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Sample records for tower water-vapor mixing

  1. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  2. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2 DOE HQSiteo n n e v i2 ARM Climate1623375250248

  3. Water Vapor Variability Across Spatial Scales: Insights for Theory, Parameterization, and Model Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressel, Kyle Gregory

    2012-01-01

    11 2 Scaling of Water Vapor Structure Functions as 2.1cloud model. q is the total water mixing-ratio and q ? isAIRS Exponents from AIRS Data Water Vapor Time Series from a

  4. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  5. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  6. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  7. AFM pictures of the surfaces of glass RPC electrodes damaged by water vapor contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kubo; E. Nakano; Y. Teramoto

    2002-11-08

    We present surface pictures of the damaged electrodes from the Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) taken by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the test, a set of chambers were operated with freon mixed gas (damaged) and freonless gas (not damaged), contaminated with 1000 to 2000 ppm of water vapor. In the AFM pictures, clear differences in damage are seen between the electrodes in the chambers with the freon mixed gas and the freonless gas; a combination of freon and water vapor caused the damage.

  8. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  9. Water Vapor around Sgr B2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; J. R. Pardo; A. Asensio Ramos

    2006-01-16

    We have conducted a study combining H2O lines in two spectral regions. First, Infrared Space Observatory observations of several H2O thermal lines seen in absorption toward Sgr B2(M) at a spectral resolution of 35 kms^-1 have been analyzed. Second, an IRAM-30m telescope map of the para-H2O 3_13-2_20 line at 183.31 GHz, seen in emission, has also been obtained and analyzed. The H2O lines seen in absorption are optically thick and are formed in the outermost gas of the condensations in front of the far-IR continuum sources. They probe a maximum visual extinction of ~5 to 10 mag. Radiative transfer models indicate that these lines are quite insensitive to temperature and gas density, and that IR photons from the dust play a dominant role in the excitation of the involved H2O rotational levels. The water vapor abundance in the region is (1-2)x10^-5. The relatively low H2O/OH abundance ratio in the region, 2-4, is a signature of UV photon dominated surface layers traced by far-IR observations.

  10. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  11. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus ...

  12. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  13. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  14. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  15. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  16. Fractionation of soil gases by diffusion of water vapor, gravitational settling, and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.; Bender, M.L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States)] [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States); Keeling, R.F. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States)] [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States); Broecker, W.S. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Air sampled from the moist unsaturated zone in a sand dune exhibits depletion in the heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. We propose that the depletion is caused by a diffusive flux of water vapor out of the dune, which sweeps out the other gases, forcing them to diffuse back into the dune. The heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} diffuse back more slowly, resulting in a steady-state depletion of the heavy isotopesin the dune interior. We predict the effect`s magnitude with molecular diffusion theory and reproduce it in a laboratory simulation, finding good agreement between field, theory, and lab. The magnitude of the effect is governed by the ratio of the binary diffusivities against water vapor of a pair of gases, and increases {approximately} linearly with the difference between the water vapor mole fraction of the site and the advectively mixed reservoir with which it is in diffusive contact (in most cases the atmosphere). 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  18. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  19. Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

  20. Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio M.A. Holdaway 1, 1996 Abstract We use the surface water vapor pressure measured by weather stations at 4060 m opacity. The surface water vapor pressure is inverted some 20% of the time at night and some 35

  1. Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor.5 mol mol of water vapor in air. The pressure- broadening coefficients for water broadened by helium 0- eter WMLH for the ultrasensitive detection of water vapor.11 For detecting H2O this instrument com

  2. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  3. Gas phase reaction of sulfur trioxide with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, C.E.; Molina, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Meads, R.F.; Worsnop, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur trioxide (SO3) has long been known to react with water to produce sulfuric acid (H2S04). It has been commonly assumed that the gas phase reaction in the Earth`s atmosphere between SO3 and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid vapor is an important step in the production of sulfuric acid aerosol particles. The kinetics of the gas phase reaction of SO3 with water vapor have previously been studied by Castleman and co-workers, Wang et al and Reiner and Arnold. Each of these studies was carried out in a flow reactor, with the first two studies performed at low pressure (1-10 Torr) and the latter from approx. 30 to 260 Torr. Each of these studies measured SO3 decays over a range of H2O vapor levels, obtaining data consistent with interpreting the reaction of gaseous SO3 and H2O as a bimolecular process. It is not clear why previous experimental studies failed to observe a nonlinear dependence of SO3 consumption on water vapor concentration. It is probable that sufficient water dimer exists in much of the Earth`s atmosphere to allow dimer reactions to participate in sulfuric acid vapor formation.

  4. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  5. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  6. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  7. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  8. Potential energy of atmospheric water vapor and the air motions induced by water vapor condensation on different spatial scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastassia M. Makarieva; Victor G. Gorshkov

    2010-03-29

    Basic physical principles are considered that are responsible for the origin of dynamic air flow upon condensation of water vapor, the partial pressure of which represents a store of potential energy in the atmosphere of Earth. Quantitative characteristics of such flow are presented for several spatial scales. It is shown that maximum condensation-induced velocities reach 160 m/s and are realized in compact circulation patterns like tornadoes.

  9. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01)govCampaignsFIRE-Arctic CloudShortwave IOP ARM DataWater Vapor

  12. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  13. Convection towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  14. Tokyo Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; Ashworth, William

    2007-01-03

    Broadcast Transcript: Scanning the skyline of the Japanese capital today, it's hard to catch sight of Tokyo Tower. Modeled on the Eiffel Tower and 333 meters in height, the orange-and-white landmark is the world's tallest self-supporting steel...

  15. Profiling the atmospheric water vapor content using a GPS-Meteorology network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Profiling the atmospheric water vapor content using a GPS-Meteorology network Jayson Maldonado-Meteorological stations. Research Objectives · Develop the hardware necessary for the collection atmospheric water content gives the real Water Vapor Content (WVC) in 3D instead of the Zenith Delay. Future Work · Testing

  16. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  17. Observational evidence of changes in water vapor, clouds, and radiation at the ARM SGP site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    Observational evidence of changes in water vapor, clouds, and radiation at the ARM SGP site Xiquan then increased until the present. Using 8 years of data collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) surface evidence of changes in water vapor, clouds, and radiation at the ARM SGP site, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L

  18. The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

    2006-08-16

    We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

  19. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirström, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30 yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (?10 K) water vapor has been detected—L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work—likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  20. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  1. Roles of Oxygen and Water Vapor in the Oxidation of Halogen Terminated Ge(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Shiyu; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhi; Lee, Dong-Ick; Pianette, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-18

    The initial stage of the oxidation of Cl and Br terminated Ge(111) surfaces is studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. The authors perform controlled experiments to differentiate the effects of different factors in oxidation, and find that water vapor and oxygen play different roles. Water vapor effectively replaces the halogen termination layers with the hydroxyl group, but does not oxidize the surfaces further. In contrast, little oxidation is observed for Cl and Br terminated surfaces with dry oxygen alone. However, with the help of water vapor, oxygen oxidizes the surface by breaking the Ge-Ge back bonds instead of changing the termination layer.

  2. Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrader, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

  3. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  4. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve...

  5. Diffusion barriers in the kinetics of water vapor adsorption/desorption on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, A.W.; Foley, N.J.; Thomas, K.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Norman, P.R.; Francis, D.C. [CBD, Salisbury (United Kingdom)] [CBD, Salisbury (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-07

    The adsorption of water vapor on a highly microporous coconut-shell-derived carbon and a mesoporous wood-derived carbon was studied. These carbons were chosen as they had markedly different porous structures. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of water vapor on the activated carbons were investigated over the relative pressure range p/p{degree} = 0--0.9 for temperatures in the range 285--313 K in a static water vapor system. The adsorption isotherms were analyzed using the Dubinin-Serpinski equation, and this provided an assessment of the polarity of the carbons. The kinetics of water vapor adsorption and desorption were studied with different amounts of preadsorbed water for set changes in pressure relative to the saturated vapor pressure (p/p{degree}). The adsorption kinetics for each relative pressure step were compared and used to calculate the activation energies for the vapor pressure increments. The kinetic results are discussed in relation to their relative position on the equilibrium isotherm and the adsorption mechanism of water vapor on activated carbons.

  6. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  7. Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

    2014-12-09

    We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

  8. Hydrogen isotope recovery using a cathode water vapor feed PEM electrolyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E. B.; Greenway, S. D.; Ekechukwu, A. A. [Savannah River National Laboratory: 999-2W, Aiken, SC 29208 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    A critical component of tritium glovebox operations is the recovery of high value tritium from the water vapor in the glove box atmosphere. One proposed method to improve existing tritium recovery systems is to replace the disposable hot magnesium beds used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen in water with continuous use Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMEs). This study examines radiation exposure to the membrane of a PEME and examines the sizing difference that would be needed if the electrolyzer were operated with a cathode water vapor feed instead of an anode liquid water feed. (authors)

  9. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  10. Temperature and Water Vapor Variance Scaling in Global Models: Comparisons to Satellite and Aircraft Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are compared to those generated by state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction controlling cloud processes at the subgrid scale in NWP and climate models (Cusack et al. 1999; Tompkins 2002Temperature and Water Vapor Variance Scaling in Global Models: Comparisons to Satellite

  11. Detection of water vapor in the terrestrial planet forming region of a transition disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salyk, Colette; Richter, Matthew J; Zhang, Ke; Blake, Geoffrey A; Pontoppidan, Klaus M

    2015-01-01

    We report a detection of water vapor in the protoplanetary disk around DoAr 44 with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph --- a visitor instrument on the Gemini north telescope. The DoAr 44 disk consists of an optically thick inner ring and outer disk, separated by a dust-cleared 36 AU gap, and has therefore been termed "pre-transitional". To date, this is the only disk with a large inner gap known to harbor detectable quantities of warm (T=450 K) water vapor. In this work, we detect and spectrally resolve three mid-infrared pure rotational emission lines of water vapor from this source, and use the shapes of the emission lines to constrain the location of the water vapor. We find that the emission originates near 0.3 AU --- the inner disk region. This characteristic region coincides with that inferred for both optically thick and thin thermal infrared dust emission, as well as rovibrational CO emission. The presence of water in the dust-depleted region implies substantial columns of hydrogen (>10^{22}...

  12. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  13. A meta-analysis of water vapor deuterium-excess in the midlatitude atmospheric surface layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    are in natural ecosystems, a forest (Borden Forest, Ontario, Canada) and a grassland (Duolun, China). We found.1029/2011GB004246. 1. Introduction [2] Water vapor is the most important atmospheric greenhouse gas and temporal variability in the isotopic composition of water in the air and also on the land surface (i

  14. Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

  15. Measurement of Water Vapor Concentration using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Alexander B.

    2010-07-14

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert relation has been used to measure the absorption of water vapor both in an absorption cell and in a shock tube. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a laser diagnostic capable of determining...

  16. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band GALINA WIND,*,1 spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower

  17. Water vapor on supergiants. The 12 micron TEXES spectra of mu Cephei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ryde; M. J. Richter; G. M. Harper; K. Eriksson; D. L. Lambert

    2006-03-15

    Several recent papers have argued for warm, semi-detached, molecular layers surrounding red giant and supergiant stars, a concept known as a MOLsphere. Spectroscopic and interferometric analyses have often corroborated this general picture. Here, we present high-resolution spectroscopic data of pure rotational lines of water vapor at 12 microns for the supergiant mu Cephei. This star has often been used to test the concept of molecular layers around supergiants. Given the prediction of an isothermal, optically thick water-vapor layer in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium around the star (MOLsphere), we expected the 12 micron lines to be in emission or at least in absorption but filled in by emission from the molecular layer around the star. Our data, however, show the contrary; we find definite absorption. Thus, our data do not easily fit into the suggested isothermal MOLsphere scenario. The 12 micron lines, therefore, put new, strong constraints on the MOLsphere concept and on the nature of water seen in signatures across the spectra of early M supergiants. We also find that the absorption is even stronger than that calculated from a standard, spherically symmetric model photosphere without any surrounding layers. A cool model photosphere, representing cool outer layers is, however, able to reproduce the lines, but this model does not account for water vapor emission at 6 microns. Thus, a unified model for water vapor on mu Cephei appears to be lacking. It does seem necessary to model the underlying photospheres of these supergiants in their whole complexity. The strong water vapor lines clearly reveal inadequacies of classical model atmospheres.

  18. THE TOWER, REFLECTED IN THE TOWER GARDEN PONDS THE GENERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE TOWER, REFLECTED IN THE TOWER GARDEN PONDS THE GENERAL UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS INFORMATION O Box 7216, Austin TX 78713- 7216. Cover: The Tower, reflected in one of the Tower Garden ponds

  19. Wireless Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

  20. Albritton Bell Tower - 8 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-03-24

    to preventing future formation and further propagation. This study examines a currently existing structure known as the Watt’s Towers, or The Towers of Simon Rodia which exhibits extensive cracking. The effects of thermal cycles, both daily and annual...

  1. A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-12-20

    Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

  2. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  3. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  4. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  5. In-Reactor Oxidation of Zircaloy-4 Under Low Water Vapor Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330° and 370°C). Data from these tests will be used to support fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr-4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex- reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  6. In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin K.; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 ºC). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  7. Albritton Bell Tower - 38 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-01-01

    TOWER PERFORMANCE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS, CHEMICAL PLANTS, AND POWER PLANTS ALL HAVE A RESOURCE QUIETLY AWAITING EXPLOITATION - COLD WATER!! ROBERT BURGER President Burger and Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas Cooling towers, because... of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system. While engineers are pretty...

  8. Albritton Bell Tower - 43 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane

    2006-03-24

    SAVINGS ROUTE MATT SMITH President L.S. Enterprises 9801 West Bahia Vista Fort Myers, ABSTRACT In most operations, cooling towers are not purposely overlooked by Plant Personnel. However, the lack of knowledge about their importance prevents... energy managers from making intelligent, informed decisions. This paper will compare the various types of cooling towers in use. Their operational and energy usage considerations will be discussed with old and new techniques explained. Cooling towers...

  9. Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer and Diode Laser Hygrometer on the NASA DC-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, P. B.; Podolske, James R.; Redemann, Jens; Diskin, G. S.

    2008-10-29

    In January-February 2003 the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer 30 (AATS) and the NASA Langley/Ames Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) were flown on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. AATS measured column water vapor on the aircraft-to-sun path, while DLH measured local water vapor in the free stream between the aircraft fuselage and an outboard engine cowling. The AATS and DLH measurements were compared for two DC-8 vertical profiles by differentiating the AATS column measurement and/or integrating the DLH local measurement over the altitude range of each profile (7.7-10 km and 1.2-12.5 km). These comparisons extend, for the first time, tests of AATS water vapor retrievals to altitudes >~6 km and column contents <0.1 g cm-2. To our knowledge this is the first time suborbital spectroscopic water vapor measurements using the 940-nm band have been tested in conditions so high and dry. For both profiles layer water vapor (LWV) from AATS and DLH were highly correlated, with r2 0.998, rms difference 7.2% and bias (AATS minus DLH) 0.9%. For water vapor densities AATS and DLH had r2 0.968, rms difference 27.6%, and bias (AATS minus DLH) -4.2%. These results compare favorably with previous comparisons of AATS water vapor to in situ results for altitudes <~6 km, columns ~0.1 to 5 g cm-2 and densities ~0.1 to 17 g m-3.

  10. Solar power tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar power tower section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  11. Wind tower service lift

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  12. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  14. Oxidation of zirconium alloys in 2.5 kPa water vapor for tritium readiness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-11-01

    A more reactive liner material is needed for use as liner and cruciform material in tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBAR) in commercial light water nuclear reactors (CLWR). The function of these components is to convert any water that is released from the Li-6 enriched lithium aluminate breeder material to oxide and hydrogen that can be gettered, thus minimizing the permeation of tritium into the reactor coolant. Fourteen zirconium alloys were exposed to 2.5 kPa water vapor in a helium stream at 300 C over a period of up to 35 days. Experimental alloys with aluminum, yttrium, vanadium, titanium, and scandium, some of which also included ternaries with nickel, were included along with a high nitrogen impurity alloy and the commercial alloy Zircaloy-2. They displayed a reactivity range of almost 500, with Zircaloy-2 being the least reactive.

  15. Diode laser spectroscopic measurements and theoretical calculations of line parameters of nitrogen broadened water vapor overtone transitions in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamache, Robert R.

    Diode laser spectroscopic measurements and theoretical calculations of line parameters of nitrogen region are measured by using a tunable diode laser spectrometer. Water vapor is kept at its saturated. in the presence of perturbers like oxygen, nitrogen, air, argon etc [11-13]. 3 #12;FTIR and diode laser

  16. Retrieval of Moisture from Simulated GPS Slant-Path Water Vapor Observations Using 3DVAR with Anisotropic Recursive Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Retrieval of Moisture from Simulated GPS Slant-Path Water Vapor Observations Using 3DVAR with Anisotropic Recursive Filters HAIXIA LIU AND MING XUE Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, and School) ABSTRACT Anisotropic recursive filters are implemented within a three-dimensional variational data

  17. Nature of the Mesoscale Boundary Layer Height and Water Vapor Variability Observed 14 June 2002 during the IHOP_2002 Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nature of the Mesoscale Boundary Layer Height and Water Vapor Variability Observed 14 June 2002, Boulder, Colorado (Manuscript received 4 September 2007, in final form 23 June 2008) ABSTRACT Mesoscale at the mesoscale, with the spatial pattern and the magnitude of the variability changing from day to day. On 14

  18. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during to within 0.004­0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/ sky radiometer located on Cabras Dynamics: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS: PRIDE, airborne Sun photometer, aerosol optical depth, columnar water

  19. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured radiation was associated with the concurrent changes measured in specific humidity; the remaining quarter was associated with increases in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic radiatively active

  20. A new photocatalytic material was synthesized to investigate its performance for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of water vapor (H2O) to valuable products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of water vapor (H2O) to valuable products such as carbon monoxide-TiO2 nano-composite for the reduction of carbon dioxide in the presence of water vapor

  1. Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, M.

    1991-01-01

    Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

  2. Water vapor in the spectrum of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. II. The eclipse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouzet, Nicolas; McCullough, Peter R.; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-11-10

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are crucial to infer the composition and properties of their atmospheres. HD 189733b is one of the most extensively studied exoplanets and is a cornerstone for hot Jupiter models. In this paper, we report the dayside emission spectrum of HD 189733b in the wavelength range 1.1-1.7 ?m obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in spatial scan mode. The quality of the data is such that even a straightforward analysis yields a high-precision Poisson noise-limited spectrum: the median 1? uncertainty is 57 ppm per 0.02 ?m bin. We also build a white-light curve correcting for systematic effects and derive an absolute eclipse depth of 96 ± 39 ppm. The resulting spectrum shows marginal evidence for water vapor absorption, but can also be well explained by a blackbody spectrum. However, the combination of these WFC3 data with previous Spitzer photometric observations is best explained by a dayside atmosphere of HD 189733b with no thermal inversion and a nearly solar or subsolar H{sub 2}O abundance in a cloud-free atmosphere. Alternatively, this apparent subsolar abundance may be the result of clouds or hazes that future studies need to investigate.

