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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Free-cooling: A total HVAC design concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses a total ''free cooling'' HVAC design concept in which mechanical refrigeration is practically obviated via the refined application of existing technological strategies and a new diffuser terminal. The principles being applied are as follows; Thermal Swing: This is the active contribution of programmed heat storage to overall HVAC system performance. Reverse Diffuser: This is a new air terminal design that facilitates manifesting the thermal storage gains. Developing the thermal storage equation system into a generalized simulation model, optimizing the thermal storage and operating strategies with a computer program and developing related algorithms are subsequently illustrated. Luminair Aspiration: This feature provides for exhausting all luminair heat totally out of the building envelope, via an exhaust duct system and insulated boots. Two/Three-Stage Evaporative Cooling: This concept comprises a system of air conditioning that entails a combination of closed and open loop evaporative cooling with standby refrigeration only.

Janeke, C.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Totally Active Scintillator Tracker-Calorimeter for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent discoveries in particle physics, the Higgs Boson and neutrino oscillations, voiced the need for new machines that can provide higher intensities, energy and precision. To study the neutrino oscillations in great details and to access new physics, a Neutrino Factory stands as an ultimate tool that offers a high intensity, well understood neutrino beam. On the other hand, a Muon Collider is indispensable for better understanding of a Higgs physics. Both machines share similar ingredients and one of them, that is essential to achieve high luminosity of the beams, is beam cooling. And the only feasible method to achieve cooling of a muons beam is based on ionization. An R&D project was established to verify a possibility of such a cooling, Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). Its purpose is to build a cooling cell capable of cooling a muon beam by 10% and measure the effect (the cooling effect is attributed to a reduction of beam emittance) with an absolute precision of 0.1%. This is achieve...

Asfandiyarov, Ruslan

2014-09-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 16.2 10.6 5.6 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 1.1 0.8 0.4 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 6.6 4.9 1.7 1 Unit..................................................................... 14.5 4.1 2.9 1.2 2 Units...................................................................

4

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 8.7 3.2 5.5 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 1.7 0.7 1.0 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 3.6 0.6 3.0 1 Unit..................................................................... 14.5 2.9 0.5 2.4 2 Units...................................................................

5

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 23.2 10.9 3.8 8.4 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 9.0 6.7 1.4 0.9 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 8.0 3.4 1.7 2.9 1 Unit.....................................................................

6

Total...........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat Pump........................................... 53.5 8.7 3.2 5.5 With a Heat Pump............................................... 12.3 1.7 0.7 1.0 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 3.6 0.6 3.0 1 Unit................................................................... 14.5 2.9 0.5 2.4 2 Units.................................................................

7

Total...........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.6 0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat Pump........................................... 53.5 5.5 4.8 0.7 With a Heat Pump............................................... 12.3 0.5 0.4 Q Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 10.7 7.6 3.1 1 Unit................................................................... 14.5 4.3 2.9 1.4 2 Units.................................................................

8

Total.................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

... ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................................... 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat Pump.............................................. 53.5 5.5 4.8 0.7 With a Heat Pump................................................... 12.3 0.5 0.4 Q Window/Wall Units.................................................... 28.9 10.7 7.6 3.1 1 Unit.......................................................................

9

Total analysis of cooling effects of cross-ventilation affected by microclimate around a building  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to develop a simulation system for evaluating the passive cooling effects, such as cross-ventilation, solar shading by trees, etc. Since the passive cooling effects are strongly affected by the spatial distributions of airflow, air temperature and radiative heat transports around a building, the microclimate around a building should be accurately predicted for this type of simulations. In this study, convective and radiative heat transports around buildings are analyzed by CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and radiation computations. Furthermore, the heat load calculation with the program “TRNSYS” was carried out, using the values of the cross-ventilation rates predicted by CFD computation and incoming solar radiation onto the building walls under the shade of trees obtained by the radiation computation as boundary conditions. Indoor velocity and indoor air temperature obtained by the simulation system developed here showed generally good agreement with measured data.

Akashi Mochida; Hiroshi Yoshino; Satoshi Miyauchi; Teruaki Mitamura

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 21.2 9.7 13.7 8.9 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 4.6 1.2 2.8 3.6 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 13.4 5.6 3.9 6.1 1 Unit.....................................................................

11

Total...............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment.............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment............................... 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................ 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat Pump.............................. 53.5 9.4 13.6 10.7 7.1 12.7 5.4 14.5 With a Heat Pump................................... 12.3 1.7 2.8 2.8 1.6 3.4 1.0 2.7 Window/Wall Units...................................... 28.9 10.5 8.1 4.5 2.7 3.1 6.7 14.1 1 Unit....................................................... 14.5 5.8 4.3 2.0 1.1 1.3 3.4 7.4 2 Units.....................................................

12

Total..............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment.............................. 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat Pump.............................. 53.5 9.4 13.6 10.7 7.1 12.7 5.4 14.5 With a Heat Pump................................... 12.3 1.7 2.8 2.8 1.6 3.4 1.0 2.7 Window/Wall Units................................... 28.9 10.5 8.1 4.5 2.7 3.1 6.7 14.1 1 Unit...................................................... 14.5 5.8 4.3 2.0 1.1 1.3 3.4 7.4 2 Units....................................................

13

Total.................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

49.2 49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat Pump................................ 53.5 3.5 12.9 12.7 8.6 5.5 4.2 6.2 With a Heat Pump..................................... 12.3 0.4 2.2 2.9 2.5 1.5 1.0 1.8 Window/Wall Units........................................ 28.9 27.5 0.5 Q 0.3 Q Q Q 1 Unit......................................................... 14.5 13.5 0.3 Q Q Q N Q 2 Units.......................................................

14

Total..............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat Pump.............................................. 53.5 23.2 10.9 3.8 8.4 With a Heat Pump................................................... 12.3 9.0 6.7 1.4 0.9 Window/Wall Units..................................................... 28.9 8.0 3.4 1.7 2.9 1 Unit......................................................................

15

Total..................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

33.0 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 6.5 1.6 0.9 1.3 2.4 0.2 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 26.5 6.5 2.5 4.6 12.0 1.0 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 25.7 6.3 2.5 4.4 11.7 0.8 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 0.8 Q Q 0.2 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 14.1 3.6 1.5 2.1 6.4 0.6 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 12.4 3.1 1.3 1.8 5.7 0.6 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 1.7 0.6 Q 0.3 0.6 Q Window/Wall Units....................................... 28.9 12.4 2.9 1.0 2.5 5.6 0.4 1 Unit.......................................................... 14.5 7.3 1.2 0.5 1.4 3.9 0.2 2 Units.........................................................

16

Total..............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

20.6 20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat Pump.............................................. 53.5 5.5 16.2 23.2 8.7 With a Heat Pump................................................... 12.3 0.5 1.1 9.0 1.7 Window/Wall Units..................................................... 28.9 10.7 6.6 8.0 3.6 1 Unit......................................................................

17

Total..................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

78.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 11.3 9.3 0.6 Q 0.4 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 66.8 54.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 65.8 54.0 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 1.1 0.8 Q N Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 41.1 34.8 2.1 0.5 1.2 2.6 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 10.6 9.1 0.4 Q 0.3 0.6 Window/Wall Units....................................... 28.9 16.5 12.0 1.3 1.0 0.4 1.7 1 Unit.......................................................... 14.5 7.2 5.4 0.5 0.2 Q 0.9 2 Units.........................................................

