Sample records for total precipitation sensor

  1. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  2. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  3. Sensitivity improvements for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors using total variation minimisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basden, Alastair

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the improvements in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor image processing that can be realised using total variation minimisation techniques to remove noise from these images. We perform Monte-Carlo simulation to demonstrate that at certain signal-to-noise levels, sensitivity improvements of up to one astronomical magnitude can be realised. We also present on-sky measurements taken with the CANARY adaptive optics system that demonstrate an improvement in performance when this technique is employed, and show that this algorithm can be implemented in a real-time control system. We conclude that total variation minimisation can lead to improvements in sensitivity of up to one astronomical magnitude when used with adaptive optics systems.

  4. Temperature Control Framework Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Geostatistical Analysis for Total Spatial Awareness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Jeffrey

    cooling and heating mechanisms in buildings at every location for improved user comfort. Keywords ­ Smart presents a novel framework for intelligent temperature control in smart homes using Wireless Sensor Analysis; Classical Variography; Ordinary Point Kriging I. INTRODUCTION Research involving smart homes has

  5. On the reconstruction of seasonal oceanic precipitation in the presatellite era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    satellites and the processing of data from dedicated sensors (operating at infrared and microwave wavelengths have evaluated the capabilities and limitations of reconstructing oceanic precipitation using land

  6. The picoplankton contribution to the total biomass has not been considered when it is estimated using remote sensors. In this work, In situ chlorophyll-a values were

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    aportación del picoplancton a la biomasa total del fitoplancton no ha sido considerada cuando esta es (contribuyendo un 60-85% de la biomasa total del fitoplancton y un 61-77% de la absorción de la luz por

  7. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference...

  8. A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO Wiel M.F. Wauben precipitation sensor of Ott has been tested at KNMI in order to find out whether it is a suitable candidate for replacing the current operational KNMI precipitation gauge. Tests performed at the calibration facilities

  9. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  10. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1: precipitation scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented under the headings: cloud studies, precipitation chemistry, plume studies, gas scavenging, microphysics and models.

  11. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Precipitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiancenumbergovMeasurementsPrecipitation

  13. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  14. Precipitation-Regulated Star Formation in Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voit, G Mark; O'Shea, Brian W; Donahue, Megan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy growth depends critically on the interplay between radiative cooling of cosmic gas and the resulting energetic feedback that cooling triggers. This interplay has proven exceedingly difficult to model, even with large supercomputer simulations, because of its complexity. Nevertheless, real galaxies are observed to obey simple scaling relations among their primary observable characteristics. Here we show that a generic emergent property of the interplay between cooling and feedback can explain the observed scaling relationships between a galaxy's stellar mass, its total mass, and its chemical enrichment level, as well as the relationship between the average orbital velocity of its stars and the mass of its central black hole. These relationships naturally result from any feedback mechanism that strongly heats a galaxy's circumgalactic gas in response to precipitation of colder clouds out of that gas, because feedback then suspends the gas in a marginally precipitating state.

  15. TOTAL M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Jane E.

    202 51 *total new freshmen 684: 636 Lexington campus, 48 Paducah campus MS Total 216 12 5 17 2 0 2 40 248 247 648 45 210 14 *total new freshmen 647: 595 Lexington campus, 52 Paducah campus MS Total 192 14

  16. Energy Efficient Map Interpolation for Sensor Fields Using Kriging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yan

    Yang, and Xinrong Li [brh,huangyan,jy0074,xinrong]@unt.edu University of North Texas #12;Overview the sensor field, e.g.: Temperature Hydraulic head Soil moisture Ocean current velocity Energy Efficient Map Precipitation Energy Efficient Map Interpolation for Sensor Fields Using Kriging ­ p.4/5 #12;Overview Motivation

  17. Phosphorus reduction in dairy effluent through flocculation and precipitation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg, Amanda Leann

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    to the flocculated effluent raised the pH from near 8 to near 9, inducing P precipitation, further reducing the P content. The total P reduction for the best combination of treatments was 97%, a decrease from 76 to 2 mg L-1. If this level of reduction were achieved...

  18. Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

  19. Development of precipitation retrievals at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths for geostationary satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    for precipitation retrieval from geostationary sensors based on mesoscale cloud modeling and radiative transfer resolution problem from a geostationary orbit. Adding the thermal infrared observations has a limited impact rain and the other hydrometeor profiles. These theoretical results are evaluated at close

  20. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  1. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1. Precipitation scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N. (eds.)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These two volumes contain papers prepared for and presented at the Fourth International Conference on Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension (the Chamberlain Meeting) held during 29 November to 3 December, 1982 in Santa Monica, California. Papers presented are abstracted separately.

  2. On Perimeter Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Minimum Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Vincent W. L.

    , and asset tracking [1], [2]. In monitoring applications, small battery-powered sensor nodes are deployed of the white house so as to ensure its security. Each sensor is associated with a cost. To reduce the total

  3. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  4. Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    changes in two different climate scenarios. In the Mediterranean region, precipitation amount, frequencyChanges in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss with climate change, with potentially severe impacts on human society and ecosystems. This study analyses

  5. Phase field model for precipitates in crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    She, Minggang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen precipitate caused by oxygen supersaturation is the most common and important defects in Czochralski (CZ) silicon. The presence of oxygen precipitate in silicon wafer has both harmful and beneficial effects on the ...

  6. Future credible precipitation occurrences in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I have studied many factors thought to have influenced past climatic change. Because they might recur, they are possible suspects for future climatic alterations. Most of these factors are totally unpredictable; therefore, they cast a shadow on the validity of derived climatic predictions. Changes in atmospheric conditions and in continental surfaces, variations in solar radiation, and in the earth's orbit around the sun are among the influential mechanisms investigated. Even when models are set up that include the above parameters, their reliability will depend on unpredictable variables totally alien to the model (like volcanic eruptions). Based on climatic records, however, maximum precipitation amounts have been calculated for different probability levels. These seem to correspond well to past precipitation occurrences, derived from tree ring indices. The link between tree ring indices and local climate has been established through regression analysis.

  7. Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors:Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design,Design,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors:Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design,Design, Implementation, and EvaluationImplementation, and Evaluation Jie Teng, Tim Bolbrock, Guohong Cao, and Tom La of Freiburg #12;OverviewOverview · Sensor networks · mobile sensor · mobile robot · Mote · sensor relocation

  8. Sensor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  9. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  10. XIV Spanish Meeting on Computational Geometry, 2730 June 2011 Sensor recalibration with Voronoi diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palop del Río, Belén

    are recalibrated even for very degradated sensor networks. The total number of comunication rounds averages 6 detect misfunctions in the sensors. A dense deployment of the sensors is therefore needed due power in order to automatically detect and correct outliers in a densely deployed wireless sensor

  11. Corrosion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Clarke, Jr., Willis L. (San Ramon, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  12. Corrosion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  13. Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum only recently have attempts been made to develop a thermodynamic description. Published methods

  14. Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress of the ratio of hill/coast precipitation during the 20th century in polluted areas in line with the increasing

  15. Sensor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  16. Evaluation of a total energy sensor for glide path control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oseguera, Rosa Maria

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of optimization problems and boundary conditions. The performance index was defined in terms of altitude h (relative and absolute), or path inclination 7 (relative and absolute) to determine the optimal trajectory on take-off through a wind shear. Resulting... flow. The subsequent mass flow was measured by a constant-temperature hot film probe in the duct. Airspeed, altitude, and climb speed were recorded using an analog and a digital recording system. The wind field was modeled approximately...

  17. Hydrocarbon/Total Combustibles Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen

  18. Flow preconditioner for electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honacker, H.; Drlik, R.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow preconditioner for an electrostatic precipitator removes particulate matter from a stream of polluted gas immediately after it passes through a tangential inlet at the lower end of a vertical cylindrical housing and straightens and divides the stream into laminations parallel to the axis of the housing. It comprises an annular ledge or choke ring extending inwardly from said housing above the inlet and an assembly of vanes above said ledge extending radially from the axis of the housing and angularly spaced apart. Each of said vanes has a flow receiving edge directed toward said inlet, a curved portion extending upwardly and away from said inlet, and a flat portion extending upwardly from said curved portion in a plane parallel to the housing axis. The curved portion of each vane defines a trough having a camber which gradually decreases along its span from the outer end of the vane towards the axis of the housng, together with means to vary the centrifugal flow distribution relative to the housing to render the preconditioner adjustable for various flow capacities.

  19. Total Light Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers total light management, and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  20. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  2. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  3. An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Christopher James

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are produced. The hourly precipitation-type climatologist present the probabilities for particular precipitation types (frozen, freezing, rain, and mixed) for 2F? temperature intervals from 8F? to 44F?. The synoptic precipitation-type climatologist provide...

  4. Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ controlling precipitate formation is still needed. In this study, we have combined experimental data on nickel

  5. affects regional precipitation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accompanying precipitation changes ... Solomon, Susan 10 Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?...

  6. air pollution precipitation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution Geosciences Websites Summary: Quantifying precipitation suppression due to...

  7. Processing NPP Bottoms by Ferrocyanide Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savkin, A. E.; Slastennikov Y. T.; Sinyakin O. G.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of work is a laboratory test of a technological scheme for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides by use of ozonization, ferrocyanide precipitation, filtration and selective sorption. At carrying out the ferrocyanide precipitation after ozonization, the specific activity of bottoms by Cs{sup 137} is reduced in 100-500 times. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of ferrocyanide precipitation depends on the quality of consequent filtration. Pore sizes of a filter has been determined to be less than 0.2 {micro}m for complete separation of ferrocyanide residue. The comparison of two technological schemes for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides, characterized by presence of the ferrocyanide precipitation stage has been performed. Application of the proposed schemes allows reducing volumes of radioactive waste in many times.

  8. Estimating tropical cyclone precipitation risk in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Laiyin

    This paper uses a new rainfall algorithm to simulate the long-term tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) climatology in Texas based on synthetic tropical cyclones generated from National Center for Atmospheric Research/National ...

  9. Supporting Information (SI) TITLE: SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR URANIUM BEARING PRECIPITATES IN VADOSE ZONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Supporting Information (SI) TITLE: SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR URANIUM BEARING PRECIPITATES, and -XRF, -XAS, and -XRD Analyses. SI-2: Total metal(loid) HF digestion and chemical analyses of uranium, T. R. A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis; Second ed.; Fisheries Research Board of Canada

  10. Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

  11. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Michael C. (Westmont, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  12. Evaluation of infrasound sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kromer, R.P.; McDonald, T.S.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia is evaluating the performance of various infrasound sensors that could be used as part of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS). Specifications for infrasound stations are outlined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2. This document specifies minimum requirements for sensor, digitizer and system. The infrasound sensors evaluation task has the following objectives: provide an overview of the sensors presently in use; evaluate these sensors with respect to the requirements of the IMS.

