National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for total reflectance atr

  1. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  2. Prisms with total internal reflection as solar reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Arnulf; Rabl, Veronika

    1978-01-01

    An improved reflective wall for radiant energy collection and concentration devices is provided. The wall is comprised of a plurality of prisms whose frontal faces are adjacent and which reflect the desired radiation by total internal reflection.

  3. ATR NSUF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sign up to be a Technical Reviewer NSUF needs technical reviewers to help read and evaluate project proposals. Two to three technical experts who are familiar with current DOE programs are needed to peer review each proposal, comment and score. Fill out the form below to get involved and become an NSUF technical reviewer. You are currently not logged in to the system. Please choose an option below... I have an ATR NSUF User Name and Password. I DO NOT have an ATR NSUF User Name and Password. Log

  4. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  5. Measuring Photochemical Kinetics in Submonolayer Films by Transient ATR Spectroscopy on a Multimode Planar Waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Anne M.; Marucci, Nicole E.; Saavedra, S. Scott

    2011-07-15

    Understanding the kinetics of reactions in molecular thin films can aid in the molecular engineering of organic photovoltaics and biosensors. Using two analytical methods, transient absorbance spectroscopy (TAS) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR), in a relatively simple arrangement when compared with previous TAS/ATR instruments to interrogate molecular structure and photochemistry at interfaces. The multimode planar waveguide geometry provides a significant path length enhancement relative to a conventional transmission geometry, making it feasible to perform measurements on low-surface-coverage films. This work demonstrates that TAS/ATR can be used to probe structure and photochemical kinetics in molecular films at extremely low surface coverages.

  6. Broad Band Intra-Cavity Total Reflection Chemical Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.

    1998-11-10

    A broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity chemical sensor is provided that allows etection through utilization of a small, extremely low-loss, monolithic optical cavity. The cavity is fabricated from highly transparent optical material in the shape of a regular polygon with one or more convex facets to form a stable resonator for ray trajectories sustained by total internal reflection. Optical radiation enters and exits the monolithic cavity by photon tunneling in which two totally reflecting surfaces are brought into close proximity. In the presence of absorbing material, the loss per pass is increased since the evanescent waves that exist exterior to the cavity at points where the circulating pulse is totally reflected, are absorbed. The decay rate of an injected pulse is determined by coupling out an infinitesimal fraction of the pulse to produce an intensity-versus-time decay curve. Since the change in the decay rate resulting from absorption is inversely proportional to the magnitude of absorption, a quantitative sensor of concentration or absorption cross-section with 1 part-per-million/pass or better sensitivity is obtained. The broadband nature of total internal reflection permits a single device to be used over a broad wavelength range. The absorption spectrum of the surrounding medium can thereby be obtained as a measurement of inverse decay time as a function of wavelength.

  7. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Downing, Robert G. (Albany, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  8. PUREX new substation ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, D.E.

    1997-05-12

    This document is the acceptance test report (ATR) for the New PUREX Main and Minisubstations. It covers the factory and vendor acceptance and commissioning test reports. Reports are presented for the Main 5 kV substation building, the building fire system, switchgear, and vacuum breaker; the minisubstation control building and switch gear; commissioning test; electrical system and loads inspection; electrical utilities transformer and cable; and relay setting changes based on operational experience.

  9. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Hudgens, Jeffrey W. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-08-24

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  10. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  11. Near IR Scanning Angle Total Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy at Smooth Gold Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, Kristopher; Meyer, Matthew; Smith, Emily

    2012-04-13

    Total internal reflection (TIR) Raman and reflectivity spectra were collected for nonresonant analytes as a function of incident angle at sapphire or sapphire/smooth 50 nm gold interfaces using 785 nm excitation. For both interfaces, the Raman signal as a function of incident angle is well-modeled by the calculated interfacial mean square electric field (MSEF) relative to the incident field times the thickness of the layer being probed in the Raman measurement (D{sub RS}). The Raman scatter was reproducibly enhanced at the interface containing a gold film relative to the sapphire interface by a factor of 4.34.6 for aqueous pyridine or 2.23.7 for neat nitrobenzene, depending on the analyzed vibrational mode. The mechanism for the increased Raman signal is the enhanced MSEF at incident angles where propagating surface plasmons are excited in the metal film. The background from the TIR prism was reduced by 8995% with the addition of the gold film, and the percent relative uncertainty in peak area was reduced from 15 to 1.7% for the 1347 cm1 mode of nitrobenzene. Single monolayers of benzenethiol (S/N = 6.8) and 4-mercaptopyridine (S/N = 16.5) on gold films were measured by TIR Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm excitation (210 mW) without resonant enhancement in 1 min.

  12. Total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer to study dynamic adsorption phenomena at liquid/liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupy, M.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Radke, C.J.

    1998-08-01

    Adsorption at oil/water interfaces affects the performance of many industrial systems including oil recovery, extraction processes, cosmetic products, and food technology. However, no technique currently available can monitor adsorption dynamics using molecularly sensitive methods. The authors have constructed a novel total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer (TIRFS) to follow dynamic adsorption events at the oil/water interface. The TIRFS monitors changes in fluorescence intensity and fluorescence spectra over time by maintaining an optical focus on the fluid interface during adsorption and desorption processes. Kinetic adsorption phenomena are examined by altering the composition of the aqueous phase and recording surface fluorescence response without mechanically disturbing the fluid/fluid interface. The spectrometer captures changes in the fluorescence intensity over tenths of seconds and maintains optical focus for periods of days. Mass transport of fluorescing surface-active material to and from the oil/water interface is accurately modeled using the simple one-dimensional diffusion equation. The geometry designed for this apparatus can be applied to other light-based techniques studying adsorption at liquid/liquid interfaces. Here, the authors apply the TIRFS apparatus to the study of {beta}-casein adsorption and desorption at an aliphatic oil/water interface. The observed increase in interfacial fluorescence due to {beta}-casein adsorption is slower than the diffusive flux, and desorption is found to be very slow if not irreversible. The TIRF spectrum indicates interaction of sorbed {beta}-casein with the oil phase and subsequent rearrangement of the native structure.

  13. Elucidation of Perovskite Film Micro-Orientations Using Two-Photon Total Internal Reflectance Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Brianna R; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Yingzhong; Doughty, Benjamin L; Calhoun, Tessa R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of efficient hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaic materials has caused the rapid development of a variety of preparation and processing techniques designed to maximize their performance. As processing methods continue to emerge, it is important to understand how the optical properties of these materials are affected on a microscopic scale. Here polarization resolved two-photon total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRFM) was used to probe changes in transition dipole moment orientation as a function of thermal annealing time in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on glass. These results show that as thermal annealing time is increased the distribution of transition moments pointing out-of-plane decreases in favor of forming areas with increased in-plane orientations. It was also shown through the axial sensitivity of TIRFM that the surface topography is manifested in the signal intensity and can be used to survey aspects of morphology in coincidence with the optical properties of these films.

  14. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500... 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999......

  15. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999......

  16. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999......

  17. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999......

  18. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500... 3.2 0.5 0.3 Q 500 to 999......

  19. Total............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592

  20. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  1. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7

  3. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 2.1 0.6 Q 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 13.6 3.7 3.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 9.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.6 2.7 2.5 3.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 5.0 2.1

  4. Total................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to

  5. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7

  6. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4

  7. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9

  8. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Replacement of ATR Primary Coolant Pumps and Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-05-01

    The continued safe and reliable operation of the ATR is critical to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) mission. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, a variety of aging and obsolescence issues challenge ATR engineering and maintenance personnel’s capability to sustain ATR over the long term. First documented in a series of independent assessments, beginning with an OA Environmental Safety and Health Assessment conducted in 2003, the issues were validated in a detailed Material Condition Assessment (MCA) conducted as a part of the ATR Life Extension Program in 2007.Accordingly, near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3), switchgear, and the 50-year-old obsolescent marine diesels with commercial power that is backed with safety related emergency diesel generators, switchgear, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The second project, the subject of this major modification determination, will replace the four, obsolete, original primary coolant pumps (PCPs) and motors. Completion of this and the two other age-related projects (replacement of the ATR diesel bus [E-3] and switchgear and replacement of the existent emergency firewater injection system) will resolve major age-related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The proposed strategy for equipping the replacement PCPs with VFDs and having the PCPs also function as ECPs will require significant safety basis changes requiring DOE approval. 2. Evaluation Criteria #4 (Use of new technology). The use of VFD and VFD “pump catcher” technology for the PCPs is not currently in use and has not been previously formally reviewed/approved by DOE for ATR. It is noted that VFD technology has several decades of commercial use and experience. However, the ATR probabilistic risk assessment will have to be updated, reflecting the changes for supplying ECP flows including VFD reliability, to confirm that the proposed activity maintains or reduces the CDF for the ATR. 3. Evaluation Criteria #5 (Create the need for new or revised safety SSCs). It is expected that the proposed activity will result in a revised list of safety-related SSCs. Specifically, as currently proposed, the existing ECPs will be deleted from the list. The PCPs and their associated components, picking up the ECP function, will be classified as safety-related active Seismic Category I.

  9. Validation of HELIOS for ATR Core Follow Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, Samuel E.; Swain, Emily T.; Crawford, Douglas S.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    This work summarizes the validation analyses for the HELIOS code to support core design and safety assurance calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Past and current core safety assurance is performed by the PDQ-7 diffusion code; a state of the art reactor physics simulation tool from the nuclear industrys earlier days. Over the past twenty years, improvements in computational speed have enabled the use of modern neutron transport methodologies to replace the role of diffusion theory for simulation of complex systems, such as the ATR. More exact methodologies have enabled a paradigm-shift away from highly tuned codes that force compliance with a bounding safety envelope, and towards codes regularly validated against routine measurements. To validate HELIOS, the 16 ATR operational cycles from late-2009 to present were modeled. The computed power distribution was compared against data collected by the ATRs on-line power surveillance system. It was found that the ATRs lobe-powers could be determined with 10% accuracy. Also, the ATRs cold startup shim configuration for each of these 16 cycles was estimated and compared against the reported critical position from the reactor log-book. HELIOS successfully predicted criticality within the tolerance set by the ATR startup procedure for 13 out of the 16 cycles. This is compared to 12 times for PDQ (without empirical adjustment). These findings, as well as other insights discussed in this report, suggest that HELIOS is highly suited for replacing PDQ for core safety assurance of the ATR. Furthermore, a modern verification and validation framework has been established that allows reactor and fuel performance data to be computed with a known degree of accuracy and stated uncertainty.

  10. ATR National Scientific User Facility 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd R. Allen; Mitchell K. Meyer; Frances Marshall; Mary Catherine Thelen; Jeff Benson

    2010-11-01

    This report describes activities of the ATR NSUF from FY-2008 through FY-2009 and includes information on partner facilities, calls for proposals, users week and education programs. The report also contains project information on university research projects that were awarded by ATR NSUF in the fiscal years 2008 & 2009. This research is university-proposed researcher under a user facility agreement. All intellectual property from these experiments belongs to the university per the user agreement.

  11. LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristine Barrett

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

  12. Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEUs ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved. During the power operation, the total fission energy (200 MeV per fission) deposition fraction of LEU and HEU are 90.9% and 89.1%, respectively.

  13. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRCs current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols and in-core instrumentation under the ATR Modeling, Simulation and V&V Upgrade initiative, as well as the work to replace nuclear instrumentation under the ATR Life Extension Project (LEP) and provide support to the ATR NSUF.

  14. Assigning Seismic Design Category to Large Reactors: A Case Study of the ATR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assigning Seismic Design Category to Large Reactors: A Case Study of the ATR Stuart Jensen October 21, 2014

  15. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycle 154B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binh Pham; Jeff Einerson

    2014-01-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-2 (AGR-2) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 154B as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This is the last cycle of AGR-2 irradiation, as the test train was pulled from the ATR core during the outage portion of ATR Cycle 155A. The AGR-2 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates including new Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) downstream flows from Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) detectors, pressure, and moisture content), and FPMS data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the six capsules in the AGR-2 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) comprised of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The Data Review Committee reviewed the data acquisition process, considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) data collection plans, examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  16. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  17. Total reflection inelastic x-ray scattering from a 10 nm thick La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3} thin film.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fister, T. T.; Fong, D. D.; Eastman, J. A.; Iddir, H.; Zapol, P.; Fuoss, P. H.; Balasubramanian, M.; Gordon, R. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. R.; Salvador, P. A.; Simon Fraser Univ.; Carnegie Mellon Univ.

