National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for total reform ulated

  1. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other ...

  2. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel ...

  3. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.9 Q Q Q Heat Pump......7.7 0.3 Q Q Steam or Hot Water System......Census Division Total West Energy Information Administration ...

  4. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.9 Q Q Q Heat Pump......6.2 3.8 2.4 Steam or Hot Water System......Census Division Total Northeast Energy Information ...

  5. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to

  6. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.5 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 3.9 2.4 1.5 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 4.4 3.2 1.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 3.5 2.4 1.1 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 3.2 2.1 1.1 2,500 to

  7. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7

  8. Total................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to

  9. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7

  10. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................ 3.2 0.4 Q 0.6 1.7 0.4 500 to 999................................................... 23.8 4.8 1.4 4.2 10.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499............................................. 20.8 10.6 1.8 1.8 4.0 2.6 1,500 to 1,999............................................. 15.4 12.4 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 2,000 to 2,499............................................. 12.2 10.7 1.0 0.2 Q Q 2,500 to

  11. Total.........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3

  12. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1

  13. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4

  14. Total...........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9

  15. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.PDF Table 28. PAD District 2 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 1,552 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  16. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.PDF Table 30. PAD District 4 and 5 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total PAD District 4 OPEC ..................................... - - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - -

  17. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.PDF Table 32. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 - 3 - 349 349 - - - Australia .............................. - 0 575 0 - 0 0 - - - Bahamas ............................ - 0 4 - - 179 179

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 42. PAD District 2 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 801 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 44. PAD District 4 and 5 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total PAD District 4 OPEC ..................................... - - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - -

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 51. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 312 64 - - - - - - Australia .............................. - - 426 - - 0 0 - 0 0 Bahamas ............................ - 0 31 0 - 37 37

  1. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.PDF Table 26. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 99,127 - - 2,384 - - - - 1,652 1,652 Algeria ................................ - - - 2,119 - - - - -

  2. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.PDF Table 27. PAD District 1 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 5,672 - - - - - - - 1,652 1,652 Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  3. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.PDF Table 29. PAD District 3 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 69,917 - - 2,005 - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - 1,740 - - - - - - Angola

  4. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.PDF Table 33. Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 3,198 0 -27 60 - -36 -36 0 52 52 Algeria ................................ - - - 68 - - - - - - Angola

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 39. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 90,723 - - 4,059 - - - - 1,218 1,218 Algeria ................................ 1,253 - - 4,059 -

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 40. Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 563,597 - - 25,955 - 2 2 - 8,201 8,201 Algeria

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 41. PAD District 1 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 13,026 - - 402 - - - - 522 522 Algeria ................................ - - - 402 - - - - - - Angola

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 43. PAD District 3 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 55,521 - - 3,240 - - - - 696 696 Algeria ................................ 1,253 - - 3,240 - - - - - -

  9. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 45. PAD District 1 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 68,781 - - 468 - 2 2 - 6,901 6,901 Algeria ................................ - - -

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 46. PAD District 2 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 8,024 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - -

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 47. PAD District 3 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 350,597 - - 24,172 - - - - 1,300 1,300 Algeria ................................

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 48. PAD District 4 and 5 - Year-to-Date Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total PAD District 4 OPEC ..................................... - - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 52. Year-to-Date Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 462 362 - 373 373 - 0 0 Australia .............................. - 3 1,547 3 - 5 5 - 0 0 Bahamas

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 53. Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 3,024 - -30 135 - -36 -36 0 41 41 Algeria ................................ 42 - - 135 - - - - - -

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 54. Year-to-Date Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 3,097 0 -24 113 - -44 -44 0 35 35 Algeria ................................ 19

  16. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  17. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  18. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  19. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  20. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  1. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  2. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  3. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications ...

  4. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  5. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Imports -

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  8. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  9. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  10. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total Canada 61,078 1% China 3,323,297 57% Germany 154,800 3% Japan 12,593 0% India 47,192 1% South Korea 251,105 4% All Others 2,008,612 34% Total 5,858,677 100% Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2014 (peak kilowatts) Note: All Others includes Cambodia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Turkey Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic

  11. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  12. State Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Total Percent of U.S. total Alabama 482 0.0% Alaska 81 0.0% Arizona 194,476 3.3% Arkansas 336 0.0% California 3,163,120 53.0% Colorado 47,240 0.8% Connecticut 50,745 0.9% Delaware 6,600 0.1% District of Columbia 751 0.0% Florida 18,593 0.3% Georgia 47,660 0.8% Hawaii 78,329 1.3% Illinois 5,795 0.1% Indiana 37,016 0.6% Iowa 14,281 0.2% Kansas 1,809 0.0% Kentucky 520 0.0% Louisiana 12,147 0.2% Maine 1,296 0.0% Maryland 63,077 1.1% Massachusetts 157,415 2.6% Michigan 4,210 0.1% Minnesota

  13. Cren(ulation)-­1,2 Preshot Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Bradley, Joseph Thomas; Hollander, Brian J.; Reinovsky, Robert Emil

    2015-12-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the RichtmyerMeshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  14. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  15. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National ... GAS 7 BIOMASS BIO-OIL CHAR For reactor or export Gas recycle For fluidization or export ...

  16. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  17. Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform By: Secretary...

  18. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  19. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O.; Magrini, Kim; Landin, Steven M.; Ritland, Marcus A.

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  20. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  1. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  2. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  3. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  4. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform | Department of Energy Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement

  5. Promoting energy efficiency in reforming electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinton, J.; Kozloff, K.

    1998-07-01

    Many developing countries are initiating power sector reforms to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and recover the full costs of power. Reforms may include unbundling generation, transmission, distribution and retail services; commercial management; competition; and private ownership. This paper draws upon six country case studies--Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the US--to identify major models of power reforms and their implications for energy efficiency--both positive and negative. There are both structural and institutional features of reform that may discourage commercial offerings of end-use efficiency services. Valuable lessons are discussed regarding what reforms and policies have worked to promote energy efficiency and which have not. Several models are offered for how developing countries can promote energy efficiency under some of the more common forms of power sector restructuring. Conclusions and recommendations are directed at key decision-makers in developing countries contemplating power sector reforms.

  6. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming Success Story Converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as diesel and coal-based fuels, into hydrogen-rich synthesis gas is a necessary step for fuel cells and other applications. The high sulfur and aromatic content of these fuels poses a major technical challenge since these components can deactivate reforming catalysts. Taking on this challenge, NETL researchers invented a novel fuel-reforming catalyst that overcomes limitations of current catalysts by

  7. Barge Truck Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

  8. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) ...

  9. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources FITARA Resources Available for Download: DOE IT Policy Archive: ZIP IT Leadership Directory: HTML | ...

  10. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 03_dti_cost_analysis_bio-derived_liquids_reforming.pdf (471.59 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  12. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration ...

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Meeting - November 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  14. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen ... More Documents & Publications On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel ...

  15. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and ...

  16. Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

    2005-01-27

    This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

  17. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the ...

  18. Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform ...

  19. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling ...

  20. Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations ...

  1. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government...

  2. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements EAS ...

  3. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  4. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-03-06

    The autothermal reforming method employs an improved dehydrogenation process for olefin production, utilizing platinum based dehydrogenation catalysts in the presence of oxygen. The autothermal process requires no external energy input following ignition and produces high conversions and yields from the gaseous hydrocarbon feeds. Autothermal reforming is an effective solution that meets the high demands of the chemical market industry by producing high yields...

  5. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  6. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  7. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  8. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  9. Diesel Reforming for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D-J.; Sheen, S-H.; Krumpelt, M.

    2005-01-27

    This presentation discusses the development of a diesel reforming catalyst and catalytic system development.