  13. Decentralized TDOA Sensor Pairing in Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Wei; Lihua, Xie; Wendong, Xiao

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    localization in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Signallocalization in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Trans.techniques for wireless sensor networks: A survey,” IEEE

  14. Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Ankur Mukesh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Channel-Specific Wireless Sensor Network Path Data”. In:Average Power in Wireless Sensor Networks through Data Ratedesign space of wireless sensor networks”. In: IEEE Wireless

  15. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gale et al. (2006) and evaluation of sensor performance byConclusions from evaluation of representative sensor systemsConclusions from evaluation of representative sensor systems

  16. Saving Energy by Adjusting Transmission Power in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, Neil C.

    Saving Energy by Adjusting Transmission Power in Wireless Sensor Networks Xiao Chen Department and communication areas. Energy-efficient communication is an important issue in WSNs because of the limited power propose methods to reduce communication energy by minimizing the total sensor trans- mission power

  17. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  18. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  19. Mass transfer and structural analysis of microfluidic sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gervais, Thomas

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface-based sensors take advantage of the natural high surface-to-volume ratios in microfluidic devices, low reagent consumption and high potential for integration in more complex micro total analysis systems (microTAS ...

  20. Precipitate Redistribution during Creep of Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Schlegel; S. Hopkins; E. Young; M. Frary; J. Cole; T.Lillo

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel-based superalloys are being considered for applications within advanced nuclear power generation systems due to their high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Alloy 617, a candidate for use in heat exchangers, derives its strength from both solid solution strengthening and the precipitation of carbide particles. However, during creep, carbides that are supposed to retard grain boundary motion are found to dissolve and re-precipitate on boundaries in tension. To quantify the redistribution, we have used electron backscatter diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy to analyze the microstructure of 617 after creep testing at 900 and 1000°C. The data were analyzed with respect to location of the carbides (e.g., intergranular vs. intragranular), grain boundary character, and precipitate type (i.e., Cr-rich or Mo-rich). We find that grain boundary character is the most important factor in carbide distribution; some evidence of preferential distribution to boundaries in tension is also observed at higher applied stresses. Finally, the results suggest that the observed redistribution is due to the migration of carbides to the boundaries and not the migration of boundaries to the precipitates.

  1. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  2. Millimeter-wave sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seoktae

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    New millimeter wave interferometric, multifunctional sensors have been studied for industrial sensing applications: displacement measurement, liquid-level gauging and velocimetry. Two types of configuration were investigated to implement the sensor...

  3. TotalView Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances » Top InnovativeTopoisomeraseTotalView

  4. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  5. Giant magnetoresistive sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetoresistive sensor element with a three-dimensional micro-architecture is capable of significantly improved sensitivity and highly localized measurement of magnetic fields. The sensor is formed of a multilayer film of alternately magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. The sensor is optimally operated in a current perpendicular to plane mode. The sensor is useful in magnetic read/write heads, for high density magnetic information storage and retrieval.

  6. Polyimide Capacitive Humidity Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofgren, H.; Mills, F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a full-range, low cast humidity sensor has led Honeywell to develop a capacitive relative humidity (RH) sensor with resistance to environmental contaminants. The sensor is used in a bridge circuit to give either a voltage or a current...

  7. Sensor Networks and Consensus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    3 Dic 2009 1/32 Sensor Networks and Consensus An application: Localization and Tracking Distributed Sensors Calibration Randomized Kalman Filter Distributed Kalman Smoother Simone Del Favero PhD Thesis: Localization and Tracking Distributed Sensors Calibration Randomized Kalman Filter Distributed Kalman Smoother

  8. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  9. Polyimide Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofgren, H.; Mills, F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a full-range, low cast humidity sensor has led Honeywell to develop a capacitive relative humidity (RH) sensor with resistance to environmental contaminants. The sensor is used in a bridge circuit to give either a voltage or a current...

  10. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  11. Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2SiO2Si Interfaces . Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at...

  12. ammonium polyuranate precipitation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and CoAgMet stations. From top to bottom, and left to right: most recent 7-days of accumulated precipitation in inches; current month-to-date accumulated precipitation in...

  13. A critical analysis of bulk precipitation recycling models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzmaurice, Jean Anne

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of local land evaporation to the precipitation of a region. The significant local evaporative contribution to rainfall in many continental regions highlights the potential ...

  14. Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta...

  15. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yuxin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    06 R 2 = 0.9713 cumulative CaCO3 precipitation (g) mn m n =R 2 = 0 . 9497 Cumulative CaCO3 precipitation (g) Figure 6

  16. Global estimation of precipitation using opaque microwave bands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Frederick Wey-Min, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the use of opaque microwave bands for global estimation of precipitation rate. An algorithm was developed for estimating instantaneous precipitation rate for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

  17. Diurnal Precipitation Variations in South-Central New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Donna F.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orographic forcing of diurnal precipitation variations in south-central New Mexico is examined. Harmonic analysis reveals a strong diurnal cycle in precipitation frequency at all stations studied. In addition, relatively ...

  18. aluminosilicate continuous precipitation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    binary elements to enable precipitation hardening 2,4,5. Among the alloying elements, rare earths (RE) stand out Chen, Long-Qing 323 Scaling of Precipitation Extremes over a...

  19. Estimating Continental and Terrestrial Precipitation Averages from Raingauge Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willmott, Cort J.; Robeson, Scott M.; Feddema, Johannes J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    precipitation, and in areas with s trong precipitation gradients and stat ion-densi ty gradients . 414 C. J. WILLMOTT, S. M. ROBESON AND J. J. FEDDEMA Sampling the LW climatology at the NCAR station locations suggests that many yearly NCAR station densities.... Higher resolution deployments should coincide with high-frequency (in the spatial domain) precipitation variability. Spatial shifts in the precipitation field with time (on seasonal and interannual time-scales, for example) also should be considered...

  20. Precipitation scavenging models: Sensitivities, tests, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, J.M.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase'' atmospheric-chemistry models can be described as atmospheric-pollutant simulations that explicitly differentiate between physical phases in the atmosphere (.e.g., gas, cloud water, rain water, snow,...), and directly compute chemical transport and transformation behavior between and within each of these individual phases. Initially formulated for specific application to precipitation-scavenging analysis, many attributes of these models have become incorporated into the more general atmospheric-chemisty codes as well. During the past few years, several of these multiphase precipitation-scavenging models have been developed to the point where they can be applied, in a moderately straightforward fashion, by members of the extended atmospheric sciences community. This presentation provides a brief overview of several aspects of a number of these models, including their structure, their application, their sensitivities and uncertainty levels, their evaluation against field measurements, and their availability.

  1. Precipitation scavenging models: Sensitivities, tests, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, J.M.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ``Multiphase`` atmospheric-chemistry models can be described as atmospheric-pollutant simulations that explicitly differentiate between physical phases in the atmosphere (.e.g., gas, cloud water, rain water, snow,...), and directly compute chemical transport and transformation behavior between and within each of these individual phases. Initially formulated for specific application to precipitation-scavenging analysis, many attributes of these models have become incorporated into the more general atmospheric-chemisty codes as well. During the past few years, several of these multiphase precipitation-scavenging models have been developed to the point where they can be applied, in a moderately straightforward fashion, by members of the extended atmospheric sciences community. This presentation provides a brief overview of several aspects of a number of these models, including their structure, their application, their sensitivities and uncertainty levels, their evaluation against field measurements, and their availability.

  2. Radar echo signatures versus relative precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, Terry Alvin

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the relationship between cell-echo signatures and precipitation characteristics, and to support the hypothesis that, during the lifespan of any particular isolated convective cell, the relative rainfall rate, as determined by radar for a given volume scan... Cooperative Program) field experiment of 1979. Four isolated cases, two rainshowers and two thundershowers, were selected for study. Profiles from volume scans taken 10 minutes before, during, and 10 minutes after the maximum radar-determined rainfall rate...

  3. Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, T.H.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

  4. Inhibition of nickel precipitation by organic ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, H.L.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Grasso, D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewaters from electroplating are very complex due to the composition of the plating baths. A nickel plating bath typically consists of a nickel source (nickel chloride or nickel sulfate), complexing agents to solubilize nickel ions controlling their concentration in the solution, buffering agents to maintain pH, brighteners to improve brightness of the plated metal, stabilizers (inhibitors) to prevent undesired reactions, accelerators to enhance speed of reactions, wetting agents to reduce surface tension at the metal surface, and reducing agents (only for electroless nickel plating) to supply electrons for reduction of the nickel. Alkaline precipitation is the most common method of recovering nickel from wastewaters. However, organic constituents found in the wastewaters can mask or completely inhibit the precipitation of nickel. The objective of this study was to conduct an equilibrium study to explore the inhibition behavior of various organic ligands on nickel precipitation. This will lay the groundwork for development of technologies efficacious in the treatment of complexed nickel. The organic ligands used in this study are EDTA, triethanolamine (TEA), gluconate, and tartrate.

  5. Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ming

    Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies and feedback of land surface and atmospheric processes over large space and time scales. Remote sensing-based variables including soil moisture (from AMSR-E), surface heat fluxes (from MODIS) and precipitation rates

  6. Sensor Grid: Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Yong-Meng

    Sensor Grid: Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Grid Hock Beng Lim1 , Yong Meng Teo1 Microsystems, Inc. E-mail: [limhb, teoym]@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract Wireless sensor networks have emerged to the sharing of sensor resources in wireless sensor networks. There are several issues and challenges

  7. The precipitation response to the desiccation of Lake Chad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaet D.; VanWeverberg K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M., Weverberg, K. V., Ridderb, K. D., and Goyens, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Located in the semi-arid African Sahel, Lake Chad has shrunk from a surface area of 25000 km2 in 1960 to about 1350 km2 due to a series of droughts and anthropogenic influences. The disappearance of such a large open-water body can be expected to have a noticeable effect on the meteorology in the surroundings of the lake. The impact could extend even further to the west as westward propagating convective systems pass Lake Chad in the rainfall season. This study examines the sensitivity of the regional hydrology and convective processes to the desiccation of the lake using a regional atmospheric model. Three Lake Chad scenarios are applied reflecting the situation in 1960, the current situation and a potential future scenario in which the lake and the surrounding wetlands have disappeared. The model simulations span the months July-September in 2006, which includes the rainfall season in the Lake Chad area. Total precipitation amounts and the components of the hydrological cycle are found to be hardly affected by the existence of the lake. A filled Lake Chad does, however, increase the precipitation at the east side of the lake. The model results indicate that the boundary layer moisture and temperature are significantly altered downwind of the lake. By investigating a mesoscale convective system (MCS) case, this is found to affect the development and progress of the system. At first, the MCS is intensified by the more unstable boundary layer air but the persistence of the system is altered as the cold pool propagation becomes less effective. The proposed mechanism is able to explain the differences in the rainfall patterns nearby Lake Chad between the scenarios. This highlights the local sensitivity to the desiccation of Lake Chad whereas the large-scale atmospheric processes are not affected.