18

Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Total .............. 16,164,874 5,967,376 22,132,249 2,972,552 280,370 167,519 18,711,808 1993 Total .............. 16,691,139 6,034,504 22,725,642 3,103,014 413,971 226,743 18,981,915 1994 Total .............. 17,351,060 6,229,645 23,580,706 3,230,667 412,178 228,336 19,709,525 1995 Total .............. 17,282,032 6,461,596 23,743,628 3,565,023 388,392 283,739 19,506,474 1996 Total .............. 17,680,777 6,370,888 24,051,665 3,510,330 518,425 272,117 19,750,793 Alabama Total......... 570,907 11,394 582,301 22,601 27,006 1,853 530,841 Onshore ................ 209,839 11,394 221,233 22,601 16,762 1,593 180,277 State Offshore....... 209,013 0 209,013 0 10,244 260 198,509 Federal Offshore... 152,055 0 152,055 0 0 0 152,055 Alaska Total ............ 183,747 3,189,837 3,373,584 2,885,686 0 7,070 480,828 Onshore ................ 64,751 3,182,782

19

Total..................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 3.7 2.6 6.1 6.8 11.2 13.2 13.9 8.2 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 3.6 2.3 5.5 5.8 9.5 10.1 10.3 6.4 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 Q 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.7 3.1 3.6 1.7 Window/Wall Units....................................... 28.9 7.3 3.2 4.5 3.7 4.8 3.0 1.9 0.7 1 Unit..........................................................

20

Total............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total................................................................... Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Total...................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4,690,065 52,331,397 2,802,751 4,409,699 7,526,898 209,616 1993 Total................... 4,956,445 52,535,411 2,861,569 4,464,906 7,981,433 209,666 1994 Total................... 4,847,702 53,392,557 2,895,013 4,533,905 8,167,033 202,940 1995 Total................... 4,850,318 54,322,179 3,031,077 4,636,500 8,579,585 209,398 1996 Total................... 5,241,414 55,263,673 3,158,244 4,720,227 8,870,422 206,049 Alabama ...................... 56,522 766,322 29,000 62,064 201,414 2,512 Alaska.......................... 16,179 81,348 27,315 12,732 75,616 202 Arizona ........................ 27,709 689,597 28,987 49,693 26,979 534 Arkansas ..................... 46,289 539,952 31,006 67,293 141,300 1,488 California ..................... 473,310 8,969,308 235,068 408,294 693,539 36,613 Colorado...................... 110,924 1,147,743

22

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 2.1 0.6 Q 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 13.6 3.7 3.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 9.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.6 2.7 2.5 3.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 5.0 2.1 2.8 2.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.7 1.8 2.8 2.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.6 0.8 1.5 1.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

23

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7 1.3 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.0 1.8 0.5 0.7 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.1 1.2 0.5 0.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

24

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1 2.6 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 2.7 3.0 2.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 2.1 2.1 0.9 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 1.7 1.5 0.9 4,000 or More.....................................................

25

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.4 0.9 1.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.9 0.3 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 0.9 0.4 0.5 4,000 or More.....................................................

26

Total.........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Floorspace (Square Feet) Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3 2,500 to 2,999.................................................... 10.3 1.5 2.3 2.7 2.1 1.7 3,000 to 3,499.................................................... 6.7 1.0 2.0 1.7 1.0 1.0 3,500 to 3,999.................................................... 5.2 0.8 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.7 4,000 or More.....................................................

27

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 1.7 0.6 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 1.0 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 0.9 0.3 4,000 or More.....................................................

28

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 1.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.3 Q 0.4 0.3 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 Q Q Q Q 4,000 or More.....................................................

29

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7 0.4 2,139 1,598 Q Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999........................................ 10.1 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 3,000 or More......................................... 29.6 0.3 Q Q Q Q Q Q Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None...................................................... 3.6 1.8 1,048 0 Q 827 0 407 Fewer than 500......................................

30

Total...................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2,033 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546 3,500 to 3,999................................................. 5.2 3,549 2,509 1,508

31

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.2 2.2 2.3 1.7 2.9 0.6 2.0 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.9 0.4 1.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.5 0.4 1.3 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3 0.9 1.9 2.2 2.0 6.4 0.6 1.9 Heated Floorspace

32

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

14.7 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.1 1.6 0.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.6 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.7 0.8 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.5 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3

33

Total................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to 2,499.............................. 12.2 11.9 2,039 1,731 1,055 2,143 1,813 1,152 Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999.............................. 10.3 10.1 2,519 2,004 1,357 2,492 2,103 1,096 Q Q Q 3,000 or 3,499.............................. 6.7 6.6 3,014 2,175 1,438 3,047 2,079 1,108 N N N 3,500 to 3,999.............................. 5.2 5.1 3,549 2,505 1,518 Q Q Q N N N 4,000 or More...............................

34

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling provided, inGenerally, total modular cooling power demand was somewhathigher server loads. The cooling power demand decreased when

Adams, Barbara J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling transported,Generally, total modular cooling power demand stabilized atrack) in this study. The cooling power demand decreased when

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Exploring Total Power Saving from High Temperature of Server Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Temperature Total system power (%) Cooling power (%)Total system power (%) Cooling power (%) JunctionTo simulate the cooling power consumption at different

Lai, Liangzhen; Chang, Chia-Hao; Gupta, Puneet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Total Space Heat-  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

38

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of total hydraulic power for cooling to cooling delivered,temperatures, and cooling output power. 6 Test proceduresefficiency defined as power demand per cooling transferred.

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Power for Server Power Cooling Module Power (kW) (Cooling is the amount of cooling power removed from the dataratio of total cooling power to the cooling transported by

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Guide describes best practices for reducing energy use and total-cost-of-ownership for data center cooling systems.

43

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

45

FOCUS COOLING  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

46

Dr. Cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...replace fossil fuels, and analyses of hydrogen fuel, natural gas...quickly "cut the average rate of global...global cooling effect of large volcanic...dollars—"the price of a Hollywood blockbuster...away from fossil fuels, he concedes...

Eli Kintisch

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

47

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

TOTAL Full-TOTAL Full-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conducting - Orchestral 6 . . 6 5 1 . 6 5 . . 5 Conducting - Wind Ensemble 3 . . 3 2 . . 2 . 1 . 1 Early- X TOTAL Full- Part- X TOTAL Alternative Energy 6 . . 6 11 . . 11 13 2 . 15 Biomedical Engineering 52 English 71 . 4 75 70 . 4 74 72 . 3 75 Geosciences 9 . 1 10 15 . . 15 19 . . 19 History 37 1 2 40 28 3 3 34

Portman, Douglas

49

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

50

Total Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & Ed55 Imports - Other Conventional Gasoline Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Ether Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Alcohol Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, CBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, GTAB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, Other Imports - Fuel Ethanol Imports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Imports - Distillate Fuel Oil Imports - Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Imports - Distillate F.O., > 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Residual Fuel Oil Imports - Propane/Propylene Imports - Other Other Oils Imports - Kerosene Imports - NGPLs/LRGs (Excluding Propane/Propylene) Exports - Total Crude Oil and Products Exports - Crude Oil Exports - Products Exports - Finished Motor Gasoline Exports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Exports - Distillate Fuel Oil Exports - Residual Fuel Oil Exports - Propane/Propylene Exports - Other Oils Net Imports - Total Crude Oil and Products Net Imports - Crude Oil Net Imports - Petroleum Products Period: Weekly 4-Week Avg.