  3. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1983-01-01

    Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating ...

  4. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  5. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  6. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  7. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  8. The Determination of the Water Vapor Content in the Pulkovo VKM-100 Multipass Vacuum Cell Using Polymer Sensors of Humidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Nikanorova, I N; Sal'nikov, I B; Leiterer, U; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Dauß, D

    2010-01-01

    In spectral studies of water vapor under laboratory conditions (determination of molecular constants, measurement for spectral transmission functions), the amount of water vapor in the time of the measurements is one of the most essential parameters, which should be determined accurately. We discuss the application for this purpose of polymer sensors of humidity manufactured by Praktik-NC (Moscow) and used in the Pulkovo VKM-100 multipass vacuum cell. These sensors were examined in the laboratory of Lindenberg Meteorological observatory (Germany) by comparison between their readings and those of standard measuring devices for various values of relative humidity, pressure, and temperature. We also carried out measurements of relative humidity in boxes with saline solution, in which the relative humidity that corresponds to a given solution is guaranteed with the accuracy of several tenths of percent. The analysis of the results of the laboratory examination of the sensors and extended sets of measurements made...

  9. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  11. Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1998-01-01

    and procedures to upgrade the large industrial cross-flow cooling towers to increase their performance, or to overcome poor operational deficiencies. One of the earlier methods was to introduce slabs of highl)(. .efficient counter-flow celIular filI packs...

  12. Albritton Bell Tower - 7 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-03-24

    A cooling tower is often an overlooked source of easy energy savings. As long as it's running not much thought is usually given to it, but when numbers are applied to how much a degree of colder water is worth it can become a valuable and ready...

  13. The Laboratory Complex for the Calibration of Photometers Using the Optical Method for Determination of the Water Vapor Content in the Earth Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Nikanorova, I N; Leiterer, U; Niebert, T; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Ilyin, G N; Pakhomov, V P

    2010-01-01

    We describe the laboratory complex for the calibration of photometers that are used in weather service to measure the water vapor content in the Earth atmosphere. The complex was built up in Pulkovo Observatory and developed within the framework of collaboration between Pulkovo Observatory and Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory (Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg - Richard-A{\\ss}mann-Observatorium, Lindenberg, Germany). It is used to obtain calibration dependences for individual devices, and also to develop and compare various methods of construction of calibration dependences. These techniques are based on direct calibration of the photometers, on the use of spectral laboratory transmission functions for water vapor, on calculation methods using spectroscopical databases for individual lines. We hope that when the parameters of the equipment are taken into account in detail and new results for the absorptive power of water vapor are used, the accuracy of determination of the water vapor content in ...

  14. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ ...

  15. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  16. How to Build a Tower

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explain: The purpose of a tower and BPA's role in designing and building them. Show picturesschematics. Distribute materials to each team. Instruct the teams to work together to...

  17. Correlation between water-vapor transport from the Gulf of Mexico and precipitation in the eastern United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, John Vinson

    1973-01-01

    CORRELATION BETWEEN WATER-V'POR TRANSPORT FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO AND PR CIPITATION IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES A Thesis John Vinson Wright, Jr. Subiaitted to the Gw. . duate College ot Texas A&M University in parti ' fulfillment... of the reourres, ent for the degre oi MASTER OF SCIENCE May 197B Ma]or Sub]ect: Meteorology CORRELATION BETWEEN WATER-VAPOR TRANSPORT FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO AND PRECIPITATION IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATFS A Thesis by John Vinson Wright, Jr. Approved ac...

  18. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  19. Tower at University of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    2011-08-29

    Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling-tower...

  20. Effect of Water Vapor on the 1100oC Oxidation Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed TBCs with HVOF NiCoCrAlX Bond Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, James A; Unocic, Kinga A; Pint, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    With the goal of investigating the reported detrimental effect of water vapor on thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance, furnace cycle experiments were conducted in dry O2 and air with 10 and 50% water vapor at 1100 C. The TBC systems evaluated were air plasma-sprayed (APS), yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF)-deposited NiCoCrAlY or NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating. Average TBC lifetime was reduced by ~30% in air with 10% water vapor compared to cycling in dry O2, using 1h cycle durations. Superalloy substrates with Y and La additions also were investigated but showed no statistical change in the average TBC lifetime compared to the base CMSX4 superalloy. In all cases, the bond coating with Hf and Si additions increased YSZ lifetime by 20% or more. Experiments that increased water vapor to 50% showed no further decrease in TBC lifetime. Increasing the cycle frequency to 100h resulted in a large increase in TBC lifetime, especially for the NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings. Co-doping the NiCoCrAl bond coat with Y and Hf was beneficial to TBC lifetime, but did not mitigate the detrimental impact of water vapor.

  1. Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

  2. Analysis of the Application of the Optical Method to the Measurements of the Water Vapor Content in the Atmosphere. I. Basic Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Alekseeva, G A; Berger, F -H; Leiterer, U; Naebert, T; Nikanorova, I N; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P; Sal'nikov, I B

    2010-01-01

    We retrieved the total content of the atmospheric water vapor from extensive sets of photometric data obtained since 1995 at Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory with star and sun photometers. Different methods of determination of the empirical parameters that are necessary for the retrieval are discussed. The instruments were independently calibrated using laboratory measurements made at Pulkovo Observatory with the VKM-100 multi-pass vacuum cell. The empirical parameters were also calculated by the simulation of the atmospheric absorption by water vapor, using the MODRAN-4 program package for different model atmospheres. The results are compared to those presented in the literature, obtained with different instruments and methods of the retrieval. The accuracy of the empirical parameters used for the power approximation that links the water vapor content with the observed absorption is analyzed. Currently, the calibration and measurement errors yield the uncertainty of about 10% in the total column water v...

  3. Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

    2012-01-01

    The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

  4. Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1980-01-01

    Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water...

  5. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  6. Column closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-Asia using airborne Sun photometer and airborne in situ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun photometer and airborne in situ and ship-based lidar measurements B. Schmid,1 D. A. Hegg,2 J. Wang (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne Sun photometry agreement with airborne Sun photometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers

  7. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enabled Wind Tower Systems to develop the Space Frame tower, a new concept for wind turbine towers. Instead of a solid steel tube, the Space Frame tower consists of a highly...

  8. Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turpish, W.

    2013-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-13-05-08.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7120 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-13-05-08.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Cooling Towers... in Process Applications Improving Process Cooling Tower Efficiency By: William (Bill) Turpish, PE, CEM, PEM, CEA W J Turpish and Associates, PC Shelby, North Carolina Rev 1.10 ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy...

  9. Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, W.

    1982-01-01

    tower pump suction basin was accomplished by diving into the basin using SCUBA gear. It was possible to see a build-up of debris on the pump suction basket strainers and on the floor of the sumps. Also, it was discovered that one of the four baskets had...

  10. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility009 ARM Orientation454063Value-AddedARM

  11. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow,ProductstoacessProductsrlprofrlprofmerge1turnPlainsVisiting the SGPWater

  12. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02)ManagementWatchingWater Tanks(Technical3

  13. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Alfred [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Parker, Matthew J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  14. Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Multi-objective optimization of solar tower power plants Pascal Richter Center for Computational · Optimization of solar tower power plants 1/20 #12;Introduction ­ Solar tower power plants Solar tower PS10 (11 MW) in Andalusia, Spain · Solar tower with receiver · Heliostat field with self-aligning mirrors

  15. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  16. Untapped Energy Savings from Cooling Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps Jr., P.

    2011-01-01

    on the above number. We had a customer who ran their fans at 150 HP instead of their design 200 HP because their gear boxes failed rapidly at the higher horsepower. They weren?t losing fan operation since the gear boxes weren?t failing, but what... cooling tower?s performance is also measured referred to in percentages. A performance test will show if a tower is operating at 100% or something above or below that. A tower that is operating at 100% means it can cool 100% of its design flow...

  17. Sandia Energy - Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Towers for Utilities Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) National Solar Thermal Test Facility Central Receiver...

  18. Wind Turbine Towers for Greater Hub Heights Why higher wind turbine tower can contribute to increase energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    towers represent 26% of the total WTG (Wind Turbine Generator) cost #12;Why concrete towerWind Turbine Towers for Greater Hub Heights Why higher wind turbine tower can contribute to increase energy output? · Energy output is proportional to the cube of wind velocity, 100m towers (versus

  19. Pueblo Towers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report Url JumpTechnology JumpPrueba 1 JumpDistrict No 1 JumpTowers

  20. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fingersh, Lee Jay (Westminster, CO)

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  1. Cooling tower environmental considerations for cogeneration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, K.L.; Putnam, R.A.; Schott, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Careful consideration must be given to the potential environmental impacts resulting from cooling tower operations in cogeneration projects. Concerns include visible plumes, fogging and icing of nearby roadways, emissions, water use, aesthetics, and noise. These issues must be properly addressed in order to gain public acceptance and allow for easier permitting of the facility. This paper discusses the various evaporative type cooling tower technologies from an environmental standpoint. In addition, typical concerns and questions raised by the public are presented, along with suggested guidelines for addressing these concerns. The use of modeling to predict the potential environmental impacts from cooling tower operations is sometimes required by regulatory agencies as a condition for obtaining approval for the facility. This paper discusses two of the models that are currently available for predicting cooling tower environmental impacts such as fogging, icing, salt deposition, and visible plumes. The lack of standardized models for cooling tower noise predictions, and the means by which the modeling requirements may be achieved are also addressed. An overview of the characteristics of cooling tower noise, the various measures used for noise control and the interdependency of the control measures and other cooling tower performance parameters are presented. Guidance is provided to design cost effective, low noise installations. The requirements for cooling tower impact assessments to support permitting of a cogeneration facility are also presented.

  2. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Case study that...

  3. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint 34851.pdf More Documents &...

  4. Optimal sequencing of a cooling tower with multiple cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Liu, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the energy savings potential of multi-cell cooling tower optimal sequencing control methods. Annual tower fan energy usage is calculated for a counter-flow tower with multiple variable-speed fans. Effectiveness-NTU tower model...

  5. On thermal performance of seawater cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharqawy, Mostafa H.

    Seawater cooling towers have been used since the 1970s in power generation and other industries, so as to reduce the consumption of freshwater. The salts in seawater are known to create a number of operational problems, ...

  6. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  7. Projective preservation : reframing Rudolph's Tower for Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    By 2012, the fate of Paul Rudolph's tower in downtown Boston has been in question for years while a vision of a denser city calls for its demolition. Projected development on the site currently argues that to move forward, ...

  8. Cooling Tower Considerations for Energy Optimizations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy conservation strategies and production economies involve more than examining the cooling tower fan consumption of horse power. Colder water provides vast potentials for savings. Ask yourself, "What is the dollar and energy utilization value...

  9. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J.

    1991-01-01

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

  10. Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1987-01-01

    -effective rapid dollar return for cooling tower upgrading expenditures. Whether it be heat rejection from compressors, electric motor, or chemical . process equipment, the cost of "hotter" cooling water is expensive in requiring additional energy to run... elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Hard before and after statistics of costs and profits...

  11. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study that summarizes the Wind Tower Systems and its Space Frame tower. Describes their new wind tower design and explains how DOE funding made this possible.

  12. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  13. Detection of Far-Infrared Water Vapor, Hydroxyl, and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. Reach; Jeonghee Rho

    1998-09-01

    We report the detection of shock-excited far-infrared emission of H2O, OH, and CO from the supernova remnant 3C 391, using the ISO Long-Wavelength Spectrometer. This is the first detection of thermal H2O and OH emission from a supernova remnant. For two other remnants, W~28 and W~44, CO emission was detected but OH was only detected in absorption. The observed H2O and OH emission lines arise from levels within ~400 K of the ground state, consistent with collisional excitation in warm, dense gas created after the passage of the shock front through the dense clumps in the pre-shock cloud. The post-shock gas we observe has a density ~2x10^5 cm^{-3} and temperature 100-1000 K, and the relative abundances of CO:OH:H2O in the emitting region are 100:1:7 for a temperature of 200 K. The presence of a significant column of warm H2O suggests that the chemistry has been significantly changed by the shock. The existence of significant column densities of both OH and H2O, which is at odds with models for non-dissociative shocks into dense gas, could be due to photodissociation of H2O or a mix of fast and slow shocks through regions with different pre-shock density.

  14. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  15. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Case study that...

  16. Digital places : rethinking urban elements : the case of the tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gichuhi, Christopher M. (Christopher Mwethera), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Problem - How can we make working, living and all aspects of our life in the urban tower more palatable? How can we create environment at the urban tower scale. With technology as one of the biggest drivers of social and ...

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Padding Tower for Air Dehumidifier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, G.; An, S.

    2006-01-01

    of the liquid desiccant air conditioning. Of these design parameters, the framework of the padding tower, ratio of the air and the concentration of the inlet solution is largest through the tower, the temperature and effects of the dehumidifying capability...

  18. Boise Air Traffic Control Tower: High Performance and sustainable Building Guiding Principles Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Goel, Supriya; Henderson, Jordan W.

    2013-09-01

    Overview of energy efficiency opportunities for new FAA tower construction using the Boise Air Traffic Control Tower as an example.

  19. New North Dakota Factory to Produce Wind Towers, Jobs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind tower factory could bring back some of the jobs lost when a machine manufacturing plant closed.

  20. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies Preservative Spray Treatment Maintains Cooling Tower 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reidenback, R.

    1991-01-01

    Several problems common to most industrial wood framed cooling towers can be easily controlled with annual preservative spray treatment applications to the plenum area framework and drift eliminators. It eliminates the expensive periodic repairs due...

  1. THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH APPLETON TOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    by vehicle can access APPLETON TOWER via Chapel Street - turning right into Windmill Street. The larger and 80yards from Windmill Street, if heading North and South respectively Location This building;Parking VEHICLE and WHEELCHAIR ACCESS ROUTE PEDSTRIAN ACCESS GEORGE SQUARE WINDMILL STREET CRICHTON ST

  2. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  3. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  4. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  5. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAllister, Jr., John E. (Aiken, SC)

    1985-01-01

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  6. No Chemical, Zero Bleed Cooling Tower Water Treatment Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coke, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    BLEED COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT PROCESS ALDEN L. COKE, CWS IV, PRESIDENT, AQUA-FLO, INC., BALTIMORE, MARYLAND ABSTRACT This paper describes a process to treat cooling tower water by means of a fully automated and chemical free mechanical water... treatment process. This is an alternative to conventional chemical treatment. Beginning with a suction pump to draw water out of the tower sump, water goes through a permanent magnetic descaler to increase the water solubility and begin the scale...

  7. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  8. Armor Tower Inc. Notification of Intent to Investigate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and circumstances associated with the meteorological tower electrical shock event at Brookhaven National Laboratory on November 12, 2014. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  9. Project Profile: CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This project addresses key technical hurdles for an optimized CSP central tower hybrid gas turbine system to increase energy conversion efficiency to greater than 50%, greatly...

  10. Comparative evaluation of cooling tower drift eliminator performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Joseph Kwok-Kwong

    The performance of standard industrial evaporative cooling tower drift eliminators is analyzed using experiments and numerical simulations. The experiments measure the

  11. A' Brief. History of the Tower Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equipment and Material Used for Experiments Waste Generation and Disposal Future #12;TOK?ZR SHIELDING Nuclear Propulsion Project 0 Requirements: Research in region free from ground and structure scattering COPPER RIDGE #12;#12;SERMT LINES - TOWER 4lWANGE4lENT SEE FIG. 6 GUY trerts Two-`4-h.&.TYf? 6+1.-41 w

  12. Tower, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergy Facilities Biomass Facility Jump to:TowTower,

  13. GreenTower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County, Georgia:Oregon:Corp JumpGreen2VGreenTech Jump to:GreenTower

  14. Composite Tower Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower Ventures JumpCommercial Jump to:Technology Corporation Jump to:Tower

  15. Sandia Energy - Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNewPhotoionizationPower Towers for Utilities

  16. PS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    area equivalent of 17 American Football Tower Solar receiver 4 vertical panels 18ft*39ft Steam turbine the solar energy to the grid in 2007 Operating cash flow 1.4 millions in 2007.Operating cash flow 1PS10 Solar Power Tower Xi Jing, Fang #12;Overview Magnitudes , Cost & TechnologiesMagnitudes , Cost

  17. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

    2012-08-07

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  18. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  19. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David D.

    2003-06-01

    A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance observations. The theoretical basis is that the absorption coefficient of ice is stronger than that of liquid water from 10-13 mm, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16-25 um. However, due to strong absorption in the rotational water vapor absorption band, the 16-25 um spectral region becomes opaque for significant water vapor burdens (i.e., for precipitable water vapor amounts over approximately 1 cm). The Arctic is characterized by its dry and cold atmosphere, as well as a preponderance of mixed-phase clouds, and thus this approach is applicable to Arctic clouds. Since this approach uses infrared observations, cloud properties are retrieved at night and during the long polar wintertime period. The analysis of the cloud properties retrieved during a 7 month period during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment demonstrates many interesting features. These results show a dependence of the optical depth on cloud phase, differences in the mode radius of the water droplets in liquid-only and mid-phase clouds, a lack of temperature dependence in the ice fraction for temperatures above 240 K, seasonal trends in the optical depth with the clouds being thinner in winter and becoming more optically thick in the late spring, and a seasonal trend in the effective size of the water droplets in liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds that is most likely related to aerosol concentration.

  20. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  1. Introducing an Online Cooling Tower Performance Analysis Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.; Rao, P.

    2012-01-01

    and variable nature of all of the factors that can influence performance; fan speed, wind speed, sump temperature, heat load, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc. This can be overwhelming for a regular operator resulting in many cooling towers being set...

  2. Multi-objective optimization of solar tower heliostat fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    on a tower-mounted receiver, see Fig. 1. The collector system uses hundreds or thousands of sun into account topography, tracking errors, and the position and intensity of the sun. An approach is introduced

  3. Cooling Tower Energy Conservation Through Hydraulic Fan Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Many companies offer gearboxes, shafts, and couplings for cooling tower fan drives, with little or no innovation. These companies have traditionally been purchased with an emphasis on cost and not "Return on Investment!" In the past, when energy...

  4. How did the WTC towers collapse: a new theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usmani, Asif; Chung, Y. C.; Torero, Jose L

    This paper uses a finite element model to investigate the stability of the Twin-Towers of the World Trade Center, New York for a number of different fire scenarios. This investigation does not take into account the ...