  8. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  9. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  10. Contact stress sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  11. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Joseph (Las Cruces, NM); Olsen, Khris (Richland, WA); Larson, David (Las Cruces, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  12. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  13. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G

    2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

  15. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  16. Freezing precipitation in the Southeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, William Robert

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the rain and snow sectors with the freezing precipitation generally falling along or near the dividing line In regard to forecasting in Georgia~ Harms (1974) states that~ ". ~ in general, snow will occur north of the 850-mb 0 C i. sotherm...? and freezing rain and sleet in a 30 to 60 n. m band to the south. ? This conflicts somewhat with the rule-of-thumb expo'~ed by Diercks 17 (1970) in which he stated that~ for the eastern United States~ a mixture of snow~ sleet, and rain including freezing...

  17. Estimation of precipitable water from surface observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahan, Archie Marion

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for estimating the precipitable water at Lake Charles, Louisiana. P red ic tors employed were surface vapor p re s ? sure, ceiling, cloud cover , cloud type, wind, pressure change and iv season. E rrors of estimate averaged approximately one tenth o f... of the photocells and the intense radiation of the noon sun leads one to accept the reality of a ce ll temperature greater than the ambient air temperature. The ce lls are, in effect, miniature green ? houses, The epoxy resin cylinder encasing the crysta l...

  18. MUJERES TOTAL BIOLOGIA 16 27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , PLASTICA Y VISUAL 2 2 EDUCACION FISICA, DEPORTE Y MOTRICIDAD HUMANA 1 1 6 11 TOTAL CIENCIAS Nş DE TESIS

  19. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 16 22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , DEPORTE Y MOTRICIDAD HUMANA 0 4 TOTAL FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORADO Y EDUCACIÓN 0 6 ANATOMÍA PATOLÓGICA 2 5

  20. The Total RNA Story Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    The Total RNA Story Introduction Assessing RNA sample quality as a routine part of the gene about RNA sample quality. Data from a high quality total RNA preparation Although a wide variety RNA data interpretation and identify features from total RNA electropherograms that reveal information

  1. Sensors & Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensors and Materials Argonne uses its materials and engineering expertise to develop, test, and deploy sensors and materials to detect nuclear and radiological materials, chemical...

  2. Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal

    ­ container handling, hydraulic lift systems, machine tools www.microstrain.com #12;Copyright © 2006 Micro3DM-GX1® Gyro Enhanced Orientation Sensor Technical Product Overview Micro Sensors.Big Ideas protocol. Embedded microcontrollers relieve the host system from the burden of orientation calculations

  3. Sensors for Environmental Observatories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Michael P.

    Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF-Sponsored Workshop December 2004 #12 States of America. 2005. #12;Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF Sponsored Workshop Evaluation Center (WTEC), Inc. 4800 Roland Avenue Baltimore, Maryland 21210 #12;In recent years

  4. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

  5. Research on the Morphology of Precipitation and Runoff in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, R.A.

    TR-15 1969 Research on the Morphology of Precipitation and Runoff in Texas R.A. Clark Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  6. A unified approach to asphaltene precipitation: Laboratory measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacMillan, D.J.; Tackett, J.E. Jr.; Jessee, M.A.; Monger-McClure, T.G.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unified approach to evaluating asphaltene precipitation based on laboratory measurement and modeling is presented. This approach used an organic deposition cell for measuring asphaltene drop out onset conditions. Asphaltene precipitation was detected by changes in optical fluorescence, electrical conductance, and visual observation. A series of experiments measured the effects of changing pressure, temperature and composition on asphaltene precipitation. A fully-compositional V-L-S mathematical model completed the analysis by matching the experimental results. The model was then used to forecast asphaltene precipitation under a variety of production scenarios including response to gas-lift operations, and to evaluate the possible location of a tar-mat.

  7. Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions . Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and...

  8. altered precipitation preliminary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    desert plant physiology. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Climate change will significantly impact deserts since precipitation drives biological activity in...

  9. Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindelhauer, Christian

    Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation Jie Teng, Tim on implementation and evaluation due to the difficulty of building mobile sensors. In the litera- ture, some--Mobile sensors are useful in many environments because they can move to increase the sensing coverage

  10. Active Control Strategies for Chemical Sensors and Sensor Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosangi, Rakesh

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical sensors are generally used as one-dimensional devices, where one measures the sensor’s response at a fixed setting, e.g., infrared absorption at a specific wavelength, or conductivity of a solid-state sensor at a specific operating...

  11. Mobile RobotsSensor Networks Autonomous Sensor/Actuator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    mobile networks with dynamic topology Optimized task allocation and communication based on application and energy constraints Secure communication and data management in mobile sensor networks Solution SpaceMobile RobotsSensor Networks Autonomous Sensor/Actuator Networks ROSES RObot assisted SEnsor

  12. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Deformation of an Ultra-Fine Precipitate Strengthened Advanced Austenitic Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.C. Carroll; L.J. Carroll

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. The low-cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 °C and a 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain as long as 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in fatigue and creep-fatigue of both alloys at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present for hold times of 60 min and longer, and substantially more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ significantly; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in 316 SS, whereas in HT-UPS the microstructure takes the form of widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as it evolves with continued cycling.

  13. Electrode supporting base for electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honacker, H.

    1981-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a base for supporting hollow cylindrical and circular in cross section collector electrodes for an electrostatic precipitator. The base comprises a central portion and is generally circular; a plurality of arcuate venturi and collector trough assemblies which are generally circular and which intersect radially disposed drain troughs; said venturi and collector trough assemblies being concentric with said center portion of said base and drain troughs extending radially outward from said center portion; a circular wall structure secured to outer ends of said drain troughs; fixture means for securing said collector electrodes on said drain troughs; uppermost portions of said drain troughs and said venturi and collector troughs being substantially flush with each other and said venturi and collector trough assemblies disposed on a common plane to provide for uniform laminar flow relative to the collector electrodes.

  14. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.4 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.3 Q Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  15. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1.9 1.1 Q Q 0.3 Q Do Not Use Central Air-Conditioning... 45.2 24.6 3.6 5.0 8.8 3.2 Use a Programmable...

  16. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.6 3 or More Units... 5.4 3.8 2.9 0.4 Q N 0.2 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.3 Q 3 or More Units... 5.4 1.6 0.8 Q 0.3 0.3 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.4 1.4 0.7 0.9 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 1.7 0.6 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  20. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  1. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.1 0.9 0.2 1.0 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  2. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  3. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.3 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.7 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  4. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 0.7 2.1 0.3 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  5. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......

  6. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......

  7. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer... 75.6...

  8. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer......

  9. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......

  10. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer......

  11. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......

  12. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.3 0.8 0.5 Once a Day... 19.2 4.6 3.0 1.6 Between Once a Day and Once a Week... 32.0 8.9 6.3 2.6 Once a...

  13. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AppliancesTools.... 56.2 11.6 3.3 8.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 0.2 Q 0.1 Hot Tub or Spa......

  14. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tools... 56.2 20.5 10.8 3.6 6.1 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 N N N N Hot Tub or Spa......

  15. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tools... 56.2 27.2 10.6 9.3 9.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q Q Q 0.4 Hot Tub or Spa......

  16. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools.... 56.2 12.2 9.4 2.8 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q Q Q Hot Tub or Spa......

  17. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.3 3.8 Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 40,000 to 59,999 60,000 to 79,999 80,000...

  18. Total..............................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720

  19. Total................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  20. Total........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  1. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6

  2. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q Table

  3. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q TableQ

  4. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q

  5. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q26.7

  6. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  7. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  8. Total.............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8 20.6

  9. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8

  10. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8,171

  11. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7

  12. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7 21.7

  13. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7

  14. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1

  15. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  16. Total................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  17. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.

  18. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5

  19. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5

  20. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.578.1

  1. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4

  2. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1 14.7

  3. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1

  4. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.115.2

  5. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4.

  6. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7

  7. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,618

  8. Total....................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,61814.7

  9. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033

  10. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.7

  11. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.74.2

  12. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6

  13. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1 5.5

  14. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1

  15. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.10.7

  16. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:

  17. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have

  18. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have7.1

  19. Total.........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not

  20. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6 40.7

  1. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.65.6

  3. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do

  4. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6 16.6

  5. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6

  6. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.1

  7. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.10.6

  8. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2

  9. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2 7.6

  10. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2

  11. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2Cooking

  12. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1

  13. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not Have

  14. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDo

  15. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDoDo

  16. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not

  17. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  18. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  19. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not20.6

  20. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo

  1. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1 19.0

  2. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1

  3. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1...

  4. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do

  5. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking

  6. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.6

  7. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.65.6

  8. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0

  9. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  10. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  11. Total.........................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6

  12. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,

  13. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,Product:

  14. Total..............................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970

  15. Total................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  16. Total........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 111.1

  17. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  18. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q Table

  19. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q

  20. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q14.7

  1. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6

  2. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  3. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  4. Total.............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8 20.6

  5. Total..............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8 20.6,171

  6. Total..............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8

  7. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.6 25.6

  8. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.6

  9. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.626.7

  10. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7

  11. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0 22.7

  12. Total................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0 22.7

  13. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0

  14. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.014.7

  15. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1

  16. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1 64.1

  17. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1

  18. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1.

  19. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770

  20. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9

  1. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3

  2. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3Type

  3. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2

  4. Total....................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.7 7.4

  5. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.7

  6. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.75.6

  7. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0

  8. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.6 40.7

  9. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.6

  10. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.6 17.7

  11. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.6

  12. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.64.2

  13. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8

  14. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.0 22.7

  15. Total.........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.0

  16. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6

  17. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6.