51

Summary Max Total Units  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Max Total Units Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water Refrig Voltage Cond Unit IF-CU Combos 2 4 5 28 References Refrig Voltage C-U type Compressor HP R-404A 208/1/60 Hermetic SA 2.5 R-507 230/1/60 Hermetic MA 2.5 208/3/60 SemiHerm SA 1.5 230/3/60 SemiHerm MA 1.5 SemiHerm HA 1.5 1000lb, remote rack systems, fresh water Refrig/system Voltage Combos 12 2 24 References Refrig/system Voltage IF only

52

Auxiliary Cooling Loads in Passively Cooled Buildings: An Experimental Research Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is examining the auxiliary cooling requirements of residences in warm, humid climates. The study addresses both the thermal and moisture response of buildings. A total of eight wall systems, three frame wall types and five...

Fairey, P.; Vieira, R.; Chandra, S.; Kerestecioglu, A.; Kalaghchy, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

54

Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Heating and cooling your home uses more energy and costs more money than any other system in your home -- typically making up about 54% of your

55

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

57

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

58

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Logistics: Keeping cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. 10.1038/507S8aLogistics: Keeping cool NeilSavageN

Neil Savage

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

62

Cooling System Analysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ABSTRACT This master thesis report describes the behavior of a cooling system based on the power consumption and power losses during the velocity range. The… (more)

Cruz, João Pedro Brás da

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

cooling degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling degree days cooling degree days Dataset Summary Description The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS), in conjunction with the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) publish monthly and annual climate data by state for the U.S., including, cooling degree days (total number of days per month and per year). The average values for each state are weighted by population, using 2000 Census data. The base temperature for this dataset is 65 degrees F. Source NOAA Date Released Unknown Date Updated June 24th, 2005 (9 years ago) Keywords climate cooling degree days NOAA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon hcs_51_avg_cdd.xls (xls, 215.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

64

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

65

Very Cool Close Binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new observations of cool <6000K and low mass <1Msun binary systems that have been discovered by searching several modern stellar photometric databases. The search has led to a factor of 10 increase in the number of known cool close eclipsing binary systems.

J. Scott Shaw; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

66

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

67

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

68

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

69

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

70

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

71

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

72

Cooling of neutron stars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of current physical understanding, it is impossible to predict with confidence the interior constitution of neutron stars. Cooling of neutron stars provides a possible way of discriminating among possible states of matter within them. In the standard picture of cooling by neutrino emission developed over the past quarter of a century, neutron stars are expected to cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and to cool faster if matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been called into question by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

C. J. Pethick

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,derived potential peak cooling power of 77 W/m 2 (24 Btu/hr-

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Power Plant Cooling Systems: Policy Alternatives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contrast, provide convenient field laboratories for examining...barrels per day of additional oil equivalent would be required...num-ber of citations is the cumulative total and does not include...of a Cooling Lake Fishery, Illinois Natural History Survey, project...

John Z. Reynolds

1980-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

75

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings* ........................... 3,037 115 397 384 52 1,143 22 354 64 148 357 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 386 19 43 18 11 93 7 137 8 12 38 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 262 12 35 17 5 83 4 56 6 9 35 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 407 20 46 44 8 151 3 53 9 19 54 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 350 15 55 50 9 121 2 34 7 16 42 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 405 16 57 65 7 158 2 29 6 18 45 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 483 16 62 80 5 195 1 24 Q 31 56 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 361 8 51 54 5 162 1 9 8 19 43 Over 500,000 ............................. 383 8 47 56 3 181 2 12 8 23 43 Principal Building Activity

76

Synthetic and Jet Fuels Pyrolysis for Cooling and Combustion Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phenomenon (heat and mass transfers, pyrolysis, combustion) in a cooling channel surrounding a SCRamjet regeneratively cooled SCRamjet is provided to get a large vision of the fuel nature impact on the system of supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRamjet) [1]. For such high velocity, the total temperature of external air

Boyer, Edmond

77

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

78

Electronic Cooling in Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy transfer to acoustic phonons is the dominant low-temperature cooling channel of electrons in a crystal. For cold neutral graphene we find that the weak cooling power of its acoustic modes relative to their heat capacity leads to a power-law decay of the electronic temperature when far from equilibrium. For heavily doped graphene a high electronic temperature is shown to initially decrease linearly with time at a rate proportional to n3/2 with n being the electronic density. The temperature at which cooling via optical phonon emission begins to dominate depends on graphene carrier density.

R. Bistritzer and A. H. MacDonald

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

79

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

80

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural..." system on the Natural Cool ing cycle. As the pressures and flow rates of the condenser and chil led water systems are seldom the same, the designer must pay careful attention to the cross over system design to ensure harmonious operations on both...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

82

Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

hours, reducing the electrical demand on electric utilities. Learn More Home Cooling Systems References Final Report Compilation for Residential Hydronic Radiant Cooling and...

83

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

84

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

85

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

86

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

87

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

88

HomeCooling101  

Energy Savers [EERE]

openings to prevent warm air from leaking into your home. Insulate and seal ducts -- air loss through ducts accounts for about 30 percent of a cooling system's energy consumption....

89

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

90

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

92

Barge Truck Total  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

93

Table B29. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 9. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled","All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled" "All Buildings ................",4657,1097,1012,751,1796,67338,8864,16846,16966,24662 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,668,352,294,1034,6774,1895,1084,838,2957 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,282,292,188,348,8238,2026,2233,1435,2544

94

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings ............................. 91.0 33.0 7.2 6.1 7.0 18.7 2.7 5.3 1.0 2.2 7.9 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 99.0 30.7 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.9 7.1 19.9 1.1 1.7 8.2 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 80.0 30.1 5.5 2.6 6.1 13.6 5.2 8.2 0.8 1.4 6.6 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 71.0 28.2 4.5 4.1 4.1 14.5 2.3 4.5 0.8 1.6 6.5 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 79.0 29.9 6.8 5.9 6.3 14.9 1.7 3.9 0.8 1.8 7.1 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 88.7 31.6 7.6 7.6 6.5 19.6 1.7 3.4 0.7 2.0 8.1 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 104.2 39.1 8.2 8.9 7.9 22.9 1.1 2.9 Q 3.2 8.7 200,001 to 500,000 ....................

95

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings ............................. 91.0 33.0 7.2 6.1 7.0 18.7 2.7 5.3 1.0 2.2 7.9 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 99.0 30.7 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.9 7.1 19.9 1.1 1.7 8.2 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 80.0 30.1 5.5 2.6 6.1 13.6 5.2 8.2 0.8 1.4 6.6 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 71.0 28.2 4.5 4.1 4.1 14.5 2.3 4.5 0.8 1.6 6.5 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 79.0 29.9 6.8 5.9 6.3 14.9 1.7 3.9 0.8 1.8 7.1 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 88.7 31.6 7.6 7.6 6.5 19.6 1.7 3.4 0.7 2.0 8.1 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 104.2 39.1 8.2 8.9 7.9 22.9 1.1 2.9 Q 3.2 8.7 200,001 to 500,000 ....................