  10. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  11. Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map This is a "pre-decisional draft of the Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map. biliwg06_schlasner.pdf (36.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to

  12. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian; Northrop, William F.

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  14. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6 and 7 2007 R. J. Evans, NREL D. M. Steward, NREL Innovation / Overview Biomass pyrolysis produces a liquid product, bio-oil, which contains a wide spectrum of components that can be efficiently, stored, and shipped, to a site for renewable hydrogen production and converted to H2 at moderate severity

  15. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  16. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  17. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  18. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  19. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  1. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  4. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  7. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  8. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  9. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  10. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skala, Glenn William; Hart-Predmore, David James; Pettit, William Henry; Borup, Rodney Lynn

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  11. U.S. Total Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Egypt ... Sabine Pass, LA Total to Russia Total to South Korea Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total ...

  12. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anderson o H2A Overview, NREL, Darlene Steward o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen ... Bio-Oil Reforming, NREL, Darlene Steward o High Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, ...

  13. Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Testimony of Daniel Poneman, Deputy Secretary of Energy Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform 8-1-13_ Daniel_Pohema FT HOGR.pdf (42.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Email from BPA Acting Administrator Eliot Mainzer -- July 19, 2013 Gregory H. Friedman: Provided for The Committee on Oversight and Government Reform U.S. House of Representatives MANAGEMENT ALERT:

  14. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 06_nrel_distributed_reforming_biomass_pyrolysis_oils.pdf (301.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D

  15. Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Photo of cylindrical reactor vessel and associated piping and equipment in the Thermochemical Process Development Unit at NREL Liquids derived from biomass resources-including ethanol and bio-oils-can be reformed to produce hydrogen in a process similar to natural gas reforming. Biomass-derived liquids can be transported more easily than their biomass feedstocks, allowing for semi-central

  16. Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Reforming Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This is an important technology pathway for near-term hydrogen production. How Does It Work? Natural gas contains methane (CH4) that can be used to

  17. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched

  18. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) ...

  19. Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities | Department of Energy Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities Implementing a range of alternative utility-rate reforms could minimize solar

  20. DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safety and Security Reform Meeting DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting Meeting Date: August 13, 2010 HSS senior managers with lead responsibilities in DOE's safety and security reform activities met with labor union representatives to discuss approach and process for the engagement of worker stakeholders in the reform efforts. Documents Available for Download Meeting Agenda (74.42 KB) Meeting Summary (95.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Work Group Telecom (Draft Charters) Focus Group

  1. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_ahmed_anl.pdf (638.37 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen

  2. Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_schmidt_umn.pdf (247.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Biofuels Report Final Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator (SCPO) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working

  3. Summary Max Total Units

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  4. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2004_deer_bromberg.pdf (404.01 KB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Onboard

  5. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  8. Total DOE/NNSA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 Actuals 2009 Actuals 2010 Actuals 2011 Actuals 2012 Actuals 2013 Actuals 2014 Actuals 2015 Actuals Total DOE/NNSA 4,385 4,151 4,240 4,862 5,154 5,476 7,170 7,593 Total non-NNSA 3,925 4,017 4,005 3,821 3,875 3,974 3,826 3765 Total Facility 8,310 8,168 8,245 8,683 9,029 9,450 10,996 11,358 non-NNSA includes DOE offices and Strategic Parternship Projects (SPP) employees NNSA M&O Employee Reporting

  9. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  10. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Shockling, Larry A.; George, Raymond A.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  11. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  12. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  13. TOTAL WORKFORCE Males

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    76 Females Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female 27 24 86 134 65 24 192 171 1189 423 PAY PLAN SES 96 EX 4 EJ/EK 60 EN 05 39 EN 04 159 EN 03 21 EN 00 8 NN (Engineering) 398 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 1165 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 54 NV (Nuc Mat Courier) 325 GS 15 3 GS 14 1 GS 13 1 GS 10 1 Total includes 2318 permanent and 17 temporary employees. DIVERSITY 2335 1559 66.8% American Indian Alaska Native African American Asian American Pacific Islander Hispanic White 33.2% National

  14. Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

    1999-09-07

    For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

  15. Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 December 17, 2004 To reform the intelligence community and the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, and for other purposes. SEC. 102. (a) DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-(1) There is a Director of National Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and

  16. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) | Department of Energy Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 11_anl_distributed_reforming_using_otm.pdf (809.59 KB) More Documents & Publications Cost

  17. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan Memoranda and Action Plan to support the President's mandate directing the improvement of the Federal recruitment and hiring process throughout the Federal government. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan (6.76 MB) Responsible Contacts Kenneth Venuto Director, Office of Human Capital Management E-mail kenneth.venuto@hq.doe.gov More Documents & Publications Chief Human Capital Officer Memo on Improving DOE

  18. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Academy of Public Administration | Department of Energy to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration January 12, 2015 - 10:30am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration WASHINGTON- On Thursday, January 15, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will give a

  19. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources | Department of Energy Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources FITARA Resources Available for Download: DOE IT Policy Archive: ZIP IT Leadership Directory: HTML | JSON | PDF CIO Governance Board Membership List: HTML | JSON | PDF DOE IT Reform Cost Savings: JSON | PDF DOE IT Policies policyarchive.zip (1.36 MB) bureaudirectory.html (8.07 KB) bureaudirectory.json (10.48 KB)

  20. Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations | Department of Energy Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations 5-18-16_Michael_Johnson FT HOGR (383.24 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act

  1. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) | Department of Energy Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System.

  2. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes individuals from DOE, the national laboratories, industry, and academia.

  3. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aftertreatment | Department of Energy generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2003_deer_bromberg.pdf (739.71 KB) More Documents & Publications H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle

  4. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Return to Search Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming National Energy Technology...

  5. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Onboard Plasmatron ...

  6. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  7. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  8. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 07anlhighpressuresteamethanolref...

  9. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Reformer Development Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Subir Roychoudhury Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), North Haven, CT Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop March 29, 2011 ...

  10. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration WASHINGTON- On Thursday, January 15, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will give ...

  11. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 6 November 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or ...

  12. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for regulatory reform that would improve research universities' ability to carry out their missions without requiring a significant financial investment by the Federal government. ...

  13. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement An ...

  14. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  15. Fuel Reformation: Catalyst Requirements in Microchannel Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2005-09-06

    Microchannel reactors have unique capabilities for onboard hydrocarbon fuel processing, due to their ability to provide process intensification through high heat and mass transfer, leading to smaller and more efficient reactors. The catalyst requirements in microchannel devices are demanding, requiring high activity, very low deactivation rates, and strong adherence to engineered substrate. Each unit operation benefits from microchannel architecture: the steam reforming reactor removes heat transfer limitations, allowing the catalyst to operate at elevated temperatures at the kinetic limit; the water gas shift reactor uses unique temperature control to reduce catalyst volume requirements; the PROX reactor provides high CO conversion and minimizes H2 oxidation through effective control of reactor temperature.

  16. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  17. Electricity Reform Abroad and U.S. Investment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom in an attempt to better understand how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries of Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

  18. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  19. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  20. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  1. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  2. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  3. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  4. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  5. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barbados Total To Brazil Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Canada Eastport, ID Calais, ME Detroit, MI Marysville, MI Port Huron, MI Crosby, ND Portal, ND Sault St. Marie, MI St. Clair, MI Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Buffalo, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Egypt Freeport, TX Total to India

  6. Reforming natural gas markets: the antitrust alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, J.D.; Gilfoyle, N.P.