  5. A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    to evaluate its response; moreover, a subprogram can evaluate pressure drop and motor/fan characteristics. Determination of the energy required to operate the tower enables its performance to be compared against energy-saving operations such as variable speed...

  6. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  7. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-05-07

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports.

  8. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law , Christoph K. Thomas

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

  9. A study of a cooling tower with variable packing heights 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, A. M. M. Farid

    1957-01-01

    and Electronic Relay 17 6. 7 ~ 8. View of the Instrument Panel Racking Arrangement Spacer and Packing Types 23 23 10. Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Ratio for Rectangular Packing 35 Effect of Tower Height on Range/Approach Rptio for Circular... - round type packing 33 VI. Average results ? triangular packing with vertex up 34 SYMBOLS ALUB ABB?', 'VIATIO&IS mass air flow rate, pounds per (hour)(unit ground area) h" ent'halpy of saturated ai- at water temperature, Btu per pound of dry air. ha...

  10. Cooling of hot gases by use of a spray tower 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pendleton, Elmer Lee

    1958-01-01

    , These included a sprayhead, number 5B Sprayco, which was located either at the top of the tower (A) or at a position four feet lower in the tower (B), a hot air inlet duct (C), an air outlet duct (D), a multiport gas burner (E), a ceramic checkerwork (F.... ?ne corresnonding m?ss w?s dote?- rrnrei) n-; use ? f su ~ table scales, . ni balances. Thc spec? f? cat iona I' or :j i'- ei' 'one. ? !'. )nws: ? ncp, a! i ' sty . ? i at?i. 'Fl. ? t"nr v: . , c ie. , " F. nu=rc. ured cy Can, " c? 0?ubdzv...

  11. Ilchmann, Achim; Pahl, M. : Adaptive Multivariable pH Regulation of a Biogas Tower Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilchmann, Achim

    Ilchmann, Achim; Pahl, M. : Adaptive Multivariable pH Regulation of a Biogas Tower Reactor Zuerst. The adaptive controller was successlullytesteclover il pcriod of tu'o nonths at a biogas tower reuetoriu pilot are not applicable to the biogas tower reüctor.since a dontinatingf-eatureof the new reactol' prir-rciplc-is its

  12. Water Poster Competition Place: Rudder Tower Exhibit Hall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Poster Competition Place: Rudder Tower Exhibit Hall Time: 9:00am to 4:00pm (judging from 2pm to 4pm) Click here to register. "Let's Talk About Water" and Movie Event Movie: "Last Call at the Oasis WMHS Program News C. Prakash Khedun Water is vital for life. Life form, as we know, would not have

  13. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  14. Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger heat exchangers was demonstrated to illustrate an energy efficient cooling capability. This unique. A model of the heat exchangers' performance was developed and used with an industry standard energy

  15. User's manual: cooling-tower-plume prediction code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policastro, A.J.; Coke, L.; Wastag, M.

    1984-04-01

    This report presents the theory and user's guide to a mathematical model for the prediction of the seasonal/annual physical impacts of cooling tower plumes, drift, fogging, icing, and shadowing. The model is aimed at providing predictions that may be used in the licensing of power plants with cooling towers. The submodels for these physical impacts provide improvements in theory and performance compared to existing methods. Validation with field and laboratory data has been done in all situations where good quality data exist. The seasonal/annual methodology employs a new technique which reduces the available meteorological record at a site to approximately 30 to 100 categories. The plume submodels are then run once for a representative of each category and results are summed up to provide predictions for a season or the year. The model allows the treatment of any number of identical natural- or mechanical-draft cooling towers in any geometrical orientation. The model is easy to use and requires a minimal amount of user input. It is set up to run with a TDF-14 or CD-144 ground level meteorological tape or standard NRC meteorological tape. The model encompasses four computer codes in which the output of one is the input to the next. In this way, intermediate output that may be informative is saved and may be examined. The use of a sequence of four codes permits more flexibility to the user allowing him the opportunity to better define the type and scale of printed output he wishes. The model is applied in two case studies, one for a site with three nearly colinear natural-draft cooling towers, and the other for a site with two linear mechanical-draft cooling towers oriented parallel to each other. Input and output to the codes are presented and described.

  16. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  17. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Guangzhou West Tower Façade System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Q.; Zhang, L.

    2006-01-01

    /m 2·K? 2.35 1.5 Aluminium connect structure Aluminium connect structure Aluminium connect structure U-value of Roof?W/m 2·K? 1.55 0.9 0.88 0.88 0.88 Indoor useable area (m2) 252,000 252,000 252,000 252,000 247,000 West Tower model...

  18. Rebuilding the Tower of Babel: An introduction to freshman composition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Karen

    1978-01-01

    Rebuilding the Tower of Babel: An Introduction to Freshman Composition. (May 1978) Karen Davis, B. A. , Southwest Texas State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Forrest Dean Burt New teachers of composition need a handbook to supplement... are doing even less to help students learn how to write. A 1974 survey of five hundred colleges and universities conducted by the ADE revealed the five most often used textbooks in freshman English: The Harbrace ~Guile e Handbook, ~Writin with a ~pur ose...

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode DesigngovCampaignsSpring Single Column ModelRSPExperimentgovCampaignsWater Cycle

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode DesigngovCampaignsSpring Single Column ModelRSPExperimentgovCampaignsWater

  1. Neutrino Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Giunti; Marco Laveder

    2004-10-01

    In this review we present the main features of the current status of neutrino physics. After a review of the theory of neutrino mixing and oscillations, we discuss the current status of solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that the current data can be nicely accommodated in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. We discuss also the problem of the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale through Tritium beta-decay experiments and astrophysical observations, and the exploration of the Majorana nature of massive neutrinos through neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Finally, future prospects are briefly discussed.

  2. Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-01-01

    LBNL-58634 Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms:05CH11231. Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms:The cooling tower best practice efficiency based upon energy

  3. Power Towers of String Instantons for N=1 Vacua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralph Blumenhagen; Maximilian Schmidt-Sommerfeld

    2008-03-11

    We provide arguments for the existence of novel hereinafter called poly-instanton corrections to holomorphic couplings in four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric string compactifications. After refining quantitatively the D-brane instanton calculus for corrections to the gauge kinetic function, we explicitly apply it to the Type I toroidal orbifold defined in arXiv:0710.3080 and compare the results to the proposed heterotic S-dual model. This leads us to the intriguing conclusion that N=1 string vacua feature a power tower like proliferation of instanton corrections.

  4. Parametric study and dynamic analysis of compliant piled towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moog, Karl Heinz

    1990-01-01

    the Tower. . . . . . . . . . Vl. g Shear Force and Overturning Moment 65 GG 69 75 79 83 84 90 VII CONC'LUSIONS . F(EFERENC'ES . l 02 APPENDIX A 5IODE SHAPES 104 P a. ge APPENDIX A MODE SHAPES 104 APPENDIX B DYNAMIC RESPONSE FOR A SINGLE WAVE..., 3q, " Kgss = Gl, 5 CW, Kgss? 10 4C'W, l, p, " lr ? CIV, I, qr" ls 30 60 6C'W; 33i" Kgss = + 5l, 5 ? CW, It g 5 s 10 ? CW; pr" l, 10 10 4CW;I, 30 10 (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) In order to represent...

  5. Cooling tower plume and drift model: description and user's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E.A.

    1984-04-01

    This report documents the computer model of cooling tower plume and drift behavior developed and used at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The work was sponsored primarily by the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program. The model has been used to make estimates of environmental impact of salt deposition and vapor plumes (visibility, fogging and icing). The report briefly discusses the physical basis of the model. It provides details of the modeling concepts, model structure, and its use including a complete model listing and examples of its execution.

  6. Microsoft Word - PowerTower_work_2009.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection of Hydrates on Gas51PB-12330No. 1 ContractTower

  7. Alpine SunTower Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5All HomeAlphakat GmbH Jump to:County,Alpine SunTower

  8. Concentrating Solar Power Tower System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment ofCommercialEnergy Computers,dish/enginepower tower

  9. ON THE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY OF MAGNETIC TOWER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E. G.; Ciardi, A.; Hartigan, P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.

    2012-09-20

    Modern theoretical models of astrophysical jets combine accretion, rotation, and magnetic fields to launch and collimate supersonic flows from a central source. Near the source, magnetic field strengths must be large enough to collimate the jet requiring that the Poynting flux exceeds the kinetic energy flux. The extent to which the Poynting flux dominates kinetic energy flux at large distances from the engine distinguishes two classes of models. In magneto-centrifugal launch models, magnetic fields dominate only at scales {approx}< 100 engine radii, after which the jets become hydrodynamically dominated (HD). By contrast, in Poynting flux dominated (PFD) magnetic tower models, the field dominates even out to much larger scales. To compare the large distance propagation differences of these two paradigms, we perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations of both HD and PFD stellar jets formed via the same energy flux. We also compare how thermal energy losses and rotation of the jet base affects the stability in these jets. For the conditions described, we show that PFD and HD exhibit observationally distinguishable features: PFD jets are lighter, slower, and less stable than HD jets. Unlike HD jets, PFD jets develop current-driven instabilities that are exacerbated as cooling and rotation increase, resulting in jets that are clumpier than those in the HD limit. Our PFD jet simulations also resemble the magnetic towers that have been recently created in laboratory astrophysical jet experiments.

  10. The potential of carbonyl sulfide as a proxy for gross primary production at flux tower sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    The potential of carbonyl sulfide as a proxy for gross primary production at flux tower sites J. M August 2011; published 15 November 2011. [1] Seasonal dynamics of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS of carbonyl sulfide as a proxy for gross primary production at flux tower sites, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G04019

  11. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  12. LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation A. Pintea*, N of power produced by two bladed horizontal variable speed wind turbines. The proposed controller ensures oscillations and with the tower bending tendency. Keywords: LQG control, Wind turbines, Multi-objective control

  13. System and method for aligning heliostats of a solar power tower

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Convery, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar power tower heliostat alignment system and method that includes a solar power tower with a focal area, a plurality of heliostats that each reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower, an off-focal area location substantially close to the focal area of the solar power tower, a communication link between the off-focal area location and a misaligned heliostat, and a processor that interprets the communication between the off-focal area location and the misaligned heliostat to identify the misaligned heliostat from the plurality of heliostats and that determines a correction for the identified misaligned heliostat to realign the misaligned heliostat to reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower.

  14. Adjudication of a Contract for the Construction of the Cooling Tower Complex for the North Experimental Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1976-01-01

    Adjudication of a Contract for the Construction of the Cooling Tower Complex for the North Experimental Area

  15. September/October 2006 Out of the Ivory Tower Safety of HFCS GM plants: GM-less Pollen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    _____________________________________________________________________________ Out of the Ivory Tower Safety of HFCS GM plants: GM-less Pollen Colony Condition ­ CA/US CSBA

  16. The evolution of magnetic tower jets in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ciardi; S. V. Lebedev; A. Frank; E. G. Blackman; J. P. Chittenden; C. J. Jennings; D. J. Ampleford; S. N. Bland; S. C. Bott; J. Rapley; G. N. Hall; F. A. Suzuki-Vidal; A. Marocchino; T. Lery; C. Stehle

    2006-11-14

    The evolution of laboratory produced magnetic jets is followed numerically through three-dimensional, non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The experiments are designed to study the interaction of a purely toroidal field with an extended plasma background medium. The system is observed to evolve into a structure consisting of an approximately cylindrical magnetic cavity with an embedded magnetically confined jet on its axis. The supersonic expansion produces a shell of swept-up shocked plasma which surrounds and partially confines the magnetic tower. Currents initially flow along the walls of the cavity and in the jet but the development of current-driven instabilities leads to the disruption of the jet and a re-arrangement of the field and currents. The top of the cavity breaks-up and a well collimated, radiatively cooled, 'clumpy' jet emerges from the system.

  17. Improvement of risk estimate on wind turbine tower buckled by hurricane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jingwei

    2013-01-01

    Wind is one of the important reasonable resources. However, wind turbine towers are sure to be threatened by hurricanes. In this paper, method to estimate the number of wind turbine towers that would be buckled by hurricanes is discussed. Monte Carlo simulations show that our method is much better than the previous one. Since in our method, the probability density function of the buckling probability of a single turbine tower in a single hurricane is obtained accurately but not from one approximated expression. The result in this paper may be useful to the design and maintenance of wind farms.

  18. Optimal Cell Towers Distribution by using Spatial Mining and Geographic Information System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AL-Hamami, Alaa H

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of wireless communication is dramatically changing our life. Mobile telecommunications emerged as a technological marvel allowing for access to personal and other services, devices, computation and communication, in any place and at any time through effortless plug and play. Setting up wireless mobile networks often requires: Frequency Assignment, Communication Protocol selection, Routing schemes selection, and cells towers distributions. This research aims to optimize the cells towers distribution by using spatial mining with Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool. The distribution optimization could be done by applying the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on the image of the area which must be covered with two levels of hierarchy. The research will apply the spatial association rules technique on the second level to select the best square in the cell for placing the antenna. From that the proposal will try to minimize the number of installed towers, makes tower's location feasible, and pr...

  19. Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puckorius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    down for reuse into the cooling tower system. Several plants have been built and operated with considerable difficulty regarding effective operation of the softener due to improper chemical selection. However, other plants have utilized the proper...

  20. Exquisite corpse: a tower for the public in the era of exhausted modernity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Sungwoo

    2012-01-01

    Towers in Manhattan, especially in business areas, have historically used a single overarching system in order to visualize images of their corporate identity and immerse the public in the image of development. While using ...

  1. Plume configuration and plume recirculation/interference of the Vienna cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S.C.; Kennedy, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the laboratory model investigation reported herein was to study the behavior of the effluent plumes from the existing and proposed mechanical draft wet cooling towers at the Vienna power plant. Included in the study are plume recirculation and interference of the existing rectangular tower and the proposed round tower as well as effects on plume behavior of the power plant buildings and the coal pile. The study results can be utilized to determine the visible plume boundaries and cooling tower stack effluent concentration distributions for various meteorological and power plant operating conditions. The results can then be used to determine whether or not the plumes will cause fogging or icing on the proposed Route 50 bypass. Tests were conducted for several wind speeds and for the prevailing winter and summer wind directions.

  2. BREN Tower: A Monument to the Material Culture of Radiation Dosimetry Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Edwards

    2008-05-30

    With a height of more than 1,500 feet, the BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower dominates the surrounding desert landscape of the Nevada Test Site. Associated with the nuclear research and atmospheric testing programs carried out during the 1950s and 1960s, the tower was a vital component in a series of experiments aimed at characterizing radiation fields from nuclear detonations. Research programs conducted at the tower provided the data for the baseline dosimetry studies crucial to determining the radiation dose rates received by the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Today, BREN Tower stands as a monument to early dosimetry research and one of the legacies of the Cold War.

  3. Beyond the ivory tower : in search of a new form for campus-community relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman, Anne (Anne Renee)

    2011-01-01

    The terms "ivory tower" and "town-gown" have long been used to characterize the relationship between institutions of higher education and the communities in which they reside. While these adversarial phrases reflect the ...

  4. Economic and design analysis of daylighting a commercial tower in a hot and humid climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roscow, Robert F

    1981-01-01

    A forty story commercial office tower in Tampa, Florida was redesigned for daylighting. The methods are outlined and results illustrated, A cooling load comparison is done to determine the economic feasibility of such a ...

  5. In the Shadow of No Towers: Symphony Number Four, A Conductor's Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapp, Michael Wayne

    2013-08-31

    This document serves as an examination of Mohammed Fairouz's (b. 1986) piece, In the Shadow of No Towers: Symphony Number Four (2012). Included within this paper are sections covering: biographical information of the ...

  6. "BECAUSE SOME STORIES DO LIVE FOREVER": STEPHEN KING'S THE DARK TOWER SERIES AS MODERN ROMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurray, Rachel Elizabeth

    2012-05-31

    Stephen King's Dark Tower series is a seven-volume work that contains elements from myths, fairy tales, American westerns, legends, popular culture, Gothic literature, and medieval romance. Few scholars have engaged with this series, most likely due...

  7. Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LBNL-XXXXX Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water;included a water- side economizer. This model estimated theand without a water-side economizer and including or not

  8. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    equipment. A simple computer program was developed to simulate airflow through a wind tower based on tower dimensions and air temperature. The program was compared to experimental results with reasonable agreement. Parametric analysis indicates... of an occupied auditorium on an hour- by-hour basis using TMY2 data for Dayton, Ohio. SIMPLIFIED MODEL OF BUILDING INTERIOR AIR TEMPERATURE Assuming steady state conditions, an energy balance of major sensible heat flows into and out of a building yields...

  9. Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    PERFORMANCE OF A DRY AND WET/DRY ADVANCED COOLING TOWER CONDENSER Hans D. Fricke, David J. Webster, Kenneth McIlroy Union carbide Corporation - Linde Division, Tonawanda, New York John A. Bartz Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, california... cooling in creases siting flexibility, particularly for locations in arid Western coal fields. However, dry cooling requires considerable capital investment for the cooling towers. Hence, the development of effitient (low cost) heat transfer surfaces...

  10. Dynamic Resource Allocation with the arcControlTower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job management system (PanDA) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experienc...

  11. CHEP2015: Dynamic Resource Allocation with arcControlTower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job mangement system (Panda) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experience...

  12. Cooling tower and plume modeling for satellite remote sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, B.J.

    1995-05-01

    It is often useful in nonproliferation studies to be able to remotely estimate the power generated by a power plant. Such information is indirectly available through an examination of the power dissipated by the plant. Power dissipation is generally accomplished either by transferring the excess heat generated into the atmosphere or into bodies of water. It is the former method with which we are exclusively concerned in this report. We discuss in this report the difficulties associated with such a task. In particular, we primarily address the remote detection of the temperature associated with the condensed water plume emitted from the cooling tower. We find that the effective emissivity of the plume is of fundamental importance for this task. Having examined the dependence of the plume emissivity in several IR bands and with varying liquid water content and droplet size distributions, we conclude that the plume emissivity, and consequently the plume brightness temperature, is dependent upon not only the liquid water content and band, but also upon the droplet size distribution. Finally, we discuss models dependent upon a detailed point-by-point description of the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the plume dynamics and those based upon spatially integrated models. We describe in detail a new integral model, the LANL Plume Model, which accounts for the evolution of the droplet size distribution. Some typical results obtained from this model are discussed.

  13. 24 m meteorological tower data report period: January through December, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.; Egami, R.; Coulombe, W.; Crow, D.; Cristani, B.; Schmidt, S.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT. This report presents results of the monitoring for January--December, 1996, providing: a status of the measurement systems during the report period and a summary of the meteorological conditions at the HAZMAT during the report period. The scope of the report is limited to summary data analyses and does not include extensive meteorological analysis. The tower was instrumented at 8 levels. Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were measured at all 8 levels. Relative humidity was measured at 3 levels. Solar and net radiation were measured at 2 meters above the ground. Barometric pressure was measured at the base of the tower and soil temperature was measured near the base of the tower.