  18. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6.5.6

  19. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1

  20. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.6 16.6

  1. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.6

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.67.1

  3. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.67.10.6

  4. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2

  5. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2 7.6

  6. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2 7.6Do

  7. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2

  8. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2Cooking

  9. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2

  10. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not Have Cooling

  11. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not Have

  12. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo Not

  13. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo NotDo

  14. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo

  15. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.7

  16. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.7

  17. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.77.1

  18. Total.................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not

  19. Total.................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.0 8.0

  20. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.0

  1. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.05.6

  2. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1

  3. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1Personal

  4. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1Personal4.2

  5. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do

  6. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do 111.1 47.1 19.0

  7. Total.........................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do 111.1 47.1

  8. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al–Sc–Zr and Al–Mn–Sc–Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlach, M., E-mail: martin.vlach@mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Kekule, T.; Kudrnova, H.; Danis, S. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Gemma, R. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, 23955-6900 Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Ocenasek, V. [SVÚM a.s., Podnikatelská 565, CZ-190 11 Prague (Czech Republic); Malek, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CZ-120 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Tanprayoon, D.; Neubert, V. [Institut für Materialprüfung und Werkstofftechnik, Freiberger Strasse 1, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 °C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 °C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc and/or Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 °C. The precipitation of the Al{sub 6}Mn- and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ? 1.0 ?m at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 °C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al{sub 6}Mn and/or Al{sub 6}(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al{sub 3}Sc-phase and the Al{sub 6}Mn-phase precipitation. - Highlights: • The Mn, Sc and Zr additions to Al totally suppresses recrystallization at 550 °C. • The Sc,Zr-containing particle precipitation is slightly facilitated by cold rolling. • The Mn-containing particle precipitation is highly enhanced by cold rolling. • Cold rolling has no effect on activation energy of the Al{sub 3}Sc and Al{sub 6}Mn precipitation. • The texture development is affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn.

  9. Aircraft as a meteorological sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Meteorological Institute 2 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Photo cover: A KLM Airbus A330-200 landsAircraft as a meteorological sensor Using Mode-S Enhanced Surveillance data to derive upper air Meteorological Institute 3 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Aircraft as a meteorological sensor Using

  10. Electrochemical micro sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

    1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

  11. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  12. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoemaker, Erika L. (Westmont, IL); Vogt, Michael C. (Westmont, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2 gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer.

  13. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoemaker, E.L.; Vogt, M.C.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor is described for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer. 16 figs.

  14. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  15. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  16. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

  17. Geographically distributed environmental sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick; Veatch, Brad; O'Connor, Mike

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a sensor network that includes a number of sensor units and a base unit. The base station operates in a network discovery mode (in which network topology information is collected) in a data polling mode (in which sensed information is collected from selected sensory units). Each of the sensor units can include a number of features, including an anemometer, a rain gauge, a compass, a GPS receiver, a barometric pressure sensor, an air temperature sensor, a humidity sensor, a level, and a radiant temperature sensor.

  18. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  19. Isolation and quantitation of DNA-bound benzo(a)pyrene metabolites: comparison of hydroxyapatite and precipitation procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adriaenssens, P.I. (Exeter Univ., England); Bixler, C.J.; Anderson, M.W.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydroxyapatite and precipitation procedures are two commonly used methods for isolating DNA, and both have been employed in studies on chemical carcinogenesis. A comparison was made of the specific activity (pmol/mg DNA) of benzo(a)pyrene metabolite-DNA adducts in DNA isolated by the two procedures from the lung, liver, and forestomach of A/HeJ mice given oral benzo(a)pyrene. Total DNA-associated radioactivity per milligram DNA was higher with the precipitation procedure than with the hydroxyapatite method. This was partly due to large amounts of early eluting peaks in the high-pressure liquid chromatrography analyses of digests of DNA isolated by the precipitation procedure. However, the specific activities obtained for binding of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide isomers to DNA isolated by the two methods were in close agreement. The hydroxyapatite procedure resulted in the isolation of purer DNA and required less time and sample handling than the precipitation method. For isolation of DNA from whole tissue for carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis, these properties make the hydroxyapatite procedure superior to the precipitation method. Our findings have important implications when comparing the results of DNA-binding studies which employ different DNA isolation procedures.

  20. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  1. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  2. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

  3. Modular sensor network node

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring (Berkeley, CA); Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul (Tracy, CA); Kershaw, Christopher Patrick (Hayward, CA); Kyker, Ronald Dean (Livermore, CA)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  4. Remote Sensor Placement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed to place the sensor nodes in the field. Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff...

  5. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Taylor, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

  6. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  7. Magnetic infrasound sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM); Grube, Holger (Los Alamos, NM); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM); Mace, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic infrasound sensor is produced by constraining a permanent magnet inside a magnetic potential well above the surface of superconducting material. The magnetic infrasound sensor measures the position or movement of the permanent magnet within the magnetic potential well, and interprets the measurements. Infrasound sources can be located and characterized by combining the measurements from one or more infrasound sensors. The magnetic infrasound sensor can be tuned to match infrasound source types, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio. The present invention can operate in frequency modulation mode to improve sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. In an alternate construction, the superconductor can be levitated over a magnet or magnets. The system can also be driven, so that time resolved perturbations are sensed, resulting in a frequency modulation version with improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. Molecular Thermodynamics of Asphaltene Precipitation in Reservoir Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Asphaltene Precipitation in Reservoir Fluids Jianzhong Wu and John M the- ory, is used to correlate experimental asphaltene-precipitation data at high-temperature and pressure conditions. In this framework, asphaltenes and resins are represented by pseudopure components

  9. Thermodynamic Micellization Model of Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Thermodynamic Micellization Model of Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids Alexey I A thermodynamicmicellization model is proposed for the description of asphaltene precipitationfrom petroleum fluids and the onset of predicted asphaltene precipitation are sensitive to the amount of resins in the crude

  10. Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbin, Raphaèle

    Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media approximation by a finite volume. Quelques tests numériques sont ensuite montrés. KEYWORDS: diffusion, dissolution­precipitation, porous­ ficiency of such disposals relies on material barriers. For such a use, cement concrete offers

  11. Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbin, Raphaèle

    Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media approximation by a finite volume numériques sont ensuite montrés. KEYWORDS: diffusion, dissolution-precipitation, porous media, finite volumes barriers. For such a use, cement concrete offers the advantage of having a weak porosity. However, disposal

  12. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaw, Michael J. (Tijeras, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM); Lentine, Anthony L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  13. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  14. Wireless Sensor Networks for Home Health Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wireless Sensor Networks for Home Health Care Chris R.Cooperation between wireless sensor networks and existingapplications of wireless sensor networks. In this paper we

  15. Special Issue on “Wireless Sensor Networks”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Kung; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Qing

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Special Issue on “Wireless Sensor Networks” Kung Yao & Qianand tracking, etc. Wireless sensor networks utilize theaspects of wireless sensor networks. The first paper, “

  16. Data Transport Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongwei; Naik, Vinayak S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Congestion in Wireless Sensor Networks. ACM SenSys SandeepJohn Anderson (2002). Wireless Sensor Networks for HabitatWorkshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications Miklos

  17. Antenna-based "Smart Skin" Sensors for Sustainable, Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Antenna-based "Smart Skin" Sensors for Sustainable, Wireless Sensor Networks Hoseon Leet, George-less, or sustainable, wireless sensor networks with "smart skin" sensor nodes. These sensors are highly applicable a wireless sensor network with smart sensors requires a lot of power due to the mass number of sensor nodes

  18. Autonomous Correction of Sensor Data Applied to Building Technologies Utilizing Statistical Processing Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Ridge, TN outfitted with a total of 1,218 sensors. The focus of this paper is on three different types.S. ("Intergovernmental Panel," 2007). There is a need for integrated building strategies, according to the U.S. Green concerns relevant to sensors being used to collect a wide variety of variables (e.g., humidity ratio, solar

  19. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  20. National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Networks: Data on the chemistry of precipitation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) is a nationwide network of sites collecting data on the chemistry of precipitation for monitoring of geographical and temporal long-term trends. The precipitation at each station is collected weekly according to strict clean-handling procedures. It is then sent to the Central Analytical Laboratory where it is analyzed for hydrogen (acidity as pH), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and base cations (such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). The network is a cooperative effort between many different groups, including the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and numerous other governmental and private entities. DOE is one of these cooperating agencies, though it plays a smaller funding role than some of the other federal sources. Since 1978, the NADP/NTN has grown from 22 stations to over 250 sites spanning the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program has also expanded its sampling to two additional networks: 1) the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), currently with over 90 sites, was formed in 1995 to collect weekly samples of precipitation which are analyzed by Frontier Geosciences for total mercury, and 2) the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), formed for the purpose of studying precipitation chemistry trends with greater temporal resolution than the NTN. [taken from the NADP History and Overview page at http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/nadpoverview.asp] Data from these networks are freely available in via customized search interfaces linked to interactive maps of the stations in the three networks. Animated Isopleth maps in Flash and PowerPoint are also available to display concentrations and depositions various substances such as sulfate, nitrate, etc. (Specialized Interface)

  1. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  2. Wireless sensor networks for measuring traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varaiya, Pravin

    Wireless sensor networks for measuring traffic University of California, Berkeley Sing Yiu Cheung, Sinem Coleri, and Pravin Varaiya 2 Outline · Traffic measurement · Wireless Sensor Networks · Vehicle wireless sensor networks compete? 7 Outline · Traffic measurement · Wireless Sensor Networks · Vehicle

  3. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  4. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  5. Optical displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  6. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  7. Chemiresistor urea sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

  8. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  9. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShaleInput Product: TotalCountry:

  10. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. S. ; Smith, R. W. , Calcium Carbonate Precipitation byF. , Microbially Mediated Calcium Carbonate Precipitation:through mixing of calcium and carbonate solutions in a glass

  11. Tactile sensing using elastomeric sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Xiaodan (Xiaodan Stella)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GelSight, namely, elastomeric sensor, is a novel tactile sensor to get the 3D information of contacting surfaces. Using GelSight, some tactile properties, such as softness and roughness, could be gained through image ...

  12. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  13. Chemical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  14. Implantable medical sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  15. Analytical Analysis of Data and Decision Fusion in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Ajay

    accuracy and reliability of sensed readings of a network of wireless devices, while increasing the lifetime the significance of CSP might prompt hardware and software designers to optimize wireless sensor networks operations by simple averaging techniques. In practice, d is much larger than f. Therefore, total

  16. Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    by scattering and absorbing the solar radiation that energizes the formation of clouds (3­5). Because all cloud on clouds most- ly act to suppress precipitation, because they de- crease the amount of solar radiation

  17. Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

  18. Enhancement of satellite precipitation estimation via unsupervised dimensionality reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology to enhance Satellite Precipitation Estimation (SPE) using unsupervised dimensionality reduction (UDR) techniques is developed. This enhanced technique is an extension to the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) and Cloud Classification System (CCS) method (PERSIANN-CCS) enriched using wavelet features combined with dimensionality reduction. Cloud-top brightness temperature measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12) are used for precipitation estimation at 4 km 4 km spatial resolutions every 30 min. The study area in the continental United States covers parts of Louisiana, Arkansas, Kansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. Based on quantitative measures, root mean square error (RMSE) and Heidke skill score (HSS), the results show that the UDR techniques can improve the precipitation estimation accuracy. In addition, ICA is shown to have better performance than other UDR techniques; and in some cases, it achieves 10% improvement in the HSS.

