmeriFlux US-Ho1 Howland Forest (main tower)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, David; Hollinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ho1 Howland Forest (main tower). Site Description - Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.

  15. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  16. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Skr Shark River Slough (Tower SRS-6) Everglades

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Barr, Jordan G. [Everglades National Park; Fuentes, Jose [Pennsylvania State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Skr Shark River Slough (Tower SRS-6) Everglades. Site Description - The Florida Everglades Shark River Slough Mangrove Forest site is located along the Shark River in the western region of Everglades National Park. Also referred to as site SRS6 of the Florida Coastal Everglades LTER program, freshwater in the mangrove riverine floods the forest floor under a meter of water twice per day. Transgressive discharge of freshwater from the Shark river follows annual rainfall distributions between the wet and dry seasons. Hurricane Wilma struck the site in October of 2005 causing significant damage. The tower was offline until the following October in order to continue temporally consistent measurements. In post-hurricane conditions, ecosystem respiration rates and solar irradiance transfer increased. 2007- 2008 measurements indicate that these factors led to an decline in both annual -NEE and daily NEE from pre-hurricane conditions in 2004-2005.

  18. Characteristics study of Transmission Line Mechanical Research Center (TLMRC) wind tower data. Notes on field-wind loading experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, L.

    1992-10-01

    To initiate and develop EPRI`s wind loading research program, an experimental wind tower was erected at the TLMRC site. A number of anemometers were placed at different elevation levels of the wind tower. Strain gages were also mounted on the leg posts of the tower. The purposes of this experiment were to establish the wind characteristics at the TLMRC site, and to gain experience using different types of instrumentation and data acquisition techniques in field-wind loading experiments. Three sets of wind data collected from the TLMRC wind tower were validated and analyzed in this study. Since the characteristics of wind and response data can be described in different terms and by various methods, the study describes the concept, Identifies the focal point, and discusses the results of each method used in this report. In addition, some comments are provided on how to conduct the field-wind loading experiments as well as how to analyze the wind and response data. The results of this study show that: (1) the magnitudes of wind velocity and direction can vary considerably during a short period of time; (2) the mean vertical wind profile does not hold constant as usually assumed; (3) the turbulence intensity and the gust factor increase as the height above ground decreases; (4) the averaging time can greatly influence the results of wind data analysis; (5) although wind contains lime energy beyond 1 Hz, structural responses above 1 Hz can be excited; (6) strong relationships exist between the wind velocity and the responses in the leg posts of the wind tower. System identification, a tool for establishing models of dynamic systems based in observed data, is successfully used in a trial application which estimates the relationship between the wind velocity and the responses in the wind tower.

  19. Survey of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City using the solid-state nuclear track detector method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muramatsu, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Misawa, C.; Minami, M.; Tanaka, E.; Asami, K.; Kuroda, C.; Kawakami, A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1999-07-01

    The survey of [sup 222]Rn concentration in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. For the practical application of this technique t the determination of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in air, some basic properties were experimentally examined on the cellulose nitrate film, Kodak LR 115 type II. The calibration coefficient of the cellulose nitrate film used is determined from a correlation between the [sup 222]Rn concentration in air and the observed number of perforated etched tracks for widespread radon concentrations. The slope of the linear relationship observed yields a calibration coefficient of (0.00209 [+-] 0.00018) tracks cm[sup [minus]2] (Bq m[sup [minus]3] h)[sup [minus]1]. From the survey of [sup 222]Rn concentration in the air of tunnels, the concentration of several thousand Bq m[sup [minus]3] was observed at the inner most area of the tunnel, and the seasonal variation was clearly observed. The exponential distribution of radon concentration as a function of distance from the openings of the tunnel suggests that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air.

  20. Environmental assessment of air quality, noise and cooling tower drift from the Jersey City Total Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.T.; Kolb, J.O.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment covers three specific effects from the operation of the Total Energy (TE) demonstration: (1) air quality from combustion emissions of 600 kW diesel engines and auxiliary boilers fueled with No. 2 distillate oil, (2) noise levels from TE equipment operation, (3) cooling tower drift from two, 2220 gpm, forced-draft cooling towers. For the air quality study, measurements were performed to determine both the combustion emission rates and ground-level air quality at the Demonstration site. Stack analysis of NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, CO, particulates, and total hydrocarbons characterized emission rates over a range of operating conditions. Ground-level air quality was monitored during two six-week periods during the summer and winter of 1977. The noise study was performed by measuring sound levels in db(A) in the area within approximately 60 m of the CEB. The noise survey investigated the effects on noise distribution of different wind conditions, time of day or night, and condition of doors - open or closed - near the diesel engines in the CEB. In the cooling tower study, drift emission characteristics were measured to quantify the drift emission before and after cleaning of the tower internals to reduce fallout of large drift droplets in the vicinity of the CEB.

  1. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide direction for conducting performance acceptance testing for large power tower solar systems that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The recommendations have been developed under a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract and reviewed by stakeholders representing concerned organizations and interests throughout the concentrating solar power (CSP) community. An earlier NREL report provided similar guidelines for parabolic trough systems. These Guidelines recommend certain methods, instrumentation, equipment operating requirements, and calculation methods. When tests are run in accordance with these Guidelines, we expect that the test results will yield a valid indication of the actual performance of the tested equipment. But these are only recommendations--to be carefully considered by the contractual parties involved in the Acceptance Tests--and we expect that modifications may be required to fit the particular characteristics of a specific project.

  2. AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

    2011-10-10

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  4. Analysis of electret ion chamber radon detector response to {sup 222}Rn and interference from background gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, S.; Spitz, H.; Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental radon ({sup 222}Rn) monitors that incorporate electret detectors are confounded by background gamma radiation, which may cause the electret to discharge by as much as 7.5 volts per mR. Although background gamma corrections were formerly made by multiplying the known background gamma exposure rate with a constant conversion factor, this research demonstrates that doing so introduces an error ranging up to about 20%, especially in high gamma background areas. A new, more accurate method of background gamma correction has been developed that uses an average, voltage-dependent discharge factor, D{sub {gamma}} (V Kg C{sup {minus}1}). This factor and its coefficients were experimentally determined by separately exposing groups of electret radon detectors to photons from {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Statistical analysis shows that D{sub {gamma}} is independent of the orientation of the electret during irradiation but that some dependency on dose rate or energy of the irradiating photons may be expected. The discharge of the electret due only to gamma irradiation, V{sub {gamma}}, is determined by multiplying the total integrated gamma exposure by D{sub {gamma}}. The discharge of the electret during a radon measurement can then be corrected for background gamma radiation by subtracting V{sub {gamma}} from the total discharge of the electret resulting in a net discharge due solely to radon. A new equation has also been developed in this study for the radon discharge factor, D{sub Rn} (V m{sup 3}Bq{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), that is entirely consistent with the gamma discharge radon detectors to known concentrations of radon.