    2011-01-18

    To study equilibrium changes in composition, valence, and electronic structure near the surface and into the bulk, we demonstrate the use of a new approach, total-reflection inelastic x-ray scattering, as a sub-keV spectroscopy capable of depth profiling chemical changes in thin films with nanometer resolution. By comparing data acquired under total x-ray reflection and penetrating conditions, we are able to separate the O K-edge spectra from a 10 nm La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} thin film from that of the underlying SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. With a smaller wavelength probe than comparable soft x-ray absorption measurements, we also describe the ability to easily access dipole-forbidden final states, using the dramatic evolution of the La N{sub 4,5} edge with momentum transfer as an example.

  18. AGR-3/4 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binh T. Pham

    2014-02-01

    This data report provides the qualification status of Advanced Gas Reactor-3/4 (AGR-3/4) fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Of these cycles, ATR Cycle 152A is a low power cycle that occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power. The irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculation, but the qualification status of these cycle data is still covered in this report. On the other hand, during ATR Cycles 153A (unplanned Outage cycle) and 153B (Power Axial Locator Mechanism [PALM] cycle), the AGR-3/4 was pulled out from the ATR core and stored in the canal to avoid being overheated. Therefore, qualification of the AGR-3/4 irradiation data from these 2 cycles was excluded in this report. By the end of ATR Cycle 154B, AGR-3/4 was irradiated for a total of 264.1 effective full power days. The AGR-3/4 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates, pressure, and moisture content), and Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the twelve capsules in the AGR-3/4 experiment. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) composed of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The DRC convened on February 12, 2014, reviewed the data acquisition process, and considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) data collection plans. The DRC also examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report.

  19. In-core flux sensor evaluations at the ATR critical facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois Villard

    2014-09-01

    Flux detector evaluations were completed as part of a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / French Atomic Energy commission (CEA) ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to compare the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of several flux detectors. Special fixturing developed by INL allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various ATRC core positions and perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector cross-calibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program include the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers; specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) developed by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA); specially developed commercial SPNDs from Argonne National Laboratory. As shown in this article, data obtained from this program provides important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and flux data required for bench-marking models in the ATR V&V Upgrade Initiative.

  20. Transfer of polarized 3He ions in the AtR beam transfer line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsoupas N.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2012-05-20

    In addition to collisions of electrons with various unpolarized ion species as well as polarized protons, the proposed electron-hadron collider (eRHIC) will facilitate the collisions of electrons with polarized {sup 3}He ions. The AGS is the last acceleration stage, before injection into one of the RHIC's collider ring for final acceleration. The AtR (AGS to RHIC) transfer line will be utilized to transport the polarized {sup 3}He ions from AGS into one of the RHIC's collider rings. Some of the peculiarities of the AtR line's layout (simultaneous horizontal and vertical bends) may degrade the matching of the stable spin direction of the AtR line with that of RHIC's. In this paper we discuss possible simple modifications of the AtR line to accomplish a perfect matching of the stable spin direction of the injected {sup 3}He beam with the stable spin direction at the injection point of RHIC.

  1. AGR-2 Final Data Qualification Report for U.S. Capsules - ATR Cycles 147A Through 154B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Binh T; Einerson, Jeffrey J

    2014-07-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data in four U.S. capsules from all 15 Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, 149A, 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B, 154A, and 154B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). Thus, this report covers data qualification status for the entire AGR-2 irradiation and will replace four previously issued AGR-2 data qualification reports (e.g., INL/EXT-11-22798, INL/EXT-12-26184, INL/EXT-13-29701, and INL/EXT-13-30750). During AGR-2 irradiation, two cycles, 152A and 153A, occurred when the ATR core was briefly at low power, so AGR-2 irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. Also, two cycles, 150A and 153B, are Power Axial Locator Mechanism (PALM) cycles when the ATR power is higher than during normal cycles. During the first PALM cycle, 150A, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the ATR water canal and during the second PALM cycle, 153B, the experiment was temporarily moved from the B-12 location to the I-24 location to avoid being overheated. During the Outage cycle, 153A, seven flow meters were installed downstream from seven Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) monitors to measure flows from the monitors and these data are included in the NDMAS database. The AGR-2 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates including new FPM downstream flows, pressure, and moisture content), and FPMS data (release rates and release-to-birth rate ratios [R/Bs]) for each of the four U.S. capsules in the AGR-2 experiment (Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6). The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee comprised of AGR technical leads, Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Program Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. The Data Review Committee, which convened just before each data qualification report was issued, reviewed the data acquisition process, considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA-approved VHTR data collection plans, examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in each report. This report performs the following tasks: (1) combine existing qualification status of all AGR-2 data, (2) provide FPMS data qualification update and new release-to-birth ratio (R/B) data calculated using daily calculated birthrates, and (3) revise data qualification status of TC readings for some TCs in Capsule 6 based on their differences relative to calculated temperatures at TC locations. A total of 17,001,695 TC temperature and sweep gas data records were received and processed by NDMAS for four U.S. capsules during AGR-2 irradiation. Of these records, 9,655,474 (56.8% of the total) were determined to be Qualified; 5,792,052 (34.1% of the total) were determined to be Failed; and 1,554,169 (9.1% of the total) were determined to be Trend. For the first nice cycles, from ATR Cycle 147A to 151B, data records are 5- minute or 10-minute averaged values provided on weekly basis in EXCEL spreadsheets. For the last six cycles, ATR Cycle 152A through 154B, data records are instantaneous measurements recorded every minute and provided by .csv text files automatically every 2 hours. Therefore, the number of processed irradiation data was increased substantially from ATR Cycle 152A. For TC temperature data, there were 6,857,675 records and of these data 5,288,249 records (77.1% of the total TC data) were Failed due to TC instrument failures and 418,569 records (6.1% of the total TC data) were Trend due to large differences between TC readings and calculated values. By the end of Cycle 154A, all TCs in the AGR-2 test train failed. The overall percentage of Failed TC records is high, to some extent, because TCs failed toward the end of irradiation when the recording frequency was higher. For sweep gas data, there were 10,1

  2. IN-CORE FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois VIllard

    2014-12-01

    As part of an Idaho State University (ISU)led Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) collaborative project that includes Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), flux detector evaluations were completed to compare their accuracy, response time, and longduration performance. Special fixturing, developed by INL, allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) core positions to perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector crosscalibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program included miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs), and specially developed commercial SPNDs. Results from this program provide important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and yield new flux data required for benchmarking models in the ATR Life Extension Program (LEP) Modeling Update Project.

  3. Irradiation of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLean, Heather J.; Hayes, Steven L.

    2007-07-01

    Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels. (authors)

  4. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the ATR Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noel Duckwtiz

    2011-05-01

    Near term replacement of aging and obsolescent original ATR equipment has become important to ensure ATR capability in support of NE’s long term national missions. To that end, a mission needs statement has been prepared for a non-major system acquisition which is comprised of three interdependent subprojects. The first project, subject of this determination, will replace the existent diesel-electrical bus (E-3) and associated switchgear. More specifically, INL proposes transitioning ATR to 100% commercial power with appropriate emergency backup to include: • Provide commercial power as the normal source of power to the ATR loads currently supplied by diesel-electric power. • Provide backup power to the critical ATR loads in the event of a loss of commercial power. • Replace obsolescent critical ATR power distribution equipment, e.g., switchgear, transformers, motor control centers, distribution panels. Completion of this and two other age-related projects (primary coolant pump and motor replacement and emergency firewater injection system replacement) will resolve major age related operational issues plus make a significant contribution in sustaining the ATR safety and reliability profile. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues make the project a major modification: 1. Evaluation Criteria #2 (Footprint change). The addition of a new PC-4 structure to the ATR Facility to house safety-related SSCs requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., structural qualification, fire suppression) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions of the housed equipment. 2. Evaluation Criteria #3 (Change of existing process). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps requires careful attention and analysis to ensure it meets a project primary object to maintain or reduce CDF and does not negatively affect the efficacy of the currently approved strategy. 3. Evaluation Criteria #5 (Create the need for new or revised safety SSCs). The change to the strategy for providing continuous reliable power to the safety-related emergency coolant pumps, based on the pre-conceptual design, will require the addition of two quick start diesel generators, their associated power coordination/distribution controls, and a UPS to the list of safety-related SSCs. Similarly to item 1 above, the addition of these active SSCs to the list of safety-related SSCs and replacement of the E-3 bus requires careful attention to maintaining adherence to applicable engineering and nuclear safety design criteria (e.g., seismic qualification, isolation of redundant trains from common fault failures) to ensure no adverse impacts to the safety-related functions.

  5. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  6. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  7. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  8. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at CAES by Boise State PI Janelle Wharry and Cory Dolph. PI Corey Dolph returned in early November to complete their research by performing nanoindentation on unirradiated specimens that will be used as a baseline for their research.

  9. AGR-3/4 Final Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A through 155B-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Binh T.

    2015-03-01

    This report provides the qualification status of experimental data for the entire Advanced Gas Reactor 3/4 (AGR 3/4) fuel irradiation. AGR-3/4 is the third in a series of planned irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the advanced reactor technology under the INL ART Technology Development Office (TDO). The main objective of AGR-3/4 irradiation is to provide a known source of fission products for subsequent transport through compact matrix and structural graphite materials due to the presence of designed-to-fail fuel particles. Full power irradiation of the AGR 3/4 test began on December 14, 2011 (ATR Cycle 151A), and was completed on April 12, 2014 (end of ATR Cycle 155B) after 369.1 effective full power days of irradiation. The AGR-3/4 test was in the reactor core for eight of the ten ATR cycles between 151A and 155B. During the unplanned outage cycle, 153A, the experiment was removed from the ATR northeast flux trap (NEFT) location and stored in the ATR canal. This was to prevent overheating of fuel compacts due to higher than normal ATR power during the subsequent Powered Axial Locator Mechanism cycle, 153B. The AGR 3/4 test was inserted back into the ATR NEFT location during the outage of ATR Cycle 154A on April 26, 2013. Therefore, the AGR-3/4 irradiation data received during these 2 cycles (153A and 153B) are irrelevant and their qualification status isnot included in this report. Additionally, during ATR Cycle 152A the ATR core ran at low power for a short enough duration that the irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. However, the qualification status of irradiation data for this cycle is still covered in this report. As a result, this report includes data from 8 ATR Cycles: 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, 154B, 155A, and 155B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR 3/4 data streams addressed in this report include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rates, pressure, and moisture content), and Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) data (release rates, release to birth rate ratios [R/Bs], and particle failure counts) for each of the twelve capsules in the AGR 3/4 experiment. During Outage Cycle 155A, fourteen flow meters were installed downstream from fourteen FPMS monitors to measure flows from the monitors; qualification status of these data are also included in the report. The final data qualification status for these data streams is determined by a Data Review Committee (DRC) composed of AGR technical leads, Sitewide Quality Assurance (QA), and NDMAS analysts. For ATR Cycles 151A through 154B, the DRC convened on February 12, 2014, reviewed the data acquisition process, and considered whether the data met the requirements for data collection as specified in QA approved INL ART TDO data collection plans. The DRC also examined the results of NDMAS data testing and statistical analyses, and confirmed the qualification status of the data as given in this report. The qualification status of AGR-3/4 irradiation data during the first six cycles were previously reported in INL/EXT-14-31186 document. This report presents data qualification status for the entire AGR-3/4 irradiation.

  10. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  11. ATR NSUF

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  16. ATR NSUF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. ATR NSUF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visiting Nuclear Science User Facilities NSUF is based out of Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho. The 890-square-mile (569,135 acres) INL Site is roughly 85 percent the size of Rhode Island. The lab consists of several primary facilities situated on an expanse of otherwise undeveloped terrain. The buildings and structures are clustered within these facilities, which are typically less than a few square miles in size and separated from each other by miles of

  18. ATR NSUF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  1. Independent Review of AFC 2A, 2B, and 2E ATR Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Cappiello; R. Hobbins; K. Penny; L. Walters

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle program, a series of fuels development irradiation tests have been performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. These tests are providing excellent data for advanced fuels development. The program is focused on the transmutation of higher actinides which best can be accomplished in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Because a fast test reactor is no longer available in the US, a special test vehicle is used to achieve near-prototypic fast reactor conditions (neutron spectra and temperature) for use in ATR (a water-cooled thermal reactor). As part of the testing program, there were many successful tests of advanced fuels including metals and ceramics. Recently however, there have been three experimental campaigns using metal fuels that experienced failure during irradiation. At the request of the program, an independent review committee was convened to review the post-test analyses performed by the fuels development team, to assess the conclusions of the team for the cause of the failures, to assess the adequacy and completeness of the analyses, to identify issues that were missed, and to make recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future tests. Although there is some difference of opinion, the review committee largely agreed with the conclusions of the fuel development team regarding the cause of the failures. For the most part, the analyses that support the conclusions are sufficient.