  19. Precipitation of heterogeneous nanostructures: Metal nanoparticles and dielectric nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Heterogeneous precipitation of nanocrystallites of metallic Bi and anatase was observed in CaO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramics. Addition of AlN reduced the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Bi metal nanoparticles, which were uniformly dispersed in the glass. After heat-treatment of the Bi-precipitated glass around the glass transition temperature, nanocrystalline anatase precipitated out without aggregation of the Bi metal particles. It was found that the anatase nanocrystal size was affected by the distance between a nanocrystal and a precipitated Bi nanoparticle. The glass-ceramic produced is a functional material containing a random dispersion of different types of nanoparticles with different dielectric constants.

  20. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  1. A Micro-Alloyed Ferritic Steel Strengthened by Nanoscale Precipitates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscope (TEM), fine carbides with an average diameter of 10 nm were observed in the ferrite matrix of the 0.08%Ti steel, and some cubic M23C6 precipitates were also observed at...

  2. A micro-alloyed ferritic steel strengthened by nanoscale precipitates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TEM), fine carbides TiC with an average diameter of 10 nm were observed in the ferrite matrix of the 0.08%Ti steel, and some cubic M23C6 precipitates were also observed at...

  3. PRECIPITATION-STRENGTHENED AUSTENITIC FE-MN-TI ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, K.-M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy spectrums showing that precipitates are rich in titanium, andtitanium additions can reduce the austenitic stacking fault energyfault energy of the Fe-Mn austenite is lowered by titanium

  4. Introduction Goals Dissolution Precipitation Continuation Questions Mathematical Models for Simultaneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    for Simultaneous Particle Dissolution and Nucleation during Heat Treatment of Commercial Aluminium Alloys Jos de Dissolution and Nucleation during Heat Treatment of Commercial Aluminium Alloys #12;Introduction Goals Alloys #12;Introduction Goals Dissolution Precipitation Continuation Questions Aluminium alloy production

  5. Sensors & Measurement | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Electronics Systems Research Sustainable Electricity Systems Biology Transportation Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Sensors &...

  6. Open Standards for Sensor Information Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Lothian, Josh [ORNL

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document explores sensor standards, sensor data models, and computer sensor software in order to determine the specifications and data representation best suited for analyzing and monitoring computer system health using embedded sensor data. We review IEEE 1451, OGC Sensor Model Language and Transducer Model Language (TML), lm-sensors and Intelligent Platform Management Inititative (IPMI).

  7. Page (Total 3) Philadelphia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page (Total 3) Philadelphia University Faculty of Science Department of Biotechnology and Genetic be used in animals or plants. It can be also used in environmental monitoring, food processing ...etc are developed and marketed in kit format by biotechnology companies. The main source of information is web sites

  8. Assessment of operating parameter variation on electrostatic precipitator performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunn, Roam Anthony

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lignite coal were collected and resistivity analysis performed for varying conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of the laboratory analysis, it was determined that moisture and temperature conditioning of Texas lignite coal fly ash... results. I 5. Sample 8 moisturi ed test results. 57 64 66 69 77 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Lignite coal deposit formations in East Texas. Z. The electrostatic precipitator system 3. Electrostatic precipitator in operation. 4. Electrostatic...

  9. An automatic control system for a laboratory precipitation process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burnett, Mary Alice

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A LABORATORY PRECIPITATION PROCESS A Thesis by MARY ALICE BURNETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1986 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A LABORATORY PRECIPITATION PROCESS A Thesis MARY ALICE BURNETT Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chairman of Committee) Donald L. Reddell (Member) J...

  10. Activation studies with promoted precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manne, Rama Krishna

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACTIVATION STUDIES WITH PROMOTED PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER ? TROPSCH CATALYSTS A Thesis by RAMA KRISHNA MANNE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A@M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ACTIVATION STUDIES WITH PROMOTED PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER ? TROPSCH CATALYSTS A Thesis by RAMA KRISHNA MANNE Approved as to style and content by: Dragomir B. Bukur (Charr...

  11. Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peacock, Edward Dale

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l986 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis by EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Commi e) T D. eynol s (Member) Michael T. Lo necker (Member) Donald Mc...

  12. Future Directions for Magnetic Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Engineering Laboratory Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors are rapidly becoming the technology of choiceFuture Directions for Magnetic Sensors: HYBRIDMATERIALS Our goal is to develop the scientific expertise needed to allow modeling and simulation to become the driving force in improving magnetic sensors

  13. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  14. Sensor system for web inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sleefe, Gerard E. (1 Snowcap Ct., Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Rudnick, Thomas J. (626 E. Jackson Rd., St. Louis, MO 63119); Novak, James L. (11048 Malaguena La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for electrically measuring variations over a flexible web has a capacitive sensor including spaced electrically conductive, transmit and receive electrodes mounted on a flexible substrate. The sensor is held against a flexible web with sufficient force to deflect the path of the web, which moves relative to the sensor.

  15. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  16. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  17. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, David (Morgantown, WV)

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  18. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  19. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallenbach, Gene A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Noda, Frank T. (Albuquerque, NM); Mitchell, Dean J. (Tijeras, NM); Etzkin, Joshua L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  20. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground.

  1. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground. 3 figs.

  2. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  3. Conditions for precipitation of copper phases in DWPF waste glass. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility precipitate hydrolysis process requires the use of copper formate as a catalyst. The expected absorbed radiation doses to the salt precipitate require higher levels of copper formate which increase the potential for the precipitation of metallic copper containing phases in the DWPF Melter. The conditions required to avoid the precipitation of copper phases are described in this report.

  4. Regional trends and local variability in monsoon precipitation in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - ductivity is also influenced by precipitation at shorter timescales as well (Alessandri and Navarra, 2008

  5. Large Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) Heel Process Development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Boley, C.S.; Jacobs, R.A.

    1998-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A modification to the Precipitate Hydrolysis flowsheet used in DWPF Waste Qualification Runs has been developed.

  6. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)JulyEnd Use: Total

  7. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion

  8. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814 136,932

  9. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814

  10. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814Pipeline

  11. U.S. Total Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009Feet)

  12. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  13. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  14. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  15. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NOx from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5 - $10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NOx. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650 - 700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NOx sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NOx sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NOx and oxygen sensors yields the NOx content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  16. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  17. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John (M.I.T. P.O. Box 397301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  18. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  19. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Develop an inexpensive, rapid-response, high-sensitivity and selective electrochemical sensor for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) exhaust gas monitoring; (2) Explore and characterize novel, effective sensing methodologies based on impedance measurements; (3) Explore designs and manufacturing methods that could be compatible with mass fabrication; and (4) Collaborate with industry in order to (ultimately) transfer the technology to a supplier for commercialization.

  20. Continuous Precipitation of Ceria Nanoparticles from a Continuous Flow Micromixer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tseng, Chih Heng; Paul, Brian; Chang, Chih-hung; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles were continuously precipitated from a solution of cerium(III) nitrate and ammonium hydroxide using a micro-scale T-mixer. Findings show that the method of mixing is important in the ceria precipitation process. In batch mixing and deposition, disintegration and agglomeration dominates the deposited film. In T-mixing and deposition, more uniform nanorod particles are attainable. In addition, it was found that the micromixing approach reduced the exposure of the Ce(OH)3 precipates to oxygen, yielding hydroxide precipates in place of CeO2 precipitates. Advantages of the micro-scale T-mixing approach include shorter mixing times, better control of nanoparticle shape and less agglomeration.

  1. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Yi; Wu, Qishi; Rao, Nageswara S. V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many complex sensor network applications require deploying a large number of inexpensive and small sensors in a vast geographical region to achieve quality through quantity. Hierarchical clustering is generally considered as an efficient and scalable way to facilitate the management and operation of such large-scale networks and minimize the total energy consumption for prolonged lifetime. Judicious selection of cluster heads for data integration and communication is critical to the success of applications based on hierarchical sensor networks organized as layered clusters. We investigate the problem of selecting sensor nodes in a predeployed sensor network to be the cluster heads tomore »minimize the total energy needed for data gathering. We rigorously derive an analytical formula to optimize the number of cluster heads in sensor networks under uniform node distribution, and propose a Distance-based Crowdedness Clustering algorithm to determine the cluster heads in sensor networks under general node distribution. The results from an extensive set of experiments on a large number of simulated sensor networks illustrate the performance superiority of the proposed solution over the clustering schemes based onk-means algorithm.« less

  3. Optimal Deployment of Large Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toumpis, Stavros

    1 Optimal Deployment of Large Wireless Sensor Networks S. Toumpis, Member, IEEE, and Leandros, Sensor networks. I. INTRODUCTION A. Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless sensor networks are comprised of sensors that are equipped with wireless transceivers and so are able to form a wireless network [3

  4. Optimal Deployment of Impromptu Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Anurag

    Optimal Deployment of Impromptu Wireless Sensor Networks Prasenjit Mondal, K. P. Naveen and Anurag to deploy sensors (such as motion sensors, or even imaging sensors) and a wireless interconnection network an impromptu deploy- ment of a wireless sensor network in a building. Fig. 2. Problem studied in this paper

  5. TRS-Fiber Optic Classifier Sensor Installation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    TRS-Fiber Optic Classifier Sensor Installation The sensor that the Traffic Recording System (TRS) uses is the Flexsense Portable Fiberoptic Sensor System by Optical Sensor Systems. This includes two is undetected by the TRS. The user must make sure that the sensors do not get bent or twisted or the fiber optic

  6. Intrusion detection sensor testing tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayward, D.R.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrusion detection sensors must be frequently tested to verify that they are operational, and they must be periodically tested to verify that they are functioning at required performance levels. Concerns involving this testing can include: The significant amount of manpower required, inconsistent results due to variability in methods and personnel, exposure of personnel to hazardous environments, and difficulty in obtaining access to the areas containing some of the intrusion sensors. To address these concerns, the Department of Energy directed Sandia National Labs. to develop intrusion detection sensor testing tools. Over the past two years Sandia has developed several sensor testing tool prototypes. This paper describes the evolution of an exterior intrusion detection sensor tester and automatic data logger, and also describes various interior intrusion detection sensor test fixtures that can be remotely activated to simulate an intruder.