  14. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodwin, Lynne Alese [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  15. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were: 1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components. Success criteria DOE targets Wilson system LCOE DOE’s gas price $6.75/MBtu 9 cents/kWh 7.7 cents/kWh LCOE Current gas price $4.71/MBtu NA 6.9 cents/kWh Capacity factor 75% (6500hr) 75-100% Solar fraction 85% (5585hr) >5585hr Receiver cost $170/kWe $50/kWe Thermal storage cost $20/kWhth $13/kWhth Heliostat cost $120/m2 $89.8/m2

  16. Strategy for the Operation of Cooling Towers with variable Speed Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iñigo-Golfín, J

    2001-01-01

    Within the SPS Cooling Water Project at CERN aimed at the reduction of water consumption, this primary open cooling loop will be closed and all the primary cooling circuit components will be upgraded to the new required duty and brought to the necessary safety and operability standards. In particular the tower fans will be fitted with variable frequency drives to replace the existing two speed motors. This paper presents a study to optimize the operation of SPS cooling towers taking into account outdoor conditions (wet and dry bulb temperatures) and the entirety of the primary circuit in which they will operate.

  17. Concept study and validation of Antarctic telescope tower SPIE vol. 6268, Advances in Stellar Interferometry, paper 41, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    project surveyed relevant tower design approaches, then generated and evaluated six concept designs for telescope towers. Using data for typical and extreme wind at Dome C to generate wind loads, finite element analysis yielded lateral deflections at the top of 0.3 mm for typical winds and 12.1 mm for extreme gusts

  18. Cold weather operating guidelines and experience for natural draft cooling towers on the American Electric Power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michell, F.L.; Drew, D.H. [American Electric Power Service, Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    American Electric Power`s more than 30 years of experience in operating natural draft cooling towers during freezing winter weather conditions is discussed in the paper. Design features incorporated into the specifications for major rebuild/repack projects for crossflow and counterflow towers to facilitate cold weather operation are also reviewed.

  19. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., Vol. 2, Art. #8, 19 pp. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Wayne H.

    J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., Vol. 2, Art. #8, 19 pp. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers potential vorticity (PV). is structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. e sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satis es the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic

  20. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!! 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1991-01-01

    Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration...

  1. TheGoldenGateBridgeWeatherJuly2010,Vol.65,No.7 fog, but the north tower had a story to tell. It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    176 TheGoldenGateBridgeWeather­July2010,Vol.65,No.7 fog, but the north tower had a story to tell. It worked as a chimney. The fog entered and escaped through the openings of the tower, displaying iridescent colors and creating ever-changing and fast-moving fog shad- ows of the tower and the cables (Figure 2). I

  2. WATTS TOWERS: THE EFFECTS OF THERMAL CYCLES ON THE FORMATION AND BEHAVIOR OF CRACKS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Matthew T

    2013-02-06

    of cracks located at different sections on the Towers was outfitted with strain gauges, force transducers, and thermocouples to collect data on the crack width as a function of the ambient temperature. Using the Finite Element Analysis program LS-DYNA, a...

  3. Aalborg Universitet Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    @et.aau.dk, csu@et.aau.dk, zch@et.aau.dk Abstract ­ Grid connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources due and the power flow situation of the original power system especially when the integration of wind powerAalborg Universitet Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale

  4. 1 Problem Solving: How do you do it? Classic example is the Tower of Hanoi problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Reilly, Randall C.

    1 Problem Solving: How do you do it? Classic example is the Tower of Hanoi problem: Initial State state. 3 Problem Solving Heuristics Brute force search: explore entire problem space. Hill climbing away from the goal for a bit, it will eventually solve the problem. This is a problem for people too

  5. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  6. ECON 162B -A0, A1 Kenny Christianson Fall 2010 office: Library Tower 1013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    ECON 162B - A0, A1 Kenny Christianson Fall 2010 office: Library Tower 1013 lecture A0: MWF 9, the stock market, and the role of the Federal Reserve in changing interest rates; the potential for double-dip recession and the rate of growth of GDP; inflation and deflation; the national debt and growing budget

  7. Impact of environmental concerns on cooling-tower design and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensley, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    New and sometimes unexpected environmental concerns surface from time to time, and each has its special effect on the selection, pricing, and operation of cooling towers. This paper discusses the following concerns, which are either current or are becoming significant: water conservation, energy conservation, noise, drift, blowdown, visual impact, and construction materials that are environmentally sensitive. 3 refs.

  8. Experimental optimization of cooling-tower-fan control based on field data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    Energy costs continue to play an important role in the decision-making process for building design and operation. Since the chiller, cooling tower fans, and associated pumps consume the largest fraction of energy in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, the control of these components is of major importance in determining building energy use. A significant control parameter for the chilled water system is the minimum entering condenser water set point temperature at which the cooling tower fans are cycled on and off, several studies have attempted to determine the optimum value for this minimum set point temperature, but direct measurements are not available to validate these studies. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the optimum minimum entering condenser water set point temperature from field data based on minimum energy consumption and to validate a chilled water system analytical model previously developed in earlier work. The total chiller system electrical consumption (chiller and cooling tower fan energy) was measured for four entering condensor water set point temperatures (70, 75, 80, and 85 deg F). The field results were compared to results obtained using an analytical model previously developed in a thesis entitled Optimized Design of a Commercial Building Chiller/Cooling Tower System, written by Joyce.

  9. Cooling Tower Operation in the Hot and Humid Climates of Arid Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Bassam, E.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Sebzali, M.

    2000-01-01

    Air-conditioning (A/C) in Kuwait is a necessity for comfortable living as the summer is extremely hot. Dry weather for most of the summer months reflects the effectiveness of using water-cooled (WC) systems. Cooling towers (C/Ts) at a Ministry...

  10. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

  11. Mixed-mode cooling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail

    2006-01-01

    ASHRAE’s permission. Mixed-Mode Cooling Photo Credit: Paulnatural ventilation for cooling. Buildings typically had1950s of large-scale mechanical cooling, along with other

  12. Mixed Solvent Electrolyte Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With assistance from AMO, OLI Systems, Inc., developed the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, a comprehensive physical property package that can predict the properties of electrolyte systems ranging...

  13. Cooking with Trail Mix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of trail mix, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  14. Vaporization of actinide oxides in thermal treatment processes for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Krikorian, O.H.; Adamson, M.G.

    1994-10-04

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the volatilities of U, Pu, and Am in thermal treatment processes for mixed wastes. The thermodynamics of vaporization U and Pu oxides in the presence of oxygen and water vapor and of U oxide in the presence of oxygen and chlorine were studied. Experimental studies of U oxide volatilities by previous authors have also been reviewed. For species where data are unavailable estimation methods were used to obtain free energies of formation of the gaseous species, The data are applied to thermal treatment processes in general and then more specifically to conditions representative of the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Unit. (RFP FBU), molten salt oxidizer, and an incinerator. U volatilities are greatest ranging from 2.67 x 10{sup -7} gU/h in the RFP FBU to 4. 00 gU/h for typical incinerator conditions. Pu volatilities are almost 5 orders of magnitude less than U and Am volatilities are about 3 orders of magnitude less than Pu.

  15. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  16. Effects of adding wash tower effluent to Ano Liossia landfill to enhance bioreaction c by Olympia Galenianou.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galenianou, Olympia

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical study was performed on the effects of adding sulfate-rich wash tower effluent from the Athens hospital waste incinerator to the Ano Liossia landfill of Athens. The method of mass balance was used to examine ...

  17. Evidence of a Threshold Wind Speed in Tower-mounted Scatterometer Data David W. Draper and David G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    . Evidence of the threshold wind speed and a hysteresis effect have been observed in airship and wave tank in airship data [2]. YSCAT, an ultra-wideband (2-14 GHz) tower-mounted scat- terometer, provides significant

  18. Reliability Analysis of Cooling Towers: Influence of Rebars Corrosion on Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudret, Bruno [Electricite de France - EDF, Research and Development Division, Dpt of Materials and Mechanics of Components, Site des Renardieres, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France); Pendola, Maurice [PHI-MECA Engineering, 1 Allee Alan Turing, 63170 - Aubiere (France)

    2002-07-01

    Natural-draught cooling towers are used in nuclear power plants as heat exchangers. These structures are submitted to environmental loads such as wind and thermal gradients that are stochastic in nature. A probabilistic framework has been developed by EDF (Electricite de France) for assessing the durability of such structures. In this paper, the corrosion of the rebars due to concrete carbonation and the corresponding weakening of the reinforced concrete sections is considered. Due to the presence of time in the definition of the limit state function associated with the loss of serviceability of the cooling tower, time-variant reliability analysis has to be used. A novel approach is proposed to take into account the random 'initiation time', which corresponds to the time necessary for the carbonation to attain the rebars. Results are given in terms of the probability of failure of the structure over its life time. (authors)

  19. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  20. The trigger and data acquisition for the NEMO-Phase 2 tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, C.; Biagi, S.; Fusco, L. A.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M.; Chiarusi, T.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the framework of the Phase 2 of the NEMO neutrino telescope project, a tower with 32 optical modules is being operated since march 2013. A new scalable Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) has been developed and extensively tested with the data from this tower. Adopting the all-data-to-shore concept, the NEMO TriDAS is optimized to deal with a continuous data-stream from off-shore to on-shore with a large bandwidth. The TriDAS consists of four computing layers: (i) data aggregation of isochronal hits from all optical modules; (ii) data filtering by means of concurrent trigger algorithms; (iii) composition of the filtered events into post-trigger files; (iv) persistent data storage. The TriDAS implementation is reported together with a review of dedicated on-line monitoring tools.

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the construction of cooling-tower structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the construction of reinforced-concrete cooling-tower structures at LHC Point 1. Following a market survey carried out among 79 firms in 17 Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2710/ST/LHC) was sent on 13 August 1999 to eight firms and two consortia, both consisting of three firms, in eight Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received four tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract for the construction of reinforced-concrete cooling towers at LHC Point 1 with the consortium PAT (AT), BARESEL (DE) and ZSCHOKKE LOCHER (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for an amount of 3 393 493 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the supply covered by this adjudication proposal: BE-60%, AT-18%, CH-11% and DE-11%.

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the upgrade of the SPS cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the upgrade of the SPS cooling towers. Following a market survey carried out among 56 firms in sixteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2740/ST/SPS) was sent on 14 February 2000 to 10 firms in six Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders from seven firms. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with SPIG (IT), the lowest bidder, for the upgrade of the SPS cooling towers, for an amount of 1 073 757 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. SPIG has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT-73%; FI-24%; DE-3%.

  3. Thermodynamic modeling and optimization of a screw compressor chiller and cooling tower system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Rhett David

    2004-09-30

    , absorption, thermoelectric, and thermoacoustic (Gordon and Ng 1995). Chiller models have been used to predict the performance of thermal storage 6 systems (Henze et al. 1997) and whole chiller plant systems (Lau et al. 1985). Chiller models have also been... used to aid in the development of control algorithms for chiller plants (Flake et al. 1997). There have been several attempts to generate an ?optimal? operating scheme using the Whillier cooling tower model, a chiller model, or a combination of both...

  4. Workers Safely Tear Down Towers at Manhattan Project Site | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'SEnergy Safely Tear Down Towers at Manhattan Project

  5. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  6. Mixed Motives Marc Levine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Marc

    Mixed Motives Marc Levine Department of Mathematics Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115 USA marc@neu.edu Summary. This is a first version of the chapter on mixed motives for the K-Theory Handbook Paul Program and the NSF via grant DMS 0140445. #12;2 Marc Levine 4.5 Voevodsky's construction

  7. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  8. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  9. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  10. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  11. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Dimenna, R.; Tamburello, D.

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?

  12. EXAMINING THE SPECTROSCOPY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Used to prove stable flow in C.O. Data Comparison and Analysis Linear Fit Within 3% error #12 and Analysis Plot VCSEL M.R. against Standard Calibrate According to Linear Fit Use Beers Law³ and Ideal Gas Designing Components for the Circuit Insert into steel, airtight container Record Spectra Data Comparison

  13. A Satellite Survey Cloud Cover and Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the trade wind inversion. Light pollution from Tocopilla, likely to increase in the years to come, also

  14. Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yunwei

    2013-11-08

    This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to ...

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012IIIAtlantic (ACE-ENA)StudygovCampaignsArctic

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Single Frequency GPS Water Vapor Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design togovCampaignsMASRAD:govCampaignsReplicator SondegovCampaignsSingle Frequency

  17. Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctoberConsumption (MillionOther airborneandOverview of the

  18. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewingValidating extended

  19. Nearly discontinuous chaotic mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lim, Hyun K [STONYBROOK UNIV.; Yu, Yan [STONYBROOK UNIV.; Glimm, James G [STONYBROOK UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A new scientific approach is presented for a broad class of chaotic problems involving a high degree of mixing over rapid time scales. Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows are typical of such problems. Microscopic mixing properties such as chemical reaction rates for turbulent mixtures can be obtained with feasible grid resolution. The essential dependence of (some) fluid mixing observables on transport phenomena is observed. This dependence includes numerical as well as physical transport and it includes laminar as well as turbulent transport. A new approach to the mathematical theory for the underlying equations is suggested.

  20. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!! 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1990-01-01

    TOWER PERFORMANCE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS, CHEMICAL PLANTS, AND POWER PLANTS ALL HAVE A RESOURCE QUIETLY AWAITING EXPLOITATION - COLD WATER!! ROBERT BURGER President Burger and Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas Cooling towers, because... of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system. While engineers are pretty...

  1. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLANIs gravity aOverviewISM IntegratedIntegratingIntegration

  2. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Civil Engineering Work on the Extensions to the Cooling Towers at LEP Points 2, 4, 6 and 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1991-01-01

    Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Civil Engineering Work on the Extensions to the Cooling Towers at LEP Points 2, 4, 6 and 8

  3. Conceptual Design Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Tower Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Chad

    2002-07-18

    The main objective of this work was to develop a conceptual design and engineering prototype for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) tower structure. This thesis describes the conceptual design of a GLAST tower and the fabrication and testing of a prototype tower tray. The requirements were that the structure had to support GLAST's delicate silicon strip detector array through ground handling, launch and in orbit operations as well as provide for thermal and electrical pathways. From the desired function and the given launch vehicle for the spacecraft that carries the GLAST detector, an efficient structure was designed which met the requirements. This thesis developed in three stages: design, fabrication, and testing. During the first stage, a general set of specifications was used to develop the initial design, which was then analyzed and shown to meet or exceed the requirements. The second stage called for the fabrication of prototypes to prove manufacturability and gauge cost and time estimates for the total project. The last step called for testing the prototypes to show that they performed as the analysis had shown and prove that the design met the requirements. As a spacecraft engineering exercise, this project required formulating a solution based on engineering judgment, analyzing the solution using advanced engineering techniques, then proving the validity of the design and analysis by the manufacturing and testing of prototypes. The design described here met all the requirements set out by the needs of the experiment and operating concerns. This strawman design is not intended to be the complete or final design for the GLAST instrument structure, but instead examines some of the main challenges involved and demonstrates that there are solutions to them. The purpose of these tests was to prove that there are solutions to the basic mechanical, electrical and thermal problems presented with the GLAST project.

  4. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore »receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (?sel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ?sel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  5. A Single Tower Configuration of the Modular Gamma Box Counter System - 13392

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, K.; Nakazawa, D.; Francalangia, J.; Gonzalez, H.

    2013-07-01

    Canberra's Standard Gamma Box Counter System is designed to perform accurate quantitative assays of gamma emitting nuclides for a wide range of large containers including B-25 crates and ISO shipping containers. Using a modular building-block approach, the system offers tremendous flexibility for a variety of measurement situations with wide ranges of sample activities and throughput requirements, as well as the opportunity to modify the configuration for other applications at a later date. The typical configuration consists of two opposing towers each equipped with two high purity germanium detectors, and an automated container trolley. This paper presents a modified configuration, consisting of a single tower placed inside a measurement trailer with three detector assemblies, allowing for additional vertical segmentation as well as a viewing a container outside the trailer through the trailer wall. An automatic liquid nitrogen fill system is supplied for each of the detectors. The use of a forklift to move the container for horizontal segmentation is accommodated by creating an additional operational and calibration set-up in the NDA 2000 software to allow for the operator to rotate the container and assay the opposite side, achieving the same sensitivity as a comparable two-tower system. This Segmented Gamma Box Counter System retains the core technologies and design features of the standard configuration. The detector assemblies are shielded to minimize interference from environmental and plant background, and are collimated to provide segmentation of the container. The assembly positions can also be modified in height and distance from the container. The ISOCS calibration software provides for a flexible approach to providing the calibrations for a variety of measurement geometries. The NDA 2000 software provides seamless operation with the current configuration, handling the data acquisition and analysis. In this paper, an overview of this system is discussed, along with the measured performance results, calibration methodology and verification, and minimum detectable activity levels. (authors)

  6. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (?sel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ?sel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  7. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and schedule savings. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria associated with the waste processing at SRS and to quantify the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed briefly, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide the DWPF a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (typically {approx}13 wt%) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying to DWPF, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition for DWPF? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination? Grenville and Tilton (1996) investigated the mixing process by giving a pulse of tracer (electrolyte) through the submersible jet nozzle and by monitoring the conductivity at three locations within the cylindrical tank. They proposed that the mixing process was controlled by the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the region far away from the jet entrance. They took the energy dissipation rates in the regions remote from the nozzle to be proportional to jet velocity and jet diameter at that location. The reduction in the jet velocity was taken to be proportional to the nozzle velocity and distance from the nozzle. Based on their analysis, a correlation was proposed. The proposed correlation was shown to be valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (50,000 to 300,000) with a relative standard deviation of {+-} 11.83%. An improved correlat

  8. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceIIInformationEnergyReportNumber JumpConferenceCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross

  9. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceIIInformationEnergyReportNumberCoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross Jump to:

  10. From: No Towers To: Congestion Study Comments Subject: No NIETC"s

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDan O"Hagan To:JMulveny,No Towers To: Congestion

  11. Mixing by Swimming Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P; Pesci, Adriana I; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate the microscale mixing enhancement of passive tracer particles in suspensions of swimming microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These biflagellated, single-celled eukaryotes (10 micron diameter) swim with a "breaststroke" pulling motion of their flagella at speeds of about 100 microns/s and exhibit heterogeneous trajectory shapes. Fluorescent tracer particles (2 micron diameter) allowed us to quantify the enhanced mixing caused by the swimmers, which is relevant to suspension feeding and biogenic mixing. Without swimmers present, tracer particles diffuse slowly due solely to Brownian motion. As the swimmer concentration is increased, the probability density functions (PDFs) of tracer displacements develop strong exponential tails, and the Gaussian core broadens. High-speed imaging (500 Hz) of tracer-swimmer interactions demonstrates the importance of flagellar beating in creating oscillatory flows that exceed Brownian motion out to about 5 cell radii from the swimm...