  2. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Abbott; Binh T. Pham

    2012-06-01

    This report provides the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) cycles 149B, 150A, 150B, 151A, and 151B), as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR-2 data streams addressed include thermocouple temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rate, pressure, and moisture content), and fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data for each of the six capsules in the experiment. A total of 3,307,500 5-minute thermocouple and sweep gas data records were received and processed by NDMAS for this period. There are no AGR-2 data for cycle 150A because the experiment was removed from the reactor. Of these data, 82.2% were determined to be Qualified based on NDMAS accuracy testing and data validity assessment. There were 450,557 Failed temperature records due to thermocouple failures, and 138,528 Failed gas flow records due to gas flow cross-talk and leakage problems that occurred in the capsules after cycle 150A. For FPMS data, NDMAS received and processed preliminary release rate and release-to-birth rate ratio (R/B) data for the first three reactor cycles (cycles 149B, 150B, and 151B). This data consists of 45,983 release rate records and 45,235 R/B records for the 12 radionuclides reported. The qualification status of these FPMS data has been set to In Process until receipt of QA-approved data generator reports. All of the above data have been processed and tested using a SAS-based enterprise application software system, stored in a secure Structured Query Language database, and made available on the NDMAS Web portal (http://ndmas.inl.gov) for both internal and external VHTR project participants.

  3. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly ReportJanuary 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Renae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights; Mike Worley and Shane Johnson visited INL Jan. 22 for an NSUF strategy discussion; Rory Kennedy attended a NSLS-2 Beamline Advisory Team meeting at Brookhaven; Provided a final cost estimate to the NSUF Program Office in support of the NEET/NSUF proposal, Metal-ceramic and metal-metal composites for extreme radiation and temperature environment: An in situ interface stability and mechanical behavior study by high energy x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron probe.; Assisted in the development of conceptual designs and performed a preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis for two NEET/NSUF proposals. The challenge for both experiments is to provide high (>1000 C and up to 1600 C)) specimen temperatures in a small space (0.5" diameter ATR Outboard A-position) without overheating the coolant. Several designs were analyzed and found to be feasible, although detailed design and analysis will be required after the projects are awarded; and A single USU TEM specimen is packaged and awaiting shipment from MFC to CAES. Once at CAES, SEM, TEM and LEAP analysis will be performed. Professor Ban has requested additional sub-samples to be made to take back to his laboratory at USU for thermal diffusivity studies.

  4. MOX and MOX with 237Np/241Am Inert Fission Gas Generation Comparison in ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang; M. Robel; W. J. Carmack; D. J. Utterbeck

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of spent fuel produced in nuclear power generation is one of the most important issues to both the nuclear community and the general public. One of the viable options to long-term geological disposal of spent fuel is to extract plutonium, minor actinides (MA), and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in currently operating light-water reactors (LWR), thus reducing the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. One of the challenges is to demonstrate that the burnup-dependent characteristic differences between Reactor-Grade Mixed Oxide (RG-MOX) fuel and RG-MOX fuel with MA Np-237 and Am 241 are minimal, particularly, the inert gas generation rate, such that the commercial MOX fuel experience base is applicable. Under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), developmental fuel specimens in experimental assembly LWR-2 are being tested in the northwest (NW) I-24 irradiation position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment uses MOX fuel test hardware, and contains capsules with MOX fuel consisting of mixed oxide manufactured fuel using reactor grade plutonium (RG-Pu) and mixed oxide manufactured fuel using RG-Pu with added Np/Am. This study will compare the fuel neutronics depletion characteristics of Case-1 RG-MOX and Case-2 RG-MOX with Np/Am.

  5. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Ogden

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and ...

  7. 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Acronyms

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle ATR Attenuated Total Reflectance Au Gold AVFL Advanced VehicleFuelLubricant Committee AVFL-18 Project 18 under Advanced ...

  8. 2015 Annual Merit Review, Vehicle Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Materials ATF Automatic transmission fluid ATR Attenuated Total Reflectance Au Gold AVFL Advanced VehicleFuelLubricants AVTA Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity AVTE ...

  9. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul (Naperville, IL); Para, Adam (St. Charles, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  10. Barge Truck Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

  11. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  12. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  13. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, ATR Cycle 100-BC, April 23, 1993--May 13, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.D.; Murray, R.K.; Rogers, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for ATR Cycle 100-BC which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains fluence rate values corresponding to the particular elevations (relative to the 80 ft. core elevation) where the measurements were taken. The data in this report consists of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (4) a magnetic record (3.5 inch diskette) containing a listing of only the fast neutron fluence rates, their assigned elevations and proper header identification of all monitor positions contained herein. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution. All {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 54 inches long. All {open_quotes}SR{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 55 inches long. This length allows measurement of the full core region and makes the first count elevation 24.73 inches above core midplane. Due to the safety rod problems in the west lobe, {open_quotes}BR{close_quotes} holders were used in the W-1, 2, 3, and 4 positions. All {open_quotes}BR{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 56.25 inches long. The distance from the end of the wires to the first count position was 4.25 inches for all wires counted from this cycle. The results from the measurements in the W-1, 2, 3, 4 monitor positions indicate that the safety rod followers were rotated to a different azimuthal orientation relative to the normal orientation. The results indicate that the rotation was counterclockwise from their normal orientation. This is the same condition observed starting with Cycle 99-B.

  14. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151B-2, 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B and 154A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binh T. Pham; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2013-09-01

    This report documents the data qualification status of AGR-2 fuel irradiation experimental data from Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycles 152A, 152B, 153A, 153B, and 154A, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). The AGR-2 data streams addressed include thermocouple (TC) temperatures, sweep gas data (flow rate, pressure, and moisture content), and fission product monitoring system (FPMS) data for each of the six capsules in the experiment. A total of 13,400,520 every minute instantaneous TC and sweep gas data records were received and processed by NDMAS for this period. Of these data, 8,911,791 records (66.5% of the total) were determined to be Qualified based on NDMAS accuracy testing and data validity assessment. For temperature, there were 4,266,081 records (74% of the total TC data) that were Failed due to TC instrument failures. For sweep gas flows, there were 222,648 gas flow records (2.91% of the flow data) that were Failed. The inlet gas flow failures due to gas flow cross-talk and leakage problems that occurred after Cycle 150A were corrected by using the same gas mixture in all six capsules and the Leadout. For FPMS data, NDMAS received and processed preliminary release rate and release-to-birth rate ratio (R/B) data for three reactor cycles (Cycles 149B, 150B, and 151A) . This data consists of 45,983 release rate records and 45,235 R/B records for the 12 radionuclides reported. The qualification status of these FPMS data has been set to In Process until receipt of Quality Assurance-approved data generator reports. All of the above data have been processed and tested using a SAS-based enterprise application software system, stored in a secure Structured Query Language database, made available on the NDMAS Web portal (http://ndmas.inl.gov), and approved by the INL STIM for release to both internal and appropriate external Very High Temperature Reactor Program participants.

  15. Fabrication Control Plan for ORNL RH-LOCA ATF Test Specimens to be Irradiated in the ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin G. Field; Richard Howard; Michael Teague

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this fabrication plan is (1) to summarize the design of a set of rodlets that will be fabricated and then irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and (2) provide requirements for fabrication and acceptance criteria for inspections of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) – Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) rodlet components. The functional and operational (F&OR) requirements for the ATF program are identified in the ATF Test Plan. The scope of this document only covers fabrication and inspections of rodlet components detailed in drawings 604496 and 604497. It does not cover the assembly of these items to form a completed test irradiation assembly or the inspection of the final assembly, which will be included in a separate INL final test assembly specification/inspection document. The controls support the requirements that the test irradiations must be performed safely and that subsequent examinations must provide valid results.

  16. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  17. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  18. Total Crude by Pipeline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude by All Transport Methods Domestic Crude by All Transport Methods Foreign Crude by All Transport Methods Total Crude by Pipeline Domestic Crude by Pipeline Foreign Crude by Pipeline Total Crude by Tanker Domestic Crude by Tanker Foreign Crude by Tanker Total Crude by Barge Domestic Crude by Barge Foreign Crude by Barge Total Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Foreign Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Total Crude by Trucks Domestic Crude by Trucks Foreign

  19. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITY OF I-135 RELEASED FROM THE AGR-1 TEST FUELS AT THE END OF ATR OPERATING CYCLE 138B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Hartwell; D. M. Scates; J. B. Walter; M. W. Drigert

    2007-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a multiple fueled-capsule irradiation experiment being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and ended with shutdown of the reactor for a brief outage on February 10, 2007 at 0900. The AGR-1 experiment will continue cyclical irradiation for about 2.5 years. In order to allow estimation of the amount of radioiodine released during the first cycle, purge gas flow to all capsules continued for about 4 days after reactor shutdown. The FPMS data acquired during part of that shutdown flow period has been analyzed to elucidate the level of 135I released during the operating cycle.

  1. A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique and Three Types of Gamma-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge Navarro; Rahmat Aryaeinejad,; David W. Nigg

    2011-05-01

    A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique1 Rahmat Aryaeinejad, Jorge Navarro, and David W Nigg Idaho National Laboratory Abstract Effective and efficient Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel management require state of the art core modeling tools. These new tools will need isotopic and burnup validation data before they are put into production. To create isotopic, burn up validation libraries and to determine the setup for permanent fuel scanner system a feasibility study was perform. The study consisted in measuring short and long cooling time fuel elements at the ATR canal. Three gamma spectroscopy detectors (HPGe, LaBr3, and HPXe) and two system configurations (above and under water) were used in the feasibility study. The first stage of the study was to investigate which detector and system configuration would be better suited for different scenarios. The second stage of the feasibility study was to create burnup and cooling time calibrations using experimental isotopic data collected and ORIGEN 2.2 burnup data. The results of the study establish that a better spectra resolution is achieve with an above the water configuration and that three detectors can be used in the permanent fuel scanner system for different situations. In addition it was conclude that a number of isotopic ratios and absolute measurements could be used to predict ATR fuel burnup and cooling times. 1This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  2. AGR-2 Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Abbott; Keith A. Daum

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the data qualification status of fuel irradiation data from the first four reactor cycles (147A, 148A, 148B, and 149A) of the on-going second Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-2) experiment as recorded in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This includes data received by NDMAS from the period June 22, 2010 through May 21, 2011. AGR-2 is the second in a series of eight planned irradiation experiments for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Irradiation of the AGR-2 test train is being performed at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is planned for 600 effective full power days (approximately 2.75 calendar years) (PLN-3798). The experiment is intended to demonstrate the performance of UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Data qualification status of the AGR-1 experiment was reported in INL/EXT-10-17943 (Abbott et al. 2010).

  3. Gamma-Ray Simulated Spectrum Deconvolution of a LaBr₃ 1-in. x 1-in. Scintillator for Nondestructive ATR Fuel Burnup On-Site Predictions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Navarro, Jorge; Ring, Terry A.; Nigg, David W.