  5. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

  6. Historic American engineering record. Nevada national security site, Bren Tower Complex. Written historical and descriptive data and field records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Susan R.; Goldenberg, Nancy

    2013-08-01

    The BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower Complex is significant for its role in the history of nuclear testing, radiation dosimetry studies, and early field testing of the Strategic Missile Defense System designs. At the time it was built in 1962, the 1,527 ft (465 m) BREN Tower was the tallest structure west of the Mississippi River and exceeded the height of the Empire State Building by 55 ft (17 m). It remains the tallest ever erected specifically for scientific purposes and was designed and built to facilitate the experimental dosimetry studies necessary for the development of accurate radiation dose rates for the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The tower was a key component of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission’s (ABCC) mission to predict the health effects of radiation exposure. Moved to its current location in 1966, the crucial dosimetry studies continued with Operation HENRE (High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment). These experiments and the data they generated became the basis for a dosimetry system called the Tentative 1965 Dose or more commonly the T65D model. Used to estimate radiation doses received by individuals, the T65D model was applied until the mid-1980s when it was replaced by a new dosimetry system known as DS86 based on the Monte Carlo method of dose rate calculation. However, the BREN Tower data are still used for verification of the validity of the DS86 model. In addition to its importance in radiation heath effects research, the BREN Tower Complex is also significant for its role in the Brilliant Pebbles research project, a major component of the Strategic Defense Initiative popularly known as the “Star Wars” Initiative. Instigated under the Reagan Administration, the program’s purpose was to develop a system to shield the United States and allies from a ballistic missile attack. The centerpiece of the Strategic Defense System was space-based, kinetic-kill vehicles. In 1991, BREN Tower was used for the tether tests

  7. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  8. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  9. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  10. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  11. RN12 and RN30 Epidote anlayses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-01-01

    Results for laser ablation measurement of reare earth elments and electron microprobe analysis of major elments in hydrothermal epidote. Laser ablation measurements were completed using an Agilent 7700 quadrupole ICP-MS coupled with 193nm Photon Instruments Excimer laser.

  12. Towering oak, the sun - porch house winner of the ''1982 German research award''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, G.W.P.

    1983-12-01

    The design for this energy-efficient house was developed to suit a benign climate with much rain, wind, and fog. The building's basic construction guarantees the most limited energy-use possible. This is achieved through a unique houseform, which encloses and warms the living spaces with a thick thermal coat: walls = 6'' semi-rigid glass fiber boards, R-19; roof = 10'' foil faced fiber glass, R = 30. Windows are located only on the south side, to ensure optimal sun-ray capture. The housefront consists of a ''sun-porch'' (Sonnenhof), which is a further development of the well-known German ''Wintergarten'' (winter garden). In this climate region, one can only expect a yearly average of five days with a summer temperature of over 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F); however, with a ''sun-porch'' the summer can make itself at home. In winter, the ''sun-porch'' protects against storms and always offers temperatures above the 7/sup 0/C (45/sup 0/F) minimum, a product of the compact roof and double glass with selective coating. On sunny winter days, one may even dine on the balconies. The estimation technique represented here is based on a procedure devised at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico, (Passive Solar Handbook, Vol. 2, J.D. Balcomb). ''Towering Oak's'' solar savings fraction = 49.0%; heating load = 2.56 BTU/sq. ft. Better results have yet to be achieved in Germany. In the USA, this could be increased to a solar fraction of up to 90%. Some modifications would, however, be necessary to suit the local climate (sun control devices, etc.).

  13. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  14. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  15. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: First 5-Tower Data and Improved Understanding of Ionization Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Catherine N.

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with cryogenic particle detectors. These detectors have the ability to discriminate between nuclear recoil candidate and electron recoil background events by collecting both phonon and ionization energy from recoils in the detector crystals. The CDMS-II experiment has completed analysis of the first data runs with 30 semiconductor detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, resulting in a world leading WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section limit for WIMP masses above 44 GeV/c{sup 2}. As CDMS aims to achieve greater WIMP sensitivity, it is necessary to increase the detector mass and discrimination between signal and background events. Incomplete ionization collection results in the largest background in the CDMS detectors as this causes electron recoil background interactions to appear as false candidate events. Two primary causes of incomplete ionization collection are surface and bulk trapping. Recent work has been focused on reducing surface trapping through the modification of fabrication methods for future detectors. Analyzing data taken with test devices has shown that hydrogen passivation of the amorphous silicon blocking layer worsens surface trapping. Additional data has shown that the iron-ion implantation used to lower the critical temperature of the tungsten transition-edge sensors causes a degradation of the ionization collection. Using selective implantation on future detectors may improve ionization collection for events near the phonon side detector surface. Bulk trapping is minimized by neutralizing ionized lattice impurities. Detector investigations at testing facilities and in situ at the experimental site have provided methods to optimize the neutralization process and monitor running conditions to maintain full ionization collection. This work details my contribution to the 5-tower data taking, monitoring, and analysis effort as well

  16. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  17. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  18. Controlling exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurlo, James Richard; Konkle, Kevin Paul; May, Andrew

    2012-01-31

    In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

  19. The GEWEX LandFlux project: Evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally gridded forcing data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McCabe, M. F.; Ershadi, A.; Jimenez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Michel, D.; Wood, E. F.

    2016-01-26

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) LandFlux project, fourmore » commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman–Monteith-based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to the coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance. Using surface flux observations from 45 globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overall statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m–2; 0.65), followed closely by GLEAM

  20. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  1. Effects of electron recirculation on a hard x-ray source observed during the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with thin Au targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Courtois, C.; Lefebvre, E.; Bourgade, J. L.; Landoas, O.; Thorp, K.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-12-15

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse on the preplasma of a high-Z solid target produced by the pulse's pedestal generates high-energy electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the solid target and produce bremsstrahlung photons, generating an x-ray source which can be used for photonuclear studies or to radiograph high area density objects. The source characteristics are compared for targets with thin (20 μm) and thick (100 μm) Au foils on the Omega EP laser at Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Simulations using the particle-in-cell code CALDER show that for a 20 μm thickness Au target, electrons perform multiple round-trips in the target under the effect of the laser ponderomotive potential and the target electrostatic potential. These relativistic electrons have random transverse displacements, with respect to the target normal, attributed to electrostatic fluctuation fields. As a result, the x-ray spot size is increased by a factor 2 for thin target compared to thick targets, in agreement with experimental results. In addition, the computed doses agree with the measured ones provided that electron recirculation in the thin target is taken into account. A dose increase by a factor 1.7 is then computed by allowing for recirculation. In the 100 μm target case, on the other hand, this effect is found to be negligible.