  12. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  13. Interactions of gaseous HNO3 and water with individual and mixed alkyl self-assembled monolayers at room temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishino, Noriko; Hollingsworth, Scott A; Stern, Abraham C; Roeselová, Martina; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    of even small amounts of water vapor (revised Fig.  of the CI and POZ by water under tropospheric http://mechanism and the effects of water and irradiation remain 

  14. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  15. Brush Busters Mixing Guide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Ueckert, Darrell

    2004-02-05

    * To container or spray tank half filled with diesel or vegetable oil, add Remedy ? herbicide, then bring to desired volume with diesel or veg- etable oil. Mix thoroughly before using. **Remedy ? RTU can be substituted for this mixture and used directly from... Remedy ? 25% 1 qt 1.25 gal 2.5 gal *To container or spray tank half filled with diesel or vegetable oil, add Remedy ? herbicide, then bring to desired volume with diesel or vegetable oil. Mix thoroughly before using. Cedar leaf spray and prickly pear pad...

  16. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  17. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  18. Glueball-Meson Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicente Vento

    2015-05-20

    Calculations in unquenched QCD for the scalar glueball spectrum have confirmed previous results of Gluodynamics finding a glueball at ~ 1750 MeV. I analyze the implications of this discovery from the point of view of glueball-meson mixing at the light of the experimental scalar sprectrum.

  19. AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION (AMPC): UNSUPERVISED MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chein-I

    13 AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION (AMPC): UNSUPERVISED MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION The automatic mixed pixel classification (AMPC) considered in this chapter is fully computer automated and can be implemented to automatically detect and classify targets with no human intervention. Like the automatic

  20. Cosmological Kinetic Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Ashok; Pino, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the kinetic mixing idea to time reparametrization invariant theories, namely, relativistic point particles and cosmology in order to obtain new insights for dark matter and energy. In the first example, two relativistic particles interact through an appropriately chosen coupling term. It is shown that the system can be diagonalized by means of a non-local field redefinition, and, as a result of this procedure, the mass of one the particles gets rescaled. In the second case, inspired by the previous example, two cosmological models (each with its own scale factor) are made to interact in a similar fashion. The equations of motion are solved numerically in different scenarios (dust, radiation or a cosmological constant coupled to each sector of the system). When a cosmological constant term is present, kinetic mixing rescales it to a lower value which may be more amenable to observations.

  1. Cosmological Kinetic Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Das; Jorge Gamboa; Miguel Pino

    2015-06-22

    In this paper we generalize the kinetic mixing idea to time reparametrization invariant theories, namely, relativistic point particles and cosmology in order to obtain new insights for dark matter and energy. In the first example, two relativistic particles interact through an appropriately chosen coupling term. It is shown that the system can be diagonalized by means of a non-local field redefinition, and, as a result of this procedure, the mass of one the particles gets rescaled. In the second case, inspired by the previous example, two cosmological models (each with its own scale factor) are made to interact in a similar fashion. The equations of motion are solved numerically in different scenarios (dust, radiation or a cosmological constant coupled to each sector of the system). When a cosmological constant term is present, kinetic mixing rescales it to a lower value which may be more amenable to observations.

  2. A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824 USA.25 #12;RANDOM ERRORS IN ENERGY AND CO2 FLUX1 A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3 4 Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA.11 3 LI-COR Biosciences, Inc., 4421 Superior Street

  3. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor is emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel and produced photochemically from the oxidation

  4. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Ameli, F; Anghinolfi, M; Ardid, M; Barbarino, G; Barbarito, E; Barbato, F C T; Beverini, N; Biagi, S; Biagioni, A; Bouhadef, B; Bozza, C; Cacopardo, G; Calamai, M; Calí, C; Calvo, D; Capone, A; Caruso, F; Ceres, A; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Cocimano, R; Coniglione, R; Costa, M; Cuttone, G; D'Amato, C; D'Amico, A; De Bonis, G; De Luca, V; Deniskina, N; De Rosa, G; di Capua, F; Distefano, C; Enzenhöfer, A; Fermani, P; Ferrara, G; Flaminio, V; Fusco, L A; Garufi, F; Giordano, V; Gmerk, A; Grasso, R; Grella, G; Hugon, C; Imbesi, M; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Leismüller, K P; Leonora, E; Litrico, P; Alvarez, C D Llorens; Lonardo, A; Longhitano, F; Presti, D Lo; Maccioni, E; Margiotta, A; Marinelli, A; Martini, A; Masullo, R; Migliozzi, P; Migneco, E; Miraglia, A; Mollo, C M; Mongelli, M; Morganti, M; Musico, P; Musumeci, M; Nicolau, C A; Orlando, A; Orzelli, A; Papaleo, R; Pellegrino, C; Pellegriti, M G; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Pugliatti, C; Pulvirenti, S; Raffaelli, F; Randazzo, N; Real, D; Riccobene, G; Rovelli, A; Saldaña, M; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Sciacca, V; Sgura, I; Simeone, F; Sipala, V; Speziale, F; Spitaleri, A; Spurio, M; Stellacci, S M; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Trasatti, L; Trovato, A; Ventura, C; Vicini, P; Viola, S; Vivolo, D

    2015-01-01

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than one year at the "record" depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than one year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of 40K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bio...

  5. Environmental assessment of air quality, noise and cooling tower drift from the Jersey City Total Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.T.; Kolb, J.O.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment covers three specific effects from the operation of the Total Energy (TE) demonstration: (1) air quality from combustion emissions of 600 kW diesel engines and auxiliary boilers fueled with No. 2 distillate oil, (2) noise levels from TE equipment operation, (3) cooling tower drift from two, 2220 gpm, forced-draft cooling towers. For the air quality study, measurements were performed to determine both the combustion emission rates and ground-level air quality at the Demonstration site. Stack analysis of NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, CO, particulates, and total hydrocarbons characterized emission rates over a range of operating conditions. Ground-level air quality was monitored during two six-week periods during the summer and winter of 1977. The noise study was performed by measuring sound levels in db(A) in the area within approximately 60 m of the CEB. The noise survey investigated the effects on noise distribution of different wind conditions, time of day or night, and condition of doors - open or closed - near the diesel engines in the CEB. In the cooling tower study, drift emission characteristics were measured to quantify the drift emission before and after cleaning of the tower internals to reduce fallout of large drift droplets in the vicinity of the CEB.

  6. APS Forum on Education Fall 2008 Newsletter Page 22 Away from the ivory tower: Real challenges teaching high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Richard N.

    #12;APS Forum on Education Fall 2008 Newsletter Page 22 Away from the ivory tower: Real challenges teaching high school physics in an urban environment Richard Steinberg For the 2007-08 school year, I took a sabbatical and became a full time high school physics teacher in a public high

  7. The Torrioni di Rialba (Abbadia Lariana -LC, Italy) is a rock tower-like conglomerate divided by a system of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alippi, Cesare

    is a hybrid wireless-wired sensor network that inspects the insurgence of micro-cracks within the rock (mems is composed by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that measures changes in the structure of the tower of the sensor networks hence reducing the need of in-situ maintenance. All modules composing the monitoring

  8. Restoration and repair of 30-year old cooling towers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Phase I. Draft 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Early in 1980, a comprehensive reliability study was made to ascertain the ability of the present 30-year old recirculating water system to meet the anticipated load demand through the year 2000. The findings and recommendations of this study were used as a guide to schedule uprating and repairs. This paper deals with the underground distribution system and cooling tower repairs.

  9. Fuzzy Logic Application for Optimization of the Cooling Towers Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanc, D

    2000-01-01

    The control system for the SPS-BA6 cooling towers station is considered in order to introduce the concept of a multivariable process. Multivariable control means the maintenace of several controlled variables at independent set points. In a single-variable system, to keep the single process variables within their critical values is considered a rather simple operation. In a complex multivariable system, the determination of the optimal operation point results in a combination of all set values of the variables. Control of a multivariable system requires therefore a more complex analysis. As the solution based on a mathematical model of the process is far beyond acceptable complexity, most mathematical models involve extensive simplifications and linearizations to optimize the resulting controllers. In this report the author will demonstrate how fuzzy logic might provide elegant and efficient solutions in the design of multivariable control based on experimental results rather than on mathematical models.

  10. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide direction for conducting performance acceptance testing for large power tower solar systems that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The recommendations have been developed under a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract and reviewed by stakeholders representing concerned organizations and interests throughout the concentrating solar power (CSP) community. An earlier NREL report provided similar guidelines for parabolic trough systems. These Guidelines recommend certain methods, instrumentation, equipment operating requirements, and calculation methods. When tests are run in accordance with these Guidelines, we expect that the test results will yield a valid indication of the actual performance of the tested equipment. But these are only recommendations--to be carefully considered by the contractual parties involved in the Acceptance Tests--and we expect that modifications may be required to fit the particular characteristics of a specific project.

  11. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  12. Power plant site evaluation, Brandon Shores Site. Volume 3: fogging potential for revised cooling tower structures - addendum to PPSE 1-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshioka, G.A.; Davis, E.A.

    1982-08-01

    Brandon Shores Units 1 and 2, currently under construction by Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG and E), were originally to have had multi-cell rectangular banks of wet/dry cooling towers. BG and E recently proposed that the Unit 2 cooling tower design be changed to a circular configuration. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory has undertaken to analyze the potential for the Brandon Shores Unit 1 tower (with dry section eliminated) to produce fog at Fort Smallwood Road. Pessimistic assumptions have been made, and a low frequency of expected fogging on the road has been demonstrated in spite of these assumptions.

  13. Historic American engineering record. Nevada national security site, Bren Tower Complex. Written historical and descriptive data and field records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Susan R.; Goldenberg, Nancy

    2013-08-01

    The BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower Complex is significant for its role in the history of nuclear testing, radiation dosimetry studies, and early field testing of the Strategic Missile Defense System designs. At the time it was built in 1962, the 1,527 ft (465 m) BREN Tower was the tallest structure west of the Mississippi River and exceeded the height of the Empire State Building by 55 ft (17 m). It remains the tallest ever erected specifically for scientific purposes and was designed and built to facilitate the experimental dosimetry studies necessary for the development of accurate radiation dose rates for the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The tower was a key component of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission’s (ABCC) mission to predict the health effects of radiation exposure. Moved to its current location in 1966, the crucial dosimetry studies continued with Operation HENRE (High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment). These experiments and the data they generated became the basis for a dosimetry system called the Tentative 1965 Dose or more commonly the T65D model. Used to estimate radiation doses received by individuals, the T65D model was applied until the mid-1980s when it was replaced by a new dosimetry system known as DS86 based on the Monte Carlo method of dose rate calculation. However, the BREN Tower data are still used for verification of the validity of the DS86 model. In addition to its importance in radiation heath effects research, the BREN Tower Complex is also significant for its role in the Brilliant Pebbles research project, a major component of the Strategic Defense Initiative popularly known as the “Star Wars” Initiative. Instigated under the Reagan Administration, the program’s purpose was to develop a system to shield the United States and allies from a ballistic missile attack. The centerpiece of the Strategic Defense System was space-based, kinetic-kill vehicles. In 1991, BREN Tower was used for the tether tests of the Brilliant Pebbles prototype vehicle at the earth’s surface prior to the more costly space testing program. The success of these tests established the Brilliant Pebbles program as an essential component of America’s space-based missile defense system even after the dismantling of the Soviet Union. Data from the Brilliant Pebbles research program continues to inspire current missile defense system research (Independent Working Group 2009).

  14. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory

  15. Session: What have studies of communications towers suggested regarding the impact of guy wires and lights on birds and bats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of one presentation followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The paper ''Wind turbines and Avian Risk: Lessons from Communications Towers'' was given by Paul Kerlinger. The presenter outlined lessons that have been learned from research on communications (not cell) towers and about the impacts of guy wires and lights on birds and bats and how they could be useful to wind energy developers. The paper also provided specific information about a large 'fatality' event that occurred at the Mountaineer, WC wind energy site in May 2003, and a table of Night Migrant Carcass search findings for various wind sites in the US.

  16. Halton Sequences for Mixed Logit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Train, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Customers’ Choice Among Energy Supplier Simulation based oncustomers’ choice of energy supplier. Surveyed customerspreferences for energy suppliers, such that a mixed logit is

  17. Cooking with Dry Egg Mix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of egg mix, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas.

  18. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  19. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  20. Results From The Two-tower Run Of The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisetter, A J

    2005-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search has completed two runs at the Soudan Underground Laboratory In the second, two towers of detectors were operated from March to August 2004. CDMS used Ge and Si ZIP (Z-sensitive, Ionization, and Phonon) detectors, operated at 50mK, to look for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPS) which may make up most of the dark matter in our universe. These detectors are surrounded by lead and polyethylene shielding as well as an active muon veto. These shields, as well as the overburden of Soudan rock, provide a low background environment for the detectors. The ZIP detectors record the ratio of ionization signal to phonon signal to discriminate between nuclear recoils, characteristic of WIMPS and neutrons, and electron recoils, characteristic of gamma and beta backgrounds. They also provide timing information from the four phonon channels that is used to reject surface events, for which ionization collection is poor. A blind analysis, defined using calibration data taken in situ thr...

  1. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO); Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2006-04-01

    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Physical constrictions were investigated through simulations. The results show that the maximum mixing occurs when the height of the mixing region is minimized. Finally, experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of using porous polymer monoliths to enhance mixing. The porous polymer monoliths were constructed using a monomer/salt paste. Two salt crystal size ranges were used; 75 to 106 microns and 53 to 180 microns. Mixing in the porous polymer monoliths fabricated with the 75 to 106 micron salt crystal size range was six times higher than a channel without a monolith. Mixing in the monolith fabricated with the 53 to 180 micron salt crystal size range was nine times higher.

  2. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  3. A Semiparametric Mixed Model for Increment-Averaged Data with Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ­ pass visible and UV, but trap infrared ­ include water vapor, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, etc. #12 Tillage: ­ after harvest, field contains crop residues ­ tillage turns over the soil to bury residues to wind and water erosion ­ reduces flow of sediments, nutrients, and pesticides into surface waters

  4. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  5. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  6. Towering oak, the sun - porch house winner of the ''1982 German research award''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndt, G.W.P.

    1983-12-01

    The design for this energy-efficient house was developed to suit a benign climate with much rain, wind, and fog. The building's basic construction guarantees the most limited energy-use possible. This is achieved through a unique houseform, which encloses and warms the living spaces with a thick thermal coat: walls = 6'' semi-rigid glass fiber boards, R-19; roof = 10'' foil faced fiber glass, R = 30. Windows are located only on the south side, to ensure optimal sun-ray capture. The housefront consists of a ''sun-porch'' (Sonnenhof), which is a further development of the well-known German ''Wintergarten'' (winter garden). In this climate region, one can only expect a yearly average of five days with a summer temperature of over 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F); however, with a ''sun-porch'' the summer can make itself at home. In winter, the ''sun-porch'' protects against storms and always offers temperatures above the 7/sup 0/C (45/sup 0/F) minimum, a product of the compact roof and double glass with selective coating. On sunny winter days, one may even dine on the balconies. The estimation technique represented here is based on a procedure devised at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico, (Passive Solar Handbook, Vol. 2, J.D. Balcomb). ''Towering Oak's'' solar savings fraction = 49.0%; heating load = 2.56 BTU/sq. ft. Better results have yet to be achieved in Germany. In the USA, this could be increased to a solar fraction of up to 90%. Some modifications would, however, be necessary to suit the local climate (sun control devices, etc.).

  7. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: First 5-Tower Data and Improved Understanding of Ionization Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Catherine N.

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with cryogenic particle detectors. These detectors have the ability to discriminate between nuclear recoil candidate and electron recoil background events by collecting both phonon and ionization energy from recoils in the detector crystals. The CDMS-II experiment has completed analysis of the first data runs with 30 semiconductor detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, resulting in a world leading WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section limit for WIMP masses above 44 GeV/c{sup 2}. As CDMS aims to achieve greater WIMP sensitivity, it is necessary to increase the detector mass and discrimination between signal and background events. Incomplete ionization collection results in the largest background in the CDMS detectors as this causes electron recoil background interactions to appear as false candidate events. Two primary causes of incomplete ionization collection are surface and bulk trapping. Recent work has been focused on reducing surface trapping through the modification of fabrication methods for future detectors. Analyzing data taken with test devices has shown that hydrogen passivation of the amorphous silicon blocking layer worsens surface trapping. Additional data has shown that the iron-ion implantation used to lower the critical temperature of the tungsten transition-edge sensors causes a degradation of the ionization collection. Using selective implantation on future detectors may improve ionization collection for events near the phonon side detector surface. Bulk trapping is minimized by neutralizing ionized lattice impurities. Detector investigations at testing facilities and in situ at the experimental site have provided methods to optimize the neutralization process and monitor running conditions to maintain full ionization collection. This work details my contribution to the 5-tower data taking, monitoring, and analysis effort as well as the SuperCDMS detector development with the focus on monitoring and improving ionization collection in the detectors.

  8. Neutrino mixing and dark energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasone, M.; Capolupo, A.; Vitiello, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'E.R. Caianiello', I-84100 Salerno (Italy); INFN, Universita di Salerno, I-84100 Salerno (Italy); Capozziello, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Compl. Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Ed.N, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Ed.N, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2006-06-19

    We report on the recent result that the non-perturbative vacuum structure associated with neutrino mixing leads to a non-zero contribution to the value of the dark energy.

  9. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  10. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

  11. Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project - April 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project - April 2013 April 2013 Review of Radiation Protection...

  12. A review of "Murder in the Tower and Other Tales from the State Trials." by Alan Wharam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellen J. Jenkins

    2003-01-01

    stream_source_info V61-I1-23-Jenkins.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8562 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name V61-I1-23-Jenkins.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 REVIEWS 87 a... fuller understanding of the trial and execution of ?that man of blood.? Alan Wharam. Murder in the Tower and Other Tales from the State Trials. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate, 2001. x + 286 pp. + 12 b&w illus. $84.95. Review by ELLEN J. JENKINS, ARKANSAS...

  13. Energy range of hadronic calorimeter towers and cells for high-pT jets at a 100 TeV collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Chekanov; J. Dull

    2015-12-28

    This paper discusses a study of tower and cell energy ranges of a hadronic calorimeter for a 100 TeV pp collider. The dynamic energy ranges were estimated using Standard Model jets with transverse momenta above 20 TeV. The simulations were performed using the PYTHIA Monte Carlo model after a fast detector simulation tuned to the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. We estimate the maximum energy range of towers and cells as a function of lateral cell sizes for several extreme cases of jet transverse energy.