96

Numerical Simulation of Transpiration Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen SUMMARY Transpiration cooling using ceramic matrix composite (CMC

97

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

98

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

99

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

100

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cooling Towers Make Money  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was hired and wrote specifications for a four cell induced draft counterflow cooling tower to cool 10,000 GPM entering at 95 0 F leaving at 85 0 F during an 80 0 F ambient wet bulb temperature. The specifications required that the bidders project a... F during an ambient wet bulb temperature of 7] OF could not be met The SuperCellular film fill, style] 3] 62 Illustration 3 was selected by the consultant because of its previous highly satisfactory service in sewage treatment trickling filter...

Burger, R.

102

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

103

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

105

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

Smith, M.

108

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

109

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling...

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Cooling power of quenching oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrial oils 20 and 20V have the best cooling powers of all quenching oils (used in the USSR). They secure high cooling rates at low temperatures, have a satisfactory...

L. V. Petrash

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by  the  power  distribution  and  cooling  systems.  The  the  power   distribution  and  cooling  infrastructure  IT  power  consumed  along  with   the  cooling  required  

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Figure 3. Fan power versus cooling fan the computer fanparameters (cooling effect, fan power and CFE) involved inthat the typical power consumption of cooling fans is lower

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Cooling by heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

A. Mari; J. Eisert

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification.

Krumhansl, M.U.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

115

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Turbine cooling waxy oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for pipelining a waxy oil to essentially eliminate deposition of wax on the pipeline wall is described comprising: providing a pressurized mixture of the waxy oil and a gas; effecting a sudden pressure drop of the mixture of the oil and the gas through an expansion turbine, thereby expanding the gas and quickly cooling the oil to below its cloud point in the substantial absence of wax deposition and forming a slurry of wax particles and oil; and pipelining the slurry.

Geer, J.S.

1987-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device H.C. Coles, S.prototype computer equipment rack-level cooling device withIT equipment cooling, server rack cooling, server cooling,

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling Effect, Fan Power, and Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index?t eq ) °C °F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (The measured cooling effect and fan power and the determined

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Variations of Total Domination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study of locating–dominating sets in graphs was pioneered by Slater [186, 187...], and this concept was later extended to total domination in graphs. A locating–total dominating set, abbreviated LTD-set, in G

Michael A. Henning; Anders Yeo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" 1. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc" ,,"Total Floorspacea","Heated Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Cooled Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Lit Floorspaceb" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,53812,58474,42420,64085,54696 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5684,5055,4879,3958,5859,4877 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7090,5744,6212,4333,7421,5583 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9865,8196,9530,6195,10358,8251

122

Gas-dynamic and thermal processes under film cooling end surfaces of a gas-turbine blade bucket  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results from an investigation of using swirled coolant jets to obtain efficient film cooling of a turbine bucket while minimizing the total losses in it are presented.

V. V. Lebedev

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Total Crude by Pipeline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude by All Transport Methods Domestic Crude by All Transport Methods Foreign Crude by All Transport Methods Total Crude by Pipeline Domestic Crude by Pipeline Foreign Crude by Pipeline Total Crude by Tanker Domestic Crude by Tanker Foreign Crude by Tanker Total Crude by Barge Domestic Crude by Barge Foreign Crude by Barge Total Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Foreign Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Total Crude by Trucks Domestic Crude by Trucks Foreign Crude by Trucks Period: Product: Total Crude by All Transport Methods Domestic Crude by All Transport Methods Foreign Crude by All Transport Methods Total Crude by Pipeline Domestic Crude by Pipeline Foreign Crude by Pipeline Total Crude by Tanker Domestic Crude by Tanker Foreign Crude by Tanker Total Crude by Barge Domestic Crude by Barge Foreign Crude by Barge Total Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Foreign Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Total Crude by Trucks Domestic Crude by Trucks Foreign Crude by Trucks Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View

124

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

None

1980-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

125

Marketing Cool Storage Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage has been substantiated. bv research conducted by Electric Power Research Institute, and by numerous installations, it has become acknowledged that cool stora~e can provide substantial benefits to utilities and end-users alike. A need was reco...~ned to improve utility load factors, reduce peak electric demands, and other-wise mana~e the demand-side use of electricity. As a result of these many pro~rams, it became apparent that the storage of coolin~, in the form of chilled water, ice, or other phase...

McCannon, L.

126

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Cooling Mode  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building.

128

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

129

A review of solar cooling technologies for residential applications in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last two decades, the demand for residential cooling has increased exponentially, creating a significant demand on the electrical grid during the summer months. Between 1990 and 2008, the total Canadian residential floor area that requires cooling has almost tripled, while the total energy consumed for space cooling has more than doubled. The implementation of solar cooling systems could assist in reducing this energy consumption, and consequently, reduce greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere as a result of the generation of the required electricity to power typical air conditioners. This paper presents a review of the solar cooling technologies that have been developed and implemented for use in residential and commercial applications. Related work conducted under the International Energy Agency is also described and a review of cooling installations both worldwide and Canada are discussed.

Christopher Baldwin; Cynthia A. Cruickshank

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

131

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

133

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Solar Heating and Cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation during good weather are not very high, and...Atmospheric Administration weather ser-vice measures total...largely to experi-mental operation of 3-ton LiBr-H2O...a million solar water heaters are in use in these countries...air House heating load Cold air return 'S T~rgeo...

John A. Duffie; William A. Beckman

1976-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

135

Cool Farming: Climate impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13 2.1 Global GHG emissions from agriculture 13 2.2 Projected changes in GHG emissions from #12;4 Table 1: Sources of direct and indirect agriculture GHG. 6 Table 2: GHG emissions from fossil: Total annual GHG emissions from the production of fertilisers. 18 Table 5: Global carbon stocks

Levi, Ran

136

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

137

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

138

NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building’s roof to take advantage of long-wave radiation to the night sky has been long identified as a potentially productive means to reduce building space cooling. A typical roof at 75?F will radiate at about 55-60 W/m 2 to clear night sky... and about 25 W/m 2 to a cloudy sky. For a typical roof (250 square meters), this represents a cooling potential of 6,000 - 14,000 Watts or about 1.5 - 4.0 tons of cooling potential each summer night. However, various physical constraints (differential...

Parker, D. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Total solar house description and performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial attempt to apply the Total Solar concept to a residence in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, area is described. A very large storage capacity has made it possible to use only solar energy for meeting the heating, cooling and hot water needs for the entire year, with a parasitic power penalty of about 3500 kWh. Winter temperatures were maintained at 68/sup 0/F with 60/sup 0/F night setback, summer at 76/sup 0/F. Occupant intervention was negligible and passive overheat was minimized. The extra cost for the system, approximately $30,000 is readily amortized by the savings in purchased energy.