  2. A new code for the design and analysis of the heliostat field layout for power tower system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Yu, Weixing; Wang, Zhifeng

    2010-04-15

    A new code for the design and analysis of the heliostat field layout for power tower system is developed. In the new code, a new method for the heliostat field layout is proposed based on the edge ray principle of nonimaging optics. The heliostat field boundary is constrained by the tower height, the receiver tilt angle and size and the heliostat efficiency factor which is the product of the annual cosine efficiency and the annual atmospheric transmission efficiency. With the new method, the heliostat can be placed with a higher efficiency and a faster response speed of the design and optimization can be obtained. A new module for the analysis of the aspherical heliostat is created in the new code. A new toroidal heliostat field is designed and analyzed by using the new code. Compared with the spherical heliostat, the solar image radius of the field is reduced by about 30% by using the toroidal heliostat if the mirror shape and the tracking are ideal. In addition, to maximize the utilization of land, suitable crops can be considered to be planted under heliostats. To evaluate the feasibility of the crop growth, a method for calculating the annual distribution of sunshine duration on the land surface is developed as well. (author)

  3. Statistical and Spectral Analysis of Wind Characteristics Relevant to Wind Energy Assessment Using Tower Measurements in Complex Terrain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Belu, Radian; Koracin, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind speed and direction in complex terrain that are relevant to wind energy assessment and development, as well as to wind energy system operation, management, and grid integration. Wind data from five tall meteorological towers located in Western Nevada, USA, operated from August 2003 to March 2008, used in the analysis. The multiannual average wind speeds did not show significant increased trend with increasing elevation, while the turbulence intensity slowly decreased with an increase were the average wind speed. The wind speed and direction weremore » modeled using the Weibull and the von Mises distribution functions. The correlations show a strong coherence between the wind speed and direction with slowly decreasing amplitude of the multiday periodicity with increasing lag periods. The spectral analysis shows significant annual periodicity with similar characteristics at all locations. The relatively high correlations between the towers and small range of the computed turbulence intensity indicate that wind variability is dominated by the regional synoptic processes. Knowledge and information about daily, seasonal, and annual wind periodicities are very important for wind energy resource assessment, wind power plant operation, management, and grid integration.« less

  4. Verification survey report of the south waste tank farm training/test tower and hazardous waste storage lockers at the West Valley demonstration project, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-08-29

    A team from ORAU's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program performed verification survey activities on the South Test Tower and four Hazardous Waste Storage Lockers. Scan data collected by ORAU determined that both the alpha and alpha-plus-beta activity was representative of radiological background conditions. The count rate distribution showed no outliers that would be indicative of alpha or alpha-plus-beta count rates in excess of background. It is the opinion of ORAU that independent verification data collected support the site?s conclusions that the South Tower and Lockers sufficiently meet the site criteria for release to recycle and reuse.

  5. RnD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sources Materials research Thin films Crab cavities Temperature mapping Process development Large grain niobium High-current High-current Structures SRF photo-injectors RF windows Q-drop and baking studies SRF R&D

  6. Validation of Simplified Load Equations through Loads Measurement and Modeling of a Small Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Tower; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, S.; Damiani, R.; vanDam, J.

    2015-05-18

    As part of an ongoing effort to improve the modeling and prediction of small wind turbine dynamics, NREL tested a small horizontal axis wind turbine in the field at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The test turbine was a 2.1-kW downwind machine mounted on an 18-meter multi-section fiberglass composite tower. The tower was instrumented and monitored for approximately 6 months. The collected data were analyzed to assess the turbine and tower loads and further validate the simplified loads equations from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-2 design standards. Field-measured loads were also compared to the output of an aeroelastic model of the turbine. Ultimate loads at the tower base were assessed using both the simplified design equations and the aeroelastic model output. The simplified design equations in IEC 61400-2 do not accurately model fatigue loads. In this project, we compared fatigue loads as measured in the field, as predicted by the aeroelastic model, and as calculated using the simplified design equations.

  7. The WACMOS-ET project – Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michel, D.; Jimenez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Jung, M.; Hirschi, M.; Ershadi, A.; Martens, B.; McCabe, M. F.; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; et al

    2016-02-23

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy – EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005–2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run four established ET algorithms: the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman–Monteith algorithm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers were used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared tomore » tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed on several timescales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement with the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. In conclusion, an extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs resampled to a common grid to facilitate global

  8. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P.

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is thus crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compressionmore » ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. Lastly, the probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines.« less

  9. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 2. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

  10. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 1. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

  11. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building Oakland, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-01

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be build at Oakland, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Las Vegas, NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Las Vegas, Nevada by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  13. Method of aligning and locating the mirrors of a collector field with respect to a receptor tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, O.J.

    1980-08-26

    A method of surveying a solar field which has a large number of heliostats using a laser beam which originates directly below the heat receptor on the tower and can be controlled to aim towards any one of the mirrors in the field is described. The reflected light from this mirror is analyzed, with an array of photocells which are mounted on the doors which close across the window of the heat receptor, to control both the azimuth and elevation of both the mirror and the laser gun in order to cause the beam to be aimed at the center of the mirror and the laser image centered on the receptor. This permits surveying the field for the purpose of using computer control of the mirror during normal daytime operation. Moreover, not only is the array of photocells on the window used for surveying the field during night time operation, but they are also used to determine the coordinate transformation between the geometry of the field and the geometry of the earth by tracking the sun during daytime operation. Lastly the system with a microprocessor on each heliostat is used for tracking the sun in an open control mode for all normal hours of operation of the power plant.

  14. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  15. On the applicability of surrogate-based MCMC-Bayesian inversion to the Community Land Model: Case studies at Flux tower sites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Maoyi; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Ren, Huiying; Liu, Ying; Swiler, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) has been widely used in climate and Earth system modeling. Accurate estimation of model parameters is needed for reliable model simulations and predictions under current and future conditions, respectively. In our previous work, a subset of hydrological parameters has been identified to have significant impact on surface energy fluxes at selected flux tower sites based on parameter screening and sensitivity analysis, which indicate that the parameters could potentially be estimated from surface flux observations at the towers. To date, such estimates do not exist. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of applying a Bayesianmore » model calibration technique to estimate CLM parameters at selected flux tower sites under various site conditions. The parameters are estimated as a joint probability density function (PDF) that provides estimates of uncertainty of the parameters being inverted, conditional on climatologically-average latent heat fluxes derived from observations. We find that the simulated mean latent heat fluxes from CLM using the calibrated parameters are generally improved at all sites when compared to those obtained with CLM simulations using default parameter sets. Further, our calibration method also results in credibility bounds around the simulated mean fluxes which bracket the measured data. The modes (or maximum a posteriori values) and 95% credibility intervals of the site-specific posterior PDFs are tabulated as suggested parameter values for each site. Lastly, analysis of relationships between the posterior PDFs and site conditions suggests that the parameter values are likely correlated with the plant functional type, which needs to be confirmed in future studies by extending the approach to more sites.« less

  16. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) - FEMP Technical Assistance - Federal Aviation Administration - Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-28

    This report documents an energy audit performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Boise, Idaho. This report presents findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) followed by a site visit of the facility under construction. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building, Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted an energy audit on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Reno, Nevada. This report presents the findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) and completed a site visit. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  18. Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  19. Solar Two Tower System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph of a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, stretched membrane heliostats with silvered polymer reflectors will be used as demonstration units at the Solar Two central...

  20. Phase Change Material Tower

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Dispatchable Solar Power" Award: 3,875,104 from ... solar thermal electricity at a significantly ... conductivity (100x molten salt) allows high efficiency at ...