  14. Verification survey report of the south waste tank farm training/test tower and hazardous waste storage lockers at the West Valley demonstration project, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-08-29

    A team from ORAU's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program performed verification survey activities on the South Test Tower and four Hazardous Waste Storage Lockers. Scan data collected by ORAU determined that both the alpha and alpha-plus-beta activity was representative of radiological background conditions. The count rate distribution showed no outliers that would be indicative of alpha or alpha-plus-beta count rates in excess of background. It is the opinion of ORAU that independent verification data collected support the site?s conclusions that the South Tower and Lockers sufficiently meet the site criteria for release to recycle and reuse.

  15. Energy range of hadronic calorimeter towers and cells for high-pT jets at a 100 TeV collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Chekanov; J. Dull

    2015-11-04

    This paper discusses a study of tower and cell energy ranges of a hadronic calorimeter for a 100 TeV pp collider. The dynamic energy ranges were estimated using Standard Model jets with transverse momenta above 20 TeV. The simulations were performed using the PYTHIA Monte Carlo model after a fast detector simulation tuned to the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. We estimate the maximum energy range of towers and cells as a function of lateral cell sizes for several extreme cases of jet transverse energy.

  16. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lin, Hyun K [STONY BROOK UNIV.; Iwerks, Justin G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gliman, James G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.

  17. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  18. Bs Mixing at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-04-01

    The Tevatron collider at Fermilab provides a very rich environment for the study of B{sub s} mesons. B{sub s} Mixing is the most important analysis within the B Physics program of both experiments. In this paper they summarize the most recent results on this topic from both D0 and CDF experiments. There were very important updates in both experiments after his last talk, hence the organizers warmly recommended me to include the latest available results on B{sub s} mixing, instead of what he presents there.

  19. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  20. Fast learning from -mixing Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinwart, Ingo

    rates for some learning methods such as empirical risk minimization (ERM), least squares support vector and quantile regression. It turns out that for i.i.d. processes our learning rates for ERM and SVMs for empirical risk minimization (ERM) when the sampling sequence satisfies an -mixing condition. More recently

  1. Manufacturer's Mixed Pallet Design Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fore, the company decided to design a number of mixed or “rainbow” pallets so that its. customers can ... the number of cases of each brand in the pallet depending on her consumption and future. needs. ..... over the planning period, i.e, ?t?T.

  2. Neutrino Mixing from CP Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Chen; Chang-Yuan Yao; Gui-Jun Ding

    2015-07-13

    The neutrino mass matrix has remnant CP symmetry expressed in terms of the lepton mixing matrix, and vice versa the remnant CP transformations allow us to reconstruct the mixing matrix. We study the scenario that all the four remnant CP transformations are preserved by the neutrino mass matrix. The most general parameterization of remnant CP transformations is presented. The lepton mixing matrix is completely fixed by the remnant CP, and its explicit form is derived. The necessary and sufficient condition for conserved Dirac CP violating phase is found. If the Klein four flavor symmetry generated by the postulated remnant CP transformations arises from a finite flavor symmetry group, the phenomenologically viable lepton flavor mixing would be the trimaximal pattern, both Dirac CP phase $\\delta_{CP}$ and Majorana phase $\\alpha_{31}$ are either $0$ or $\\pi$ while another Majorana phase $\\alpha_{21}$ is a rational multiple of $\\pi$. These general results are confirmed to be true in the case that the finite flavor symmetry group is $\\Delta(6n^2)$.

  3. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J. -D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; et al

    2015-03-16

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water solublemore »fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34% in the accumulation vs. ~ 47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ~ 70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35% RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50% RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, ?v, was calculated. The ?v, ws value related to the water soluble (ws) fraction was estimated to be ~ 0.15 for the accumulation mode and ~ 0.36 for the coarse mode, respectively. The obtained ?v, ws for the accumulation mode is in good agreement with earlier data reported for remote sites in the Amazon rain forest (?v ≈ 0.15) and a Colorado boreal forest (?v ≈ 0.16). We used the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule to predict the chemical composition dependent hygroscopicity, ?v, p. The obtained ?v, p values overestimate the experimental FDHA-KIM-derived ?v, ws by factors of 1.8 and 1.5 for the accumulation and coarse modes, respectively. This divergence can be partly explained by incomplete dissolution of the hygroscopic inorganic compounds resulting from kinetic limitations due to a sparingly soluble organic coating. The TEM and STXM-NEXAFS results indicate that aged submicron (>300 nm) and supermicron aerosol particles possess core-shell structures with an inorganic core, and are enriched in organic carbon at the mixed particle surface. The direct FDHA kinetic studies provide a bulk diffusion coefficient of water of ~ 10?12 cm2 s?1 indicating a semi-solid state of the organic-rich phase leading to kinetic limitations of water uptake and release during hydration and dehydration cycles. Overall the present ZOTTO data set, obtained in the growing season, has revealed a strong influence of organic carbon on the hygroscopic properties of the ambient aerosols. The sparingly soluble organic coating controls hygroscopic growth, phase transitions, and microstructural rearrangement processes. The observed kinetic limitations can strongly influence the outcome of experiments performed on multi-second time scales, such as the commonly applied HTDMA (Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) and CCNC (Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter) measurements.« less

  4. A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galvin, David

    A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which takes in crude oil, up to a maximum of 650,000 barrels per day (bbl/day) and produces **" means "**% octane".) Once crude oil enters the system, it goes fully through the process. The refinery

  5. Economic evaluation of a novel fuel-saver hybrid combining a solar receiver with a combustor for a solar power tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    achieves the same combus- tion efficiency as the boiler for twice the capital cost of a solar receiverEconomic evaluation of a novel fuel-saver hybrid combining a solar receiver with a combustor for a solar power tower G.J. Nathan a, , D.L. Battye b , P.J. Ashman b a Centre for Energy Technology, Schools

  6. Observations of the Pulsar PSR B1951+32 with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kildea; J. Zweerink; J. Ball; J. E. Carson; C. E. Covault; D. D. Driscoll; P. Fortin; D. M. Gingrich; D. S. Hanna; A. Jarvis; T. Lindner; C. Mueller; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; K. Ragan; D. A. Williams

    2007-10-25

    We present the analysis and results of 12.5 hours of high-energy gamma-ray observations of the EGRET-detected pulsar PSR B1951+32 using the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). STACEE is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that detects cosmic gamma rays using the shower-front-sampling technique. STACEE's sensitivity to astrophysical sources at energies around 100 GeV allows it to investigate emission from gamma-ray pulsars with expected pulsed emission cutoffs below 100 GeV. We discuss the observations and analysis of STACEE's PSR 1951+32 data, accumulated during the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons.

  7. Urea Mixing Design-- Simulation and Test Investigation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Effective urea mixing design should be based on the placement and nature of the selected injector, and new approaches for mixing may be found from the biotech and chemical engineering industries.

  8. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  9. Nebular mixing constrained by the Stardust samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OGLIORE, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    cold, nominal, and warm solar nebula one million years afterbeen proposed. One mechanism is solar nebula mixing from

  10. Community D Mixed/Pine Hardwood D Bottomland Hardwood Mixed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the following comments responseScience SHERWOODAMF/GNDRAD _D Mixed/Pine

  11. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Arthur L. (Kenyon, MN); Krawza, Kenneth I. (Lakeville, MN)

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  12. Lepton Flavor Mixing and CP Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Chen; Cai-Chang Li; Gui-Jun Ding

    2014-12-29

    The strategy of constraining the lepton flavor mixing from remnant CP symmetry is investigated in a rather general way. The neutrino mass matrix generally admits four remnant CP transformations which can be derived from the measured lepton mixing matrix in the charged lepton diagonal basis. Conversely, the lepton mixing matrix can be reconstructed from the postulated remnant CP transformations. All mixing angles and CP violating phases can be completely determined by the full set of remnant CP transformations or three of them. When one or two remnant CP transformations are preserved, the resulting lepton mixing matrix would depend on three real parameters or one real parameter respectively in addition to the parameters characterizing the remnant CP, and the concrete form of the mixing matrix is presented. The phenomenological predictions for the mixing parameters are discussed. The conditions leading to vanishing or maximal Dirac CP violation are studied.

  13. A Multi-tower Measurement Network Estimate of California's Methane Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Vaca, Patrick; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.

    2013-12-02

    We present an analysis of methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions using atmospheric observations from five sites in California’s Central Valley across different seasons (September 2010 to June 2011). CH{sub 4} emissions for spatial regions and source sectors are estimated by comparing measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios with transport model (WRF-STILT) predictions based on two 0.1 degree CH{sub 4} (seasonally varying “California-specific” (CALGEM) and a static global (EDGAR42)) prior emission models. Region-specific Bayesian analyses indicate that for California’s Central Valley the CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions provide consistent annual total CH{sub 4} emissions (32.87±2.09 vs. 31.60±2.17 Tg CO{sub 2}eq yr{sup -1}; 68% C.I., assuming uncorrelated errors between regions). Summing across all regions of California, optimized CH{sub 4} emissions are only marginally consistent between CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions (48.35±6.47 vs. 64.97±11.85 Tg CO{sub 2}eq), because emissions from coastal urban regions (where landfill and natural gas emissions are much higher in EDGAR than CALGEM) are not strongly constrained by the measurements. Combining our results with those from a recent study of the South Coast air basin narrows the range of estimates to 43 – 57 Tg CO{sub 2}eq yr{sup -1} (1.3 - 1.8 times higher than the current state inventory). These results suggest that the combination of rural and urban measurements will be necessary to verify future changes in California’s total CH{sub 4} emissions.

  14. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM); (Texas)

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  15. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  16. Mixing in SRS Closure Business Unit Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POIRIER, MICHAELR.

    2004-06-23

    The following equipment is commonly used to mix fluids: mechanical agitators, jets (pumps), shrouded axial impeller mixers (Flygt mixers), spargers, pulsed jet mixers, boiling, static mixers, falling films, liquid sprays, and thermal convection. This discussion will focus on mechanical agitators, jets, shrouded axial impeller mixers, spargers, and pulsed jet mixers, as these devices are most likely to be employed in Savannah River Site (SRS) Closure Business applications. In addressing mixing problems in the SRS Tank Farm, one must distinguish between different mixing objectives. These objectives include sludge mixing (e.g., Extended Sludge Processing), sludge retrieval (e.g., sludge transfers between tanks), heel retrieval (e.g., Tanks 18F and 19F), chemical reactions (e.g., oxalic acid neutralization) and salt dissolution. For example, one should not apply sludge mixing guidelines to heel removal applications. Mixing effectiveness is a function of both the mixing device (e.g., slurry pump, agitator, air sparger) and the properties of the material to be mixed (e.g., yield stress, viscosity, density, and particle size). The objective of this document is to provide background mixing knowledge for the SRS Closure Business Unit personnel and to provide general recommendations for mixing in SRS applications.

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building Oakland, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-01

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 70% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be build at Oakland, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specification that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  18. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oser, S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schuette, D R; Theoret, C G; Tumer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies...

  19. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: alduncin@geofisica.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Geofísica (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (?15N and ?18O) but all methods testedmore »are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions.« less

  1. Effect of mixing on polymerization of styrene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treybig, Michael Norris

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT OF MIXING ON POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE A Thesis by MICHAEL NORRIS TREYBIG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major... Subject: Chemical Engineering EFFECT OF MIXING ON POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE A Thesis MICHAEL NORRIS TREYBIG Approved as to style and content by: ~ C. W a rman of Comaittee e d of De artment em er em er August 1977 ABSTRACT Effect of Mixing...

  2. Probing New Physics Through Bs Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patricia Ball

    2007-03-20

    I discuss the interpretation of the recent experimental data on $B_s$ mixing in terms of model-independent new-physics parameters.

  3. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  4. Lanthanide doped strontium barium mixed halide scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundiah, Gautam; Bizarri, Gregory; Hanrahan, Stephen M; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped strontium barium mixed halide useful for detecting nuclear material.

  5. Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrill, Leslie Welser [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haynes, Donald A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sherrill, Manolo E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mancini, Roberto C [UNR; Tommasini, Riccardo [LLNL; Golovkin, Igor E [PRISM COMP. SCIENCES; Haan, Steven W [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be considered separately when deciding on an approach for reducing the salt discharge to the subsurface. The smaller units may justify moderate changes to equipment, and may benefit from increased cleaning frequencies, more accurate and suitable chemical treatment, and sources of make up water and discharge re-use. The larger cooling towers would be more suitable for automated systems where they don't already exist, re-circulation and treatment of blow down water, and enhanced chemical dosing strategies. It may be more technically feasible and cost efficient for the smaller cooling towers to be replaced by closed loop dry coolers or hybrid towers. There are several potential steps that could be taken at each location to reduce the TDS concentration and/or water use. These include: sump water filtration, minimization of drift, accurate chemical dosing, and use of scale and corrosion coupons for chemical calibration. The implementation of some of these options could be achieved by a step-wise approach taken at two representative facilities. Once viable prototype systems have been proven in the field, systematic implementation should proceed for the remaining systems, with cost, desired reduction, and general feasibility taken into consideration for such systems.

  7. B-B Mixing and CP Violation Observation of Mixing and CP Violation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    15 B-B Mixing and CP Violation Observation of Mixing and CP Violation Just as for K0 and K 0-strange B0 d = bd and the strange B0 s = bs. The mixing does not require CP violation, but depends only

  8. EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    m #12;#12;EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND on AQUATIC ANIMALS Marine Biological l Albert M. Day, Director Special Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 1 EFFECTS OF OIL MIXED WITH CARBONIZED CONTENT Pago Preface Introduction 1 Injury to aquatic life caused by oil. 2 Amount of carbonized sand

  9. Dynamical systems techniques for enhancing microfluidic mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    Dynamical systems techniques for enhancing microfluidic mixing Sanjeeva Balasuriya School@yahoo.com 17 March 2015 Abstract. Achieving rapid mixing is often desirable in microfluidic devices microfluidic situations (e.g., best cross-flow positioning in cross- channel micromixers, usage of channel

  10. Neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balantekin, A. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    A brief review of the current status of neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments, with particular emphasis on the Sun and core-collapse supernovae, is given. Implications of the existence of sterile states which mix with the active neutrinos are discussed.

  11. Mix-Automatic Sequences Jorg Endrullis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendriks, Dimitri

    Mix-Automatic Sequences J¨org Endrullis1 , Clemens Grabmayer2 , and Dimitri Hendriks1 1 VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 Utrecht University, The Netherlands Abstract. Mix-automatic sequences form a proper extension of the class of automatic sequences, and arise from a generalization of finite

  12. Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures Yong Wang, Chia-Yu Lin, Alexei Nikolaenko, Varun July 14, 2010; accepted July 27, 2010; published September 10, 2010 (Doc. ID 128079) The basics of four-wave. Four-Wave Mixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2

  13. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  14. Water Vapor Variability Across Spatial Scales: Insights for Theory, Parameterization, and Model Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressel, Kyle Gregory

    2012-01-01

    map of outgoing longwave radiation is a map of the effectivegoing shortwave radiation is essentially a map of surfaceshows the map of TOA outgoing shortwave radiation with the

  15. Extremely Luminous Water Vapor Emission from a Type 2 Quasar at Redshift z = 0.66

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Barvainis; Robert Antonucci

    2005-06-10

    A search for water masers in 47 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Type 2 quasars using the Green Bank Telescope has yielded a detection at a redshift of z = 0.660. This maser is more than an order of magnitude higher in redshift than any previously known and, with a total isotropic luminosity of 23,000 L_sun, also the most powerful. The presence and detectability of water masers in quasars at z ~ 0.3-0.8 may provide a better understanding of quasar molecular tori and disks, as well as fundamental quasar and galaxy properties such as black hole masses. Water masers at cosmologically interesting distances may also eventually provide, via direct distance determinations, a new cosmological observable for testing the reality and properties of dark energy, currently inferred primarily through Type 1a supernova measurements.

  16. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Lineshape parameters for water vapor in the 3.217.76 lm region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamache, Robert R.

    of global changes is growing [1]. 28 For example, carbon dioxide levels have risen 25% since 29 change. The only feasible way to 39measure such data is from satellites with ``remote'' sen- 40sors with a variety of instrumentation are either in orbit 43or will be launched into orbit to collect remote sensed

  17. Hydrogen Ingress in Steels During High-Temperature Oxidation in Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that hydrogen derived from water vapour can penetrate oxidizing alloys with detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia- forming steels correlated with the local oxide-metal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapour effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

  18. Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauluis, Olivier M.

    , and it is lost when kinetic energy is dissipated either as an end result of a turbulent energy cascade 1996), tornadoes, dust devils (Renno´ et al. 1998), and hurricanes (Emanuel 1986; Bister and Emanuel

  19. Retrieval of water vapor profiles over ocean using SSM/I and SSM/T-2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blankenship, Clay Bruce

    1997-01-01

    The SSM/T-2 (Special Sensor Microwave Temperature-2) and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) are two microwave radiometers aboard the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Space Program) series of satellites. The SSM/T-2 was designed for retrieval...

  20. Determination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    . In this investigation, the effect of microporous layer (MPL) coatings, GDL thickness, and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE TGP-H GDL samples are tested experimentally with and without MPL coatings and varying PTFE loadings, and 750 sccm. MPL coatings and increasing levels of PTFE content introduce significant resistance

  1. Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination

  2. Zeolite Membrane Water Vapor Separation for Building Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, Oleksandr

    2015-07-17

    -AR0000138 “High-efficiency, on-line membrane air dehumidifier enabling sensible cooling for warm and humid climates”. 2. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Advanced Research Projects Agency... Outdoor air PC Polycarbonate PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane PE Polyethylene PES Polyethersulphone PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PSF Polysulfone PVDF Polyvinylidenefluoride RH Relative humidity SF Separation factor STP Standard conditions...

  3. Chem. Mater. 1995, 7, 2269-2272 2269 Water Vapor Adsorption on Chemically Treated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Cloths E. Dimotakis,+M. Gal,$ J. Economy,*!+M. Rood,$and S. Larsont Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801, and Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana

  4. Two-day wave observations of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder mesospheric water vapor and temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasuvan, Varavut

    of phase. Poleward heat flux associated with upward wave energy propagation in the Southern Hemisphere Carolina, USA Dong L. Wu Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

  5. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Gregory F. Nellis; Douglas T. Reindl

    2004-08-30

    This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

  6. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 (2002) 97120 Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    2002-01-01

    of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA g Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands h Atmospheric Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA j Centre de Recherces de Nancy, Unite

  7. First order structure function analysis of statistical scale invariance n the AIRS Observed Water Vapor Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Placella, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    to a rapid in- crease in water potential when dry soil is2011) Validation of heavy-water stable isotope probing forrainfall also causes acute water potential changes that are

  8. Using satellites to investigate the sensitivity of longwave downward radiation to water vapor at high elevations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at high elevations Catherine M. Naud,1 James R. Miller,2 and Chris Landry3 Received 22 September 2011 is insufficient to do so. Citation: Naud, C. M., J. R. Miller, and C. Landry (2012), Using satellites to climate change [e.g., Diaz and Bradley, 1997; Liu and Chen, 2000; Rangwala et al., 2009]. In some

  9. Charge transfer effects of ions at the liquid water/vapor interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soniat, Marielle; Rick, Steven W.