    2015-03-01

    A deconvolution method for a LaBr₃ 1"x1" detector for nondestructive Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel burnup applications was developed. The method consisted of obtaining the detector response function, applying a deconvolution algorithm to 1”x1” LaBr₃ simulated, data along with evaluating the effects that deconvolution have on nondestructively determining ATR fuel burnup. The simulated response function of the detector was obtained using MCNPX as well with experimental data. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) deconvolution algorithm was selected to enhance one-isotope source-simulated and fuel- simulated spectra. The final evaluation of the study consisted of measuring the performance of the fuel burnup calibrationmore » curve for the convoluted and deconvoluted cases. The methodology was developed in order to help design a reliable, high resolution, rugged and robust detection system for the ATR fuel canal capable of collecting high performance data for model validation, along with a system that can calculate burnup and using experimental scintillator detector data.« less

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  5. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  7. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  11. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  12. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  13. Summary Max Total Units

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  15. Interaction of mineral surfaces with simple organci molecules by diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan Thomas; Michael Kelley

    2007-06-18

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to characterize multi-layers of lysine, glutamic acid and salicylic acid on ?-alumina and kaolinite surfaces. The results agreed well with those previously obtained by ATR-IR in aqueous media where available, indicating that DRIFT may be regarded as effectively an in-situ spectroscopy for these materials. In the case of salicylic acid adsorption onto ?-alumina, DRIFTS was used to identify monolayer coverage and to detect molecules down to coverage of 3% of a monolayer. The spectroscopic results as to coverage were confirmed by analysis of the solutions used for treatment. The spectra obtained allowed identification of changes in the bonding environment with increasing surface coverage. DRIFTS, offers several advantages in terms of materials, experimental technique and data treatment, motivating further investigations.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  17. reflecting-behavioral-processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflecting Behavioral Processes In Integrated Models Of Activity-Travel Demand And Dynamic Network Supply: A Novel Event-Based Framework Presentation at Argonne TRACC March 16, 2012 10:00 AM(CDT) TRACC Conference Room: Building 222, Room D-233 Dr. Karthik Charan Konduri School of Sustainable Energy and the Built Environment Arizona State University Abstract The developments in the microsimulation modeling of two key components of the transportation system, namely, activity-travel demand and

  18. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  19. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  20. 21 briefing pages total

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 briefing pages total p. 1 Reservist Differential Briefing U.S. Office of Personnel Management December 11, 2009 p. 2 Agenda - Introduction of Speakers - Background - References/Tools - Overview of Reservist Differential Authority - Qualifying Active Duty Service and Military Orders - Understanding Military Leave and Earnings Statements p. 3 Background 5 U.S.C. 5538 (Section 751 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, March 11, 2009) (Public Law 111-8) Law requires OPM to consult with DOD Law

  1. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REFLECT HOME Solar Decathlon REFLECT HOME Sacramento is nicknamed the City of Trees, so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team's Reflect Home does just that by embracing the city's sense of expansive greenery. The team examined elements throughout the city to come up with a contemporary design that combines indoor and outdoor living spaces. While incorporating features throughout the Reflect Home to

  2. Total Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 79,674 137,928 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 61,327 106,995 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 15,991 27,500 1984-2014 Connecticut 8,800 7,437

  3. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  4. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  5. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TotalView Training 2015 TotalView Training 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training course on TotalView, a graphical parallel debugger developed by Rogue Wave Software, on...

  6. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team's Reflect Home does just that by...

  7. Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Gritto, Et Al.) Rye Patch Area Integrated Seismic Studies At The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) Rye Patch Area Federal...

  8. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  9. Parametric reflection upon cascade interaction of focused optical beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobanov, V E; Sukhorukov, A P; Sukhorukova, A K

    2008-10-31

    The parametric reflection of a signal beam in the waist of the reference pump beam upon mismatched three-frequency interaction in a quadratically nonlinear medium is discussed. The critical angle of total internal reflection from the induced defocusing channel is found as a function of the beam waist parameters. It is shown that when the reference beam is focused, this angle increases and some distortions are introduced into the reflected wave due to a finite length of the waist. The modification of the cross section of a wave reflected from a convex parametric mirror is analysed. The optimal beam focusing geometry is found at which the distortions of the shape and divergence of the reflected wave are minimal. Under certain conditions, the signal wave also flows around a cylindrical inhomogeneity produced by the axially symmetric pump beam. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are in good agreement. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Buffalo, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Egypt Freeport, TX Total to India Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Japan Cameron, LA Freeport, TX Kenai, AK Port Nikiski, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Mexico Douglas, AZ Nogales, AZ Sasabe, AZ Calexico, CA Ogilby Mesa, CA Otay Mesa, CA San

  11. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Buffalo, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Egypt Freeport, TX Total to India Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Japan Cameron, LA Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Mexico Douglas, AZ Nogales, AZ Sasabe, AZ Calexico, CA Ogilby Mesa, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX Clint, TX Del Rio, TX Eagle Pass,

  12. Total Eolica | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eolica Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Eolica Place: Spain Product: Project developer References: Total Eolica1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  13. Total........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Census Region and Division Northeast............................................. 20.6 6.7 1,247 1,032 Q 811 788 147 New England.................................... 5.5 1.9 1,365 1,127 Q 814 748 107 Middle Atlantic.................................. 15.1 4.8 1,182 978 Q 810 800 159 Midwest................................................ 25.6 4.6 1,349 1,133 506 895 810 346 East North Central............................ 17.7 3.2 1,483 1,239 560 968 842 351

  14. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Q Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Million U.S. Housing Units Owner- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 Living Space

  15. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Q Million U.S. Housing Units Renter- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing

  16. Total............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

  17. Total.............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer....................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.................................. 58.6 7.6 14.2 13.1 9.2 14.6 5.0 14.5 Laptop Model...................................... 16.9 2.0 3.8 3.3 2.1 5.7 1.3 3.5 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..............................

  18. Total..............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269

  19. Total..............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment.............................. 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  20. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs

  1. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  2. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2

  3. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  4. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat

  5. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment........ 1.2 N Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment........... 109.8 14.7 7.4 12.4 12.2 18.5 18.3 17.1 9.2 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............. 109.1 14.6 7.3 12.4 12.2 18.2 18.2 17.1 9.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It............... 0.8 Q Q Q Q 0.3 Q N Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas................................................... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central

  6. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 11.3 9.3 0.6 Q 0.4 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 66.8 54.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 65.8 54.0 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 1.1 0.8 Q N Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat

  7. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 6.5 1.6 0.9 1.3 2.4 0.2 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 26.5 6.5 2.5 4.6 12.0 1.0 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 25.7 6.3 2.5 4.4 11.7 0.8 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 0.8 Q Q 0.2 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 14.1 3.6 1.5 2.1 6.4 0.6 Without a Heat

  8. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central

  9. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing

  10. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................... 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 37.8 3.4 2.2 7.0 3.1 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 9.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 Window/Wall Units.......................................... 28.9 14.9 2.3 3.5 6.0 2.1 1 Unit........................................................... 14.5 6.6 1.0 1.6 4.2 1.2 2

  11. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 37.8 3.4 2.2 7.0 3.1 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 9.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 Window/Wall Units........................................ 28.9 14.9 2.3 3.5 6.0 2.1 1 Unit........................................................... 14.5 6.6 1.0 1.6 4.2 1.2 2

  12. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.9 5.3 1.6 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.7 9.8 3.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 9.3 6.8 2.5 2.................................................................. 16.2 2.9 1.9 1.0 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 1.5 1.1 0.4 Number of Laptop PCs

  13. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 8.4 3.4 2.................................................................. 16.2 3.5 2.2 1.3 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.1 1.5 0.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  14. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  15. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1

  16. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 15.1 5.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 15.1 5.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 9.1 2.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 5.3 0.8 For One Housing

  17. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing

  18. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 40.1 21.2 6.9 12.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 Q Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 13.6 5.6 2.3 5.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.0 4.4

  19. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 14.7 4.6 10.1 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.4 4.0 7.4 For One

  20. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0

  1. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 46.3 18.9 22.5 22.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 45.6 18.8 22.5 22.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.7 Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 27.0 11.9 14.9 4.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7

  2. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat

  3. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  4. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  5. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat

  6. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a

  7. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a

  8. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  9. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat

  10. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a

  11. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  12. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat

  13. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5

  14. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a

  15. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer .......................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer....................................... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Number of Desktop PCs 1......................................................................... 50.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 5.4 2......................................................................... 16.2 0.7 1.1 1.2 2.2 3 or More............................................................ 9.0 0.3

  16. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5

  17. Total.................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................................... 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat

  18. Total.................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................ 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................... 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a

  19. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  20. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  1. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  2. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  3. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  4. Total.........................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less

  5. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 2.0 0.4 Q 0.3 Basements Basement in Single-Family Homes and Apartments in 2-4 Unit Buildings Yes......

  6. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Housing Units Living Space Characteristics Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings With-- Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Detached...

  7. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Living Space Characteristics Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 Million ... Living Space Characteristics Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 Million ...

  8. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 80,000 or More 60,000 to 79,999 ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 80,000 or More 60,000 to 79,999 ...

  9. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Table HC7.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 80,000 or More Space Heating ...

  10. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line ... Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 40,000 to 59,999 60,000 to 79,999 ...

  11. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent......1.3 1.2 0.8 0.4 1. Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  12. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Table HC13.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units South Census Region Home Appliances Usage Indicators South Atlantic East ...

  13. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Table HC8.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by UrbanRural Location, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) Housing Units (millions) Home ...

  14. Total..............................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 14.8 10.5 2,263 1,669 1,079 1,312 1,019 507 N N N ConcreteConcrete Block... 5.3 3.4 2,393 1,660 1,614 Q Q Q Q Q Q Composition...

  15. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  16. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T. (Knoxville, TN); Richards, Roger K. (Knoxville, TN); Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marcus L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  17. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  18. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  19. AntiReflection Coating D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    1999-09-23

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J{sub sc}) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices.

  20. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  1. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  2. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  3. Total Number of Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge

  4. Total Energy Outcome City Pilot

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Outcome City Pilot 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Targeted Energy Outcomes A New City Energy Policy for Buildings Ken Baker - kbaker@neea.org Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Project Summary Timeline: Key Partners: Start date: 09/01/2012 Planned end date: 08/31/2015 Key Milestones 1. Produce outcome based marketing collateral; 04/03/14 New Buildings Institute Two to three NW cities 2. Quantify and define participating city actions; 04/03/14 3. Quantify ongoing

  5. Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period Total Fee Paid

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Total Fee Paid FY2008 $134,832 FY2009 $142,578 FY2010 $299,878 FY2011 $169,878 Cumulative Fee Paid $747,166 Contract Period: September 2007 - October 2012 $31,885,815 C/P/E Environmental Services, LLC DE-AM09-05SR22405/DE-AT30-07CC60011/SL14 Contractor: Contract Number: Contract Type: Cost Plus Award Fee $357,223 $597,797 $894,699 EM Contractor Fee Site: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Contract Name: SLAC Environmental Remediation December 2012 $1,516,646 Fee Available $208,620 Fee

  6. U.S. Total Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stock Type: Total Stocks Strategic Petroleum Reserve Non-SPR Refinery Tank Farms and Pipelines Leases Alaskan in Transit Bulk Terminal Pipeline Natural Gas Processing Plant Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Stock Type Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1,968,618 1,991,182 2,001,135 2,009,097 2,021,553 2,014,788 1956-2015 Crude Oil

  7. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    International Falls, MN Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT North Troy, VT U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake Charles, LA LNG

  8. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  9. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  10. Irradiation Planning for Fully-Ceramic Micro-encsapsulated fuel in ATR at LWR-relevant conditions: year-end report on FY-2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer

    2011-09-01

    This report presents the estimation of required ATR irradiation levels for the DB-FCM fuel design (fueled with Pu and MAs). The fuel and assembly designs are those considered in a companion report [R. S. Sen et al., FCR&D-2011- 00037 or INL/EXT-11-23269]. These results, pertaining to the DB-FCM fuel, are definitive in as much as the design of said fuel is definitive. In addition to the work performed, as required, for DB-FCM fuel, work has started in a preliminary fashion on single-cell UO2 and UN fuels. These latter activities go beyond the original charter of this project and although the corresponding work is incomplete, significant progress has been achieved. However, in this context, all that has been achieved is only preliminary because the corresponding fuel designs are neither finalized nor optimized. In particular, the UO2 case is unlikely to result in a viable fuel design if limited to enrichment at or under 20 weight % in U-235. The UN fuel allows reasonable length cycles and is likely to make an optimal design possible. Despite being limited to preliminary designs and offering only preliminary conclusions, the irradiation planning tasks for UO2 and UN fuels that are summarized in this report are useful to the overall goal of devising and deploying FCM-LWR fuel since the methods acquired and tested in this project and the overall procedure for planning will be available for planning tests for the finalized fuel design. Indeed, once the fuel design is finalized and the expected burnup level is determined, the methodology that has been assembled will allow the prompt finalization of the neutronic planning of the irradiation experiment and would provide guidance on the expected experimental performance of the fuel. Deviations from the expected behavior will then have to be analyzed and the outcome of the analysis may be corrections or modifications for the assessment models as well as, possibly, fuel design modifications, and perhaps even variation of experimental control for future experimental phases. Besides the prediction of irradiation times, preliminary work was carried out on other aspects of irradiation planning. In particular, a method for evaluating the interplay of depletion, material performance modeling and irradiation is identified by reference to a companion report. Another area that was addressed in a preliminary fashion is the identification and selection of a strategy for the physical and mechanical design of the irradiation experiments. The principal conclusion is that the similarity between the FCM fuel and the fuel compacts of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant prismatic design are strong enough to warrant using irradiation hardware designs and instrumentation adapted from the AGR irradiation tests. Modifications, if found necessary, will probably be few and small, except as pertains to the water environment and its implications on the use of SiC cladding or SiC matrix with no additional cladding.