  1. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length

  2. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  3. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  4. The Effect of Magnetic Field on the Position of HTS Leads and theCooler in the Services Tower of the MICE Focusing Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.; Yang, S.Q.; Cobb, J.; Lau, P.; Lau, W.W.; Witte,H.; Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE focusing solenoids have three 4 K coolers (two forthe superconducting magnet and one for the liquid absorber) and four HTSleads that feed the current to the focusing coils. The focusing solenoidsproduce large radial external fields when they operate with the polarityof the two coils in opposition (the gradient or flip mode). When the MICEfocusing coils operate at the same polarity (the solenoid or non-flipmode), the fields are much smaller and parallel to the axis of thesolenoid. The worst-case magnetic field affects the selection of thecooler and the HTS leads. This magnetic field can also determine theheight of the service towers that house the three coolers and the fourHTS leads. This paper shows the criteria used for Cooler selection, HTSlead selection, and the position of both the cooler and leads withrespect to the solenoid axis of rotation.

  5. Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of a coal-liquefaction residue - water slurry using vaccum-tower bottoms from the H-Coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    About 6.7 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) which were obtained during the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory. The single 9.5-hour run with H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry was completed at 750 to 760 psig gasifier pressure. The run consisted of two test periods, each at a different gasifier temperature. Over 99.6 percent conversion of carbon in the feed to syngas was achieved yielding 32.9 to 33.7 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue charged. The oxygen requirement was about 1.0 pound of oxygen per pound of residue. The dry syngas contained 78.5 to 79.7 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen.

  6. Closeout of IE Compliance Bulletin 86-03: Potential failure of multiple ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System) pumps due to single failure of air-operated valve in minimum flow recirculation line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. )

    1990-10-01

    Documentation is provided in this report for the closeout of IE Compliance Bulletin 86-03 regarding the potential failure of multiple Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) pumps due to a single failure of an air-operated valve in a minimum flow recirculation line. Closeout is based on the implementation and verification of four actions required by the bulletin. Evaluation of utility responses and NRC/Region inspection reports in accordance with specific criteria indicates that the bulletin is closed for 116 (98%) of the 118 nuclear power facilities in operation or under construction to which it was issued for action. Facilities which were shut down indefinitely or permanently or which had construction halted indefinitely were not included in this review. A follow-up item is proposed for the two (2) facilities with open bulletin status. It is concluded that the bulletin concern has been resolved, pending closeout by the NRC of Zion 1,2. Background information is provided in the Introduction and Appendix A.

  7. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Introduction Federal laws and regulations require Federal agencies to reduce water use and improve water effciency. Namely, Executive Order 13514 Federal Leadership in ...

  8. cx-bennington-tower.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  9. REMOTE INTERVENTION TOWER ELIMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dave Murnane; Renauld Washington

    2002-02-15

    This Topical Report is presented to satisfy reporting requirements in the Statement of work section J.5 page 120 per Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-01NT41093. The project does not contain any imperial research data. This report describes the assembly of Commercial off the shelf (COTS) items configured in a unique manner to represent new and innovative technology in the service of size reduction and material handling at DOE sites, to assist in the D&D effort currently underway at the designated DOE Facilities.

  10. Property:Recirculating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flume Facility + No + A Alden Large Flume + Yes + Alden Small Flume + No + B Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + Yes + C Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + Yes +...

  11. Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory Cylindrical Boiling Facility Distributed Energy Technology Lab Microsystems and Engineering Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test ...

  12. Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle Receiver...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... without breaking down, unlike conventional molten-salt systems. ... and higher efficiency power cycles that will bring down the cost of electricity produced from concentrating ...

  13. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; et al

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore » fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the

  14. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode.

    The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments.

    The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was

  15. NREL: Energy Analysis - Jørn Aabakken

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Primary research interests Online Communities Web Applications Technology Characterizations Renewable energy scenarios Education and background training B.S. in economics, The ...

  16. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radon Measurements to Help Scientists Estimate Carbon Dioxide Exchange Bookmark and Share Researchers installed a continuous 222Rn monitor at the base of the 60-meter tower at the SGP Central Facility. A sampling tube connected to the tower supplies air to the container, where the radon is measured. In November, ARM scientists and researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory began a collaborative field campaign at the

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  18. Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  19. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colson iii Abbreviations and Acronyms ASHRAE American Society of Heating, ... ASHRAE Guideline 12- 2000 has basic treatment recommendations for control and prevention, ...

  20. Towering Cumulus Stage Mature Stage Dissipating Stage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells are called air-mass thunderstorms. Formed in a warm, humid air mass, a convective cell is a region of strong upward air motion; such a warm, buoyant plume of rising air is...

  1. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Southwest Research Institute is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced power cycles. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  2. The 200 ft. Solar Tower at Sandia ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    target testing Features: * 4 - 350 sq. ft. test bays * 1 - 750 sq. ft. test bay * ... and instrumentation support * Onsite office space with telecommunications ...

  3. CXAllenRadioTower2.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CX-014437: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-014437: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) - Energy Emergency Response CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11 Date: 10/27/2015 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory Develop, train and exercise state and integrated regional plans to respond to catastrophic damage to energy infrastructure in the Pacific Northwest resulting from a CSZ slip and resulting tsunami. Document(s) Available for

  4. Advanced Tower Analysis and Design System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enhanced metafile, and both 2D and 3D International Graphics Standard for import into CAD systems. Help is available through the Windows help system as well as through a...

  5. Radio Towers Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    90C363.15 K 194 F 653.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 4 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  6. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunesh, J.G.; Kister, H.Z.; Lockett, M.J.; Fair, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  7. Microsoft Word - Cooling Tower Report.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Background of Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling Systems - Technical and ......... 10 Coal-Fired Generation ......

  8. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.L.

    1993-10-19

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank. 3 figures.

  9. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank.

  10. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on diesel engine oil during standard test with an API Cummins M-11 engine. ... Fuel Economy and Engine Wear AVTA: Oil Bypass Filter Specifications and Test Procedures

  11. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

    1994-06-28

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

  12. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P.; Sawvel, Robert M.; Draggoo, Vaughn G.

    1994-01-01

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

  13. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  14. Beam transport for an SRF recirculating-linac FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuffer, D.; Douglas, D.; Li, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The beam transport system for the CEBAF UV Demo FEL includes a two-pan transport of the beam with acceleration from injector to wiggler, followed by energy recovery transport from wiggler to dump. From that contact we discuss the general problem of multi-pass energy-recovery beam transport for FELs. Tuneable, nearly-isochronous, large-momentum-acceptance import systems are required. The entire transport must preserve beam quality, particularly in the acceleration transport to the wiggler, and have low losses throughout the entire system. Issues such as injection and final energies, number of passes, linac focusing effects, beam separation, chronicity management, and stability constraints are critical. Various possible designs are discussed. Particle tracking results exploring the design options are also reported.

  15. Preliminary Study on Emittance Growth in the LHEC Recirculating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    view. The simulation results are also compared with a theoretical estimation. Authors: Sun, Yi-Peng ; Adolphsen, Chris ; SLAC ; Zimmermann, Frank ; CERN Publication Date: ...