    2014-05-14

    Charge transfer (CT), the movement of small amounts of electron density between non-bonded pairs, has been suggested as a driving force for a variety of physical processes. Herein, we examine the effect of CT on ion adsorption to the water liquid-vapor interface. Using a CT force field for molecular dynamics, we construct a potential of mean force (PMF) for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup ?}, and I{sup ?}. The PMFs were produced with respect to an average interface and an instantaneous interface. An analysis of the PMF relative to the instantaneous surface reveals that the area in which the anions experience a free energy minimum is quite narrow, and the cations feel a steeply repulsive free energy near the interface. CT is seen to have only minor effects on the overall free energy profiles. However, the long-ranged effects of ions are highlighted by the CT model. Due to CT, the water molecules at the surface become charged, even when the ion is over 15 Å away from the surface.

  10. Mechanisms of Ytterbium Monosilicate/Mullite/Silicon Coating Failure During Thermal Cycling in Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Mechanisms of Ytterbium Monosilicate/Mullite/Silicon Coating Failure During Thermal Cycling barrier coating system on SiC test coupons. Significant differences in the thermal expansion preferentially oxidized the exposed Si bond coat to form b-cristobalite. Simultaneous ingress of the gaseous

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - AIRS Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012III ARM Data Discovery Browse DataIV and V-TWP

  12. ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode DesigngovCampaignsSpring SinglegovFieldgovDataPI Data ProductsClimate Modeling

  13. Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and Water Vapor Continuum Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters Posters5139

  14. Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters955 Posters

  15. Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters955 Posters373

  16. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2 RadiometerRafael L.Ralph T.Raman Lidar

  17. Using information about small-scale variability in water vapor in a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light| Department of

  18. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A County roadFeet) Deliveries DennisVertical

  19. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168Organic

  20. GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)ForthcomingGENERAL ASSIGNMENT KNOW ALL

  1. MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) | SciTech ConnectFuture3, BPA earned net3rdTHE

  2. Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By SarahMODELING CLOUD1 H( 7Measurements of the

  3. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  4. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  5. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon tomography : a calibration experiment using a water tower tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Jourde; Dominique Gibert; Jacques Marteau; Jean de Bremond d'Ars; Serge Gardien; Claude Girerd; Jean-Christophe Ianigro

    2015-04-09

    The idea of using secondary cosmic muons to scan the internal structure of a given body has known significant developments since the first archaeological application by Alvarez and collaborators on the Gizah pyramids. Recent applications cover the fields of volcanology, hydrology, civil engineering, mining, archaeology etc. Muon radiography features are essentially identical to those of medical X-ray imaging techniques. It is a contrast densitometry method using the screening effect of the body under study on the natural flux of cosmic muons. This technique is non-invasive and complements the standard geophysical techniques, e.g. electrical tomography or gravimetry. It may be applied to a large variety of geological targets, among which the domes of active volcanoes. In this context muon tomography presents the noticeable advantage to perform measurements of large volumes, with a large aperture, from a distant point, far from the potentially dangerous zones. The same conclusions apply regarding the monitoring of the volcano's activity since muon tomography provides continuous data taking, provided the muon detectors are sufficiently well designed and autonomous. Recent measurements on La Soufri\\`ere of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles, France) show, over a one year period, large modulations of the crossing muon flux, correlated with an increase of the activity in the dome. In order to firmly establish the sensitivity of the method and of our detectors and to disentangle the effects on the muon flux modulations induced by the volcano's hydrothermal system from those induced by other sources, e.g. atmospheric temperature and pressure, we perform a dedicated calibration experiment inside a water tower tank. We show how the method is fully capable of dynamically following fast variations in the density.

  6. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 39 mm), after which average lengths increased to 294 {+-} 145 mm for mid-November though early December. Fish behavior analysis indicates milling in front of the intake tower was the most common behavior observed throughout the study period (>50% of total fish events). The next most common movement patterns were fish traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east. The proportion of fish events seen moving into (forebay to tower) or out of (tower to forebay) the tower was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall for both directions combined. From mid-December 2010 through the end of the study, the combined proportions of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher than previous months of this study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring from late April through mid-June. Schooling events were present in 30 - 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak in mid-May. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring, fall, and winter months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours. No schooling was observed at night. Predator activity was observed during late spring, when fish abundance and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months. For the two days of BlueView data analyzed for vertical distribution in the forebay, a majority of fish (>50%) were present in the middle of the water column (10 - 20 m deep). Between 20 and 41 % of total fish abundance were found in the bottom of the water column (20 - 30 m deep). Few fish were observed in the top 10 m of the water column.

  7. Fast-Mixed Searching and Related Problems on Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonato, Anthony

    Fast-Mixed Searching and Related Problems on Graphs Boting Yang Department of Computer Science University of Regina May 27, 2012 1GRASCan 2012, Ryerson University #12;Outline Fast searching and mixed searching Induced-path cover Fast-mixed searching vs fast searching Fast-mixed searching vs mixed

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) - FEMP Technical Assistance - Federal Aviation Administration - Project 209 - Control Tower and Support Building, Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-28

    This report documents an energy audit performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Boise, Idaho. This report presents findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) followed by a site visit of the facility under construction. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  9. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building, Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted an energy audit on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Reno, Nevada. This report presents the findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) and completed a site visit. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  10. Mix Design and Analysis Track Ezgi Yurdakul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tests simply need to prove that the mix in the truck is the same · Critical parameters Binder type the same building blocks #12;Portable Analysis Device · XRF - X-Ray Fluorescence Does not detect light

  11. Unit Operation Efficiency Improvement Through Motionless Mixing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient mixing of materials is a basic requirement at some stage of most processes. Examples of unit operations include mixers, blenders, heat exchangers and reactors that often use dynamic mixers. Motionless mixers on the other hand contain...

  12. Design of an automated cocktail mixing experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Alejandro, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the design concept development of an automated cocktail mixing device and user interface that is capable of dispensing a variety of alcoholic and non-alcoholic ingredients to produce a myriad of drink ...

  13. Mixing lengths scaling in a gravity flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Micheal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Jun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model [1]: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadraticatly with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing length, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show in this paper how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow {radical}({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}).

  14. Micellar compositions in mixed surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi-Jian Yu ); Guo-Xi Zhao )

    1993-03-15

    Micellization of aqueous mixtures of alkyltriethylammonium bromide and sodium alkylsulfate in the presence of excess sodium bromide has been studied by surface tension measurements. The molecular ratio of the cationic surfactant to the anionic surfactant in the mixed micelles is deduced by applying the Gibbs-Duhem equation to the measured critical micelle concentrations. Approximately equimolar amounts of the surfactant components in the mixed micelles over a wide range of aqueous mixing ratio are found in the systems of components similar in chain lengths. Large deviations of the surfactant molecular ratio deduced by the regular solution approach (Rubingh's model) when compared with that deduced by this approach are discovered, which suggests a limitation in applying the regular solution approach to mixed systems of cationic/anionic surfactants.

  15. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  16. Low-Frequency Sonic Mixing Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Typical mixing technology uses a drive mechanism—usually an electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic motor—to rotate a shaft with one or more impellers. While many other mixer designs are available,...

  17. Mixed micelles system: equilibrium and kinetics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salonen, Anniina M

    Lipid-detergent systems are interesting to study, as the two amphiphiles have very different spontaneous curvature, however readily form mixed micelles in solution. These micelles can be shorter cylindrical micelles ...

  18. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Zhang, Chuanlun (Columbia, MO); Roh, Yul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  19. Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi Zhang; Yuan Feng; Ming Sheng Ying

    2006-10-16

    In this paper, we consider the problem of unambiguous discrimination between a set of mixed quantum states. We first divide the density matrix of each mixed state into two parts by the fact that it comes from ensemble of pure quantum states. The first part will not contribute anything to the discrimination, the second part has support space linearly independent to each other. Then the problem we consider can be reduced to a problem in which the strategy of set discrimination can be used in designing measurements to discriminate mixed states unambiguously. We find a necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination, and also point out that searching the optimal success probability of unambiguous discrimination is mathematically the well-known semi-definite programming problem. A upper bound of the optimal success probability is also presented. Finally, We generalize the concept of set discrimination to mixed state and point out that the problem of discriminating it unambiguously is equivalent to that of unambiguously discriminating mixed states.

  20. Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medeiros Varzielas, I. de [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gonzalez Felipe, R. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Serodio, H. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-02-01

    Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

  1. Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results 2003 DEER Conference...

  2. Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable...

  3. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud Results are presented...

  4. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks June...

  5. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

  6. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

  7. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed...

  8. Non carbon mixed conducting materials for PEFC electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non carbon mixed conducting materials for PEFC electrocatalysts and electrodes Non carbon mixed conducting materials for PEFC electrocatalysts and electrodes These slides were...

  9. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture...

  10. Interfacial gravity currents. I. Mixing and entrainment B. R. Sutherland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Interfacial gravity currents. I. Mixing and entrainment B. R. Sutherland Department of Mathematical energy are compared with theories that neglect mixing and entrainment processes. As the middle layer

  11. Devils Tower folio, Wyoming 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darton, Nelson Horatio, 1865-1948.; O'Harra, Cleophas C. (Cleophas Cisney), 1866-1935.

    1907-01-01

    Previous hydrologic models of flow in Bear Creek Valley have presented lateral flow as occurring through the Nolichucky Shale in parallel to strike fractures within thin carbonate beds; the effects of faults were not considered. This study presents...

  12. Davis Field Water Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erway, Jennifer

    Reynolds Library Starbucks 7A. Wilson Wing 8. Olin Physical Laboratory 9. Salem Hall 10. Winston Hall 11

  13. Albritton Bell Tower - 4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derrick Grubbs

    2006-03-24

    We present a preliminary design for a red-sensitive spectrograph. The spectrograph is optimized to operate over the 600-1000nm spectral range at a resolution of ~2000 and is designed specifically for the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at Mc...

  14. Phase Change Material Tower

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  15. Water Tower - 14 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Previous studies using tertiary amines to extract water from reagent-grade carboxylate salts (calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) have shown selectivity for water and not for the carboxylate salts. These results ...

  16. Albritton Bell Tower - 15 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-03-24

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) can provide clean electricity,as well as process heat that can be used to produce hydrogen for transportation and other sectors. A prototypic HTGR, the Next Generation Nuclear ...

  17. Phase Change Material Tower

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    transfer of pulverized coal Assortment of available fabrication methods (shrink fit, adhesive, casting) & liner materials (i.e. alumina, SiC, etc.) Pyrotek molten metal transfer...

  18. Albritton Bell Tower - 39 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-01-01

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated...

  19. Armor Tower, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment|Marketing, LLC | Department ofApps forLynn talked about Mr. Edward

  20. Liquid–liquid mixing studies in annular centrifugal contactors comparing stationary mixing vane options

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-09-11

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of an annular centrifugal contactor show the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported for operation of a 12.5 cm engineering-scale contactor unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixing-zone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugalmore »contactors.« less

  1. Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)] [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (?g) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (?? < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under ?g conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for ?g combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

  2. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  3. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, the average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 54 mm), after which average lengths increased to 295 {+-} 148 mm for mid-November though early December. From mid-December through January the average fish length decreased to 151 {+-} 76 mm. Milling in front of the WTC tower was the most common fish behavior observed throughout the study period. Traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east, was the next common behavior. The percentage of fish events showing movement from the forebay to the tower or from the tower to the forebay was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall (0 to 30% for both directions combined, March through early November). From mid-November 2010 through the end of the study (January 31, 2011), the combined percentages of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher (25 to 70%) than during previous months of the study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring. Schooling events were present in 30 to 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak on May 19. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. With the exception of some schooling in mid-December, few to no schooling events were observed in the fall and winter months. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring and fall months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours and no schooling was observed at night. However, in December, schooling occurred at night, after midnight, and during daylight hours. Predator activity, most likely bull trout or rainbow trout according to a USACE biologist, was observed during late spring, when fish abundance index and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months.

  4. Parametrization of lepton mixing matrix in terms of deviations from bi-maximal and tri-bimaximl mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandan Duarah; K. Sashikanta Singh; N. Nimai Singh

    2015-03-26

    We parametrize lepton mixing matrix, known as PMNS matrix, in terms of three parameters which account deviations of three mixing angles from their bi-maximal or tri-bimaximal values. On the basis of this parametrization we can determine corresponding charged lepton mixing matrix in terms of those three parameters which can deviate bi-maximal or tri-bimaximal mixing. We find that the charged lepton mixing matrices which can deviate bi-maximal mixing matrix and tri-bimaximal mixing matrix exhibit similar structures. Numerical analysis shows that these charged lepton mixing matrices are close to CKM matrix of quark sector.

  5. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

  6. Acceleration of one dimensional mixing by discontinuous mappings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicol, Matthew

    of Mathematical Sciences, Laver Building, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QE, UK. Matthew Nicol #3; and Norman to investigate mechanisms of mixing of a passive tracer into a bulk material that is essentially one dimensional of geometries and mixing methods. 1.1 One-dimensional mixing models We consider mixing of a passive tracer

  7. Mixed MSW and Vacuum Solutions of Solar Neutrino Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu-Yu Liu

    1997-08-11

    Assuming three flavour neutrino mixing takes place in vacuum, we investigate the possibility that the solar $\

  8. Mixed MSW and Vacuum Solutions of Solar Neutrino Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Q Y

    1997-01-01

    Assuming three flavour neutrino mixing takes place in vacuum, we investigate the possibility that the solar $\

  9. Structure and Mixing Characterization of Variable Density Transverse Jet Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevorkyan, Levon

    2015-01-01

    4 Transverse Jet Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jet TrajectoryTransverse Jet Structure and

  10. Intimate Encounters: the Mixed Reality Paradigm and Audience Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleland, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    environments. Personal Ubiquitous Computing 12, [8] Dourish,in mixed reality and ubiquitous computing environments has

  11. Improvements in Mixing Time and Mixing Uniformity in Devices Designed for Studies of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Shuhuai [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Using a microfluidic laminar flow mixer designed for studies of protein folding kinetics, we demonstrate a mixing time of 1 +/- 1 micros with sample consumption on the order of femtomoles. We recognize two limitations of previously proposed designs: (1) size and shape of the mixing region, which limits mixing uniformity and (2) the formation of Dean vortices at high flow rates, which limits the mixing time. We address these limitations by using a narrow shape-optimized nozzle and by reducing the bend of the side channel streamlines. The final design, which combines both of these features, achieves the best performance. We quantified the mixing performance of the different designs by numerical simulation of coupled Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations and experiments using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer (FRET)-labeled DNA.

  12. TrustMIX: Trustworthy MIX for Energy Saving in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Olivier; Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    MIX has recently been proposed as a new sensor scheme with better energy management for data-gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks. However, it is not known how it performs when some of the sensors carry out sinkhole attacks. In this paper, we propose a variant of MIX with adjunct computational trust management to limit the impact of such sinkhole attacks. We evaluate how MIX resists sinkhole attacks with and without computational trust management. The main result of this paper is to find that MIX is very vulnerable to sinkhole attacks but that the adjunct trust management efficiently reduces the impact of such attacks while preserving the main feature of MIX: increased lifetime of the network.

  13. Analog E1 transitions and isospin mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattabiraman, N. S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Bentley, M. A.; Wadsworth, R.; Lister, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Krishichayan,; Isacker, P. Van [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-08-15

    We investigate whether isospin mixing can be determined in a model-independent way from the relative strength of E1 transitions in mirror nuclei. The specific examples considered are the A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs, where a serious discrepancy between the strengths of 7/2{sup -}{yields}5/2{sup +} transitions in the respective mirror nuclei has been observed. A theoretical analysis of the problem suggests that it ought to be possible to disentangle the isospin mixing in the initial and final states given sufficient information on experimental matrix elements. With this in mind, we obtain a lifetime for the relevant 7/2{sup -} state in {sup 31}S using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. We then collate the available information on matrix elements to examine the level of isospin mixing for both A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs.

  14. Mixing enhancement by use of swirling jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, D.K.; Cutler, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that the mixing of fuel with air in the combustor of scramjet engines might be enhanced by the addition of swirl to the fuel jet prior to injection. This study investigated the effects of swirl on the mixing of a 30 deg wall jet into a Mach 2 flow. Cases with swirl and without swirl were investigated, with both helium and air simulating the fuel. Rayleigh scattering was used to visualize the flow, and seeding the fuel with water allowed it to be traced through the main flow. The results show that the addition of swirl to the fuel jet causes the fuel to mix more rapidly with the main flow, that larger amounts of swirl increase this effect, and that helium spreads better into the main flow than air. 12 refs.

  15. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  18. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  19. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  20. Mixed phases during the phase transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Maruyama, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Quest for a new form of matter inside compact stars compels us to examine the thermodynamical properties of the phase transitions. We closely consider the first-order phase transitions and the phase equilibrium on the basis of the Gibbs conditions, taking the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter as an example. Characteristic features of the mixed phase are figured out by solving the coupled equations for mean-fields and densities of constituent particles self-consistently within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The mixed phase is inhomogeneous matter composed of two phases in equilibrium; it takes a crystalline structure with a unit of various geometrical shapes, inside of which one phase with a characteristic shape, called "pasta", is embedded in another phase by some volume fraction. This framework enables us to properly take into account the Coulomb interaction and the interface energy, and thereby sometimes we see the mechanical instability of the geometric structures of the mixed phase...

  1. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  2. Instabilities and Mixing in SN 1993J

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Iwamoto; T. R. Young; N. Nakasato; T. Shigeyama; K. Nomoto; I. Hachisu; H. Saio

    1997-01-15

    Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities in the explosion of SN 1993J are investigated by means of two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. It is found that the extent of mixing is sensitive to the progenitor's core mass and the envelope mass. Because the helium core mass (3 - 4 \\ms) is smaller than that of SN 1987A, R-T instabilities at the He/C+O interfaces develop to induce a large scale mixing in the helium core, while the instability is relatively weak at the H/He interface due to the small envelope mass. The predicted abundance distribution, in particular the amount of the \

  3. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  4. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  5. Hazardous and Radioactive Mixed Waste Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1989-02-22

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous and radioactive mixed waste policies and requirements and to implement the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) within the framework of the environmental programs established under DOE O 5400.1. This directive does not cancel any directives.