  11. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. Total 4,471 6,479 7,281 4,217 5,941 6,842 1936-2015 PAD District 1 1,854 1,956 4,571 2,206 2,952 3,174 1981-2015 Connecticut 1995-2015 Delaware 204 678 85 1995-2015 Florida 677 351 299 932 836 1995-2015 Georgia 232 138 120 295 1995-2015 Maine 50 1995-2015 Maryland 1995-2015 Massachusetts 1995-2015 New Hampshire 1995-2015 New Jersey 1,328 780 1,575 400 1,131 1,712 1995-2015 New York 7 6 1,475 998 350 322 1995-2015 North Carolina

  12. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Customers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Customers (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 6,243,013 862,269 28,017 8 7,133,307 Connecticut 1,459,239 155,372 4,648 4 1,619,263 Maine 706,952 91,541 3,023 0 801,516 Massachusetts 2,720,128 398,717 14,896 3 3,133,744 New Hampshire 606,883 105,840 3,342 0 716,065 Rhode Island 438,879 58,346 1,884 1 499,110 Vermont 310,932 52,453 224 0 363,609 Middle Atlantic 15,806,914 2,247,455 44,397 17

  13. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 79,674 137,928 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 61,327 106,995 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 15,991 27,500 1984-2014 Connecticut 8,800 7,437

  14. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. Total 133,646 119,888 93,672 82,173 63,294 68,265 1936-2015 PAD District 1 88,999 79,188 59,594 33,566 30,944 33,789 1981-2015 Connecticut 220 129 1995-2015 Delaware 748 1,704 510 1,604 2,479 1995-2015 Florida 15,713 11,654 10,589 8,331 5,055 7,013 1995-2015 Georgia 5,648 7,668 6,370 4,038 2,037 1,629 1995-2015 Maine 1,304 651 419 75 317 135 1995-2015 Maryland 3,638 1,779 1,238 433 938 539 1995-2015 Massachusetts 123 50 78 542 88 1995-2015 New

  15. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  16. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  2. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Platts, David (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, David D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  3. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  4. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  5. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  6. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  7. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  8. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the sample in a manner consistent with either technique has prevented the use of coherent imaging techniques with reflective samples. Researchers working at Beamline 12.0.2 have...

  10. Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Ao, Tommy ; Seagle, Christopher T Publication Date: 2012-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1118217 Report Number(s): SAND2012-0864C 481321 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 9th International Temperature Symposium held

  11. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian; Kipling, Kent

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  12. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  14. Auto-calibrated scanning-angle prism-type total internal reflection microscopy for nanometer-precision axial position determination and optional variable-illumination-depth pseudo total internal reflection microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fang, Ning; Sun, Wei

    2015-04-21

    A method, apparatus, and system for improved VA-TIRFM microscopy. The method comprises automatically controlled calibration of one or more laser sources by precise control of presentation of each laser relative a sample for small incremental changes of incident angle over a range of critical TIR angles. The calibration then allows precise scanning of the sample for any of those calibrated angles for higher and more accurate resolution, and better reconstruction of the scans for super resolution reconstruction of the sample. Optionally the system can be controlled for incident angles of the excitation laser at sub-critical angles for pseudo TIRFM. Optionally both above-critical angle and sub critical angle measurements can be accomplished with the same system.

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Connecticut - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. Summary statistics for natural gas - Connecticut, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Indiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S16. Summary statistics for natural gas - Indiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 620 914 819 R 921 895 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 6,802 9,075

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Maryland - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S22. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maryland, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7 8 9 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 43 34 44 32 20 From Oil

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S25. Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Nebraska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S29. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nebraska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 276 322 270 R 357 310 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 2,092 1,854

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S31. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Hampshire, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 North Carolina - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Carolina, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 South Carolina - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S42. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Carolina, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Washington - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    80 Wisconsin - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S51. Summary statistics for natural gas - Wisconsin, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  9. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  10. NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost December 2, 2013 Two detailed reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) find that solar financing and other non-hardware costs - often referred to as "soft costs" - now comprise up to 64% of the total price of residential solar energy systems, reflecting how soft costs are becoming an increasingly larger fraction of the cost of installing solar.

  11. Origin of deep crustal reflections: Implications of coincident seismic refraction and reflection data in Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, W.S. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Catchings, R.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jarchow, C.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The authors compare seismic refraction and reflection results along the PASSCAL/COCORP 40{degree}N transect in the northern Basin and Range of Nevada in order to determine the origin of the prominent reflections from the deep crystalline crust. Reflection data along the transect show a thick zone of discontinuous, subhorizontal reflections, beginning at 4-6 s two-way traveltime (10-20 km depth) and ending at 9-11 s (27-35 km). Two independently derived velocity models, based on refraction data, are largely similar and agree on many important aspects of the reflectivity-velocity relation. Both models show that the top of the reflective zone lies 3-8 km above a prominent mid-crustal velocity discontinuity, which is interpreted to separate bulk silicic from bulk dioritic-gabbroic crust; in most places, the silicic mid-crust is more strongly reflective than the mafic lower crust. This pattern is expected in areas where ductile shearing is the mechanism responsible for the reflectivity. One of the velocity models, however, suggests that, in places, the strongest reflectivity spans both the middle (6.1-6.3 km/s) and lower (6.6 km/s) crust; this pattern suggests that the combined influence of ductile strain fabrics and mafic intrusions gives rise to crustal reflections. Both models show that the lowermost crust and crust/mantle transition are highly reflective, also suggesting the presence of mafic and/or ultramafic intrusions. Thus the observed reflection patterns suggest that ductile shearing and the intrusion of mantle-derived magma - both of which are likely to have accompanied the extreme Cenozoic extension - are important factors in generating deep crustal reflections.

  12. Process for fabricating high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2001-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  13. High reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2000-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  14. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  15. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  16. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  17. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  18. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    total downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  19. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  20. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  1. Design Storm for Total Retention.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storm Events for Select Western U.S. Cities (adapted from Energy Independence and Security Act Technical Guidance, USEPA, 2009) City 95th Percentile Event Rainfall Total...

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Arkansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S4. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arkansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,397 8,388 8,538 R 9,843 10,150 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 California - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S5. Summary statistics for natural gas - California, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,580 1,308 1,423 R 1,335 1,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Georgia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. Summary statistics for natural gas - Georgia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Illinois - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S15. Summary statistics for natural gas - Illinois, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 50 40 40 R 34 36 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells E 1,697 2,114

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Iowa - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. Summary statistics for natural gas - Iowa, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Kentucky - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S19. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kentucky, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 17,670 14,632 17,936 R 19,494 19,256 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Maine - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Michigan - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S24. Summary statistics for natural gas - Michigan, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 10,100 11,100 10,900 R 10,550 10,500 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 1,979 5,732 1,669 R 1,967 1,645 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Missouri - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S27. Summary statistics for natural gas - Missouri, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 53 100 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 R 8 8 From

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Montana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S28. Summary statistics for natural gas - Montana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,059 6,477 6,240 5,754 5,754 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Nevada - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nevada, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 R 4 4 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 3 From Oil Wells

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 New Jersey - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Jersey, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 New York - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,736 6,157 7,176 R 6,902 7,119 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Ohio - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 34,931 46,717 35,104 R 32,664 32,967 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,000 41,238 40,000 39,776 40,070 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Pennsylvania - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S40. Summary statistics for natural gas - Pennsylvania, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,500 54,347 55,136 R 53,762 70,400 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Rhode Island - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S41. Summary statistics for natural gas - Rhode Island, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 230 210 212 R 1,089 1,024 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 5,144

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Texas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 95,014 100,966 96,617 97,618 98,279 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Utah - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 6,075 6,469 6,900 R 7,030 7,275 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 328,135

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Vermont - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S47. Summary statistics for natural gas - Vermont, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,470 7,903 7,843 R 7,956 7,961 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 West Virginia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S50. Summary statistics for natural gas - West Virginia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 52,498 56,813 50,700 R 54,920 60,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  13. Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids OxygenatesRenewables ...

  14. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Sales (Megawatthours

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",47211525,53107038,19107433,557463,119983459 "Connecticut",12777579,12893531,3...

  15. ,"Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...orcapaepg0sacmmcfm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity " "Sourcekey","N5290US2","NGMEP...

  16. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  17. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  18. Sandia Energy - Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and more accurate method of measuring the irradiance from solar reflections using a digital camera. Measurements of reflected solar irradiance is of great importance to...

  19. Optical reflectance as a dynamic temperature diagnostic. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Optical reflectance as a dynamic temperature diagnostic. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical reflectance as a dynamic temperature diagnostic. Abstract ...

  20. 2009 Total Energy Production by State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State...

  1. Cell Total Activity Final Estimate.xls

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WSSRAP Cell Total Activity Final Estimate (calculated September 2002, Fleming) (Waste streams & occupied cell volumes from spreadsheet titled "cell waste volumes-8.23.02 with macros.xls") Waste Stream a Volume (cy) Mass (g) 2 Radiological Profile 3 Nuclide Activity (Ci) 4 Total % of Total U-238 U-234 U-235 Th-228 Th-230 Th-232 Ra-226 Ra-228 Rn-222 5 Activity if > 1% Raffinate Pits Work Zone (Ci) Raffinate processed through CSS Plant 1 159990 1.49E+11 Raffinate 6.12E+01 6.12E+01

  2. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  3. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  4. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  6. EQUUS Total Return Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: EQUUS Total Return Inc Place: Houston, Texas Product: A business development company and VC investor that trades as a closed-end fund. EQUUS is...

  7. "2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",8414175.4,7806276.7,2262752.4,57837.4,18541041.8 "Connecticut",2523348.7,2004...

  8. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  10. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  14. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields Total Number of Existing Fields Number of Existing Salt Caverns Number of Existing Aquifers Number of Depleted Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data

  15. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields Total Number of Existing Fields Number of Existing Salt Caverns Number of Existing Aquifers Number of Depleted Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data

  16. ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  17. Multiple-reflection optical gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A multiple-reflection optical cell for Raman or fluorescence gas analysis consists of two spherical mirrors positioned transverse to a multiple-pass laser cell in a confronting plane-parallel alignment. The two mirrors are of equal diameter but possess different radii of curvature. The spacing between the mirrors is uniform and less than half of the radius of curvature of either mirror. The mirror of greater curvature possesses a small circular portal in its center which is the effective point source for conventional F1 double lens collection optics of a monochromator-detection system. Gas to be analyzed is flowed into the cell and irradiated by a multiply-reflected composite laser beam centered between the mirrors of the cell. Raman or fluorescence radiation originating from a large volume within the cell is (1) collected via multiple reflections with the cell mirrors, (2) partially collimated and (3) directed through the cell portal in a geometric array compatible with F1 collection optics.

  18. What is the temporal analog of reflection and refraction of optical beams?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plansinis, B. W.; Donaldson, W. R.; Agrawal, G. P.

    2015-10-28

    It is shown numerically and analytically that when an optical pulse approaches a moving temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes, it undergoes a temporal equivalent of reflection and refraction of optical beams at a spatial boundary. The main difference is that the role of angles is played by changes in the frequency. The frequency dependence of the dispersion of the material in which the pulse is propagating plays a fundamental role in determining the frequency shifts experienced by the reflected and refracted pulses. As a result, our analytic expressions for these frequency shifts allow us to find themore » condition under which an analog of total internal reflection may occur at the temporal boundary.« less

  19. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    total downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at specrally-resolved wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards and downwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  20. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  1. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  2. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  4. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  5. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  6. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 8,414,175 7,806,277 2,262,752 57,837 18,541,042 Connecticut 2,523,349...

  7. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  8. A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

  9. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals...