  16. Lattice Design for the LHEC Recirculating Linac (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Sun, Yipeng ; CERN ; Eide, Anders ; CERN ; Zimmermann, Frank ; CERN ; Adolphsen, Chris ; SLAC Publication Date: 2011-05-20 OSTI Identifier: 1014127 Report Number(s): ...

  17. PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Muons, Inc. Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25) Contributing Orgs: Thomas Jefferson ...

  18. "Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is intended for implementation in a tokamak. The design employs JxB forces to form a free-surface flow along a guide wall at the outer boundary of the plasma. The...

  19. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xin; Durrett, Russell P.

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  20. Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolmanovsky, I.V.; Jankovic, M.J.; Jankovic, M.

    2000-03-14

    A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

  1. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown to readily meet the 2010 EPA requirments for NOx and PM emisisons through independent testing programs.

  2. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown to readily meet the 2010 EPA requirments for NOx and PM emisisons through independent testing programs. deer08copan.pdf (142.02 KB) More ...

  3. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  4. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ft10wu.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & ...

  5. Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through: utilizing selective logging practices, harnessing and remunerating the carbon sequestration and absorption capabilities of the rainforest, by valuing...

  6. Drill core major, trace and rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-17B and RN-30, Reykjanes, Iceland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-04-01

    Analytical results for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement of major, trace and rare earth elements in drill core from geothermal wells in Reykjanes, Iceland. Total Fe was analyzed as FeO, therefore is not included under the Fe2O3 column.

  7. From: No Towers To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: No NIETC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The compensation cannot begin to cover the all of the losses, tangible and intangible that ... Third, the eastern states should develop the utility scale wind resources conveniently ...

  8. Microsoft Word - PowerTower_work_2009.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... conditions due to rapid degradation of steam temperature and pressure. Receiver trip leads to a turbine trip because there is no buffer storage between the receiver and turbine. ...

  9. Lab Helps FAA Build Energy-Efficient Control Towers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With help from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and its subcontractor, Redhorse Corporation, the agency that keeps our country’s airports running is bolstering its energy efficiency.

  10. Microsoft Word - CX-Driscoll Sustation Tower.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Official File United States Government Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration DATE: 6HSWHPEHU REPLY TO ATTN OF: .(& SUBJECT: (QYLURQPHQWDO &OHDUDQFH 0HPRUDQGXP -LP ...

  11. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The dissolved solids can also lead to corrosion problems. The concentration of dissolved ... increase, which can cause scale and corrosion problems unless carefully controlled. ...

  12. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Tower Manufacturing and Installation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Wind Program has issued a Notice of Intent for a funding opportunity, tentatively titled U.S. Wind Manufacturing: Taller Hub Heights to Access Higher Wind Resources, and Lower Cost of Energy.

  13. Armor Tower Inc. Notification of Intent to Investigate

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of all documents to our office by the requested date is appreciated. Under the Major Fraud Act (MFA), as amended, 41 U.S.C. 4310, this investigation may be a proceeding...

  14. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report Number(s): SAND2011-0800 TRN: US201109%%315 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: ...

  15. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor- FY12 Q4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SWRI project, funded by SunShot, for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  16. Enforcement Notice of Intent to Investigate, Armor Tower, Inc...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Investigate potential worker safety and health noncompliances associated with an electrical shock event that occurred at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. On May 21, 2015,...

  17. Drill cutting and core major, trace and rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-17B and RN-30, Reykjanes, Iceland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-05-01

    Analytical results for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement of major, trace and rare earth elements in drill cuttings from geothermal wells in Reykjanes, Iceland. Total Fe was analyzed as FeO, therefore is not included under the Fe2O3 column.

  18. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  19. Method and apparatus for affecting a recirculation zone in a cross flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bathina, Mahesh; Singh, Ramanand

    2012-07-17

    Disclosed is a cross flow apparatus including a surface and at least one outlet located at the surface. The cross flow apparatus further includes at least one guide at the surface configured to direct an intersecting flow flowing across the surface and increase a velocity of a cross flow being expelled from the at least one outlet downstream from the at least one outlet.

  20. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites | Department of Energy The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection at the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection at the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites (197.97 KB) More Documents & Publications Monitoring the Performance of an Alternative Landfill Cover at the Monticello, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site Long-Term

  1. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Sluder, Scott; Lance, Michael J; Styles, Dan; Simko, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

  2. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michele, Pognani; Giuliana, D’Imporzano; Carlo, Minetti; Sergio, Scotti; Fabrizio, Adani

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  3. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  4. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-08-07

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  5. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  6. High field strength following the Kauai R-N geomagnetic reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, H.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The paleomagnetism of superposed lava flows on Kauai, Hawaii shows that the ancient geomagnetic field was unusually strong following a reverse-to-normal polarity transition that occurred about 4 million years ago. Paleointensities were determined by a standard experimental procedure (Thelliers' method) that recreates the process of remanence acquisition in volcanic rocks. This experiment makes it possible to infer the strength of the geomagnetic field present with each lava flow formed, thus producing an accurate picture of the ancient field's behavior after the reversal. Samples from 10 volcanic units yielded virtual dipole moments (VDMs) ranging from 7.4 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] to 14.5 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] with an average of 11.1[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. This value is high in comparisons to the average VDM for the past 5 m.y., approximately 8.7[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. In contrast to the highly variable dipole moment observed following a 15 m.y. old reversal at Steen s Mountain, Oregon, the field following the Kauai transition was relatively steady. Surprisingly, the maximum dipole moments following the two reversals were nearly equal. This similarity hints that high field strength may be a systematic feature of the geodynamo immediately following a polarity reversal.

  7. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geophysical processes in underground environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R. M.; Silva, A. A. R. da; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2014-11-11

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, are reported and analyzed. These mines are today used for touristic visitation. Our goal was to assess the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer of geological processes in underground environments. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used during the winter and summer seasons. The findings show that the significant radon concentrations reported in this environment are subject to large seasonal modulations, due to the strong dependence of natural ventilation on the variations of outside temperature. The results also indicate that radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  8. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DRAFT COOLING TOWERS PERFORMANCE SIMULATION COST DESIGN HEAT TRANSFER OPERATION WATER REQUIREMENTS COOLING TOWERS ENERGY TRANSFER MECHANICAL STRUCTURES TOWERS Geothermal...

  9. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; MECHANICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DRAFT COOLING TOWERS; PERFORMANCE; SIMULATION; COST; DESIGN; HEAT TRANSFER; OPERATION; WATER REQUIREMENTS; COOLING TOWERS; ENERGY TRANSFER; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; TOWERS...

  10. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DRAFT COOLING TOWERS; PERFORMANCE; SIMULATION; COST; DESIGN; HEAT TRANSFER; OPERATION; WATER REQUIREMENTS; COOLING TOWERS; ENERGY TRANSFER; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; TOWERS...

  11. Raw Data from National Wind Technology Center M2 Tower (2001...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    such as global PSP (Wm2) and meteorological data, such as temperature, pressure, and wind speed and direction (at 2m, 5m, 10m, 20m, 50m, and 80m). Included here is a portion...

  12. A Multi-tower Measurement Network Estimate of California's Methane Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Vaca, Patrick; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.