Starobin, L. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia); Starobin, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Demonstration of Energy Savings of Cool Roofs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-Hanford, J. 1997. "Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of

Konopacki, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

143

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the “Energy Crisis” Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

144

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

integrated control resets for supply air temperature and75.2°F) Cooling supply air temperature control Minimum AHUvary the VAV supply-air-temperature reset control mid-bands

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Stochastic cooling of bunched beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulation studies are presented for transverse and longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams. Radio frequency buckets of various shapes (e.g. rectangular, parabolic well, single sinusoidal waveform) are used to investigate the enhancement of phase space cooling by nonlinearities of synchrotron motion. The connection between the notions of Landau damping for instabilities and mixing for stochastic cooling are discussed. In particular, the need for synchrotron frequency spread for both Landau damping and good mixing is seen to be comparable for bunched beams.

Bisognano, J.J.; Chattopadhyay, S.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Testing the accuracy of radiative cooling approximations in SPH simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrodynamical simulations of star formation have stimulated a need to develop fast and robust algorithms for evaluating radiative cooling. Here we undertake a critical evaluation of what is currently a popular method for prescribing cooling in SPH simulations, i.e. the polytropic cooling due originally to Stamatellos et al. This method uses the local density and potential to estimate the column density and optical depth to each particle and then uses these quantities to evaluate an approximate expression for the net radiative cooling. We evaluate the algorithm by considering both spherical and disc-like systems with analytic density and temperature structures. In spherical systems, the total cooling rate computed by the method is within around 20 for the astrophysically relevant case of opacity dominated by ice grains and is correct to within a factor of order unity for a range of opacity laws. In disc geometry, however, the method systematically under-estimates the cooling by a large factor at all heights i...

Wilkins, Daniel R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

148

Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

149

Direct-Cooled Power Electronic Substrate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Energy 3 Barriers VTP Activities Related Challenges Conventional cooling methods for power electronics are typically based on conduction cooling through solids directly adjacent...

150

21 briefing pages total  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

briefing pages total p. 1 briefing pages total p. 1 Reservist Differential Briefing U.S. Office of Personnel Management December 11, 2009 p. 2 Agenda - Introduction of Speakers - Background - References/Tools - Overview of Reservist Differential Authority - Qualifying Active Duty Service and Military Orders - Understanding Military Leave and Earnings Statements p. 3 Background 5 U.S.C. 5538 (Section 751 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, March 11, 2009) (Public Law 111-8) Law requires OPM to consult with DOD Law effective first day of first pay period on or after March 11, 2009 (March 15 for most executive branch employees) Number of affected employees unclear p. 4 Next Steps

151

Cooling Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in

152

Advance in MEIC cooling studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Cooling molecules in optical cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied theoretically and numerically the cooling of CN molecules in a high-finesse optical cavity and show that these molecules can be cooled from 100 mK temperatures to submillikelvin temperatures in less than 1 ms. We establish that the cooling time does not change significantly with molecular numbers and initial temperatures over a wide range. We have further studied the scaling of the system for extending the current results for hundreds of molecules to a very large molecular ensemble. The results indicate that a gas of 10{sup 9} molecules can be cooled in the cavity by use of a far-off-resonant and high-intensity pump source.

Lu Weiping; Zhao Yongkai; Barker, P. F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air...

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Electron cooling for positron sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron cooling of positrons should make possible a large increase in the luminosity of future high-energy linear colliders, leading to greatly enhanced event rates at these machines. An evaluation of the electron-cooling-time requirement indicates that a positron-source repetition rate of 100 Hz is possible. Final positron-beam normalized emittances of 10-7 m rad should result, implying a tremendous increase in positron-beam density over that currently obtained.

D. J. Larson

1988-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

157

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

158

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermal Predictions of the Cooling of Waste Glass Canisters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive liquid waste from five decades of weapons production is slated for vitrification at the Hanford site. The waste will be mixed with glass forming additives and heated to a high temperature, then poured into canisters within a pour cave where the glass will cool and solidify into a stable waste form for disposal. Computer simulations were performed to predict the heat rejected from the canisters and the temperatures within the glass during cooling. Four different waste glass compositions with different thermophysical properties were evaluated. Canister centerline temperatures and the total amount of heat transfer from the canisters to the surrounding air are reported.

Donna Post Guillen

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Prospects for cooling and trapping rotationally hot molecules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cold collisions involving highly rotationally excited diatomic molecules are investigated. As the translational energy is lowered, the total inelastic cross section decreases sharply for specific channels where quasiresonant transitions are no longer energetically allowed. Rate coefficients are given for collisional quenching of rotationally excited H2,D2,T2, and O2 at zero temperature. The specific rotational states that are stable against collisional relaxation would be interesting prospects for cooling and trapping. The application of collisional cooling methods together with recently developed schemes for producing rotationally hot molecules may allow high densities of ultracold “super rotors” to be achieved.

R. C. Forrey

2002-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

162

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

163

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

164

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

165

Barge Truck Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Barge Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Year (nominal) (real) (real) (percent) (nominal) (real) (real) (percent) 2008 $6.26 $5.77 $36.50 15.8% 42.3% $6.12 $5.64 $36.36 15.5% 22.2% 2009 $6.23 $5.67 $52.71 10.8% 94.8% $4.90 $4.46 $33.18 13.5% 25.1% 2010 $6.41 $5.77 $50.83 11.4% 96.8% $6.20 $5.59 $36.26 15.4% 38.9% Annual Percent Change First to Last Year 1.2% 0.0% 18.0% - - 0.7% -0.4% -0.1% - - Latest 2 Years 2.9% 1.7% -3.6% - - 26.6% 25.2% 9.3% - - - = No data reported or value not applicable STB Data Source: The Surface Transportation Board's 900-Byte Carload Waybill Sample EIA Data Source: Form EIA-923 Power Plant Operations Report

166

Total Precipitable Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Total Sustainability Humber College  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Total Sustainability Management Humber College November, 2012 SUSTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM Green An Impending Global Disaster #12;3 Sustainability is NOT Climate Remediation #12;Our Premises "We cannot, you cannot improve it" (Lord Kelvin) "First rule of sustainability is to align with natural forces

Thompson, Michael

168

A bottom-up engineering estimate of the aggregate heating and cooling loads of the entire U.S. building stock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the amount of commercial building energy usage, particularlycommercial building sector. To compare the aggregated energy usagecommercial buildings. For the residential sector, the total heating and cooling energy usages

Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

AN ENERGY COST OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR A LARGE SCALE HYBRID CENTRAL COOLING PLANT WITH MULTIPLE ENERGY SOURCES UNDER A COMPLEX ELECTRICITY COST STRUCTURE.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The cooling energy cost could be a significant portion of the total energy cost for a large organization or building complex during summer. A hybrid… (more)

Guo, Yin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Total isomerization gains flexibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isomerization extends refinery flexibility to meet changing markets. TIP (Total Isomerization Process) allows conversion of paraffin fractions in the gasoline boiling region including straight run naptha, light reformate, aromatic unit raffinate, and hydrocrackate. The hysomer isomerization is compared to catalytic reforming. Isomerization routes are graphed. Cost estimates and suggestions on the use of other feedstocks are given. TIP can maximize gas production, reduce crude runs, and complement cat reforming. In four examples, TIP reduces reformer severity and increases reformer yield.

Symoniak, M.F.; Holcombe, T.C.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

173

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

174

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling Ryan Firestone, Chrisevaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semenyuk, “Thermoelectric Micro Modules for Spot Cooling ofthermoelectric module is still too large for spot cooling.