    1983-05-12

    Although the centerpiece of the Department of Energy's proposed legislation is gradual decontrol of all wellhead natural gas prices by Jan. 1, 1986, it also addresses the structural problems that have contributed to the current market disorder. Intended to promote increased competition in the marketing of natural gas, the provisions are based on fundamental tenets of antitrust law. This review of relevant antitrust principles as they relate to the natural gas industry places the remedial features of the proposed legislation in legal context. These features concern the pipelines' contract carrier obligation, gas purchase contract modifications, and limitations on passthrough of purchase gas costs. Should the legislation fail to pass, private antitrust litigation will remain as an inducement to structural and economic reform in the gas industry.

  7. Hydrocarbon fuel reforming catalyst and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, Todd; Irving, Patricia Marie

    2006-06-27

    The subject invention is a catalyst consisting of an oxide or mixed oxide support and bimetallic catalytically active compounds. The supporting oxide can be a single oxide, such as Al.sub.2O.sub.3; it also can be a mixture of oxides, such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 stabilized ZrO.sub.2 (YSZ), Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with CeO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with YSZ and others. The bimetallic compounds, acting as active components, are selected from platinum, and ruthenium, prepared in an appropriate ratio. The catalyst is used in the steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for applications such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  8. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  9. Total Eolica | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eolica Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Eolica Place: Spain Product: Project developer References: Total Eolica1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  10. Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf (2.66 MB) More Documents & Publications Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 National Historic Preservation Act (1966, amended 2014)

  11. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  12. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S.; Painter, Corning F.; Pastore, Steven P.; Roth, Gary S.; Winchester, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  13. Total..............................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970 1,310 1,941 1,475 821 1,059 944 554 Census Region and Division Northeast.................................... 20.6 13.9 3,224 2,173 836 2,219 1,619 583 903 830 Q New England.......................... 5.5 3.6 3,365 2,154 313 2,634 1,826 Q 951 940 Q Middle Atlantic........................ 15.1 10.3 3,167 2,181 1,049 2,188 1,603 582 Q Q Q Midwest...................................... 25.6 21.0 2,823 2,239 1,624 2,356 1,669 1,336 1,081 961 778 East North

  14. Total............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

  15. Total..............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269

  16. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs

  17. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  18. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2

  19. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  20. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat

  1. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment........ 1.2 N Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment........... 109.8 14.7 7.4 12.4 12.2 18.5 18.3 17.1 9.2 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............. 109.1 14.6 7.3 12.4 12.2 18.2 18.2 17.1 9.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It............... 0.8 Q Q Q Q 0.3 Q N Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas................................................... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central

  2. Total..................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central

  3. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing

  4. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................... 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 37.8 3.4 2.2 7.0 3.1 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 9.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 Window/Wall Units.......................................... 28.9 14.9 2.3 3.5 6.0 2.1 1 Unit........................................................... 14.5 6.6 1.0 1.6 4.2 1.2 2

  5. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.9 5.3 1.6 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.7 9.8 3.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 9.3 6.8 2.5 2.................................................................. 16.2 2.9 1.9 1.0 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 1.5 1.1 0.4 Number of Laptop PCs

  6. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 8.4 3.4 2.................................................................. 16.2 3.5 2.2 1.3 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.1 1.5 0.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  7. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  8. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1

  9. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing

  10. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 40.1 21.2 6.9 12.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 Q Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 13.6 5.6 2.3 5.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.0 4.4

  11. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0

  12. Total...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat

  13. Total...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  14. Total...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  15. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat

  16. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a

  17. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a

  18. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  19. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat

  20. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a

  1. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  2. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat

  3. Total..............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5

  4. Total..............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a

  5. Total..............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer .......................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer....................................... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Number of Desktop PCs 1......................................................................... 50.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 5.4 2......................................................................... 16.2 0.7 1.1 1.2 2.2 3 or More............................................................ 9.0 0.3

  6. Total..............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5

  7. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  8. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  9. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.0 1.6 0.3 1.1 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 8.3 4.2 1.3 2.7 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 15.0 8.1 2.7 4.2 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 10.9 6.0 1.8 3.1 About Once a Week..................................................... 3.9

  10. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  11. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  12. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 10.8 4.1 4.3 5.5 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 17.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 11.4 4.7 6.4 4.8 About Once a Week.....................................................

  13. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  14. Total.........................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less

  15. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Basements Basement in Single-Family Homes and Apartments in 2-4 Unit Buildings ... Attics Attic in Single-Family Homes and Apartments in 2-4 Unit Buildings ...

  16. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Climate region 3 Very coldCold 31,898 30,469 28,057 28,228 21,019 30,542 25,067 Mixed-humid 27,873 26,716 24,044 26,365 21,026 27,096 22,812 Mixed-dryHot-dry 12,037 10,484 7,628 ...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......Central Air-Conditioning...... 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 ...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent......1.3 1.2 0.8 0.4 1. Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 80,000 or More 60,000 to 79,999 ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 80,000 or More 60,000 to 79,999 ...

  20. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Table HC7.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 80,000 or More Space Heating ...

  1. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Table HC7.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line ... Table HC7.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line ...

  2. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Living Space Characteristics Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 Million ... Living Space Characteristics Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 Million ...

  3. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Table HC7.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty ... Table HC7.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty ...

  4. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 40,000 to 59,999 60,000 to 79,999 ...

  5. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 786 56 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 965 62 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 994 65 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,052 72 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,127 80 100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,098 89 200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,035 99 Over 500,000 8 7,074 9,196 885.0 769 117 Principal building activity Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53 Food sales 177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121 Food

  6. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 786 56 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 965 62 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 994 65 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,052 72 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,127 80 100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,098 89 200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,035 99 Over 500,000 8 7,074 9,196 885.0 769 117 Principal building activity Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53 Food sales 177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121 Food

  7. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 786 56 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 965 62 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 994 65 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,052 72 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,127 80 100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,098 89 200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,035 99 Over 500,000 8 7,074 9,196 885.0 769 117 Principal building activity Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53 Food sales 177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121 Food

  8. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Median square feet per building (thousand) Median square feet per worker Median operating hours per week Median age of buildings (years) All buildings 5,557 87,093 88,182 5.0 1,029 50 32 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.8 821 49 37 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.0 1,167 50 31 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 15.0 1,444 56 32 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.0 1,461 60 29 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 67.0 1,442 60 26 100,001 to 200,000 90

  9. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) Living Space ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) Living Space ...

  10. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural ...

  11. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 ...

  12. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy ...

  13. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Per Household Member Average Square Feet Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC1.2.2 ...

  14. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 ...

  15. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 41.8 2,603 2,199 1,654 941 795 598 1-Car Garage...... 9.5 2,064 1,664 1,039 775 624 390 2-Car Garage......

  16. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Average Square Feet per Apartment in a -- Apartments (millions) Major Outside Wall Construction Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, Steel)...... 35.3 3.5 1,286 1,090 325 852 786 461 ...

  17. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units ... At Home Behavior Home Used for Business Yes......

  18. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units ... At Home Behavior Home Used for Business Yes......

  19. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Housing Characteristics Tables Single-Family Units Detached Type of Housing Unit Table ... At Home Behavior Home Used for Business Yes......

  20. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  1. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Presentation) | Department of Energy Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 08_osu_bio-ethanol_steam_reforming.pdf (6.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Investigation of Reaction Networks and Active Sites In Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming

  2. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 01doebio-derivedliquidstoh2refor...

  3. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives By: Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman, U.S. Department of Energy FinalTestimonyPoneman0922111.pdf More Documents...