    2013-12-02

    We present an analysis of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions using atmospheric observations from five sites in California’s Central Valley across different seasons (September 2010 to June 2011). CH{sub 4} emissions for spatial regions and source sectors are estimated by comparing measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios with transport model (WRF-STILT) predictions based on two 0.1 degree CH{sub 4} (seasonally varying “California-specific” (CALGEM) and a static global (EDGAR42)) prior emission models. Region-specific Bayesian analyses indicate that for California’s Central Valley the CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions provide consistent annual total CH{sub 4} emissions (32.87±2.09 vs. 31.60±2.17 Tg CO{sub 2}eq yr{sup -1}; 68% C.I., assuming uncorrelated errors between regions). Summing across all regions of California, optimized CH{sub 4} emissions are only marginally consistent between CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions (48.35±6.47 vs. 64.97±11.85 Tg CO{sub 2}eq), because emissions from coastal urban regions (where landfill and natural gas emissions are much higher in EDGAR than CALGEM) are not strongly constrained by the measurements. Combining our results with those from a recent study of the South Coast air basin narrows the range of estimates to 43 – 57 Tg CO{sub 2}eq yr{sup -1} (1.3 - 1.8 times higher than the current state inventory). These results suggest that the combination of rural and urban measurements will be necessary to verify future changes in California’s total CH{sub 4} emissions.

  13. Project Title: Guard Tower and Station D&D Project (4548)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Guidelines OAI4 - Approval of technical exchange arrangements OA 15 - International umbrella agreements for energy R&D Facility Operations DB 1.2 - Training exercises and...

  14. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SNL project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  15. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers- FY13 Q1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this Sandia National Laboratories/NREL project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  16. Gaskell Sun Tower and 2 others Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power Facility Status Proposed Developer NRG EnergyeSolar Location Kern County, California Coordinates 35.4937274, -118.8596804...

  17. QCoefficient Uses EnergyPlus to Reduce Willis Tower Energy Bills

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Chicago firm QCoefficient uses model predictive control (MPC) to pre-cool large commercial buildings, savings hundreds of thousands of dollars and tons of CO2.

  18. SMART Wind Consortium Support Structures Subgroup Virtual Meeting: Tower and Foundation Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the SMART Wind Consortium is connecting collaborators to form consensus on near-term and mid-term plans needed to increase cost competitiveness of U.S....

  19. Techniques and equipment for assessing the structural integrity of subterranean tower anchor rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinz, William R.; Parker, Matthew J.

    2001-01-01

    Techniques and equipment for evaluating structural integrity of buried anchor rods in situ are disclosed. The techniques avoid excavation of soil and avoid, or at least reduce, the possibility of damage to the rods or the concrete in which they may be embedded when evaluations are conducted. Instead, ultrasonic energy is transmitted through the rod from a portable transducer, and returned energy (in either or both of direct and mode-converted states) may be analyzed to assist in detecting flaws, corrosion, wastage, or other degradation of the rod. Data from a field evaluation may be compared with baseline data maintained either for a specific rod or for rods of similar composition and length (or both), and periodic field evaluations of a rod may be used to analyze trends in its structure over time.

  20. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office ... 11 8.0 VAP Specific Glossary and Acronyms......the Temperature, Humidity, Wind, and Pressure System ...

  1. Optimizing the CSP Tower Air Brayton Cycle System to Meet the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. cspreviewmeeting042313coogan.p...

  2. Optimizing the CSP Tower Air Brayton Cycle System to Meet the SunShot Objectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  3. QCoefficient Uses EnergyPlus to Reduce Willis Tower Energy Bills...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... For example, this estimate does not account for the effect of displacing the marginal coal-fired generating plant from unit commitment. Addthis Related Articles Energy Department ...

  4. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping . E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  5. Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Williams, Everett H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

  6. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  7. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  8. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  9. Wind Energy Assessment Study for Nevada -- Tall Tower Deployment (Stone Cabin): 26 June 2005 - 31 December 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koracin, D.; Reinhardt, R.; McCurdy, G.; Liddle, M.; McCord, T.; Vellore, R.; Minor, T.; Lyles, B.; Miller, D.; Ronchetti, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work effort was to characterize wind shear and turbulence for representative wind-developable areas in Nevada.

  10. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, R.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.

    2011-04-27

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O{sub 2}, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  11. DPF-"Hydrated EGR" Fuel Saver System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreenPower muffler uses hydrated exhaust gas recirculation to reduce NOx and improve fuel efficiency

  12. EA-1629:Southwestern Power Administration Utility Corridor and Tower Site Vegetation Management; Ozark-St. Francis National Forest, Pope and Searcy Counties, Arkansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Forest Service prepared an EA that evaluated the potential environmental impacts of amending a Southwestern Area Power Administration (SWPA) permit to allow herbicide application within SWPA transmission line rights-of-way in the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. SWPA initially was a cooperating agency, and later ended its involvement in preparing the EA.

  13. A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogburn, Reuben Walter, IV; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-04-01

    Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single, combined analysis, with sensitivity to lower-energy interactions, careful control of data quality and stability, and further development of techniques for reconstructing event location and rejecting near-surface interactions from beta decays. They also present a revision to the previously published Run 119 analysis, a demonstration of the feasibility of a low-threshold (1 or 2 keV) analysis of Soudan data, and a review of the literature on charge generation and quenching relevant to the ionization signal.

  14. SOLAR MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION FROM DOPPLER SHIFTS OF THE Fe I LINE AT 5250 A AS MEASURED BY THE 150-FOOT SOLAR TOWER TELESCOPE AT THE MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    2010-12-10

    Doppler shifts of the Fe I spectral line at 5250 A from the full solar disk obtained over the period 1986 to 2009 are analyzed to determine the circulation velocity of the solar surface along meridional planes. Simultaneous measurements of the Zeeman splitting of this line are used to obtain measurements of the solar magnetic field that are used to select low field points and impose corrections for the magnetically induced Doppler shift. The data utilized is from a new reduction that preserves the full spatial resolution of the original observations so that the circulation flow can be followed to latitudes of 80{sup 0} N/S. The deduced meridional flow is shown to differ from the circulation velocities derived from magnetic pattern movements. A reversed circulation pattern is seen in polar regions for three successive solar minima. A surge in circulation velocity at low latitudes is seen during the rising phases of cycles 22 and 23.

  15. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Revised) (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is located in Huntsville, Alabama, adjacent to Redstone Arsenal. MSFC has over 4.5 million square feet of building space occupied by 7,000 personnel, and consumes approximately 240 million gallons of potable water annually, supplied through the City of Huntsville. MSFC has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. In 2005,

  16. Accident Investigation of the September 20, 2012 Fatal Fall from the Dworshak-Taft #1 Transmission Tower, at the Bonneville Power Marketing Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report is an independent product of the Level l Accident Investigation Board appointed by Brad Bea, Chief Safety Officer, Bonneville Power Administration. The Board was appointed to perform a Levell Accident Investigation and to prepare an investigation report in accordance with Bonneville Power Administration Manual, Chapter 181, Accident Investigation and Reporting

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of any tower must be at least 110% of the maximum height of the tower away from any property line or public road. Towers must be at least 1,000 feet from residential dwelling or...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    base of any tower must be at least 110% of the maximum height of the tower away from any property line or public road. Towers must be at least 1,000 feet from residential dwelling...