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Laser cooling with ultrafast pulse trains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new laser cooling method for atomic species whose level structure makes traditional laser cooling difficult. For instance, laser cooling of hydrogen requires vacuum-ultraviolet laser light, while multielectron atoms need laser light at many widely separated frequencies. These restrictions can be eased by laser cooling on two-photon transitions with ultrafast pulse trains. Laser cooling of hydrogen, antihydrogen, and carbon appears feasible, and extension of the technique to molecules may be possible.

David Kielpinski

2003-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

cooling | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing energy use. The term net zero is the platinum standard for green buildings, meaning the building in question does not take any more energy from the utility grid than it produces using renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal installations (and sometimes these renewable energy resources actually feed energy back to the utility grid).

178

Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

June 28, 1996 June 28, 1996 Number 13 Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE 2 University Close-Up: The University of Minnesota 6 Summer at Fermilab by Eric Berger, Office of Public Affairs As debate heats up among lawmakers on the fate of the nation's helium reserve, Fermilab researchers prepare for a long, cold summer. How cold? Minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit-the temperature of the liquid helium that cools the Tevatron's supercon- ducting magnets. Proposed congressional changes to the 1960 Helium Act, however, could ultimately affect Fermilab's vital cooling operation, which uses 13 million cubic feet of gaseous helium annually. Electric current travels through a supercon- ductor friction-free, like skaters on smooth ice, allowing physicists to run accelerators at higher f energies, while using far less electricity than

179

Exploring the magnetic topologies of cool stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic fields of cool stars can be directly investigated through the study of the Zeeman effect on photospheric spectral lines using several approaches. With spectroscopic measurement in unpolarised light, the total magnetic flux averaged over the stellar disc can be derived but very little information on the field geometry is available. Spectropolarimetry provides a complementary information on the large-scale component of the magnetic topology. With Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI), this information can be retrieved to produce a map of the vector magnetic field at the surface of the star, and in particular to assess the relative importance of the poloidal and toroidal components as well as the degree of axisymmetry of the field distribution. The development of high-performance spectropolarimeters associated with multi-lines techniques and ZDI allows us to explore magnetic topologies throughout the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, on stars spanning a wide range of mass, age and rotation period. These observations b...

Morin, J; Petit, P; Albert, L; Auriere, M; Cabanac, R; Catala, C; Delfosse, X; Dintrans, B; Fares, R; Forveille, T; Gastine, T; Jardine, M; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Lanoux, J; Lignieres, F; Morgenthaler, A; Paletou, F; Velez, J C Ramirez; Solanki, S K; Theado, S; Van Grootel, V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Total Sales of Kerosene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 492,702 218,736 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 1984-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 353,765 159,323 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 1984-2012 New England (PADD 1A) 94,635 42,570 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 1984-2012 Connecticut 13,006 6,710 8,800 7,437 7,087 2,143 1984-2012 Maine 46,431 19,923 25,158 24,281 17,396 7,394 1984-2012 Massachusetts 7,913 3,510 5,332 6,300 2,866 1,291 1984-2012 New Hampshire 14,454 6,675 8,353 7,435 5,472 1,977 1984-2012

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs July 2010 V. 1.2 Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Additional technical support provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Federal Energy Management Program. Authors: Bryan Urban and Kurt Roth, Ph.D. ii Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Why Use Cool Roofs .............................................................................................................. 3

182

Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 7 Improving Cooling Tower Efficiency ? Two Improvements in Capacity/Performance 1. Filtration for water quality control Side stream filtration Make up water quality...-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 2 Types of Cooling Towers Forced Draft Towers ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 3 Types...

Turpish, W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

184

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

185

Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 3312008 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, D. Hyman, C. Payne,...

186

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet.

187

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

188

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants...

Abernethy, D.

189

CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

190

Total Marketed Production ..............  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

billion cubic feet per day) billion cubic feet per day) Total Marketed Production .............. 68.95 69.77 70.45 71.64 71.91 71.70 71.46 71.57 72.61 72.68 72.41 72.62 70.21 71.66 72.58 Alaska ......................................... 1.04 0.91 0.79 0.96 1.00 0.85 0.77 0.93 0.97 0.83 0.75 0.91 0.93 0.88 0.87 Federal GOM (a) ......................... 3.93 3.64 3.44 3.82 3.83 3.77 3.73 3.50 3.71 3.67 3.63 3.46 3.71 3.70 3.62 Lower 48 States (excl GOM) ...... 63.97 65.21 66.21 66.86 67.08 67.08 66.96 67.14 67.92 68.18 68.02 68.24 65.58 67.07 68.09 Total Dry Gas Production .............. 65.46 66.21 66.69 67.79 68.03 67.83 67.61 67.71 68.69 68.76 68.50 68.70 66.55 67.79 68.66 Gross Imports ................................ 8.48 7.60 7.80 7.95 8.27 7.59 7.96 7.91 7.89 7.17 7.61 7.73 7.96 7.93 7.60 Pipeline ........................................

191

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

193

Independent Control of Sensible and Latent Cooling in Small Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

util impact. INTRODUCTION Dehumidification has become an increasingly large fraction of the total cooling load in many new buildings, as heat gains through the envelope have been reduced but internal moisture generation and the need... to be coincident with maximum air-conditioning loads. The possibility was suggested that by independently controlling temperature and humidity ways might be found to ameliorate the peak electrical loads imposed on utilities by the residential and small...

Andrews, J.; Lamontagne, J.; Piraino, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

basis. Since that humble beginning, literally millions of square feet of roof cooling systems have been installed in industrial and commercial buildings. A "mini-boom" for roof sprays existed following World War 11, when air conditioning was new.... All supply piping and spray laterals are supported at 5 ft. inter- vals by cementing redwood blocks to the surface. No roof penetrations are necessary with the excep- tion of very large roof areas, and this is done by a competent roofing...

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

198

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

199

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

Matson, J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Global cooling updates: Reflective roofs and pavements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With increasing the solar reflectance of urban surfaces, the outflow of short-wave solar radiation increases, less solar heat energy is absorbed leading to lower surface temperatures and reduced outflow of thermal radiation into the atmosphere. This process of “negative radiative forcing” effectively counters global warming. Cool roofs also reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win–win–win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO2 emissions. We review the status of cool roof and cool pavements technologies, policies, and programs in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Hashem Akbari; H. Damon Matthews

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (CFE) °C/W °F/WSun et al. 2007). Thus, the CFE is defined by Equation 1.?t eq CFE = Cooling effect = ( – 1 ) --------- P f Fan power

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

named Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) that is the ratio betweenthe Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) is defined by Equation 1. ?t CFE ? ( ? 1 ) eq P f where P f is fan power, i.e the input

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

205

U.S. Total Exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Pittsburg, NH Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to India Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Japan Cameron, LA Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Mexico Douglas, AZ Nogales, AZ Calexico, CA Ogilby Mesa, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX Clint, TX Del Rio, TX Eagle Pass, TX El Paso, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX Rio Bravo, TX Roma, TX Total to Portugal Sabine Pass, LA Total to Russia Total to South Korea Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Spain Cameron, LA Sabine Pass, LA Total to United Kingdom Sabine Pass, LA Period: Monthly Annual

206

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ratio of time between Fan Coil Units Perimeter Zone Linearand underfloor fan coil units. cooling contribution of

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) Project objectives: Create a campus geothermal heating and cooling...