  7. Sensor Compendium - A Snowmass Whitepaper-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Battaglia, M. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Caberera, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Carlstrom, J E [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, C. L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cooper, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Da Via, C. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Demarteau, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fast, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frisch, H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States), et al.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  8. Nano {gamma}'/{gamma}'' composite precipitates in Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); McAllister, D.; Gao, Y.; Lv, D.; Williams, R. E. A.; Wang, Y.; Mills, M. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Peterson, B. [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona 85034 (United States)

    2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale composite precipitates of Alloy 718 have been investigated with both high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and phase field modeling. Chemical analysis via energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy allowed for the differentiation of {gamma}' and {gamma}'' particles, which is not otherwise possible through traditional Z-contrast methods. Phase field modeling was applied to determine the stress distribution and elastic interaction around and between the particles, respectively, and it was determined that a composite particle (of both {gamma}' and {gamma}'') has an elastic energy that is significantly lower than, for example, single {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates which are non-interacting.

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  13. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.; Martinez, D.R.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states. 16 figs.

  14. SensorGrid: Integrating Sensor Networks and Grid Computing Chen-Khong Tham1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    SensorGrid: Integrating Sensor Networks and Grid Computing Chen-Khong Tham1 and Rajkumar Buyya2 Keywords: Sensors, Sensor Networks, Grid computing, SensorML, SensorWeb. 1. Introduction Recent advances in electronic circuit miniaturization and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the creation

  15. Special Issue "Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks" A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    aquatic environments. Marine surveillance, pollution detection and monitoring, and oceanographic data (salinity, conductivity, turbidity, pH, oxygen, temperature, depth, etc.) - Sediments and pollution sensor nodes - Acoustic sensors - Underwater sensor network architectures - Wired and wireless protocols

  16. Sensors & Measurement | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    elements. The nexus of sensors, signal processing and analysis, modeling, and advanced control algorithms and architectures underpin this important field of technology at ORNL....

  17. Sensor Switch's Bright Manufacturing Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The switch helps with cost effective energy savings by turning off the lights when an occupancy sensor says the room is empty.

  18. Diffusion-driven precipitate growth and ripening of oxygen precipitates in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Will, J., E-mail: will@krist.uni-erlangen.de; Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Magerl, A. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Spiecker, E. [Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray Pendellösung fringes from three silicon single crystals measured at 900?°C are analyzed with respect to density and size of oxygen precipitates within a diffusion-driven growth model and compared with TEM investigations. It appears that boron doped (p+) material shows a higher precipitate density and a higher strain than moderately (p-) boron crystals. In-situ diffraction reveals a diffusion-driven precipitate growth followed by a second growth regime in both materials. An interpretation of the second growth regime in terms of Ostwald ripening yields surface energy values (around 70?erg/cm{sup 2}) similar to published data. Further, an increased nucleation rate by a factor of ?13 is found in the p+ sample as compared to a p- sample at a nucleation temperature of 450?°C.

  19. Use of sensors in monitoring civil structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daher, Bassam William, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis surveys the use of sensors and sensor networks in monitoring civil structures, with particular emphasis on the monitoring of bridges and highways using fiber optic sensors. Following a brief review of the most ...

  20. On the robustness of clustered sensor networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jung Jin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Smart devices with multiple on-board sensors, networked through wired or wireless links, are distributed in physical systems and environments. Broad applications of such sensor networks include manufacturing quality control and wireless sensor...

  1. FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ZHIHUA HU, BAOCHUN LI Abstract. Understanding the fundamental performance limits of wireless sensor networks is critical towards. Key words. Wireless sensor networks, network capacity, network lifetime. 1. Introduction. When

  2. Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructure : Construction and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructure : Construction and Evaluation Kamal Beydoun, Violeta Felea main features for efficient energy management in wireless sensor networks. This paper aims to present a distributed and low-cost topology construction algorithm for wireless sensor networks, addressing

  3. Issues in autonomous mobile sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharne, Avinash Gopal

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Autonomous mobile sensor networks consist of a number of autonomous mobile robots equipped with various sensors and tasked with a common mission. This thesis considers the topology control of such an ad hoc mobile sensor network. In particular, I...

  4. The Environment of Precipitating Shallow Cumulus LOUISE NUIJENS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    of precipitation are presented from two months of radar reflectiv- ity data, collected by the ground-based SPol%. These estimates are based on subsets of TRMM data for which the majority of radar echoes (that span at least 750 m. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA A.PIER SIEBESMA Royal

  5. A Quasi-Global Precipitation Time Series for Drought Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    -00002 for "Famine Early Warning Systems Network Support," the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Applied Sciences Program, Decisions award #NN10AN26I for "A Land Data Assimilation System for Famine Early Warning Standardized Precipitation Index supporting the US Drought Portal and the Famine Early Warning System N

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Precipitation Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    of the planet's weather, climate and other environmental systems. Energy, in the form of latent heat............................................................................. 8 DPR: Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar shows how heat is absorbed or released dur- ing the six phase changes of water--freezing, condensa- tion

  7. Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    of the production of crude oil in deep-water environments and the operations of enhanced oil recovery by miscible asphaltenes and resins. Asphaltenes are defined as the fraction separated from crude oil or petroleum productsAsphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments Eduardo Buenrostro

  8. Preparation of Lead Zirconate by Homogeneous Precipitation and Calcination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Preparation of Lead Zirconate by Homogeneous Precipitation and Calcination Ersin Emre Oren, Ercan. Introduction LEAD ZIRCONATE (PbZrO3) is an antiferroelectric ceramic with a Curie temperature of 230°C electric field to the ceramic in the antifer- roelectric state) leads to significant energy storage

  9. Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity, and coarsening N. Fujita and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia The growth of niobium carbide in austenite involves the diffusion of both niobium and carbon. These elements diffuse at very different rates. A model is presented

  10. Cloud, thermodynamic, and precipitation observations in West Africa during 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and to evaluate the cloud fields in the National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) field campaign, which and precipitation is demonstrated. Cooling of the lower troposphere is implicated as the probable cause

  11. STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    this situation (e. g., "extRemes" package in open source statistical programming language R) Maximum likelihood1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute in Causes of Trends #12;4 (1) Introduction · Extreme value analysis under stationarity -- Statistical theory

  12. Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    prepared by electrochemically precipitating the hydroxide and heating it in air to form Co3O4 the need to identify more suitable materials. One promising route is the use of transi- tion metal oxides to batteries, are referred to as Faradaic or pseudocapacitors. However, the high cost of these materials has

  13. Late Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narbonne, Guy

    carbonate is thus interpreted to have formed in two steps: (1) during initial marine ice melting accompaniedLate Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: precipitation and global glacial meltdown Noel P. James, Guy M. Narbonne, T. Kurtis Kyser Abstract: The 3­27 m-thick cap

  14. Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid Daniel M. Dabbs, Usha as an agent for increasing the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in aqueous solutions of high (>2.47 mol/mol) hydroxide-to-aluminum ratios. Conversely, citric acid also colloidally stabilizes particles in aqueous

  15. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  16. Bias adjustment of radar-based 3-hour precipitation accumulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    projection of KNMI radar images 55 4 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction Since June 2003 a daily gauge is generated at 1400 UTC when the majority of the manual gauge observations have been reported. The radar-gaugeBias adjustment of radar-based 3-hour precipitation accumulations Iwan Holleman Technical Report

  17. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  18. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  19. Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable Hans Zantema Utrecht University, Department Usually termination of term rewriting systems (TRS's) is proved by means of a monotonic well­founded order. If this order is total on ground terms, the TRS is called totally terminating. In this paper we prove that total

  20. Total Petroleum Systems and Assessment Units (AU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Surface water Groundwater X X X X X X X X AU 00000003 Oil/ Gas X X X X X X X X Total X X X X X X X Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Total undiscovered petroleum (MMBO or BCFG) Water per oil

  1. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). In general, higher [H4SiO4] leads to lower dissolution rates. It has often been observed that the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products can cause the dissolution of the glass to increase, even after the rate has decreased significantly. However, it has also been observed that in the concentrations of these silica-bearing solution species do not significantly decrease while other elements continue to be released. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a silica-bearing alteration product, analcime (Na(AlSi2O6)?H2O). In this initial study and to simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The ‘cross affinity’ code option allowed us to account for the fact that glass is a thermodynamically unstable solid with respect to its alteration products in contact with water. The cross-affinity option in the Geochemist’s Workbench geochemical code allowed us to substitute the amorphous silica equilibrium-constant matrix for the glass equilibrium-constant matrix. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. In all cases, our results indicate that the glass dissolution rate controls the rate of analcime precipitation in the long term. Our results, compared in general terms with experiments, show the importance of the gel layer that forms during glass alteration. The meaning of these results pertinent to long-term glass durability is discussed.

  2. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Czaja, Alexander U.; Wang, Bo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  3. Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: The development of in situ sensors for ultratrace detection applications in process control and environmental monitoring remains a significant challenge. Such sensors...

  4. Gas sensor incorporating a porous framework

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M; Czaja, Alexander U; Wang, Bo; Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Furukawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides sensor for gas sensing including CO.sub.2 gas sensors comprising a porous framework sensing area for binding an analyte gas.

  5. Wireless Magnetic Sensor Applications in Transportation Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Rene Omar

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and fourth vehicle downstream signature (five vehicleof Figures Upstream and downstream middle sensor raw signals2.2 Upstream and downstream middle sensor signature

  6. Flexible Pressure Sensors: Modeling and Experimental Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viana, J.C.

    Flexible capacitive pressure sensors fabricated with nanocomposites were experimentally characterized and results compared with simulations from analytical modeling. Unlike traditional diaphragm silicon pressure sensors, ...

  7. Measurement of irradiation effects in precipitate hardened aluminum using nonlinear ultrasonic principles (in-situ)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, B. T.; Parks, D. A.; Tittmann, B. R. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16804 (United States)

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently nuclear power plants are reaching the end of their initial design life. Yet, in order to meet the energy demands, twenty year extensions have been granted to many nuclear reactor facilities. These extensions will be ending by the year 2035, leaving a large gap in the available energy supply. In order to extend the life of these facilities it will imperative to develop techniques capable detecting damage in the aging nuclear facilities. However, the high temperature and high neutron flux environment limits the materials available for use in the nuclear reactor. Because of this limitation little NDE based inspection has been implemented in high radiation environments. Yet recent developments in the understanding of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) piezoelectric sensors high temperature and radiation dependent behavior have opened the door for in-situ experimentation. An experiment was designed to monitor the propagation of an ultrasonic wave in a precipitate hardened aluminum specimen while being subjected to radiation at the Pennsylvania State Universities Breazeale Reactor. Measurements of harmonic generation were made up to 1.85x10{sup 18} fluence with significant spectral difference between the pre-irradiated state and the post irradiated state. The connection between micro-structural material changes and harmonic measurements are addressed.