  6. Domain embedding preconditioners for mixed systems 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winther, Ragnar

    Domain embedding preconditioners for mixed systems 1 Torgeir Rusten SINTEF, P. O. Box 124 Blindern preconditioners for the corresponding discrete linear systems where an embedding of the domain papers discussing domain embedding as a tool for solving discrete systems we refer to Astrakhantsev [4

  7. Mixing liquid holding tanks for uniform concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving uniform concentration within liquid holding tanks can often times be a difficult task for the nuclear chemical process industry. This is due to the fact that nuclear criticality concerns require these tanks to be designed with high internal aspect ratios such that the free movement of fluid is greatly inhibited. To determine the mixing times required to achieve uniform concentrations within these tanks, an experimental program was conducted utilizing pencil tanks, double-pencil tanks, and annular tanks of varying geometries filled with salt-water solutions (simulant for nitric acid actinide solutions). Mixing was accomplished by air sparging and/or pump recirculation. Detailed fluid mechanic mixing models were developed --from first principles--to analyze and interpret the test results. These nondimensional models show the functionality of the concentration inhomogeneity (defined as the relative standard deviation of the true concentration within the tank) in relationship to the characteristic mixing time--among other variables. The results can be readily used to scale tank geometries to sizes other than those studied here.

  8. Vertical mixing and the ocean circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Changing sources of mixing Hurricanes Tidal dissipation 2 #12;Zonal Mean Ocean Temperature 3 #12;Sandström's Theorem A circulation cannot be driven unless heat is input at a lower depth than it is lost in the ocean? Wind-driven stirring Tidal generation of internal waves Biota Hurricanes Nasa 6 #12;Sources

  9. Symmetrical parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodejohann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    Advantages of the original symmetrical form of the parametrization of the lepton mixing matrix are discussed. It provides a conceptually more transparent description of neutrino oscillations and lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay, clarifying the significance of Dirac and Majorana phases. It is also ideal for parametrizing scenarios with light sterile neutrinos.

  10. AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATIO (AMPC): ANOMALY CLASSIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chein-I

    14 AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATIO (AMPC): ANOMALY CLASSIFICATION In Chapter 13, one type of AMPC, automatic target detection and classification (ATDC) is investigated, which does not require any, an automatic thresholding method and four target discrimination measures are introduced in this chapter

  11. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  12. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The HLP-022 vessel was also evaluated using 12 m/s pulse jet velocity with 6-in. nozzles, and this design also did not satisfy the criteria for all of the conditions evaluated.

  13. The Effect of Magnetic Field on the Position of HTS Leads and theCooler in the Services Tower of the MICE Focusing Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.; Yang, S.Q.; Cobb, J.; Lau, P.; Lau, W.W.; Witte,H.; Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE focusing solenoids have three 4 K coolers (two forthe superconducting magnet and one for the liquid absorber) and four HTSleads that feed the current to the focusing coils. The focusing solenoidsproduce large radial external fields when they operate with the polarityof the two coils in opposition (the gradient or flip mode). When the MICEfocusing coils operate at the same polarity (the solenoid or non-flipmode), the fields are much smaller and parallel to the axis of thesolenoid. The worst-case magnetic field affects the selection of thecooler and the HTS leads. This magnetic field can also determine theheight of the service towers that house the three coolers and the fourHTS leads. This paper shows the criteria used for Cooler selection, HTSlead selection, and the position of both the cooler and leads withrespect to the solenoid axis of rotation.

  14. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  15. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

  16. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1994-08-16

    An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

  17. Polymer flood mixing apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.M.; Stephenson, S.V.

    1984-02-28

    A method and an apparatus are described for controlling the viscosity of a mixture by controlling the volumetric flow of a fluid with respect to the volumetric flow of another fluid. The apparatus includes volumetric flow detectors for detecting the flow of the 2 fluids. An electronic controller responds to electric signals generated by the volumetric flow detectors in proportion to the respective detective volumetric flows. The output of the controller operates a flow drive element, such as a pump, so that the volumetric flow of one of the fluids is controlled. The volumetric flow of the controlled fluid and the volumetric flow of the other fluid are mixed by a suitable mixer to obtain the mix having the desired viscosity. 7 claims

  18. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  19. Discrimination between pure states and mixed states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi Zhang; Guoming Wang; Mingsheng Ying

    2007-02-09

    In this paper, we discuss the problem of determining whether a quantum system is in a pure state, or in a mixed state. We apply two strategies to settle this problem: the unambiguous discrimination and the maximum confidence discrimination. We also proved that the optimal versions of both strategies are equivalent. The efficiency of the discrimination is also analyzed. This scheme also provides a method to estimate purity of quantum states, and Schmidt numbers of composed systems.

  20. Synthesis and physical properties study on mixed metal oxynitrides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxynitrides have attracted attention due to their interesting chemical and physical properties in the past twenty years. In this thesis, four series of mixed metal oxynitrides have been investigated. The ...

  1. Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Berkeley Lab Study Reveals Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes...

  2. Lattice Boltzmann equation simulations of turbulence, mixing, and combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Huidan

    2006-04-12

    We explore the capability of lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) method for complex fluid flows involving turbulence, mixing, and reaction. In the first study, LBE schemes for binary scalar mixing and multi-component reacting flow with reactions...

  3. Synthesis and study of frustrated oxide and mixed anion materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Lucy

    2013-11-28

    Mixed anion systems, such as oxynitrides and oxyfluorides, are an emerging class of interesting materials. The lower stability of mixed anion systems in comparison to oxide materials has had the consequence that this ...

  4. Preconditioning for the mixed formulation of linear plane elasticity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yanqiu

    2005-11-01

    In this dissertation, we study the mixed ?nite element method for the linear plane elasticity problem and iterative solvers for the resulting discrete system. We use the Arnold-Winther Element in the mixed ?nite element discretization...

  5. August 2000 ((Mixed) Integer Nonlinear Programming ) Sven Leyffer ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ((Mixed) Integer Linear Programming ) ... Facets of The Cardinality Constrained Circuit Polytope ..... Analysis of MILP Techniques for the Pooling Problem

  6. RISK AVERSION AND TECHNOLOGY MIX IN AN ELECTRICITY Guy MEUNIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RISK AVERSION AND TECHNOLOGY MIX IN AN ELECTRICITY MARKET Guy MEUNIER Cahier n° 2013-23 ECOLE:chantal.poujouly@polytechnique.edu hal-00906944,version1-20Nov2013 #12;Risk aversion and technology mix in an electricity market Guy-aversion on the long-term equilibrium technology mix in an electricity market. It develops a model where firms can

  7. Homemade mixes can save time and money. You can make

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Meat Mixes Homemade mixes can save time and money. You can make meat mixes ahead of time and freeze seconds before and after handling food. · Don't cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, poultry, fish and their juices away from other food in your grocery cart and at home. · Thaw meat safely. Be sure thawing meat

  8. Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, William David

    Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE Department of Physics form 18 December 2008) ABSTRACT The dependence of mixing efficiency on time-varying forcing is studied frame and allowing the tilt angle to vary in time. Mixing efficiency Gc is defined as the ratio

  9. Paint Inspired Color Mixing and Compositing for Visualization Nathan Gossett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Baoquan

    Paint Inspired Color Mixing and Compositing for Visualization Nathan Gossett University of Minnesota at Twin Cities Baoquan Chen University of Minnesota at Twin Cities Figure 1: Photographs of paint mixing. Left: A photograph of Red, Yellow and Blue paint mixing together. (The white spots are produced

  10. EXAMINATION OF ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS USING A COMBINED APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXAMINATION OF ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS USING A COMBINED APPROACH Chunsong Lu1, 2 , Yangang of Science ABSTRACT Turbulent entrainment-mixing mechanisms are studied with the aircraft measurements Period. The inhomogeneous entrainment-mixing process occurs both near cloud top and in the middle level

  11. MIXED REALITY ENVIRONMENT FOR WEB-BASED LABORATORY INTERACTIVE LEARNING Mixed Reality Environment for Web-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIXED REALITY ENVIRONMENT FOR WEB-BASED LABORATORY INTERACTIVE LEARNING Mixed Reality Environment reality environment, Laboratory learning, Fuzzy logic, Learner modeling. I. INTRODUCTION Advances in computers and communication technology have changed traditional methods for learning and skills training

  12. Design manual for excavation support using deep mixing technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutherford, Cassandra Janel

    2005-02-17

    by cement stabilization DJM = dry jet mixing DLM = deep lime mixing DM = deep mixing DMM = deep mixing method DSM = deep soil mixing E = modulus of deformation of soil vii EBMUD = East Bay Municipal Utility District EI = wall stiffness ESoil... = average spacing between supports H = height of wall Hc = height of clay layer Hc(design) = height of clay layer for design Hc(failure) = height of clay layer at failure Hw = height of water from bottom of excavation H1 = height from top of wall...

  13. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Chinese Acadamy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Niu, Shengjie [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Endo, Satoshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.

    2014-12-27

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasing scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.

  14. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Niu, Shengjie; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-12-17

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasing scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.

  15. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Niu, Shengjie; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-12-17

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasingmore »scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.« less

  16. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.

    1994-08-16

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 11 figs.

  17. Resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Begley, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM); Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving large susceptibilities and long interaction lengths in the generation of new wavelengths in the infrared spectral region. A process of resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing is employed, utilizing existing laser sources, such as the CO.sub.2 laser, to irradiate a gaseous media. The gaseous media, comprising NH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 F, D.sub.2, HCl, HF, CO, and H.sub.2 or some combination thereof, are of particular interest since they are capable of providing high repetition rate operation at high flux densities where crystal damage problems become a limitation.

  18. Golden Ratio Prediction for Solar Neutrino Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adisorn Adulpravitchai; Alexander Blum; Werner Rodejohann

    2009-06-17

    It has recently been speculated that the solar neutrino mixing angle is connected to the golden ratio phi. Two such proposals have been made, cot theta_{12} = phi and cos theta_{12} = phi/2. We compare these Ansatze and discuss a model leading to cos theta_{12} = phi/2 based on the dihedral group D_{10}. This symmetry is a natural candidate because the angle in the expression cos theta_{12} = phi/2 is simply pi/5, or 36 degrees. This is the exterior angle of a decagon and D_{10} is its rotational symmetry group. We also estimate radiative corrections to the golden ratio predictions.

  19. CST/Water Slurry Mixing and Resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) was selected as one of the alternatives to the In-Tank Precipitation Process (ITP) for removal of cesium from the salt waste at Savannah River Site. The proposed salt waste treatment process using CST would involve passing a filtered salt waste through a fixed bed of CST. The CST would remove the cesium from the salt waste by ion exchange and the decontaminated salt would be incorporated into the Saltstone Process. This report documents the results of investigations into the mixing and re-suspension characteristics of two 10 wt percent CST slurries.

  20. B_s mixing at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchesi, Donatella; /Padua U.

    2006-08-01

    The measurement of the B{sub s} mixing oscillation frequency, {Delta}m{sup s}, has been the main goal for both experiments CDF and D0 which are running at the Tevatron collider. With 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected during the last four years D0 set a lower and upper limit on this frequency, 17 < {Delta}m{sub s} < 21 ps{sup -1}. CDF measured {Delta}m{sub s} with a precision better than 2% and the probability that the data could randomly fluctuate to mimic such a signature is 0.2%.

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Michael L. (Kennewick, WA); Perez, Jr., Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA); Peters, Richard D. (Pasco, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  2. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard

    2015-10-19

    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  3. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  4. Characterizing Arctic Mixed-phase Cloud Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate:Characterization ofArctic Mixed-phase

  5. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS IN CUMULUS DURING RACORO: AN IMPLICATION FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS IN CUMULUS DURING RACORO entrainment- mixing mechanisms. The connection between microphysical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties associated with entrainment-mixing processes is explored in the framework of homogeneous/inhomogeneous mixing

  6. Mixing in wicking structures and the use of enhanced mixing within wicks in microchannel devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA

    2011-04-19

    Advanced wicking structures and methods utilizing these structures are described. The use of advanced wicking structures can promote rapid mass transfer while maintaining high capillary pressure through the use of small pores. Particularly improved results in fluid contacting processes can be achieved by enhanced mixing within a wicking layer within a microchannel.

  7. Author's personal copy Mixed-linker zeolitic imidazolate framework mixed-matrix membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    online 10 July 2013 Keywords: Zeolitic imidazolate framework Mixed-matrix membranes Gas separation, there have been few demonstrations of improved gas separation properties over pure polymer membranes when utilizing ZIF materials in composite membranes for CO2-based gas separations. Here, we report a study

  8. Mixing and mixing-related CP violation in the B system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amhis, Yasmine Sara; Jung, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We present the summary of the working group on $B$ mixing and the related CP violation at the CKM 2014 workshop. The contributions reflect the experimental and theoretical progress in the field over the last two years since the last CKM workshop.

  9. MIXING STUDY FOR JT-71/72 TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2013-11-26

    All modeling calculations for the mixing operations of miscible fluids contained in HBLine tanks, JT-71/72, were performed by taking a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD modeling results were benchmarked against the literature results and the previous SRNL test results to validate the model. Final performance calculations were performed by using the validated model to quantify the mixing time for the HB-Line tanks. The mixing study results for the JT-71/72 tanks show that, for the cases modeled, the mixing time required for blending of the tank contents is no more than 35 minutes, which is well below 2.5 hours of recirculation pump operation. Therefore, the results demonstrate the adequacy of 2.5 hours’ mixing time of the tank contents by one recirculation pump to get well mixed.

  10. Deconvolution of mixed magnetism in multilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, Akshaya Kumar; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2014-06-16

    Magnetic properties of graphite modified at the edges by KCl and exfoliated graphite in the form of twisted multilayered graphene (<4 layers) are analyzed to understand the evolution of magnetic behavior in the absence of any magnetic impurities. The mixed magnetism in multilayer graphene is deconvoluted using Low field-high field hysteresis loops at different temperatures. In addition to temperature and the applied magnetic field, the density of edge state spins and the interaction between them decides the nature of the magnetic state. By virtue of magnetometry and electron spin resonance studies, we demonstrate that ferromagnetism is intrinsic and is due to the interactions among various paramagnetic centers. The strength of these magnetic correlations can be controlled by modifying the structure.

  11. The Role of Mixing in Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Arnett

    1999-09-01

    The role of hydrodynamic mixing in astrophysics is reviewed, emphasizing connections with laser physics experiments and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Computer technology now allows two dimensional (2D) simulations, with complex microphysics, of stellar hydrodynamics and evolutionary sequences, and holds the promise for 3D. Careful validation of astrophysical methods, by laboratory experiment, by critical comparison of numerical and analytical methods, and by observation are necessary for the development of simulation methods with reliable predictive capability. Recent and surprising results from isotopic patterns in presolar grains, 2D hydrodynamic simulations of stellar evolution, and laser tests and computer simulations of Richtmeyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed, and related to stellar evolution and supernovae.

  12. Extended model for Richtmyer-Meshkov mix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikaelian, K O

    2009-11-18

    We examine four Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) experiments on shock-generated turbulent mix and find them to be in good agreement with our earlier simple model in which the growth rate h of the mixing layer following a shock or reshock is constant and given by 2{alpha}A{Delta}v, independent of initial conditions h{sub 0}. Here A is the Atwood number ({rho}{sub B}-{rho}{sub A})/({rho}{sub B} + {rho}{sub A}), {rho}{sub A,B} are the densities of the two fluids, {Delta}V is the jump in velocity induced by the shock or reshock, and {alpha} is the constant measured in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments: {alpha}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.05-0.07, {alpha}{sup spike} {approx} (1.8-2.5){alpha}{sup bubble} for A {approx} 0.7-1.0. In the extended model the growth rate beings to day after a time t*, when h = h*, slowing down from h = h{sub 0} + 2{alpha}A{Delta}vt to h {approx} t{sup {theta}} behavior, with {theta}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.25 and {theta}{sup spike} {approx} 0.36 for A {approx} 0.7. They ascribe this change-over to loss of memory of the direction of the shock or reshock, signaling transition from highly directional to isotropic turbulence. In the simplest extension of the model h*/h{sub 0} is independent of {Delta}v and depends only on A. They find that h*/h{sub 0} {approx} 2.5-3.5 for A {approx} 0.7-1.0.

  13. Method of chaotic mixing and improved stirred tank reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J. (Monroe, NJ); Lamberto, David J. (Edison, NJ)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for efficiently achieving a homogeneous mixture of fluid components by introducing said components having a Reynolds number of between about .ltoreq.1 to about 500 into a vessel and continuously perturbing the mixing flow by altering the flow speed and mixing time until homogeniety is reached. This method prevents the components from aggregating into non-homogeneous segregated regions within said vessel during mixing and substantially reduces the time the admixed components reach homogeneity.

  14. Method of chaotic mixing and improved stirred tank reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muzzio, F.J.; Lamberto, D.J.

    1999-07-13

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for efficiently achieving a homogeneous mixture of fluid components by introducing said components having a Reynolds number of between about [le]1 to about 500 into a vessel and continuously perturbing the mixing flow by altering the flow speed and mixing time until homogeneity is reached. This method prevents the components from aggregating into non-homogeneous segregated regions within said vessel during mixing and substantially reduces the time the admixed components reach homogeneity. 19 figs.

  15. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  16. Fully Developed Turbulent Mixing in an Annular Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hyun-Kyung; Zhou, Yijie; de Almeida, Valmor F; Glimm, James G

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress on the characterization of turbulent mixing fluid flow and relate these ideas to high-speed, two-phase Couette flow with application to mixing in a centrifugal contactor. The general ideas are more broadly applicable and have been applied to the study of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov fluid mixing, combustion in the engine of a scram jet and the analysis of inertial confinement pellet simulations.

  17. Savannah River Site - Mixed Waste Management Facility Northwest...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    state determination for entire site. Addthis Related Articles Savannah River Site - Mixed Waste Management Facility Northeast Plume Savannah River Site - D-Area Oil Seepage Basin...

  18. Savannah River Site - Mixed Waste Management Facility Northeast...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    state determination for entire site. Addthis Related Articles Savannah River Site - Mixed Waste Management Facility Northwest Plume Savannah River Site - D-Area Oil Seepage Basin...

  19. A multifluid mix model with material strength effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scannapieco, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-23

    We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.

  20. Multiple Higgs-Portal and Gauge-Kinetic Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Y. Choi; C. Englert; P. M. Zerwas

    2013-10-29

    We develop a phenomenological formalism for mixing effects between the Standard Model and hidden-sector fields, motivated by dark matter in the Universe as well as string theories. The scheme includes multiple Higgs-portal interactions in the scalar sector as well as multiple gauge-kinetic mixings in the abelian gauge sector. While some of the mixing effects can be cast in closed form, other elements can be controlled analytically only by means of perturbative expansions in the ratio of standard scales over large hidden scales. Higgs and vector-boson masses and mixings are illustrated numerically for characteristic processes.