  4. Process Reform, Security and Suitability- December 17, 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year.

  5. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities January 21, 2011 Introduction At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research

  6. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. apu2011_6_roychoudhury.pdf (4.83 MB) More Documents & Publications System Design - Lessons Learned, Generic Concepts, Characteristics & Impacts Fuel Cells For Transportation - 1999 Annual Progress Report Energy Conversion Team Fuel Cell Systems Annual Progress Report

  7. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review | Department of Energy Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review This is the agenda for the working group sessions held in Laurel, Maryland on November 6, 2007. biliwg_agenda.pdf (145.59 KB) More Documents

  8. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the NRC Committee on Research Universities | Department of Energy and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the

  9. Criterion buys Akzo`s naphtha reforming catalysts business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-12-08

    In a move that further consolidates the refinery catalysts market, Criterion Catalyst (Houston) has bought Akzo`s reforming business for an undisclosed price. The acquisition gives Criterion-a joint venture between Shell and American Cyanamid-roughly 35% of the $50-million/year worldwide reforming market. Akzo says it is quitting the business to focus on larger refinery catalysts applications in hydroprocessing and fluid cracking catalysts.

  10. Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). | Department of Energy Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). I have reviewed the Request For Information

  11. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  12. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  13. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  14. DOE regulatory reform initiative vitrified mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, S.J.; Holtzscheiter, E.W.; Flaherty, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with responsibly managing the largest volume of mixed waste in the United States. This responsibility includes managing waste in compliance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations, and in a cost-effective, environmentally responsible manner. Managing certain treated mixed wastes in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage and disposal units (specifically those mixed wastes that pose low risks from the hazardous component) is unlikely to provide additional protection to human health and the environment beyond that afforded by managing these wastes in storage and disposal units subject to requirements for radiological control. In October, 1995, the DOE submitted a regulatory reform proposal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relating to vitrified mixed waste forms. The technical proposal supports a regulatory strategy that would allow vitrified mixed waste forms treated through a permit or other environmental compliance mechanism to be granted an exemption from RCRA hazardous waste regulation, after treatment, based upon the inherent destruction and immobilization capabilities of vitrification technology. The vitrified waste form will meet, or exceed the performance criteria of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass that has been accepted as an international standard for immobilizing radioactive waste components and the LDR treatment standards for inorganics and metals for controlling hazardous constituents. The proposal further provides that vitrified mixed waste would be responsibly managed under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) while reducing overall costs. Full regulatory authority by the EPA or a State would be maintained until an acceptable vitrified mixed waste form, protective of human health and the environment, is produced.

  15. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  17. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  18. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  19. Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Year 1987 Url...

  20. Reforming The Government Hiring Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process November 19, 2010 - 10:10am Addthis Rita R. Franklin Rita R. Franklin Director, Office of the Ombudsman What does this mean for me? In the video, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman highlights the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and Reporting System." The Department reduced the end-to-end time-to-hire from 174 calendar days for Fiscal Year FY 2009 to 100 days for FY 2010. Wednesday, Deputy Secretary Daniel

  1. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  2. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  3. Hydrogen Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids Presentation by Yong Wang and David King at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_wang_pnnl.pdf (841.57 KB) More Documents & Publications Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production

  4. CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged Business Woman Owned Small Business HubZone Small Business Veteran-Owned Small Business Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business FY 2013 Dollars Accomplished $1,049,087,940 $562,676,028 $136,485,766 $106,515,229 $12,080,258 $63,473,852 $28,080,960 FY 2013 % Accomplishment 54.40% 13.00% 10.20% 1.20% 6.60% 2.70% FY 2014 Dollars Accomplished $868,961,755 $443,711,175 $92,478,522 $88,633,031 $29,867,820 $43,719,452 $26,826,374

  5. Method for improving catalyst function in auto-thermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2014-08-26

    The invention provides a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle ...

  7. Mexico`s economic reform: Energy and the Constitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubio, L.

    1993-12-31

    Oil is a fundamental component of nationhood in Mexico. The 1938 expropriation of oil resources concluded a process of internal political consolidation and thus became the most important symbol of nationalism. Mexico has been undergoing a process of economic reform that has altered the country`s economic structure and has subjected it to international competition. Oil in particular and energy in general have been left untouched. There is recognition that without an equal reform of the energy industry, the potential for success will be significantly limited. While the Constitution allows private investment in the industry--with the exception of the resource properties themselves--the Regulatory Law bans any private participation. Because of its political sensitivity, however, amending the law in order to reform the oil industry will necessitate a domestic initiative rather than foreign pressure. In this perspective, NAFTA served to slow and postpone the reform of the industry, rather than the opposite. Once NAFTA is well in place, the industry will have to face competition.

  8. Understanding electricity market reforms and the case of Philippine deregulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santiago, Andrea; Roxas, Fernando

    2010-03-15

    The experience of the Philippines offers lessons that should be relevant to any country seeking to deregulate its power industry. Regardless of structure, consumers must face the real price of electricity production and delivery that is closer to marginal cost. Politically motivated prices merely shift the burden from ratepayers to taxpayers. And any reform should work within a reasonable timetable. (author)

  9. Total Number of Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge

  10. Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period Total Fee Paid

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2008 $134,832 FY2009 $142,578 FY2010 $299,878 FY2011 $169,878 Cumulative Fee Paid $747,166 Contract Period: September 2007 - October 2012 $31,885,815 C/P/E Environmental Services, LLC DE-AM09-05SR22405/DE-AT30-07CC60011/SL14 Contractor: Contract Number: Contract Type: Cost Plus Award Fee $357,223 $597,797 $894,699 EM Contractor Fee Site: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Contract Name: SLAC Environmental Remediation December 2012 $1,516,646 Fee

  11. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Steeper, Richard R.; Splitter, Derek A; Kalaskar, Vickey B; Pihl, Josh A; Daw, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  12. GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13 GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 This memorandum provides guidance on the application of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of1998 to vacancies in Senate-confirmed offices within the executive branch. March 22, 1999 MEMORANDUM FOR AGENCY GENERAL COUNSELS On October 21, 1998, the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 ("Vacancies Reform Act" or "Act") was signed into law. ( ) The

  13. Design Storm for Total Retention.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Title: Design Storm for "Total Retention" under Individual Permit, Poster, Individual ... International. Environmental Programs Design Storm for "Total Retention" under ...

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurhadi, N. Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah; Istadi, I.

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  15. Development of a Rapid-Start On-Board Automotive Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Davis, James M.

    2004-04-29

    The paper reports on the status of efforts to engineer a microchannel steam reforming system to enable a rapid cold start capability. The steam reformer is intended to be coupled with a WGS and PROX reactor to provide reformate to a PEM fuel cell for an automotive propulsion application. A compact and efficient microchannel steam reformer was previously developed that required ~15 minutes to accomplish a cold start. The objective of the current work was to reduce this start time to <30 seconds without sacrificing steady-state efficiency. The paper describes the changes made in the reforming system to enable cold start capability and presents data on reformate flow and temperature transients during cold start testing. The results demonstrate that the system is capable of producing reformate within 22 seconds after a cold start. A strategy for integrating the system with a WGS and PROX reactor to provide a rapid start fuel processing system is described.