  10. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  11. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Working Gas Capacity Total Number of Existing Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 9,228,173 9,219,173 9,224,005 9,225,079 9,225,911 9,228,240 1989-2015 Alaska 83,592 83,592 83,592 83,592 83,592 83,592 2013-2015 Lower 48 States 9,144,581 9,135,581 9,140,412 9,141,486 9,142,319 9,144,648

  12. Contractor: Contract Number: Contract Type: Total Estimated

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contract Number: Contract Type: Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2004 $294,316 FY2005 $820,074 FY2006 $799,449 FY2007 $877,898 FY2008 $866,608 FY2009 $886,404 FY2010 $800,314 FY2011 $871,280 FY2012 $824,517 FY2013 Cumulative Fee Paid $7,040,860 $820,074 $799,449 $877,898 $916,130 $886,608 Computer Sciences Corporation DE-AC06-04RL14383 $895,358 $899,230 $907,583 Cost Plus Award Fee $134,100,336 $8,221,404 Fee Available Contract Period: Fee Information Minimum

  13. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  14. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total net irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    net irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total net irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  15. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments.

  17. Notices Total Estimated Number of Annual

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    372 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 181 / Wednesday, September 18, 2013 / Notices Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 10,128. Abstract: Enrollment in the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG) allows eligible entities to securely exchange Title IV, Higher Education Act (HEA) assistance programs data electronically with the Department of Education processors. Organizations establish Destination Point Administrators (DPAs) to transmit, receive, view and update

  18. A protocol for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using reflection scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos Hegyi, Gyorgy; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system using reflection measurements and to suggest a calibration protocol for precise and accurate reflection film dosimetry. Methods: A set of 14 Gafchromic EBT3 film pieces were irradiated to various doses ranging from 0 to 8 Gy and subsequently scanned using both the reflection and transmission mode. Scanning resolution varied from 50 to 508 dpi (0.50.05 mm/pixel). Both the red and green color channels of scanned images were used to relate the film response to the dose. A sensitivity, uncertainty, and accuracy analysis was performed for all scanning modes and color channels. The total uncertainty, along with the fitting and experimental uncertainty components, was identified and analyzed. A microscope resolution target was used to evaluate possible resolution losses under reflection scanning. The calibration range was optimized for reflection scanning in the low (<2 Gy) and high (>2 Gy) dose regions based on the reported results. Results: Reflection scanning using the red channel exhibited the highest sensitivity among all modes, being up to 150% higher than transmission mode in the red channel for the lowest dose level. Furthermore, there was no apparent loss in resolution between the two modes. However, higher uncertainties and reduced accuracy were observed for the red channel under reflection mode, especially at dose levels higher than 2 Gy. These uncertainties were mainly attributed to saturation effects which were translated in poor fitting results. By restricting the calibration to the 02 Gy dose range, the situation is reversed and the red reflection mode was superior to the transmission mode. For higher doses, the green channel in reflection mode presented comparable results to the red transmission. Conclusions: A two-color reflection scanning protocol can be suggested for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using the red channel for doses less than 2 Gy and the green channel for higher doses. The precision and accuracy are significantly improved in the low dose region following such a protocol.

  19. Control of reflected electromagnetic fields at an IFSAR antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Brock, Billy C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-12-09

    A system for reducing multi-path reflections from adjacent metal objects which cause distortion in an IFSAR includes a reflective cone extending between the top of the IFSAR and the skin of its aircraft, and a reflective shroud surrounding the IFSAR. Each of these components may be coated with radar absorbing material.

  20. Table 6a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption...

  1. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 55,664,448 58,258,830 59,769,444 57,512,994 58,675,008 61,890,990 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 18,219,180 17,965,794 17,864,868 16,754,388

  2. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 7,835,436 8,203,062 7,068,306 5,668,530 4,883,466 3,942,750 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,339,162 3,359,265 2,667,576 1,906,700 1,699,418 1,393,068 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 318,184

  3. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 6,908,028 7,233,765 6,358,120 6,022,115 5,283,350 4,919,255 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 2,972,575 2,994,245 2,397,932 2,019,294 1,839,237 1,724,167 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 281,895

  4. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 54,100,092 56,093,645 57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 17,821,973 18,136,965 17,757,005 17,382,566

  5. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  6. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  7. Time evolution of the total electric-field strength in multimode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, W.; Fischer, R.; Paul, H.

    1988-05-01

    Our previous numerical studies of the output characteristics of multimode lasers are extended to include the evolution of the total electric-field strength. The regular or irregular behavior of the system, which becomes manifest in the evolution of the amplitudes and the phases in the different modes, is reflected also in the evolution of the total electric-field strength in a stroboscopic view. (The total electric-field strength, with its high-frequency time dependence suppressed, is considered at times t, t+..delta..t, t+2..delta..t,..., where ..delta..t is a multiple of the round-trip time in the resonator.) Moreover, it is demonstrated that the evolution of the system is very sensitive to slight changes in the initial conditions. This finding supports the view that the irregularity falls in the class of the so-called deterministic chaos.

  8. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 July through 30 September of 2005. This ninth quarterly report discusses the activities of the project team during the period 1 July through 30 September 2005. Richard Gertsch's unexpected death due to natural causes while in Minnesota to work on this project has temporarily slowed progress. Statistical analysis of the Minntac Mine data set for late 2004 is continuing. Preliminary results raised several questions that could be amenable to further study. Detailed geotechnical characterization is being applied to improve the predictability of mill and agglomerator performance at Hibtac Mine.

  9. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A & 4D and EIA-861S) Entity State Ownership Customers (Count) Sales (Megawatthours) Revenues (Thousands Dollars) Average Price (cents/kWh) Alaska Electric Light&Power Co AK Investor Owned 16,464 399,492 41,691.0 10.44 Alaska Power and Telephone Co AK Investor Owned 7,630 63,068 17,642.0 27.97 Alaska Village Elec Coop, Inc AK Cooperative 10,829 97,874 53,522.0 54.68 Anchorage Municipal Light and Power AK Municipal 30,791 1,012,784 134,950.6 13.32

  10. Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fee Available (N/A) Total Fee Paid $23,179,000 $18,632,000 $16,680,000 $18,705,000 $25,495,000 $34,370,000 $32,329,000 $33,913,000 $66,794,000 $10,557,000 $3,135,000 $283,789,000 FY2015 FY2014 FY2013 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 Fee Information Minimum Fee Maximum Fee Dec 2015 Contract Number: Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contractor: $3,264,909,094 Contract Period: EM Contractor Fee s Idaho Operations Office - Idaho Falls, ID Contract Name: Idaho Cleanup Project $0 Contract Type: CH2M Washington Group

  11. Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2001

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2001 $4,547,400 FY2002 $4,871,000 FY2003 $6,177,902 FY2004 $8,743,007 FY2005 $13,134,189 FY2006 $7,489,704 FY2007 $9,090,924 FY2008 $10,045,072 FY2009 $12,504,247 FY2010 $17,590,414 FY2011 $17,558,710 FY2012 $14,528,770 Cumulative Fee Paid $126,281,339 Cost Plus Award Fee DE-AC29-01AL66444 Washington TRU Solutions LLC Contractor: Contract Number: Contract Type: $8,743,007 Contract Period: $1,813,482,000 Fee Information Maximum Fee $131,691,744 Total Estimated Contract Cost: $4,547,400

  12. Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2008

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2008 $87,580 FY2009 $87,580 FY2010 $171,763 FY2011 $1,339,286 FY 2012 $38,126 FY 2013 $42,265 Cumulative Fee Paid $1,766,600 $42,265 Cost Plus Incentive Fee/Cost Plus Fixed Fee $36,602,425 Contract Period: September 2007 - November 30, 2012 Target Fee $521,595 Total Estimated Contract Cost Contract Type: Maximum Fee $3,129,570 $175,160 $377,516 $1,439,287 Fee Available $175,160 $80,871 Accelerated Remediation Company (aRc) DE-AT30-07CC60013 Contractor: Contract Number: Minimum Fee $2,086,380

  13. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 64,575 60,088 61,366 54,650 59,528 59,693 1980-2015 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2014 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Colorado 5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077 4,120

  14. State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Megawatthours) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 47,211,525 53,107,038 19,107,433 557,463 119,983,459 Connecticut 12,777,579 12,893,531 3,514,798 168,552 29,354,460 Maine 4,660,605 3,984,570 3,357,486 0 12,002,661 Massachusetts 20,071,160 26,076,208 7,960,941 360,983 54,469,292 New Hampshire 4,510,487 4,464,530 1,969,064 0 10,944,081 Rhode Island 3,070,347 3,657,679 887,150 27,928

  15. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 100-400 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandberg, Richard L.; Allred, David D.; Bissell, Luke J.; Johnson, Jed E.; Turley, R. Steven

    2004-05-12

    We present the measured reflectances (Beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium and naturally oxidized nickel thin films from 100-460 eV (2.7 to 11.6 nm) at 5 and 15 degrees grazing incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface reflector for this portion of the soft x-ray region, being nearly twice as reflective as nickel in the 124-250 eV (5-10 nm) region. This is due to its large index of refraction coupled with low absorption. Nickel is commonly used in soft x-ray applications in astronomy and synchrotrons. (Its reflectance at 10 deg. exceeds that of Au and Ir for most of this range.) We prepared uranium and nickel thin films via DC-magnetron sputtering of a depleted U target and resistive heating evaporation respectively. Ambient oxidation quickly brought the U sample to UO2 (total thickness about 30 nm). The nickel sample (50 nm) also acquired a thin native oxide coating (<2nm). Though the density of U in UO2 is only half of the metal, its reflectance is high and it is relatively stable against further changes.

  16. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from electron plasma waves on OMEGA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical

  17. Combined Reflectivity/imaging Method for Assessing Diagnostic Mirror

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cleaning Treatments ---- Inventor: Charles H. Skinner | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Combined Reflectivity/imaging Method for Assessing Diagnostic Mirror Cleaning Treatments ---- Inventor: Charles H. Skinner A novel method is described for spatial and wavelength resolved measurements of the reflectivity of inaccessible mirrors. The method is combined with laser treatment to restore the reflectivity of diagnostic mirrors after degradation by plasma deposition. Multiple mirrors, including an

  18. Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Colin Goranson (2005) Recent Drilling Activities At The Earth Power Resources Tuscarora...

  19. Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  20. Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Melosh, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    model of blue mountain. References Glenn Melosh, William Cumming, John Casteel, Kim Niggemann, Brian Fairbank (2010) Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for...

  1. Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques SOFAST: Sandia...

  2. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field, which lies within an extensional step-over between dextral faults, is a young, actively developing metamorphic core complex. The reflection images were processed...

  3. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RANGE GIGA PA; REFLECTIVITY; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 1000-4000 K; WAVELENGTHS ...

  4. Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    failure of seismic reflection data to image thesubsurface demonstrates the robust reliability of aconceptual model approach to geothermal exploration thatemphasizes the...

  5. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  6. Reflection Survey At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell, Et Al., 2012) Exploration Activity Details Location Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity...

  7. Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  8. Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade NREL Industry Growth Forum Dr. Dan E. Arvizu Laboratory Director November 2015 2 Energy Market Fundamentals Globally...

  9. Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  10. Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  11. Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  12. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures The infrared reflectance of iron was studied using high-pressure synchrotron radiation methods up to 50 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell of 1000-8000 cm{sup -1} (1.25-10 {mu}m). The magnitude of the reflectivity shows a weak pressure

  13. Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  14. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM); Kunz, Walter E. (Santa Fe, NM); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  15. Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Facility Total Energy Facilities Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  16. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  17. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  18. National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy USA 2012 National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy USA 2012 Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the ...

  19. Table 5a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using District Heat (thousand) Total District Heat Consumption...

  20. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the...

  1. Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore -- Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

  2. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks ...