208

Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

available Efficiency solar power Cooling power per capturedavailable Efficiency solar power Cooling power per capturedEq. (3) by integrating the cooling power and dividing by the

Widyolar, Bennett

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Demonstration of Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F. Calculations of room power balance and cooling providedrequired for all other cooling power related componentscooling provided is the cooling power remaining after the

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado....

211

What's so cool about Curiosity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What's so cool about Curiosity? What's so cool about Curiosity? Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory, is the largest and most complicated device we have ever landed on a planet other than Earth. ï‚· About the size of a small SUV -- ten feet long (not including the arm), nine feet wide and seven feet tall ï‚· 900 kilograms (2,000 pounds) (Spirit and Opportunity, earlier research vehicles sent to Mars were 384 pounds) ï‚· Uses aerobraking, parachute, retro rockets and skycrane concepts to land gently (Spirit and Opportunity used aerobraking, parachutes and airbags that bounced them to the surface) Curiosity carries three instruments from Los Alamos National Laboratory. ï‚· The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator supplies electricity and heat to the rover

212

Optomechanical laser cooling with mechanical modulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically study the laser cooling of cavity optomechanics when the mechanical resonance frequency and damping depend on time. In the regime of weak optomechanical coupling we extend the theory of laser cooling using an adiabatic approximation. We discuss the modifications of the cooling dynamics and compare it with numerical simulations in a wide range of modulation frequencies.

Marc Bienert; Pablo Barberis-Blostein

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Berkeley Lab's Cool Your School Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cool Your School is a series of 6th-grade, classroom-based, science activities rooted in Berkeley Lab's cool-surface and cool materials research and aligned with California science content standards. The activities are designed to build knowledge, stimulate curiosity, and carry the conversation about human-induced climate change, and what can be done about it, into the community.

Ivan Berry

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 Dated: August 7, 2006 Muons only live a few microseconds before they ultimately, and laser cooling) cannot be used to properly cool muons that are being used in proposed accelerators

Cinabro, David

215

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES for Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants May 17, 2004 A and needs, and may vary from the examples cited here. Staff recommend that such a cooling water management

216

Gas cooled traction drive inverter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

217

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

218

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HVAC airside network as a single constant-volume 60% efficient fan and path to the outside with total static pressure

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

SPL RF Coupler Cooling Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy saving is an important challenge in accelerator design. In this framework, reduction of heat loads in a cryomodule is of fundamental importance due to the small thermodynamic efficiency of cooling at low temperatures. In particular, care must be taken during the design of its critical components (e.g. RF couplers, coldwarm transitions). In this framework, the main RF coupler of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cryomodule at CERN will not only be used for RF powering but also as the main mechanical support of the superconducting cavities. These two functions have to be accomplished while ensuring the lowest heat in-leak to the helium bath at 2 K. In the SPL design, the RF coupler outer conductor is composed of two walls and cooled by forced convection with helium gas at 4.5 K. Analytical, semi-analytical and numerical analyses are presented in order to defend the choice of gas cooling. Temperature profiles and thermal performance have been evaluated for different operating conditions; a sensitivit...

Bonomi, R; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Vande Craen, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

225

Relation between total quanta and total energy for aquatic ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jan 22, 1974 ... havior of the ratio of total quanta to total energy (Q : W) within the spectral region of photosynthetic ..... For blue-green waters, where hRmax lies.

2000-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

226

Mid-successional stand dynamics in a cool-temperate conifer-hardwood forest in northern Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stand dynamics was studied over 13 years in a cool-temperate conifer-hardwood forest, northern Japan. A total 30 hardwood species and one conifer, Abies sachalinensis, larger than 1.5 cm DBH were recorded. The to...

Koichi Takahashi

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Parametric Optimization of Vapor Power and Cooling Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The proposed solar thermal based combined power and cooling cycle can be operated from low grade energy such as heat and well suited for domestic and industrial needs. The hybridization of vapour absorption refrigeration (VAR) and Kalina cycle system (KCS) results power in addition to cooling. The proposed plant has two turbines with super heater and reheater to recover more heat from the solar thermal collectors. The refrigerant vapour from the high pressure turbine is reheated for low pressure turbine which gives 9.3 kW of extra power. The total power and cooling are 14.05 kW and 73.58 kW respectively at 0.42 absorber concentration and 99% of turbine concentration and 150 °C of solar collector temperature. The invention also highlights the flexibility in the operation of system on only power mode or on only cooling mode. Thermodynamic analysis has been carried out with a focus on separator temperature and turbine concentration.

R. Shankar; T. Srinivas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Western Cooling Efficiency Center | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Efficiency Center Efficiency Center Jump to: navigation, search Name Western Cooling Efficiency Center Place Davis, CA Website http://http://wcec.ucdavis.edu References Western Cooling Efficiency Center [1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections Western Cooling Efficiency Center is a research institution located in Davis, CA, at the University of California at Davis (UC Davis). References ↑ "Western Cooling Efficiency Center" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Western_Cooling_Efficiency_Center&oldid=382319" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

229

Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase the qubits' purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of 13C2-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. For example, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

230

Solar cooling in the food industry in Mexico: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Mexico efforts are being made to promote the use of solar energy for cooling in the Agro-Food Industries (AFI), 120 industries were contacted in order to assess the solar cooling potential application in the sector. One case study was selected among the visited potential end users according to the size of the facility, the information available and their willingness to collaborate in the present project. Data from the industry was used to select the appropriate solar cooling concept and therefore the collector’s typology, and the absorption cooling system. Moreover, the operation of the system was simulated in order to define the optimal size of the collector field required. The proposed cooling system was composed by a Fresnel concentrating collector field to activate a series of air cooled single-effect ammonia–water absorption chillers. The cooling system simulation was carried out with the Transient Systems Simulation Programme (TRNSYS) which allowed to model the collector system that fulfill the required load. The calculated saved electricity was around 19% of the total consumption, this small fraction is due to the fact that the selected facility is operating continuously with very large refrigeration capacities. The specifications of the simulated solar cooling system are presented.

Roberto Best B.; Juan M. Aceves H.; Jorge M. Islas S.; Fabio L. Manzini P.; Isaac Pilatowsky F.; Rossano Scoccia; Mario Motta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. The video shows pedestrians walking on a city street. Think about it this way... in the summertime we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter colors reflect - rather than absorb - the heat of the sun. The video shows images of a white roof. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is often light in color and made

232

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Addthis Description By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Fossil Oil Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY OF ENERGY STEVEN CHU: The reason we wanted the Department of Energy to take the lead in cool roofs is to demonstrate that this really saves money. If you have a roof and it's black, it's absorbing energy from the sun

233

Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:46pm Addthis Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger What does this mean for me? You may be able to keep your home cool with energy-efficient and well-placed fans. Fans are less expensive to operate than air conditioners. Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's also cooled by natural ventilation or air conditioning. Ceiling Fans Ceiling fans are considered the most effective of these types of fans,

234

A new cylinder cooling system using oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, the authors will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.