  16. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    St. Clair, MI International Falls, MN Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT North Troy, VT U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake

  17. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. Total 9,010 5,030 8,596 6,340 4,707 8,092 1936-2016 PAD District 1 3,127 2,664 2,694 1,250 1,327 2,980 1981-2016 Connecticut 1995-2015 Delaware 280 1995-2016 Florida 858 649 800 200 531 499 1995-2016 Georgia 210 262 149 106 1995-2016 Maine 1995-2015 Maryland 84 1995-2016 Massachusetts 1995-2015 New Hampshire 1995-2015 New Jersey 1,283 843 1,073 734 355 1,984 1995-2016 New York 234 824 210 196 175 1995-2016 North Carolina 1995-2011

  18. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  19. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. Total 133,646 119,888 93,672 82,173 63,294 68,265 1936-2015 PAD District 1 88,999 79,188 59,594 33,566 30,944 33,789 1981-2015 Connecticut 220 129 1995-2015 Delaware 748 1,704 510 1,604 2,479 1995-2015 Florida 15,713 11,654 10,589 8,331 5,055 7,013 1995-2015 Georgia 5,648 7,668 6,370 4,038 2,037 1,629 1995-2015 Maine 1,304 651 419 75 317 135 1995-2015 Maryland 3,638 1,779 1,238 433 938 539 1995-2015 Massachusetts 123 50 78 542 88 1995-2015 New

  20. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 79,674 137,928 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 61,327 106,995 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 15,991 27,500 1984-2014 Connecticut 8,800 7,437

  1. Total quality management program planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  2. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 6 November 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objective * Assess cost of H 2 from bio-derived liquids * Looking at forecourt scale systems: 100-1500kg/day * Emphasis on Ethanol * Looking at both "conventional" and "advanced" systems * Interaction with the Researchers is bi-directional * Researchers help me with

  3. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team | Department of Energy Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team 2007 Annual and Merit Review Reports compiled for the

  4. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  5. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology <span id="Caption"><span id="ctl00_MainContentHolder_zoomimage_defaultCaption">Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives.</span></span> Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives. <span id="Caption"><span

  6. NNSA Contract Reform in Action: Supply Chain Management Center | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Contract Reform in Action: Supply Chain Management Center December 22, 2009 As part of NNSA's commitment to being a responsible steward of tax dollars, NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino (then the head of Defense Programs) created the Supply Chain Management Center (SCMC) in 2006 and selected Honeywell, operator of the Kansas City Plant, as the lead contractor for managing the initiative. Since Management and Operating (M&O) contractors spend

  7. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Offices (NE-ID) and State of Idahos top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62%. The

  8. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C.

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  9. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  15. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  16. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports" ...

  17. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  18. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption ... 9:10:34 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption ...

  19. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption ... 9:10:33 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption ...

  20. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, L.A.

    1991-09-10

    An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

  1. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber (54) contains an outer portion containing reforming material (56), an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle (50) and a mixer-diffuser (52), and a middle portion (64) for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle (50) and mixer-diffuser (52) are preferably both within the reforming chamber (54) and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material (56), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Act (FITARA) Common Baseline Implementation Plan and Self-Assessment | Department of Energy S. Department of Energy Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline Implementation Plan and Self-Assessment U.S. Department of Energy Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline Implementation Plan and Self-Assessment The DOE Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Implementation Plan provides the framework

  3. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bypass Regeneration | Department of Energy Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_midlam-mohler.pdf (432.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Eaton Aftertreatment System (EAS) for On-Highway Diesel Engines Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications

  4. Fact #571: May 18, 2009 Light Truck CAFE Standards - 2006 Reformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1: May 18, 2009 Light Truck CAFE Standards - 2006 Reformation Fact #571: May 18, 2009 Light Truck CAFE Standards - 2006 Reformation In 2006 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established new requirements for the light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. In the new rule, there are Unreformed CAFE standards for model years (MY) 2008 through 2010 using the same CAFE calculations as in the past, and there are Reformed CAFE standards

  5. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Desulfation | Department of Energy A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: ArvinMeritor 2004_deer_crane.pdf (430.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient

  6. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or

  7. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  8. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of ... Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

  9. Understanding the Chemistry of H2 Production for 1-Propanol Reforming...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemistry of H2 Production for 1-Propanol Reforming: Pathway and Support Modification Effects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding the Chemistry of H2 ...

  10. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  11. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    04 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: ArvinMeritor 2004deercrane.pdf (430.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal ...

  12. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

    1998-03-31

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

  13. The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy...

  14. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Hager, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

  15. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... by" "petroleum refineries, rather than purchased ... ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column ... 324,"Petroleum and Coal ...

  16. Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  17. Energy Reform: New Paradigm forMexico's Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14th, 2014 Energy Reform: New Paradigm for Mexico's growth Gustavo Hernández-García General Director & CEO www. .com pep.pemex The information made available here is for information purposes only and does not imply any commitment to accept any suggestions.. The presentation of this information does not constitute an offer to submit a bid or to award any contract, nor does it imply that Pemex E&P assumes any kind of obligation whatsoever. Pemex E&P shall not be liable for any errors

  18. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell

  19. Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 2,668 2,629 2,824 2,727 2,894 2,994 2010-2016 PADD 1 192 183 180 188 193 195 2010-2016 East Coast 175 167 164 174 176 177

  20. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  1. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ethanol Steam Reforming on CoCeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ethanol Steam Reforming on CoCeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter A series of ...

  2. Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_bonadies.pdf (1.07 MB) More Documents & Publications Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions Delphi On-board Ammonia Generation (OAG) On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer

  3. Effect of ZnO facet on ethanol steam reforming over Co/ZnO (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of ZnO facet on ethanol steam reforming over CoZnO Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of ZnO facet on ethanol steam reforming over CoZnO The effects of ZnO ...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  5. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Indiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S16. Summary statistics for natural gas - Indiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 620 914 819 R 921 895 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 6,802 9,075

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Nebraska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S29. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nebraska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 276 322 270 R 357 310 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 2,092 1,854

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  12. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heat exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.

  13. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heatmore » exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.« less

  14. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  15. Hydrogen generation having CO2 removal with steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandaswamy, Duraiswamy; Chellappa, Anand S.; Knobbe, Mack

    2015-07-28

    A method for producing hydrogen using fuel cell off gases, the method feeding hydrocarbon fuel to a sulfur adsorbent to produce a desulfurized fuel and a spent sulfur adsorbent; feeding said desulfurized fuel and water to an adsorption enhanced reformer that comprises of a plurality of reforming chambers or compartments; reforming said desulfurized fuel in the presence of a one or more of a reforming catalyst and one or more of a CO2 adsorbent to produce hydrogen and a spent CO2 adsorbent; feeding said hydrogen to the anode side of the fuel cell; regenerating said spent CO2 adsorbents using the fuel cell cathode off-gases, producing a flow of hydrogen by cycling between said plurality of reforming chambers or compartments in a predetermined timing sequence; and, replacing the spent sulfur adsorbent with a fresh sulfur adsorbent at a predetermined time.

  16. Hydrogen generation having CO.sub.2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kandaswamy, Duraiswamy; Chellappa, Anand S.; Knobbe, Mack

    2015-07-28

    A method for producing hydrogen using fuel cell off gases, the method feeding hydrocarbon fuel to a sulfur adsorbent to produce a desulfurized fuel and a spent sulfur adsorbent; feeding said desulfurized fuel and water to an adsorption enhanced reformer that comprises of a plurality of reforming chambers or compartments; reforming said desulfurized fuel in the presence of a one or more of a reforming catalyst and one or more of a CO.sub.2 adsorbent to produce hydrogen and a spent CO.sub.2 adsorbent; feeding said hydrogen to the anode side of the fuel cell; regenerating said spent CO.sub.2 adsorbents using the fuel cell cathode off-gases, producing a flow of hydrogen by cycling between said plurality of reforming chambers or compartments in a predetermined timing sequence; and, replacing the spent sulfur adsorbent with a fresh sulfur adsorbent at a predetermined time.