  8. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  9. Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Summary Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic to that in gas condensates. As a result of pressure decrease (at a constant tem- perature), the amount is undesirable. The flowlines may be plugged by wax deposition. For both crude oils and gas condensates, one may

  10. THE REGIONAL AND DIURNAL VARIABILITY OF THE VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF PRECIPITATION SYSTEMS IN AFRICA, BASED ON TRMM PRECIPITATION RADAR DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geerts, Bart

    IN AFRICA, BASED ON TRMM PRECIPITATION RADAR DATA Bart Geerts1 and Teferi Dejene University of Wyoming 1 microwave radiances (e.g. Kummerow and Giglio 1994), and 14 GHz radar reflectivities (e.g. Ferreira et al-based techniques are much inferior to radar-based techniques, in principle at least, because the anvil of large

  11. RealTime SpatioTemporal Query Processing in Mobile AdHoc Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that has multiple sensors (e.g., mo­ tion sensors, acoustic sensors, infrared light emitting diodes,

  12. A comparison of NEXRAD WSR-88D rain estimates with gauge measurements for high and low reflectivity gradient precipitation events.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jendrowski, P.; Kelly, D. S.; Klazura, G. E.; Thomale, J. M.

    1999-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Rain gauge measurements were compared with radar-estimated storm total precipitation for 43 rain events that occurred at ten locations. Gauge-to-radar ratios (G/R) were computed for each case. The G/R ratio is strongly related to precipitation type, with the mean G/R slightly less than 1.00 for high-reflectivity gradient cases and greater than 2.00 (factor of 2 radar underestimation) for low-reflectivity gradient cases. both precipitation types indicated radar underestimate at the nearest ranges. However, the high-reflectivity gradient cases indicated radar overestimation at further ranges, while the low-reflectivity gradient cases indicated significant radar underestimation at all ranges. Occurrences of radar overestimates may have been related to high reflectivity returns from melting ice, bright-band effects in stratiform systems and hail from convective systems. Bright-band effects probably were responsible for improving the radar underestimates in the second range interval (50-99.9 km) for the low-reflectivity gradient cases. Other possibilities for radar overestimates are anomalous propagation (AP) of the radar beam. Smith, et al. (1996) concluded that bright band and AP lead to systematic overestimate of rainfall at intermediate ranges.

  13. A total energy sensor for glidepath and speed control of a tactical airlifter in wind shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas Edward

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and moments are defined in stability-axes where X, is along the initial aircraft velocity vector (Fig. 2). During the simulation, the velocity vector V snd angle a vary and hence X, will no longer remain along V. Therefore, Lockheed resolved the data..., notation, and sign convention used throughout this research. Xb V, X, HORIZONTAL Z b z a VERTICAL Fig. 2 Aircraft Stability Axes X Harlzaatal x, Fx F? Z Yartical Fz Fig. 3 Aircraft Body Axes The body-fixed equations of rnol. ion (derived...

  14. The Effects of Great Plains Irrigation on the Surface Energy Balance, Regional Circulation, and Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, David B.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Mechem, David B.

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Irrigation provides a needed source of water in regions of low precipitation. Adding water to a region that would otherwise see little natural precipitation alters the partitioning of surface energy fluxes, the evolution of the planetary boundary...

  15. Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloy. Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf...

  16. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this project was to understand asphaltene precipitation in General and carbon dioxide induced precipitation in particular. To this effect, thermodynamic and kinetic experiments with the Rangely crude oil were conducted and thermodynamic and reservoir models were developed.

  17. IMPACTS OF LAND COVER CHANGE: ENERGY REGULATION, BREADBASKET PRODUCTION, AND PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    IMPACTS OF LAND COVER CHANGE: ENERGY REGULATION, BREADBASKET PRODUCTION, AND PRECIPITATION;! i! IMPACTS OF LAND COVER CHANGE: ENERGY REGULATION, BREADBASKET PRODUCTION, AND PRECIPITATION Justin of scales through biophysical exchanges of water and energy, this widespread conversion of land cover has

  18. Characteristics of warm season precipitating storms in the Arkansas–Red River basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Donna F.; Li, Xingong

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    [1] Analysis of a multisensor precipitation product enables us to extract the precipitation from individual storms in the Arkansas–Red River drainage basin over a period of 11 years. We examine the year-to-year and ...

  19. Spatial predictive distribution for precipitation based on numerical weather predictions (NWP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinsland, Ingelin

    for precipitation based on NWP #12;Motivation, hydro power production How much water comes when? With uncertainty Precipitation Data Meteorological model NWP Short term optimalization Run off Hydrological model Past Future

  20. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  1. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  2. Micromechanical antibody sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Jacobson, K. Bruce (Oak Ridge, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Kennel, Stephen J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor apparatus is provided using a microcantilevered spring element having a coating of a detector molecule such as an antibody or antigen. A sample containing a target molecule or substrate is provided to the coating. The spring element bends in response to the stress induced by the binding which occurs between the detector and target molecules. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers.

  3. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  4. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  5. The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products.

  6. Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

  7. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  8. Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/AlCu composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites Dong H. Nam a , Yun K June 2012 A B S T R A C T The precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites was investigated accelerated the precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites due to the generation of excess

  9. Frequency Modes of Monsoon Precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico ANNE W. NOLIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Frequency Modes of Monsoon Precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico ANNE W. NOLIN Department proportion of the annual precipitation for Arizona and New Mexico arrives during the summer monsoon. Forty-one years of daily monsoon season precipitation data for Arizona and New Mexico were studied using wavelet

  10. Modulation of Caribbean Precipitation by the MaddenJulian Oscillation ELINOR R. MARTIN AND COURTNEY SCHUMACHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elinor R.

    Modulation of Caribbean Precipitation by the Madden­Julian Oscillation ELINOR R. MARTIN satellite precipitation data and reanalysis winds, intraseasonal (30­90 days) variability in Caribbean and 6) of the MJO. The changes in Caribbean precipitation associated with the MJO are shown

  11. Running Head: Correlation of Microbial Communities with Caclium Carbonate1 (Travertine) Mineral Precipitation2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Precipitation2 3 4 Correlation of Microbial Communities with Calcium Carbonate (Travertine)5 Mineral of changing environmental conditions and associated calcium carbonate mineral18 precipitation along the spring and morphology of calcium carbonate mineral precipitation.3 Carbonate minerals are ideal for this type of study

  12. Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

  13. Effect of Resins and DBSA on Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Effect of Resins and DBSA on Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids Lamia Goual and Abbas different petroleum fluids. Various resins are added to three different petroleum fluids to measure of precipitation. However, addition of resins to a petroleum fluid increases the amount of precipitated asphaltenes

  14. Evaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    , and net cloud radiative effect, projected cloud fraction, and surface precipitation rate) over the globalEvaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models] This paper describes a set of metrics for evaluating the simulation of clouds, radiation, and precipitation

  15. Radioactive Target Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tonglin

    Chapter 31 Radioactive Target Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Tonglin Zhang Abstract for wireless sensor network data to detect and locate a hidden nuclear target in a large study area. The method assumes multiple radiation detectors have been used as sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network

  16. Sensors for Safety & Performance Stationary Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles · Interfacial Stability of Thin Film H2 Sensors · Sensors for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems · Micro-Machined Thin Film H2 Gas Sensors · Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Fuel Cell Monitoring #12;Discussion Points Barriers ·Cost ·Application ·Lifetime ·Flexibility ·Public

  17. Response of South American ecosystems to precipitation variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Bras, Rafael L [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ecosystem Demography Model 2 is a dynamic ecosystem model and land surface energy balance model. ED2 discretizes landscapes of particular terrain and meteorology into fractional areas of unique disturbance history. Each fraction, defined by a shared vertical soil column and canopy air space, contains a stratum of plant groups unique in functional type, size and number density. The result is a vertically distributed representation of energy transfer and plant dynamics (mortality, productivity, recruitment, disturbance, resource competition, etc) that successfully approximates the behaviour of individual-based vegetation models. In previous exercises simulating Amazonian land surface dynamics with ED2, it was observed that when using grid averaged precipitation as an external forcing the resulting water balance typically over-estimated leaf interception and leaf evaporation while under estimating through-fall and transpiration. To investigate this result, two scenario were conducted in which land surface biophysics and ecosystem demography over the Northern portion of South America are simulated over {approx}200 years: (1) ED2 is forced with grid averaged values taken from the ERA40 reanalysis meteorological dataset; (2) ED2 is forced with ERA40 reanalysis, but with its precipitation re-sampled to reflect statistical qualities of point precipitation found at rain gauge stations in the region. The findings in this study suggest that the equilibrium moisture states and vegetation demography are co-dependent and show sensitivity to temporal variability in precipitation. These sensitivities will need to be accounted for in future projections of coupled climate-ecosystem changes in South America.

  18. Active Control Strategies for Chemical Sensors and Sensor Arrays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosangi, Rakesh

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the problem of estimating concentrations of the constituents in a gas mixture using a tunable sensor. We formulate this multicomponent-analysis problem as that of probabilistic state estimation, where each state represents a different concentration profile. We...

  19. SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Yunxia Chen in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Analyzing the lifetime per unit cost of a linear WSN, we find that deploying of sensors deployed in the network, can be used to measure the utilization efficiency of sensors

  20. Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Deployment and Topology Control Based on Irregular Sensor Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Yeh-Ching

    Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Deployment and Topology Control Based on Irregular Sensor Introduction Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a key element of the pervasive/ubiquitous computing sensor network (heterogeneous WSN) consists of sensor nodes with different ability, such as different

  1. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  2. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  3. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  4. About Total Lubricants USA, Inc. Headquartered in Linden, New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides advanced quality industrial lubrication productsAbout Total Lubricants USA, Inc. Headquartered in Linden, New Jersey, Total Lubricants USA provides. A subsidiary of Total, S.A., the world's fourth largest oil company, Total Lubricants USA still fosters its

  5. Multiple frequency method for operating electrochemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Louis P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple frequency method for the operation of a sensor to measure a parameter of interest using calibration information including the steps of exciting the sensor at a first frequency providing a first sensor response, exciting the sensor at a second frequency providing a second sensor response, using the second sensor response at the second frequency and the calibration information to produce a calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, using the first sensor response at the first frequency, the calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, and the calibration information to measure the parameter of interest.

  6. Precipitation-Front Modeling: Issues Relating to Nucleation and Metastable Precipitation in the Planned Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.; Sonnenthal, E.L.