  3. Table 6b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total...

  4. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  5. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  6. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline 5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  7. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5.4.1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited

  8. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited (~wavelength)

  9. Beamline 5.4.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Infrared spectromicroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.05-1.00 eV Frequency range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution; reflection, transmission, and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) modes; polarizing and UV fluorescence optics Spatial resolution Diffraction limited (~wavelength)

  10. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Rosser, Roy (Princeton, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  11. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  12. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  13. Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the SPS H8 beamline (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline A high performance apparatus has been designed and built by the H8-RD22 collaboration for the study of channeling and volume reflection phenomena in the interaction of 400 GeV/c protons with bent silicon

  14. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  15. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  16. A TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF TITAN'S NORTH POLAR ATMOSPHERE FROM A SPECULAR REFLECTION OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Clark, Roger N.; Sotin, Christophe; Buratti, Bonnie J.; dmkovics, Mt; Appr, Thomas; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Brown, Robert H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Le Moulic, Stphane; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2013-11-10

    Cassini/VIMS T85 observations of a solar specular reflection off of Kivu Lacus (87.4N 241.1E) provide an empirical transmission spectrum of Titan's atmosphere. Because this observation was acquired from short range (33,000 km), its intensity makes it visible within the 2.0, 2.7, and 2.8 ?m atmospheric windows in addition to the 5 ?m window where all previous specular reflections have been seen. The resulting measurement of the total one-way normal atmospheric optical depth (corresponding to haze scattering plus haze and gas absorption) provides strong empirical constraints on radiative transfer models. Using those models, we find that the total haze column abundance in our observation is 20% higher than the Huygens equatorial value. Ours is the first measurement in the 2-5 ?m wavelength range that probes all the way to the surface in Titan's arctic, where the vast majority of surface liquids are located. The specular technique complements other probes of atmospheric properties such as solar occultations and the direct measurements from Huygens. In breaking the degeneracy between surface and atmospheric absorptions, our measured optical depths will help to drive future calculations of deconvolved surface albedo spectra.

  17. Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Print Wednesday, 18 March 2015 15:38 Terra sigillata ceramics were the most famous ancient tableware produced during the Roman period owing to the mass production of standardized shapes and the widespread distribution of the vessels. The beautiful ceramics were characterized by their reddish coloration, glossy coating, and the

  18. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roy R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  19. Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device -

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    progress report 6/15/2014. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Abstract not provided. Authors: James, Conrad D. ; Finnegan, Patrick Sean ; Renzi, Ronald F. Publication Date: 2014-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1171452 Report Number(s): SAND2014-15063R 534251 DOE

  20. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  1. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  2. Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Seagle, Christopher T ; Ao, Tommy ; Herrmann, Mark Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106087 Report Number(s): SAND2013-3898C 465305 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  3. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_molnar.pdf More Documents & Publications Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND

  4. EM's Jack Surash Reflects on Growing Participation in Business

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunity Forums | Department of Energy Jack Surash Reflects on Growing Participation in Business Opportunity Forums EM's Jack Surash Reflects on Growing Participation in Business Opportunity Forums October 29, 2015 - 12:45pm Addthis Jack Surash, EM’s Deputy Assistant Secretary for Acquisition and Project Management, at a Business Opportunity Forum. Jack Surash, EM's Deputy Assistant Secretary for Acquisition and Project Management, at a Business Opportunity Forum. WASHINGTON, D.C. -

  5. Retiring Procurement Official Reflects on Career | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retiring Procurement Official Reflects on Career Retiring Procurement Official Reflects on Career August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Pamela Thompson is retiring from her 37-year federal career. Pamela Thompson is retiring from her 37-year federal career. LEXINGTON, Ky. - As the retiring supervisory contracting officer for EM's Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (PPPO), Pamela Thompson exemplifies the wisdom of her own advice. She credits her diverse 37-year federal career to confidently seeking

  6. FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program presents the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management’s (OCRWM) May 2007 total...

  7. Total China Investment Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total (China) Investment Co. Ltd. Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100004 Product: Total has been present in China for about 30...

  8. Texas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

  9. Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  10. West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  11. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  12. Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  13. North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  14. North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  15. New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  16. New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  17. Project Functions and Activities Definitions for Total Project Cost

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides guidelines developed to define the obvious disparity of opinions and practices with regard to what exactly is included in total estimated cost (TEC) and total project cost (TPC).

  18. Entanglement entropy in quantum spin chains with broken reflection symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadar, Zoltan; Zimboras, Zoltan

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the entanglement entropy of a block of L sites in quasifree translation-invariant spin chains concentrating on the effect of reflection-symmetry breaking. The Majorana two-point functions corresponding to the Jordan-Wigner transformed fermionic modes are determined in the most general case; from these, it follows that reflection symmetry in the ground state can only be broken if the model is quantum critical. The large L asymptotics of the entropy are calculated analytically for general gauge-invariant models, which have, until now, been done only for the reflection-symmetric sector. Analytical results are also derived for certain nongauge-invariant models (e.g., for the Ising model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We also study numerically finite chains of length N with a nonreflection-symmetric Hamiltonian and report that the reflection symmetry of the entropy of the first L spins is violated but the reflection-symmetric Calabrese-Cardy formula is recovered asymptotically. Furthermore, for noncritical reflection-symmetry-breaking Hamiltonians, we find an anomaly in the behavior of the saturation entropy as we approach the critical line. The paper also provides a concise but extensive review of the block-entropy asymptotics in translation-invariant quasifree spin chains with an analysis of the nearest-neighbor case and the enumeration of the yet unsolved parts of the quasifree landscape.

  19. Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.K.

    1988-06-17

    The interaction of light and matter define what we see. This interaction can be characterized by a function which relates incoming light to the distribution of outgoing or reflected light. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) is just such a function. Computer graphics scientists attempting to model this function have made simplifying assumptions about the reflecting surfaces. These simpler models have produced adequate results but only handle very uniform or isotropic surface characteristics. Reality on the other hand is filled with a variety of surface textures which result in a variety of BRDFs. This thesis broadens the class of BRDFs which can be used in computer graphics to render objects more realistically. It presents two enhancements to previous work done by the author. First, it describes a method for the approximation of surface absorption of light through the use of a computed geometric attentuation factor. This factor is computed by calculating the parts of the surface which are visible in the incident and reflecting directions. Specifically, it describes the algorithms and theory behind the visibility calculations and how it affects the reflection properties of the surface. Second, it describes a method for computing Fresnel's Law for conducting and dielectric surface materials and how Fresnel's Law affects surface reflectivity. This work also presents a method for rendering objects using the computed BRDFs. 38 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Microsoft Word - Rapid Reflective Facet Characterization Using Fringe Reflection Techniques full paper formatted large pics.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceedings of ES2009 Energy Sustainability 2009 July 19-23, 2009, San Francisco, California USA ES2009-90163 RAPID REFLECTIVE FACET CHARACTERIZATION USING FRINGE REFLECTION TECHNIQUES Charles E. Andraka Scott Sadlon Brian Myer Kirill Trapeznikov Christina Liebner Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA ABSTRACT Mirror facets for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems have stringent requirements on slope accuracy in order to provide adequate system performance. This paper

  1. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  2. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Paul R. (Lenoir City, TN); Shapira, Hanna B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  3. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  4. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  5. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  6. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23{sup o}], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45{sup o}]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R*{sub g,0}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R*{sub g,0} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R*{sub g,0} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R*{sub g,0} to within about 0.01.

  7. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S.

  8. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010

  9. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S.

  10. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S.

  11. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the Presentation PDF icon NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications Home Performance with ENERGY STAR - 2014 BTO Peer Review Residential Buildings Integration Program Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review LBNL's FLEXLAB test facility, which includes

  12. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Primary Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Primary Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 primary consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 primary...

  13. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Site Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Site Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 site consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 site...

  14. Table 3a. Total Natural Gas Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3a. Natural Gas Consumption per Sq Ft Table 3a. Total Natural Gas Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Natural Gas...

  15. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki Abstract Provides information on...

  16. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  17. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Annual",2014,"6301968" ,"Release Date:","212016" ,"Next Release Date:","312016" ,"Excel File...

  18. TENESOL formerly known as TOTAL ENERGIE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: TENESOL (formerly known as TOTAL ENERGIE) Place: la Tour de Salvagny, France Zip: 69890 Sector: Solar Product: Makes polycrystalline silicon modules, and PV-based...

  19. Total Agroindustria Canavieira S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agroindustria Canavieira S A Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Agroindustria Canavieira SA Place: Bambui, Minas Gerais, Brazil Product: Ethanol producer in Minas Gerais,...

  20. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  1. $787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded in FY2009 by DOE Programs in Oak Ridge | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS...

  2. ,"Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release...

  3. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases EthaneEthylene Ethane Ethylene PropanePropylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane...

  4. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  5. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  6. Validation of FSP Reactor Design with Sensitivity Studies of Beryllium-Reflected Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-02-01

    The baseline design for space nuclear power is a fission surface power (FSP) system: sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel, stainless steel (SS) cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. Previous studies were performed to evaluate modeling capabilities and quantify uncertainties and biases associated with analysis methods and nuclear data. Comparison of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR)-20 benchmark experiments with the FSP design indicated that further reduction of the total design model uncertainty requires the reduction in uncertainties pertaining to beryllium and uranium cross-section data. Further comparison with three beryllium-reflected HEU-metal benchmark experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) concluded the requirement that experimental validation data have similar cross section sensitivities to those found in the FSP design. A series of critical experiments was performed at ORCEF in the 1960s to support the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) space reactor design. The small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were graphite- or beryllium-reflected assemblies of SS-clad, HEU-O2 fuel on a vertical lift machine. All five configurations were evaluated as benchmarks. Two of the five configurations were beryllium reflected, and further evaluated using the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities of SCALE 6.1. Validation of the example FSP design model was successful in reducing the primary uncertainty constituent, the Be(n,n) reaction, from 0.28 %dk/k to 0.0004 %dk/k. Further assessment of additional reactor physics measurements performed on the SCCA experiments may serve to further validate FSP design and operation.

  7. Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1992-06-01

    This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

  8. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey; Lin, Yun

    2003-04-29

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  9. Gathering total items count for pagination | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gathering total items count for pagination Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi I'm using the following base link plus some restrictions to sector, utility, and locations to poll for...

  10. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercTotal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PElectrtyUsePercTotal" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 100.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 100.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 +...

  11. AEO2011:Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    case. The dataset uses quadrillion Btu and the U.S. Dollar. The data is broken down into production, imports, exports, consumption and price. Data and Resources AEO2011:Total...

  12. CIGNA Study Uncovers Relationship of Disabilities to Total Benefits Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The findings of a new study reveal an interesting trend. Integrating disability programs with health care programs can potentially lower employers' total benefits costs and help disabled employees get back to work sooner and stay at work.

  13. Ultrasound image guided acetabular implant orientation during total hip replacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, John; Haddad, Waleed; Kluiwstra, Jan-Ulco; Matthews, Dennis; Trauner, Kenneth

    2003-08-19

    A system for assisting in precise location of the acetabular implant during total hip replacement. The system uses ultrasound imaging for guiding the placement and orientation of the implant.

  14. "Table A45. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ," 500 and Over",1166.9,4,1.9,0.9,5.3,12.7 ,"Total",806,6.7,2.7,0.2,7.7,5 2011,"Meat Packing Plants" ,"Value of Shipments and Receipts " ,"(million dollars)" ," Under ...

  15. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  16. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Total | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:RenewableFuelStandardTotal Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the...