  17. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 25, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Arkansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S4. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arkansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,397 8,388 8,538 R 9,843 10,150 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 California - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S5. Summary statistics for natural gas - California, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,580 1,308 1,423 R 1,335 1,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Georgia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. Summary statistics for natural gas - Georgia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Idaho - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Illinois - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S15. Summary statistics for natural gas - Illinois, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 50 40 40 R 34 36 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells E 1,697 2,114

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Iowa - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. Summary statistics for natural gas - Iowa, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Kentucky - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S19. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kentucky, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 17,670 14,632 17,936 R 19,494 19,256 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Maine - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Michigan - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S24. Summary statistics for natural gas - Michigan, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 10,100 11,100 10,900 R 10,550 10,500 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,979 5,732 1,669 R 1,967 1,645 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Missouri - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S27. Summary statistics for natural gas - Missouri, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 53 100 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 R 8 8 From

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Montana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S28. Summary statistics for natural gas - Montana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,059 6,477 6,240 5,754 5,754 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Nevada - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nevada, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 R 4 4 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 3 From Oil Wells

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 New York - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,736 6,157 7,176 R 6,902 7,119 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Ohio - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 34,931 46,717 35,104 R 32,664 32,967 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,000 41,238 40,000 39,776 40,070 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Pennsylvania - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S40. Summary statistics for natural gas - Pennsylvania, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,500 54,347 55,136 R 53,762 70,400 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 230 210 212 R 1,089 1,024 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 5,144

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Texas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 95,014 100,966 96,617 97,618 98,279 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Utah - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,075 6,469 6,900 R 7,030 7,275 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 328,135

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,470 7,903 7,843 R 7,956 7,961 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 West Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S50. Summary statistics for natural gas - West Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 52,498 56,813 50,700 R 54,920 60,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  7. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  8. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for

  9. Modeling of On-Cell Reforming Reaction for Planar SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Choongmo; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Hwang, Soon Cheol; Kim, Dohyung; Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-30

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is known to suffer thermal problem from high stack temperature during operation to generate high current. On-Cell Reforming (OCR) phenomenon is often used to reduce stack temperature by an endothermic reaction of steam-methane reforming process. RIST conducted single-cell experiment to validate modeling tool to simulate OCR performance including temperature measurement. 2D modeling is used to check reforming rate during OCR using temperature measurement data, and 3D modeling is used to check overall thermal performance including furnace boundary conditions.

  10. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy held a kick-off meeting for the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and hydrogen recovery and purification steps. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with each other and with members of the DOE Hydrogen Production Technical Team.

  11. 2009 Total Energy Production by State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State...

  12. Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this research is to address critical issues that inhibit successful commercialization of low-temperature BLG systems, including the steam reforming technology developed by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc.

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

  15. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  16. FIA-16-0031- In the Matter of the Manufactured Housing Association for Regulatory Reform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On June 08, 2016, OHA granted in part a FOIA Appeal filed by the Manufactured Housing Association for Regulatory Reform (Appellant) from a determination issued to it by the Office of Information...

  17. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  18. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technical paper on the development of a hydrogen reformer, vehicle refueling facility, and PEM fuel cell for Las Vegas, NV presented at the 2002 Annual Hydrogen Review held May 6-8, 2002 in Golden, CO.

  19. OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2002-08-01

    THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

  20. Cell Total Activity Final Estimate.xls

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WSSRAP Cell Total Activity Final Estimate (calculated September 2002, Fleming) (Waste streams & occupied cell volumes from spreadsheet titled "cell waste volumes-8.23.02 with macros.xls") Waste Stream a Volume (cy) Mass (g) 2 Radiological Profile 3 Nuclide Activity (Ci) 4 Total % of Total U-238 U-234 U-235 Th-228 Th-230 Th-232 Ra-226 Ra-228 Rn-222 5 Activity if > 1% Raffinate Pits Work Zone (Ci) Raffinate processed through CSS Plant 1 159990 1.49E+11 Raffinate 6.12E+01 6.12E+01

  1. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - November 2007 | Department of Energy Meeting - November 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group participated in a Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review on November 6, 2007. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with members of the Department of Energy Hydrogen

  2. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S. Ozkan* November 6 th , 2007 Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Group Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 *Ozkan.1@osu.edu Biomass to Hydrogen (Environmentally Friendly) Plant cultivation Plant cultivation Saccharification Saccharification / /

  3. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Catalysis | Department of Energy NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2003_deer_aardahl.pdf (962.36 KB) More Documents & Publications Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with

  4. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement | Department of Energy System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system developed to meet EPA 2010 and final Tier 4 emission regulations show substantial

  5. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -3,826 Total Supply 854,673 908,380 892,923 R 900,232 828,785 See footnotes at end of ... Gas Annual 165 Table S43. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Dakota, ...

  7. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2004-06-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 April through 30 June of 2004.

  8. EQUUS Total Return Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: EQUUS Total Return Inc Place: Houston, Texas Product: A business development company and VC investor that trades as a closed-end fund. EQUUS is...

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  11. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  12. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING DL

    2011-02-11

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  13. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  14. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

  15. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    total downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at specrally-resolved wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards and downwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  17. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semelsberger, T. A.; Borup, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

  18. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The effects of blends of base fuel (n-heptane) and fuel-reformed products on the low-temperature combustion process were investigated.

  19. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the

  20. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all

  1. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    R 196 184 Total Supply 2,627 2,619 2,689 R 2,855 2,928 See footnotes at end of table. 0 ... Gas Annual 105 Table S13. Summary statistics for natural gas - Hawaii, 2010-2014 - ...

  3. The Leica TCRA1105 Reflectorless Total Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudreault, F.

    2005-09-06

    This poster provides an overview of SLAC's TCRA1105 reflectorless total station for the Alignment Engineering Group. This instrument has shown itself to be very useful for planning new construction and providing quick measurements to difficult to reach or inaccessible surfaces.

  4. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-24

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity.

  5. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  6. Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. Total Africa/Europe

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    peak kilowatts Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. Total Africa/Europe 53,898 29% Asia/Australia 107,460 59% South/Central America 11,692 6% Canada 4,378 2% Mexico 5,556 3% Total 182,984 100% Table 8. Destination of photovoltaic module export shipments, 2014 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.'

  7. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  8. Onboard fuel reformers for fuel cell vehicles: Equilibrium, kinetic and system modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.M.; Ogden, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels to hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has been the subject of numerous investigations. In many respects, liquid fuels represent a more attractive method of carrying hydrogen than compressed hydrogen itself, promising greater vehicle range, shorter refilling times, increased safety, and perhaps most importantly, utilization of the current fuel distribution infrastructure. The drawbacks of on-board reformers include their inherent complexity [for example a POX reactor includes: a fuel vaporizer, a reformer, water-gas shift reactors, a preferential oxidation (PROX) unit for CO cleanup, heat exchangers for thermal integration, sensors and controls, etc.], weight, and expense relative to compressed H{sub 2}, as well as degraded fuel cell performance due to the presence of inert gases and impurities in the reformate. Partial oxidation (POX) of automotive fuels is another alternative for hydrogen production. This paper provides an analysis of POX reformers and a fuel economy comparison of vehicles powered by on-board POX and SRM fuel processors.

  9. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  10. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided by Fundamental Atomistics Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2006-08-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a novel hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, Sn/Ni alloy as a potential carbon tolerant reforming catalyst. Sn/Ni alloy was synthesized and tested in steam reforming of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalyst is carbon-tolerant under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by a few characteristics: (a) Knowledge-based, bottom-up approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) The focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  11. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  12. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  13. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and

  14. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total net irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    net irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total net irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  15. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments.

  17. Steam Reforming Technology for Denitration and Immobilization of DOE Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Ryan, K.; Schmoker, D.

    2003-02-26

    THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (THOR) is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC to further develop, market, and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM non-incineration, steam reforming waste treatment technology. This paper provides an overview of the THORSM steam reforming process as applied to the denitration and conversion of Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes to an immobilized mineral form. Using the THORSM steam reforming technology to treat nitrate containing tank wastes could significantly benefit the DOE by reducing capital and life-cycle costs, reducing processing and programmatic risks, and positioning the DOE to meet or exceed its stakeholder commitments for tank closure. Specifically, use of the THORSM technology can facilitate processing of up to 75% of tank wastes without the use of vitrification, yielding substantial life-cycle cost savings.