  19. Wind Energy Permitting Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The base of any tower must be at least 110% of the maximum height of the tower away from any property line or public road. Towers must be at least 1,000 feet from residential dwelling or occupied...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Standards The base of any tower must be at least 110% of the maximum height of the tower away from any property line or public road. Towers must be at least 1,000 feet from...

  1. Chris Bergren Director, Environment ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor Dome Removal Reactor Vessel Removal Demolition of Dome After 3 K-Area Cooling Tower Implosion K-Area Cooling Tower at Completion D & D of K-Area Cooling Tower 4 In...

  2. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  3. Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander

    2012-06-30

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series

  4. Design and testing of a control strategy for a large naturallyventilated office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrilho da Graca, Guilherme; Linden, Paul F.; Haves, Philip

    2004-03-16

    The design for the new Federal Building for San Franciscoincludes an office tower that is to be naturally ventilated. Each flooris designed to be cross-ventilated, through upper windows that arecontrolled by the building management system (BMS). Users have controlover lower windows, which can be as much as 50 percent of the totalopenable area. There are significant differences in the performance andthe control of the windward and leeward sides of the building, andseparate monitoring and control strategies are determined for each side.The performance and control of the building has been designed and testedusing a modified version of EnergyPlus. Results from studies withEnergyPlus and CFD are used in designing the control strategy. EnergyPluswas extended to model a simplified version of the airflow patterndetermined using CFD. Wind-driven cross-ventilation produces a main jetthrough the upper openings of the building, across the ceiling from thewindward to the leeward side. Below this jet, the occupied regions aresubject to a recirculating air flow. Results show that temperatureswithin the building are predicted to be satisfactory, provided a suitablecontrol strategy is implemented uses night cooling in periods of hotweather. The control strategy has 10 window opening modes. EnergyPlus wasextended to simulate the effects of these modes, and to assess theeffects of different forms of user behavior. The results show how userbehavior can significantly influence the buildingperformance.

  5. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, M. )

    1992-02-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions.

  6. Environment and Compliance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environment and Compliance Environment and Compliance Cooling Tower Reflection | Credit: DOE Archives Cooling Tower Reflection | Credit: DOE Archives Offices of the Deputy General...

  7. And the Oscar for Sustainable Mobile Lighting Goes to.... Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    There are about 100,000 diesel-powered mobile lighting towers in the United States, ... building, and testing a mobile lighting tower powered by hydrogen fuel cell ...

  8. Energy Department Announces $2 Million to Support Manufacturing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Support Manufacturing of Taller Wind Turbine Towers Energy Department Announces 2 Million to Support Manufacturing of Taller Wind Turbine Towers September 17, 2014 - 9:53am ...

  9. Blundell 1 Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Types of Water References 2 Map: Name This article is a...

  10. Beowawe Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Types of Water References 1 Map: Name This article is a...

  11. Chena Hot Springs Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Types of Water References 1 Map: Name This article is a...

  12. EIS-0330: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    power plant and 33-mile transmission line. It also evaluates an alternative using taller towers and longer spans between towers along part of the transmission line, and the...

  13. Project Profile: High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers Project Profile: High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers Sandia National ...

  14. High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers This presentation was ...

  15. ARM - Instrument - mettwr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrument : Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA (METTWR) Instrument ... Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA (METTWR) use mainly conventional ...

  16. ARM/NSA Vehicle Use Policy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Slope of AlaskaAdjacent Arctic Ocean NSA Tip Tower Lowering Procedure Procedure ... NSAttlRev6.doc 1 ACRFNSAAAO Revision 6 Tip Tower Lowering Procedure November 2006 ...

  17. GEM Resources III Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  18. Navy I Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  19. Salton Sea II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  20. Mak-Ban Binary 3 GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  1. Lightning Dock Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  2. Husavik Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  3. GEM Resources II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  4. San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  5. Sulphur Springs Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  6. Mammoth Pacific II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  7. Richard Burdett Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  8. Ormesa II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  9. Bear Canyon Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  10. Salton Sea I Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  11. Travale 3 Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  12. Lake View Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  13. Tiwi A GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  14. Mutnovskaya Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  15. Ribeira Grande Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  16. Pico Vermelho Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  17. CE Turbo Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  18. NCPA I Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  19. Salton Sea V Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  20. Olkaria I - Modular/ Wellhead Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  1. Navy II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  2. Salton Sea IV Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  3. Mataloko Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  4. Onikobe Onikobe Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  5. Neustadt-Glewe GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  6. Steamboat II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  7. Upper Mahiao Binary GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  8. Cobb Creek Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  9. Steamboat I Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  10. Mendeleevskaya Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  11. Heber Plant Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  12. Ormesa IE Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  13. Olkaria I Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  14. Oserian 306 Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  15. West Ford Flat Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  16. Heber South Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  17. Galena 3 Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  18. PLES 1 Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  19. Ormesa IH Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  20. Gunun-Salak Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  1. Salton Sea III Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  2. Mak-Ban Binary 2 GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  3. Galena 2 Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  4. HL Power Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  5. Eagle Rock Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  6. Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  7. Quicksilver Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  8. DOE Federal Efficiency Program Wins GreenGov Dream Team Award...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Route Surveillance Radar Tower. | Photo credit DOT. Oakland Air Traffic Control Tower. ... steps to reduce energy use and carbon pollution, curb waste, and save taxpayer money in ...

  9. Method for the preparation of radon-211

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Geerd-J.; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the production of .sup.211 Rn comprising bombarding .sup.209 Bi with .sup.7 Li particles utilizing the nuclear reaction .sup.209 Bi(.sup.7 Li,5n).sup.211 Rn. The method provides a simple spectrum from which .sup.211 Rn can be easily isolated in a highly pure condition.

  10. New Facility to Shed Light on Offshore Wind Resource (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    Chesapeake Light Tower facility will gather key data for unlocking the nation's vast offshore wind resource.

  11. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ASSOCIATES; CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS; MULTIFAMILY; RETROFIT; ZERO ENERGY; SOLAR THERMAL; DRAIN WATER RECOVERY SYSTEM; DEMAND-CONTROLLED RECIRCULATION...

  12. Simulation and Analysis of HP/LP EGR for Heavy-Duty Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High- and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation can be combined for an advanced airpath control strategy

  13. Rosebud Sioux Tribes - Wind Development on the Rosebud

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 th , 2012, Denver, Colorado 20 communities with an elected council person representing each community, they serve 3 year terms, along with the Tribal Chairman, Vice Chair, Secretary and Treasurer Rosebud Sioux Indian Reservation Met tower installed in1999 Akicita Cikala 750 Kw turbine, commissioned March 2003 Met tower installed in 2001 Proposed Owl Feather War Bonnet Wind Farm, 30Mw Met towers installed in 2003 Met Met Met Met towers installed in 2009 Met towers installed installed in 2009 in

  14. Small Business Innovation Research Workshop starts September 12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Small Business | Department of Energy Small Business Innovation Research Grant Helps Propel Innovative Wind Energy Small Business Small Business Innovation Research Grant Helps Propel Innovative Wind Energy Small Business March 11, 2011 - 10:32am Addthis Link to image of Wind Tower System's Space Frame Tower™ Link to image of Wind Tower System's Space Frame Tower(tm) Mark Higgins Operations Supervisor, Wind & Water Power Technologies Office Wind Tower Systems, a subsidiary of

  15. Compliant offshore platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danaczko, M.A.; Finn, L.D.; Glasscock, M.S.; Piazza, M.P.; Steele, K.M.; Weaver, T.O.