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the presentation is on certain aspects concerning the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions involving the dissolution and precipitation of unstable and metastable phases under conditions departing from thermodynamic equilibrium. These aspects are particularly relevant to transient thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes that will occur as a result of the emplacement of radioactive waste within the Yucca Mountain Repository. Most important of these is a phenomenon commonly observed in altering soils, sediments and rocks, where less stable minerals precipitate in preference to those that are more stable, referred to as the Ostwald Rule of Stages, or the Ostwald Step Rule. W. Ostwald (1897) described the phenomenon characterizing his rule (as cited in Schmeltzer et al., 1998), thus: ''...in the course of transformation of an unstable (or metastable) state into a stable one the system does not go directly to the most stable conformation (corresponding to the modification with the lowest free energy) but prefers to reach intermediate stages (corresponding to other metastable modifications) having the closest free energy to the initial state''. This phenomenon is so widespread in natural geochemical systems, particularly under hydrothermal or low temperature conditions, that few geochemical parageneses involving the subcritical aqueous phase can be described without invoking the Ostwald Rule of Stages. Commonly observed systems where this phenomenon occurs include carbonates, silica, clay minerals, iron and manganese oxides, iron sulfides and zeolites (Morse and Casey, 1988). Simulations involving natural or anthropogenically modified reactive chemical transport must therefore be consistent with field observations describable by the Ostwald Rule. Geochemists have long been familiar with the Ostwald Rule, but, with one exception (Steefel and Van Cappellen, 1990), have not incorporated the underlying chemical principles justifying the Rule in reactive chemical transport simulations, other than through arbitrary fixes involving the suppression of the thermodynamically more stable phases, and by prohibiting the re-dissolution of minerals. Another issue relating to mineral metastability is the contribution of interfacial free energy to the total free energy of a geochemical system. The interfacial free energy contribution is trivial for crystal sizes in excess of 1 micrometer. However, the alteration of soils and sediments entails both the dissolution of finely crystalline products of diagenesis and heterogeneous nucleation and precipitation of new phases. The latter phases are commonly microcrystalline or amorphous, with substantial contributions of surface free energy to the total Gibbs free energy of the phase. Such contributions must be taken into account when modeling the chemical evolution of such systems, as they stabilize metastable phases and can modify aqueous species concentrations by up to two orders of magnitude. This condition is especially relevant to anthropogenically driven geochemical processes involving extreme levels of supersaturation where nucleation processes are dominant. Furthermore, by a process known as Ostwald Ripening, larger crystallites, usually possess a lower surface free energy contribution, and being more stable, destabilize smaller coexisting crystallites of the same phase, leading to a decreased crystal size distribution, and the growth of progressively fewer crystals.

  7. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

    2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  8. Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushfeldt, Scott I

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

  9. Sensor networks for social networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farry, Michael P. (Michael Patrick)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis outlines the development of software that makes use of Bayesian belief networks and signal processing techniques to make meaningful inferences about real-world phenomena using data obtained from sensor networks. ...

  10. Buried fiber optic intrusion sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Eric William

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor capable of detecting intruders from the pressure of their weight on the earth's surface was investigated in the laboratory and in field tests. The presence of an intruder above or in proximity...

  11. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed. 21 figs.

  12. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  13. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  14. A Summary Review of Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    Articles A Summary Review of Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring performance and health. KEYWORDS: wireless sensors, structural monitoring, dam- age detection, smartb). Called structural health monitoring (SHM), this new paradigm offers an auto- mated method

  15. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two. 12 figs.

  16. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two.

  17. Precipitation of sigma and chi phases in ?-ferrite of Type 316FR weld metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, Eun Joon, E-mail: ejchun@mapse.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Baba, Hayato [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimoto, Kazutoshi [Department of the Application of Nuclear Technology, Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Saida, Kazuyoshi [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The decomposition behavior and kinetics of ?-ferrite are examined using aging treatments between 873 and 1073 K for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metals with different solidification modes (316FR AF, 316FR FA). The dominant precipitates are sigma, chi, and secondary austenite nucleated at ?-ferrite/austenite interfaces or in the interior of the ferrite grains. These precipitates consume all the ferrite during isothermal aging in both 316FR AF and FA weld metals. Differences in the precipitation behavior (precipitation initiation time and precipitation speed) between weld metals can be explained by i) the degree of Cr and Mo microsegregation within ?-ferrite or austenite near ferrite and ii) the nucleation sites induced due to the solidification mode (AF or FA), such as the ferrite amount. For both weld materials, a Johnson–Mehl-type equation can express the precipitation behavior of the sigma + chi phases and quantitatively predict the behavior at the service-exposure temperatures of a fast breed reactor. - Highlights: • Precipitation of ? and ? phase in Type 316FR welds (two solidification modes) • Different precipitation behaviors: precipitation initiation time and growth speed • Johnson-Mehl–type equation is the most applicable to the precipitation behaviors • Precipitation behaviors are predicted under service conditions of FBRs.

  18. Micromechanical potentiometric sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microcantilever potentiometric sensor utilized for detecting and measuring physical and chemical parameters in a sample of media is described. The microcantilevered spring element includes at least one chemical coating on a coated region, that accumulates a surface charge in response to hydrogen ions, redox potential, or ion concentrations in a sample of the media being monitored. The accumulation of surface charge on one surface of the microcantilever, with a differing surface charge on an opposing surface, creates a mechanical stress and a deflection of the spring element. One of a multitude of deflection detection methods may include the use of a laser light source focused on the microcantilever, with a photo-sensitive detector receiving reflected laser impulses. The microcantilevered spring element is approximately 1 to 100 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. An accuracy of detection of deflections of the cantilever is provided in the range of 0.01 nanometers of deflection. The microcantilever apparatus and a method of detection of parameters require only microliters of a sample to be placed on, or near the spring element surface. The method is extremely sensitive to the detection of the parameters to be measured.

  19. Micromechanical calorimetric sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A calorimeter sensor apparatus is developed utilizing microcantilevered spring elements for detecting thermal changes within a sample containing biomolecules which undergo chemical and biochemical reactions. The spring element includes a bimaterial layer of chemicals on a coated region on at least one surface of the microcantilever. The chemicals generate a differential thermal stress across the surface upon reaction of the chemicals with an analyte or biomolecules within the sample due to the heat of chemical reactions in the sample placed on the coated region. The thermal stress across the spring element surface creates mechanical bending of the microcantilever. The spring element has a low thermal mass to allow detection and measuring of heat transfers associated with chemical and biochemical reactions within a sample placed on or near the coated region. A second surface may have a different material, or the second surface and body of microcantilever may be of an inert composition. The differential thermal stress between the surfaces of the microcantilever create bending of the cantilever. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers. The microcantilever is extremely sensitive to thermal changes in samples as small as 30 microliters.

  20. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  1. Energy Efficient Distributed Data Fusion In Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processing for a wireless sensor networks. Each circle ’S’techniques in wireless sensor networks: A survey,” IEEEestimation for wireless sensor networks, part i: Gaussian

  2. Improving the performance of distributed simulations of wireless sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Zhong-Yi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks . . 2.1.2 Difficultiesin parallel a wireless sensor network with two duty cycledin parallel a wireless sensor network with three nodes that

  3. Scalable Coverage Maintenance for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jun; Wang, Jinsu; Suda, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    get coverage in wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings ofscheme for large wireless sensor networks,” in Pro- ceedingsWorkshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (

  4. Cubic-based 3-D Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shwe, Hnin Yu; Chong, Peter HJ

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scheme in Stereo Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Advances infor mobile wireless sensor networks," Ad Hoc Networks, vol.and B. D. O. Anderson, "Wireless sensor network localization

  5. Data-driven modeling of phenomena in wireless sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamthe, Ankur U.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimentation in wireless sensor networks. Commun. ACM,of Phenomena in Wireless Sensor Networks A dissertationBoavida, editors, Wireless Sensor Networks, volume 5970 of

  6. Reliable and Efficient Programming Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kothari, Nupur; Gummadi, Ramakrishna; Millstein, Todd; Govindan, Ramesh

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Macro-programming wireless sensor networks using Kairos. InAbstractions for Wireless Sensor Networks Nupur Kothari ?Keywords Wireless Sensor Networks, Macroprogramming, En-

  7. Fault Tolerant Evaluation of Continuous Selection Queries over Sensor Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Han, Qi; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of Continuous Selection Queries over Sensor Dataevaluation of continuous selection queries (CSQs) over sensor-sensor suffices and there is no Fault Tolerant Evaluation of

  8. The silicon microstrip sensors of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spieler, Helmuth G; ATLAS SCT Collaboration

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bias resistors. 6. Sensor Evaluation and Quality AssuranceHowever, an extensive evaluation of sensor characteristics6.3. Evaluation and Quality Assurance of irradiated sensors

  9. Optical and mechanical behavior of the optical fiber infrasound sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWolf, Scott

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 The Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor . . . . . . .Fiber Infrasound Sensor Optical fibers are well known forSchnidrig. An optical fiber infrasound sensor: A new lower

  10. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

  11. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Teresa H. (Castro Valley, CA); Berry, Nina M. (Tracy, CA)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  12. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the presence of oxalate by thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). To use the TGA-MS for carbon or oxalate content, some method development will be required. However, the TGA-MS is already used for moisture measurements. Therefore, SRNL initiated method development for the TGA-MS to allow quantification of oxalate or total carbon. That work continues at this time and is not yet ready for use in this study. However, the collected test data can be reviewed later as those analysis tools are available.

  13. The effect of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year dataset from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle) tomore »multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70% to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 70–80%, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10%), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m?2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m?2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6% in dry conditions and 20% in wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced Rnet and increased LE. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 2–3 ?mol mol?1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel cycle suggesting that it was due to synoptic weather patterns (different air masses and/or effects of barometric pressure). In the evening hours during wet conditions, weakly stable conditions resulted in smaller vertical ?c differences compared to those in dry conditions. Finally, the effect of clouds on the timing and magnitude of daytime ecosystem fluxes is described.« less

  14. Optimization Online - Total variation superiorization schemes in ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S.N. Penfold

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 8, 2010 ... Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography ... check improved the image quality, in particular image noise, in the ...

  15. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","331...

  16. ,"New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","2272015"...

  17. A radar study of the interaction between lightning and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, D.N.; Ulbrich, C.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar study was made of the interaction between lightning and precipitation with the 430 MHz Doppler radar at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. On one occasion, the spectral power at Doppler velocities near that corresponding to the updraft increased substantially within a fraction of a second after a discharge was detected in the beam. Calculations were made to simulate the effect of an electric field change on mean Doppler velocity for a distribution of droplets in a thunderstorm. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Jr., Holt (Hopewell, NJ); Harris, Ian D. (Dublin, OH); Ratka, John O. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Spiegelberg, William D. (Parma, OH)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

  19. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

  20. Benzene/nitrous oxide flammability in the precipitate hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, R A [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.

    1989-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process for destruction of nitrite in precipitate hydrolysis produces nitrous oxide (N2O) gas as one of the products. N2O can form flammable mixtures with benzene which is also present due to radiolysis and hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. Extensive flame modeling and explosion testing was undertaken to define the minimum oxidant for combustion of N2O/benzene using both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The attached memorandum interprets and documents the results of the studies.