  18. Method for forming synthesis gas using a plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J; Elangovan, S; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2015-04-28

    A method of forming a synthesis gas utilizing a reformer is disclosed. The method utilizes a reformer that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding apparatus and system are also disclosed herein.

  19. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  20. The low-temperature partial-oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    Passenger cars powered by fuel cell propulsion systems with high efficiency offer superior fuel economy, very low to zero pollutant emissions, and the option to operate on alternative and/or renewable fuels. Although the fuel cell operates on hydrogen, a liquid fuel such as methanol or gasoline is more attractive for automotive use because of the convenience in handling and vehicle refueling. Such a liquid fuel must be dynamically converted (reformed) to hydrogen on board the vehicle in real time to meet fluctuating power demands. This paper describes the low-temperature Argonne partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) developed for this application. The APOR is a rapid-start, compact, lightweight, catalytic device that is efficient and dynamically responsive. The reformer is easily controlled by varying the feed rates of the fuel, water, and air to satisfy the rapidly changing system power demands during the vehicle`s driving cycle.

  1. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Nataraj, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  2. GAO; Venezuelan reforms do little to spark oil investiment by U. S. firms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This paper reports that Venezuela's 1991 foreign investment reforms did little to encourage U.S. oil companies to invest there despite the overall investment attractiveness of the country's oil sector, says the U.S. General Accounting Office. In a report to Congress, GAO noted Venezuela's oil production peaked in 1970, declined through 1985, and since then has increased by about 21% through 1990. The primary factors affecting continued increases in production through 1996 include Petroleos de Venezuela SA's ability to encourage investment capital, the cost of producing and refining heavy and extra heavy crude oil., and the level of production quotas imposed by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, of which Venezuela is a member. GAO noted Venezuela implemented policy reforms in 1991 to encourage some foreign and private investment petroleum related ventures. However, these reforms have not yet succeeded in attracting U.S. investment in oil exploration, production, or refining in Venezuela.

  3. Table 6a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption...

  4. Reforming Pyrolysis Aqueous Waste Streams to Process Hydrogen and Hydrocarbons Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Reforming Pyrolysis Aqueous Waste Streams to Process Hydrogen and Hydrocarbons March 27, 2015 Kim Magrini 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Program Mission: Transform our renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower through targeted research, development, demonstration, and deployment supported through public and private partnerships. Task Goal: Develop, evaluate and characterize reforming and upgrading catalysts

  5. ,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input",16,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/2010" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  6. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  7. Ambient pressure XPS and IRRAS investigation of ethanol steam reforming on

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nickel-ceria catalysts Digg: ALSBerkeleyLab Facebook Page: 208064938929 Flickr: advancedlightsource/albums Twitter: AdvLightSource YouTube: AdvancedLightSource Home Science Highlights Journal Covers Ambient pressure XPS and IRRAS investigation of ethanol steam reforming on nickel-ceria catalysts Ambient pressure XPS and IRRAS investigation of ethanol steam reforming on nickel-ceria catalysts Print Monday, 15 August 2016 17:11 Ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and

  8. On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_hemingway.pdf (420.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Delphi On-board Ammonia Generation (OAG) LNT

  9. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  10. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 55,664,448 58,258,830 59,769,444 57,512,994 58,675,008 61,890,990 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 18,219,180 17,965,794 17,864,868 16,754,388

  11. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 7,835,436 8,203,062 7,068,306 5,668,530 4,883,466 3,942,750 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,339,162 3,359,265 2,667,576 1,906,700 1,699,418 1,393,068 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 318,184

  12. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 54,100,092 56,093,645 57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 17,821,973 18,136,965 17,757,005 17,382,566

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Kick-Off Meeting Proceedings Hilton Garden Inn-BWI,Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proceedings from the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  14. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 October through 31 December of 2005. Graphical analysis of blast patterns according to drill monitor data is continuing. Multiple linear regression analysis of 16 mine and mill variables (powder factor, two modeled size fractions, liberation index, predicted grind, total crude Fe, Satmagan Fe, sat ratio, DSC, geologic blend, ambient temperature, cobbing hours, feeder plugs, and percent feeder run time-of-mill time) indicates that December variations in plant performance are generally predictable (Figure 1). The outlier on December 28th coincides with low cobbing availability and equipment downtime. Mill productivity appeared to be most influenced, as usual, by ore quality as indicated by the liberation index--the higher the liberation index, the lower the throughput. The upcoming quarter will be concerned with wrapping up the work in progress, such as the detailed statistical analyses, and writing a final report. Hibtac Mine engineers are evaluating neural network software to determine its utility for modeling, and eventually predicting, mill throughput.

  15. Evaluation of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Sodium Bearing Wastes from Idaho and Hanford Using the Bench-Top Steam Reformer (BSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAUL, BURKET

    2005-02-28

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes, but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). To help the Department of Energy (DOE) make informed decisions about this technology for sodium bearing wastes further experimental data are needed. All work described in this study has been performed with non-radioactive simulants and compared to non-radioactive pilot scale testing at other facilities. The desired plan is to provide a laboratory scale system that correlates to the pilot and plant scale systems such that the chemistry of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) can be optimized on a small scale, then verified at the pilot scale. Once verified, this will enable laboratory scale demonstrations of actual radioactive wastes. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed the Bench-top Steam Reformer (BSR) to fill this need. The development of the BSR is the focus of this study. In addition, the characterization of the FBSR products produced in the BSR from simulants of the INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) stream and the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) stream are documented and compared to pilot scale testing of these same simulants at the INEEL pilot-scale test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID.

  16. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 64,575 60,088 61,366 54,650 59,528 58,555 1980-2015 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2014 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Colorado 5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077 4,120

  17. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 July through 30 September of 2005. This ninth quarterly report discusses the activities of the project team during the period 1 July through 30 September 2005. Richard Gertsch's unexpected death due to natural causes while in Minnesota to work on this project has temporarily slowed progress. Statistical analysis of the Minntac Mine data set for late 2004 is continuing. Preliminary results raised several questions that could be amenable to further study. Detailed geotechnical characterization is being applied to improve the predictability of mill and agglomerator performance at Hibtac Mine.

  18. State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Megawatthours) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 47,211,525 53,107,038 19,107,433 557,463 119,983,459 Connecticut 12,777,579 12,893,531 3,514,798 168,552 29,354,460 Maine 4,660,605 3,984,570 3,357,486 0 12,002,661 Massachusetts 20,071,160 26,076,208 7,960,941 360,983 54,469,292 New Hampshire 4,510,487 4,464,530 1,969,064 0 10,944,081 Rhode Island 3,070,347 3,657,679 887,150 27,928

  19. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  20. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  1. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale.

  2. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  3. Hierarchically structured catalysts for cascade and selective steam reforming/hydrodeoxygenation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Rainbolt, James E.; Kovarik, Libor; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Yong

    2015-09-29

    We report a hierarchically structured catalyst with steam reforming and hydrodeoxygenation functionalities being deposited in the micropores and macropores, respectively. The catalyst is highly efficient to upgrade the pyrolysis vapors of pine forest product residual, resulting in a dramatically decreased acid content and increased hydrocarbon yield without external H2 supply.

  4. Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, in–house patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of

  5. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallaro, S.; Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  6. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  7. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  8. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Cates, Michael R.; Franks, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  9. New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries New York Share of Total U.S. ...

  10. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries New Mexico Share of Total U.S. ...

  11. New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries New Jersey Share of Total U.S. ...

  12. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries Minnesota Share of Total U.S. ...

  13. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks ...