  17. Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

  18. Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (767 KB) Solar glare from aerial view Solar glare from aerial view Typical solar glare Typical solar glare

  19. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Processing Area

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Total Products Other Liquids Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History

  20. Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials | Department of Energy Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials TSA is a gross indicator of soot reactivity and does not always correlate well with the real reactivity. This research shows that a more

  1. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Short Tons." ,,"Coal",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  2. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  3. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  4. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  5. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." ,,"Electricity Receipts",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  6. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  7. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Short Tons." ,,"Coal",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  8. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"LPG",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  9. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  10. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Residual Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  11. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." ,,"Electricity Receipts",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  12. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2006; " " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Thousand Barrels." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  13. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-06-03 OSTI Identifier: 1082234 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-24025 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Working Party

  14. Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - EERE Totals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Historical EERE office total reports include only Webtrends archives by fiscal year. EERE total reports dating after FY11 can be accessed in EERE's Google Analytics account. Microsoft Office document icon EERE FY07 Microsoft Office document icon EERE FY08 Microsoft Office document icon EERE FY09 Microsoft Office document icon EERE FY10 Microsoft Office document icon EERE FY11 More Documents & Publications Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year - Information Center Webtrends Archives by Fiscal

  15. Ultrafast transient reflectance of epitaxial semiconducting perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolin, S. Y.; Guglietta, G. W.; Baxter, J. B. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu; Scafetta, M. D.; May, S. J. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu

    2014-07-14

    Ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance (TR) spectroscopy was used to study carrier dynamics in an epitaxial perovskite oxide thin film of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) with a thickness of 40 unit cells (16?nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT). TR spectroscopy shows two negative transients in reflectance with local maxima at ?2.5?eV and ?3.5?eV which correspond to two optical transitions in LFO as determined by ellipsometry. The kinetics at these transients were best fit with an exponential decay model with fast (540 ps), medium (?200 ps), and slow (??3?ns) components that we attribute mainly to recombination of photoexcited carriers. Moreover, these reflectance transients did not completely decay within the observable time window, indicating that ?10% of photoexcited carriers exist for at least 3?ns. This work illustrates that TR spectroscopy can be performed on thin (<20?nm) epitaxial oxide films to provide a quantitative understanding of recombination lifetimes, which are important parameters for the potential utilization of perovskite films in photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  16. Inversion of seismic reflection traveltimes using a nonlinear optimization scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pullammanappallil, S.K.; Louie, J.N. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present the use of a nonlinear optimization scheme called generalized simulated annealing to invert seismic reflection times for velocities, reflector depths, and lengths. A finite-difference solution of the eikonal equation computes reflection traveltimes through the velocity model and avoids ray tracing. They test the optimization scheme on synthetic models and compare it with results from a linearized inversion. The synthetic tests illustrate that, unlike linear inversion schemes, the results obtained by the optimization scheme are independent of the initial model. The annealing method has the ability to produce a suite of models that satisfy the data equally well. They make use of this property to determine the uncertainties associated with the model parameters obtained. Synthetic examples demonstrate that allowing the reflector length to vary, along with its position, helps the optimization process obtain a better solution. The authors put this to use in imaging the Garlock fault, whose geometry at depth is poorly known. They use reflection times picked from shot gathers recorded along COCORP Mojave Line 5 to invert for the Garlock fault and velocities within the Cantil Basin below Fremont Valley, California. The velocities within the basin obtained by their optimization scheme are consistent with earlier studies, though their results suggest that the basin might extend 1--2 km further south. The reconstructed reflector seems to suggest shallowing of the dip of the Garlock fault at depth.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of

  18. Reflection of a TE-polarised Gaussian beam from a layered structure under conditions of resonance excitation of waveguide modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Molchanova, S I; Savelyev, A G; Khaydukov, E V; Panchenko, V Ya

    2014-11-30

    The problem of reflection of a TE-polarised Gaussian light beam from a layered structure under conditions of resonance excitation of waveguide modes using a total internal reflection prism is considered. Using the spectral approach we have derived the analytic expressions for the mode propagation lengths, widths and depths of m-lines (sharp and narrow dips in the angular dependence of the specular reflection coefficient), depending on the structure parameters. It is shown that in the case of weak coupling, when the propagation lengths l{sub m} of the waveguide modes are mainly determined by the extinction coefficient in the film, the depth of m-lines grows with the mode number m. In the case of strong coupling, when l{sub m} is determined mainly by the radiation of modes into the prism, the depth of m-lines decreases with increasing m. The change in the TE-polarised Gaussian beam shape after its reflection from the layered structure is studied, which is determined by the energy transfer from the incident beam into waveguide modes that propagate along the structure by the distance l{sub m}, are radiated in the direction of specular reflection and interfere with a part of the beam reflected from the working face of the prism. It is shown that this interference can lead to the field intensity oscillations near m-lines. The analysis of different methods for determining the parameters of thin-film structures is presented, including the measurement of mode angles θ{sub m} and the reflected beam shape. The methods are based on simultaneous excitation of a few waveguide modes in the film with a strongly focused monochromatic Gaussian beam, the waist width of which is much smaller than the propagation length of the modes. As an example of using these methods, the refractive index and the thickness of silicon monoxide film on silica substrate at the wavelength 633 nm are determined. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)

  19. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  20. Polarization Studies of Resonant Forbidden Reflections in Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, P.; Barois, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, Z. Q.; McCoy, B. K.; Huang, C. C.; Pindak, R.; Caliebe, W.

    2007-11-30

    We report the results of resonant x-ray diffraction experiments performed on thick films of a biaxial liquid crystal made of achiral bent-core molecules. Polarization properties of forbidden reflections are observed as a function of the sample rotation angle {phi} about the scattering vector Q for the first time on a fluid material. The experimental data are successfully analyzed within a tensor structure factor model by taking the nonperfect alignment of the liquid crystal into account. The local structure of the B{sub 2} mesophase is hence determined to be SmC{sub S}P{sub A}.

  1. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Deliveries (Percent) U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas

  2. Properties of solar gravity mode signals in total irradiance observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroll, R.J.; Chen, J.; Hill, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Further evidence has been found that a significant fraction of the gravity mode power density in the total irradiance observations appears in sidebands of classified eigenfrequencies. These sidebands whose amplitudes vary from year to year are interpreted as harmonics of the rotational frequencies of the nonuniform solar surface. These findings are for non axisymmetric modes and corroborate the findings of Kroll, Hill and Chen for axisymmetric modes. It is demonstrated the the generation of the sidebands lifts the usual restriction on the parity of the eigenfunctions for modes detectable in total irradiance observations. 14 refs.

  3. Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA and incorporated halodeoxyuridine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolbeare, Frank A. (Livermore, CA); Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous flow cytometric measurement of the total DNA content and the level of DNA synthesis in normal and malignant cells is disclosed. The sensitivity of the method allows a study of cell cycle traverse rates for large scale cell populations as well as single cell measurements. A DNA stain such as propidium iodide is used as the probe for the measurement of total DNA content and a monoclonal antibody reactive with a DNA precursor such as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is used as a probe for the measurement of BrdU uptake by the cells as a measure of DNA synthesis.

  4. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Hemispheres Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    During the period from June 1967 through September 1969 a series of critical experiments was performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory with spherical and hemispherical plutonium assemblies as nested hemishells as part of a Nuclear Safety Facility Experimental Program to evaluate operational safety margins for the Rocky Flats Plant. These assemblies were both bare and fully or partially oil-reflected. Many of these experiments were subcritical with an extrapolation to critical configurations or critical at a particular oil height. Existing records reveal that 167 experiments were performed over the course of 28 months. Unfortunately, much of the data was not recorded. A reevaluation of the experiments had been summarized in a report for future experimental and computational analyses. This report examines only fifteen partially oil-reflected hemispherical assemblies. Fourteen of these assemblies also had close-fitting stainless-steel hemishell reflectors, used to determine the effective critical reflector height of oil with varying steel-reflector thickness. The experiments and their uncertainty in keff values were evaluated to determine their potential as valid criticality benchmark experiments of plutonium.

  5. Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. |

    1998-06-01

    Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

  6. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L.

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  7. "Table A46. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ," 1000 and Over",447.9,4.3,1.6,0.9,7,7.8 ,"Total",806,6.7,2.7,0.2,7.7,5 2011,"Meat Packing Plants" ,"Employment Size " ," Under 50"," Q "," Q "," Q ",0," Q ",0 ," ...

  8. Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2014 3,066 367 1,939 1,784 2015 2,847 3,010 3,004 2,925 - No Data Reported; -- ...

  9. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-07-07

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  10. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 3/31/2008 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, D. Hyman, C. Payne, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, D. Templeton, and J. Wolfe Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42621 Revised March 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

  11. Table 28. Percentages of Total Imported Crude Oil by API Gravity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    through 1980 reflect the month of reporting; values since then reflect the month of acquisition, which can be the month of loading, the month of landing, or sometime between those...

  12. Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and a New Solar-Reflective Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.; Rustagi, M.; Olson, K.; Kogler, R.

    2007-05-01

    An analysis to determine the impact of reducing the thermal load on a vehicle using solar-reflective paint and glazing.

  13. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  14. V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2013 - 12:14am...

  15. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.49 2.52 2.65 2.72 2.59 2.44 2.52 2000's 2.60 2.62 2.77 2.72 2.73 2.66 2.68 2.73 2.85 2.79 2010's 2.57 2.66 2.63 2.86 2.88 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  16. Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.58 0.55 0.55 0.52 2000's 0.54 0.59 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.51 0.49 0.47 0.49 0.49 2010's 0.57 0.52 0.47 0.51 0.56 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  17. Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.71 2.53 2.58 2.62 2.56 2.45 2.37 2000's 2.31 2.44 2.34 2.26 2.25 2.21 2.18 2.15 2.33 2.22 2010's 2.25 2.18 2.00 2.17 2.27 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  18. Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.41 0.39 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.42 2000's 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.45 0.42 0.44 0.46 2010's 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.42 0.42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  19. Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.97 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.90 0.86 2000's 0.85 0.98 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.79 0.82 0.82 0.87 0.84 2010's 0.84 0.84 0.75 0.84 0.83 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  20. Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.42 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.51 0.66 0.61 2000's 0.60 0.68 0.65 0.65 0.75 0.75 0.87 0.81 0.79 0.81 2010's 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.85 0.69 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  1. New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.13 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.14 2000's 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.14 0.15 2010's 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  2. New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.95 4.47 4.01 4.25 4.35 4.35 4.43 2000's 4.40 4.51 4.29 4.80 4.77 4.79 4.51 4.83 4.51 4.73 2010's 4.58 4.53 4.61 4.62 4.87 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  3. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.64 0.64 0.59 0.64 0.74 0.79 0.75 2000's 0.72 0.73 0.69 0.62 0.71 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.69 0.68 2010's 0.74 0.73 0.78 0.74 0.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  4. Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.14 7.08 7.38 7.15 7.11 6.56 6.73 2000's 6.88 6.47 6.57 6.75 6.59 6.69 6.23 6.34 6.27 6.12 2010's 5.93 6.07 6.05 6.07 6.30 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  5. Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.58 1.43 1.42 1.46 1.44 1.47 1.30 2000's 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.29 1.22 1.23 1.21 1.27 1.35 1.30 2010's 1.37 1.30 1.18 1.35 1.36 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  6. Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.60 0.60 0.58 0.63 0.65 0.76 0.82 2000's 0.78 0.80 0.79 0.73 0.79 0.82 0.94 0.91 0.92 0.94 2010's 0.85 0.99 1.04 0.94 0.81 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  7. Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.43 5.54 5.40 5.32 5.27 4.82 5.11 2000's 5.26 5.01 4.89 5.22 5.09 5.08 4.71 4.90 4.69 4.76 2010's 4.68 4.66 4.76 4.73 5.01 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  8. Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.14 2.05 2.15 2.12 2.32 2.45 2.37 2000's 2.33 2.59 2.64 2.45 2.48 2.57 2.73 2.77 2.74 2.70 2010's 2.74 2.76 2.79 2.76 2.60 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  9. Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.19 2000's 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.21 2010's 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.22 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  10. District of Columbia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Percent) % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) District of Columbia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.33 0.32 0.29 0.30 2000's 0.31 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.26 0.28 0.27 0.28 2010's 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.28 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next

  11. Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.26 0.31 0.29 2000's 0.30 0.33 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.32 2010's 0.39 0.35 0.35 0.31 0.33 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  12. Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.33 2.18 2.36 2.42 2.30 2.38 2.09 2000's 2.82 2.51 2.59 2.56 2.60 2.58 2.52 2.37 2.44 2.48 2010's 2.90 2.40 2.35 2.48 2.64 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  13. Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2000's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2010's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  14. Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.25 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.35 0.38 2000's 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.37 0.42 0.45 0.51 0.50 0.56 0.53 2010's 0.50 0.57 0.58 0.56 0.48 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  15. Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.99 9.77 10.33 10.28 9.98 9.07 9.42 2000's 9.35 8.95 9.40 9.32 9.11 9.07 9.12 9.17 9.52 9.21 2010's 8.71 8.87 8.70 9.24 9.42 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  16. Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.31 3.25 3.32 3.43 3.39 3.10 3.21 2000's 3.23 3.09 3.21 3.10 3.05 3.08 2.92 3.02 3.12 2.92 2010's 2.89 2.80 2.78 2.95 3.08 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  17. Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.68 1.61 1.70 1.68 1.64 1.52 1.51 2000's 1.48 1.49 1.46 1.46 1.40 1.39 1.42 1.43 1.54 1.47 2010's 1.43 1.42 1.35 1.48 1.51 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  18. Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.71 1.53 1.56 1.63 1.39 1.55 1.44 2000's 1.41 1.47 1.45 1.39 1.34 1.35 1.31 1.34 1.44 1.49 2010's 1.40 1.39 1.22 1.39 1.40 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  19. Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.35 1.29 1.36 1.34 1.33 1.23 1.25 2000's 1.29 1.19 1.21 1.22 1.16 1.16 1.08 1.09 1.12 1.08 2010's 1.14 1.08 1.04 1.11 1.13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  20. Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.14 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.05 0.95 2000's 1.00 1.03 1.01 0.93 0.88 0.85 0.77 0.79 0.76 0.76 2010's 0.95 0.84 0.77 0.79 0.87 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016