    1987-09-29

    A compliant offshore platform is described for use in hydrocarbon drilling and producing operations, comprising: a deck; a substantially rigid vertical tower adapted to support the deck above the ocean surface. The tower has a base and is adapted to pivot relative to the ocean floor about its base in response to the action of waves. The combination of the deck and tower have a net negative buoyancy and are free from guyline support; and means for applying a vertical couple to the tower in response to pivoting of the tower. The couple is applied at a position on the tower intermediate the tower base and the bottom of the wave zone of the ocean environment in which the tower is situated. The vertical couple tends to resist sway of the tower away from the vertical.

  16. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal

  17. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  18. Steelmaking with iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, G.H.; Stephens, F.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The concept of using iron carbide in steelmaking is not new. Tests were run several decades ago, using carbide made from ore, in steelmaking furnaces. The problem was that at that time, the need for the product was not clear and the economics of production were not favorable. In the early 1970's Frank M. Stephens, Jr., conceived the basis for the present process, and considerable development work has been done during the past decade to bring the carbide production process to its present state, with the first commercial unit now under construction. The process utilizes the following overall reaction to produce Fe[sub 3]C from ore: 3Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] + 5H[sub 2] + 2 CH[sub 4][equals]2 Fe[sub 3]C + 9 H[sub 2]O. Hydrogen gas from a natural gas reformer is blended with natural gas to form the process gas that is recirculated through the fluid bed reactor, the cooling tower, to remove reaction product water, and back through the reactor again, after reheating. The closed loop nature of the process means that virtually 100% of the process reagents are utilized by the process. The only exception is that a small stream of the process gas is burned as fuel in the reheating step, in order to maintain the level of inerts in the process gas at an acceptable level. The quantity of the bleed stream is entirely dependent on the concentration of inert gases in the fuel supply.

  19. Workers at EM's West Valley Site Surpass 1 Million Hours without

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Safely Tear Down Towers at Manhattan Project Site Workers Safely Tear Down Towers at Manhattan Project Site August 21, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers observe the demolition of the West Water Tower at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Workers observe the demolition of the West Water Tower at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The East Water Tower falls. The East Water Tower falls. EM’s federal team for the demolition project, from left, Fire Coordinator Allan Trujillo, DOE Intern Kathy

  20. United States Nuclear Tests July 1945 through September 1992

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Notes on Research When using NV-209 as a research tool, there are a few hints and ... 51 Moth 02221955 LANL NNSS Area 3 Tower 52 Tesla 03011955 LLNL NNSS Area 9 Tower 53 ...

  1. United States Nuclear Tests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Notes on Research When using NV-209 as a research tool, there are a few hints and ... 51 Moth 02221955 LANL NNSS Area 3 Tower 52 Tesla 03011955 LLNL NNSS Area 9 Tower 53 ...

  2. Commercial Scale Coal to F-T Liquid Plant Using a Dry Feed Gasifier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tower or steam systems. However, most of the water loss is evaporative loss from the cooling towers. More air- cooled heat exchangers could be added to reduce the load on the...

  3. Small Business Innovation Research Grant Helps Propel Innovative...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The innovative design of the taller wind turbine towers offer greater power potential ... final engineering design for the 100 meter wind turbine tower that GE now plans to market. ...

  4. Small Wind Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A wind electric system is made up of a wind turbine mounted on a tower to provide better access to stronger winds. In addition to the turbine and tower, small wind electric systems ...

  5. Manhattan Project: The Trinity Test, July 16, 1945

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... observers at base camp picked it up on an FM radio signal. Gadget is hoisted up the tower. ... the device exploded over the New Mexico desert, vaporizing the tower and turning ...

  6. BPA-2013-00809-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NUMBER OF CULTURAL RESOURCE AREAS BEING REVIEWED 4 1 2 3 63. NUMBER OF TOWERS WITHIN LANDSLIDE AREAS 13 2 3 10 64. NUMBER OF TOWERS WITHIN HIGH EROSION AREAS 148 318 276 289 65....

  7. Wind Development on the Rosebud

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proposed Owl Feather War Bonnet Wind Farm, 30Mw Met towers installed in 2003 Met towers installed in 2009 Proposed North Antelope Highlands Wind Farm, 190Mw 750 Kilowatt ...

  8. Sinem Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Types of Water 350x500px This article is a stub. You can help...

  9. Big Eddy-Knight 500 kV line nears completion with Columbia River...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mile of line. In the crossing, there are just three towers for 1.2 miles of line with the actual river crossing spanning nine-tenths of a mile. The Oregon suspension tower stands...

  10. Two New Reports on Utility-Scale Solar from NREL | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on First Solar projects). A full quarter of the 16,043 MW were from concentrated solar thermal power projects: 9% parabolic troughs and 16% tower systems. Tower technology...

  11. Water Managment: The Dynamic Challenges of Evaporative Cooling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As water flows over the tower, heat picked up by the process is released by evaporation. The cooling water then returns to the heat exchangers to pick up more heat. Cooling Tower ...

  12. Grades K-4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Build a Tower Grades K-4 Learning objective: Students will develop teamwork skills as they work together to design and construct a tower, problem-solving along the way. These are...

  13. Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation - Wind...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    " " sites have over 5 years of 40 meter sites have over 5 years of 40 meter tower wind data tower wind data * * Utility scale wind farms in planning stages Utility scale wind ...

  14. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bookmark and Share The new ECORSEBS Tower at the NSA site in Barrow includes greenhouse ... The new ECORSEBS Tower at the NSA site in Barrow includes greenhouse gas flux ...

  15. Corrosion inhibition when distilling coal liquids by adding cresols or phenols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionation apparatus material corrosion in a coal liquefaction system is reduced by addition of compounds having a pK.sub.b <6 to tower feed streams or to the tower itself.

  16. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In direct-steam power towers, heliostats reflect sunlight onto a receiver on a tower, which is similar to a boiler in a conventional coal-fired power plant. The feed water, pumped ...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    these include trackers, generating equipment, supporting structures or racks, inverters, towers and foundations, balance... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Local...

  18. Microsoft Word - 40532749_10.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relays, shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, supervisory control and acquisition data systems, station service transfer switches, station service transformers, steel towers,...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    equipment, supporting structures or racks, inverters, towers and foundations, balance... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Local Government, Nonprofit, Residential,...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eligible for the exemption; these include trackers, generating equipment, supporting structures or racks, inverters, towers and foundations, balance... Eligibility: Commercial,...