  14. Table 6b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total...

  15. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Authors: ...

  16. ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar ...

  17. Table 5a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using District Heat (thousand) Total District Heat Consumption...

  18. Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Facility Total Energy Facilities Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  19. Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year — EERE Totals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Historical EERE office total reports include only Webtrends archives by fiscal year. EERE total reports dating after FY11 can be accessed in EERE's Google Analytics account.

  20. New Jersey Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New Jersey Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  1. New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  2. New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  3. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and ...

  4. West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  6. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the ...

  7. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... to Contents","Data 1: Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  8. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves ... to Contents","Data 1: Alaska (with Total Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves ...

  9. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ... to Contents","Data 1: Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ...

  10. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic ... to Contents","Data 1: Alaska (with Total Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic ...

  11. Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ...

  12. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  13. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  14. North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption North Carolina Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  15. North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption North Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  16. Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  17. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Authors: ...

  18. ,"Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total ... 7:03:02 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total ...

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  20. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  1. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-06-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  2. Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

  3. On-board diesel autothermal reforming for PEM fuel cells: Simulation and optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzolino, Raffaello Tribioli, Laura

    2015-03-10

    Alternative power sources are nowadays the only option to provide a quick response to the current regulations on automotive pollutant emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell is one promising solution, but the nature of the gas is such that the in-vehicle conversion of other fuels into hydrogen is necessary. In this paper, autothermal reforming, for Diesel on-board conversion into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells, has investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. A steady-state model has been developed to analyze the fuel processor and the overall system performance. The components of the fuel processor are: the fuel reforming reactor, two water gas shift reactors, a preferential oxidation reactor and H{sub 2} separation unit. The influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, and temperature on the process components has been analyzed in-depth and results are presented.

  4. Making contracting work better and cost less: Report of the Contract Reform Team

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, Secretary of Energy Hazel O`Leary formed a Contract Reform Team, chaired by Deputy Secretary Bill White, to evaluate the contracting practices of the Department of Energy and to formulate specific proposals for improving those practices. This report summarizes the results of the work of the Contract Reform Team. It recommends actions for implementation that will significantly improve the Department`s contracting practices and will enable the Department to help create a government that -- in the words of Vice President Gore -- {open_quotes}works better and costs less.{close_quotes} These actions and the deadlines for their implementation are listed. Among other things, they recommend replacing the Department`s standard Management and Operating Contract with a new Performance-Based Management Contract and strengthening the Department`s systems for selecting and managing contractors.

  5. Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Implementing a range of alternative utility-rate reforms could minimize solar value losses at increasing levels of distributed PV penetration (see Barbose et al. 2016). In conjunction with the technical issues described above, the connections between distributed PV and electric distribution systems hinge on utility business models and regulations. As PV deployment has leapt forward and presaged a truly significant solar contribution, however, it has become clear that utilities’ traditional treatment of distributed PV cannot be taken for granted—nor can the future value and deployment of distributed PV. At the heart of this issue is net energy metering (NEM). Under NEM, PV owners can sell to a utility the electricity they generate but cannot consume on site, often at full retail rates. This widespread policy has helped drive the rapid growth of distributed PV, but the success has raised concerns about the potential for higher electricity rates and cost-shifting to non-solar customers, reduced utility shareholder profitability, reduced utility earnings opportunities, and inefficient resource allocation. The resulting reform efforts have revolved largely around changing NEM rules and retail rate structures. Most of the reforms to date address NEM concerns by reducing the benefits provided to distributed PV customers and thus constraining PV deployment. A new analysis estimates that eliminating NEM nationwide, by compensating exports of PV electricity at wholesale rather than retail rates would cut cumulative distributed PV deployment by 20% in 2050 compared with a continuation of current policies. This would slow the PV cost reductions that arise from larger scale and market certainty. It could also thwart achievement of the SunShot deployment goals even if the initiative’s cost targets are achieved. This undesirable prospect is stimulating the development of alternative reform strategies that address concerns about distributed PV compensation without

  6. Coal pricing in China: Issues and reform strategy. World Bank discussion paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albouy, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The study assesses the magnitude of coal price distortions left in place by the dual track pricing approach to price reform implemented by China in the 1980s; it examines the economic and financial costs of these distortions and identifies the potential winners and losers of pricing improvements. Finally the report outlines a strategy for gradual price adjustments and liberalization in the coal sector. (Copyright (c) 1991 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  7. The low-temperature partial oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    Argonne`s partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) is a compact, lightweight, rapid-start, and dynamically responsive device to convert liquid fuels to H{sub 2} for use in automotive fuel cells. An APOR catalyst for methanol has been developed and tested; catalysts for other fuels are being evaluated. Simple in design, operation, and control, the APOR can help develop efficient fuel cell propulsion systems.

  8. Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Advancing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Implementing a range of alternative utility-rate reforms could minimize solar value losses at increasing levels of distributed PV penetration (see Barbose et al. 2016). In conjunction with the technical issues described above, the connections between distributed PV and electric distribution systems hinge on utility business models and regulations. As PV deployment has leapt forward and presaged a truly significant solar contribution, however, it has become clear that utilities’ traditional treatment of distributed PV cannot be taken for granted—nor can the future value and deployment of distributed PV. At the heart of this issue is net energy metering (NEM). Under NEM, PV owners can sell to a utility the electricity they generate but cannot consume on site, often at full retail rates. This widespread policy has helped drive the rapid growth of distributed PV, but the success has raised concerns about the potential for higher electricity rates and cost-shifting to non-solar customers, reduced utility shareholder profitability, reduced utility earnings opportunities, and inefficient resource allocation. The resulting reform efforts have revolved largely around changing NEM rules and retail rate structures. Most of the reforms to date address NEM concerns by reducing the benefits provided to distributed PV customers and thus constraining PV deployment. A new analysis estimates that eliminating NEM nationwide, by compensating exports of PV electricity at wholesale rather than retail rates would cut cumulative distributed PV deployment by 20% in 2050 compared with a continuation of current policies. This would slow the PV cost reductions that arise from larger scale and market certainty. It could also thwart achievement of the SunShot deployment goals even if the initiative’s cost targets are achieved. This undesirable prospect is stimulating the development of alternative reform strategies that address concerns about distributed PV compensation without

  9. Development and life evaluation of a steam reforming process for PAFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagase, S.; Takami, S.; Masuda, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a life evaluation method for a carbon monoxide (CO) shift process in the steam reforming process for PAFC. A CO shift reactor simulation was developed to evaluate the whole performance of the CO shift process. The calculation results of the simulation almost coincide with the experimental data obtained from a demonstration plant. By evaluating and grasping the sintering trend of the catalyst, and by simulation calculation of the reactor, it became possible to evaluate the performance at targeted operation hours.

  10. Demonstration test of a reformer employing thermal radiation media for multi-megawatt fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, Y.; Horie, T.; Ogawa, M.; Mizumoto, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The authors made presentation of functions and roles of the thermal radiation media, extensive test results on the thermal radiation media sample and characteristics of an atmospheric 500kw PAFC model facility together with perspective to a 5MW class dispersed-use plant. This paper outlines the specifications and features of a prototype reformer having a capacity of 650kw class PAFC and configuration of atmospheric 500kw PAFC demonstration plant.

  11. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated ourmore » ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.« less

  12. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated our ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.

  13. Delaware Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...e","-","-","-","-","-" "Other","-","-",11,6,"-" "Total",7182,8534,7524,4842,5628 " " "s Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.

  14. Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

  15. Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  16. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  17. Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  18. Project Functions and Activities Definitions for Total Project Cost

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides guidelines developed to define the obvious disparity of opinions and practices with regard to what exactly is included in total estimated cost (TEC) and total project cost (TPC).

  19. North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  20. Washington Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...