Harashina, Kenichi; Murata, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Hamamura, Masahiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Photometric Identification of Cool White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the use of a narrow-band DDO51 filter for photometric identification of cool white dwarfs. We report photometric observations of 30 known cool white dwarfs with temperatures ranging from 10,000 K down to very cool temperatures (<3500 K). Follow-up spectroscopic observations of a sample of objects selected using this filter and our photometric observations show that DDO51 filter photometry can help select cool white dwarf candidates for follow-up multi--object spectroscopy by rejecting 65% of main sequence stars with the same broad--band colors as the cool white dwarfs. This technique is not selective enough to efficiently feed single--object spectrographs. We present the white dwarf cooling sequence using this filter. Our observations show that very cool white dwarfs form a sequence in the r-DDO vs. r-z color--color diagram and demonstrate that significant improvements are needed in white dwarf model atmospheres.

M. Kilic; D. E. Winget; Ted von Hippel; C. F. Claver

2004-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

236

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and J. E. Bowers, “High cooling power density SiGe/Si microDevice area, m . Maximum cooling power density, W/cm . I. Ibest cooling performance. C. Cooling Power Measurements For

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray cooling is a feasible cooling technology for hybrid vehicle electronics; HFE 7100 is a promising coolant.

Mudawar, I.; Bharathan, D.; Kelly, K.; Narumanchi, S.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Cooling Fusion in a Flash | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling Fusion in a Flash American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Cooling Fusion in a Flash...

239

Information technology equipment cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

240

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

undersized due to the low bidder syndrome (1). 4. New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower. State of the Art Upgrading Users of cooling towers are not par ticularly concerned with the thermal analysis involving calculus, or delving... HISTORY I Anhydrous Ammonia Plant The Hawkeye Chemical Corporation, a subsidiary of the Getty Oil Company, pro jected a 50% expansion of their anhydroug ammonia output from 120,000 tons (1.09 Kg) per year to ~ production level of 225,000 tons (2...

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Powering Anomalous X-ray Pulsars by Neutron Star Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using recently calculated analytic models for the thermal structure of ultramagnetized neutron stars, we estimate the thermal fluxes from young ($t\\sim 1000$ yr) ultramagnetized ($B \\sim 10^{15}$ G) cooling neutron stars. We find that the pulsed X-ray emission from objects such as 1E 1841-045 and 1E 2259+586 as well as many soft-gamma repeaters can be explained by photon cooling if the neutron star possesses a thin insulating envelope of matter of low atomic weight at densities $\\rho < 10^{7}-10^{8}$ g/cm$^3$. The total mass of this insulating layer is $M \\sim 10^{-11}-10^{-8} M_\\odot$.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

1997-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator

243

Cavity cooling of an atomic array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While cavity cooling of a single trapped emitter was demonstrated, cooling of many particles in an array of harmonic traps needs investigation and poses a question of scalability. This work investigates the cooling of a one dimensional atomic array to the ground state of motion via the interaction with the single mode field of a high-finesse cavity. The key factor ensuring the cooling is found to be the mechanical inhomogeneity of the traps. Furthermore it is shown that the pumped cavity mode does not only mediate the cooling but also provides the necessary inhomogeneity if its periodicity differs from the one of the array. This configuration results in the ground state cooling of several tens of atoms within a few milliseconds, a timescale compatible with current experimental conditions. Moreover, the cooling rate scaling with the atom number reveals a drastic change of the dynamics with the size of the array: atoms are either cooled independently, or via collective modes. In the latter case the cavity mediated atom interaction destructively slows down the cooling as well as increases the mean occupation number, quadratically with the atom number. Finally, an order of magnitude speed up of the cooling is predicted as an outcome the optimization scheme based on the adjustment of the array versus the cavity mode periodicity.

Oxana Mishina

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

244

1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption, from which you estimate cooling water usage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption) Water for power consumption I happen to know that total energy usage is roughly 10 kW per person energy usage by a lot. Now we assume that a power plant is 50% efficient. I assumed more than 20%, less

Nimmo, Francis

245

Mujeres Hombres Total Hombres Total 16 5 21 0 10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Julio de 2011 Tipo de Discapacidad Sexo CENTRO 5-Distribución del estudiantado con discapacidad por centro, tipo de discapacidad, sexo y totales. #12;

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

246

Relation between total quanta and total energy for aquatic ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jan 22, 1974 ... ment of the total energy and vice versa. From a measurement of spectral irradi- ance ... unit energy (for the wavelength region specified).

2000-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

247

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 1.5 Q 3.1 6.0 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 Q N Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.9 Q Q 0.2 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.8 Q N Q For Two Housing Units.................................

248

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.6 5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 15.5 11.0 4.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.7 0.6 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.6 1.2 0.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 1.1 0.9 Q For Two Housing Units.................................

249

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Q Q Million U.S. Housing Units Renter- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing Units Renter- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005

250

Total....................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Personal Computers Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 5.0 2.6 1.0 1.3 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 10.3 5.9 1.6 2.9 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 4.1 2.3 0.6 1.2 41 to 167 Hours.........................................................

251

Total..............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,171 ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269 999 775 510 West North Central................................. 7.9 2,281 1,930 1,566 940 796 646 South.......................................................... 40.7 2,161 1,551 1,295 856 615 513 South Atlantic......................................... 21.7 2,243 1,607 1,359 896 642 543 East South Central.................................

252

Total.........................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

..... ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours......................................................... 13.6 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.4 2 to 15 Hours................................................................. 29.1 1.7 2.1 1.9 3.4 16 to 40 Hours............................................................... 13.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.8 41 to 167 Hours.............................................................

253

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a Week....................................... 4.1 0.7 0.3 0.4 No Hot Meals Cooked........................................... 0.9 0.2 Q Q Conventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 23.7 7.5 16.2 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 1.7 0.4 1.3 Once a Day.......................................................

254

Total....................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

14.7 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 4.6 2.5 3.7 3.2 5.4 5.5 3.7 1.6 2 Persons......................................................... 34.8 4.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 5.9 5.3 5.5 3.4 3 Persons......................................................... 18.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.5 2.8 1.6 4 Persons......................................................... 15.9 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.0 2.5 3.1 1.4 5 Persons......................................................... 7.9 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.9 6 or More Persons........................................... 4.1 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.4 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................. 9.9 1.9 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.5 $10,000 to $14,999..........................................

255

Total....................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 2.4 3.4 5.0 2.9 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 5.2 7.0 10.3 6.6 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 3.1 2.8 4.1 3.4 41 to 167 Hours.........................................................

256

Total....................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 2.9 0.9 2.0 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 6.6 2.0 4.6 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 3.4 0.9 2.5 41 to 167 Hours......................................................... 6.3

257

Total....................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 10.8 4.1 4.3 5.5 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 17.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 11.4 4.7 6.4 4.8 About Once a Week..................................................... 3.9 1.7 0.6 0.9 0.8 Less Than Once a Week.............................................. 4.1 2.2 0.6 0.8 0.5 No Hot Meals Cooked................................................... 0.9 0.4 Q Q Q Conventional Oven Use an Oven................................................................. 109.6 46.2 18.8

258

Total...................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Single-Family Units Single-Family Units Detached Type of Housing Unit Table HC2.7 Air Conditioning Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Air Conditioning Usage Indicators Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings With-- Housing Units (millions) Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Single-Family Units Detached Type of Housing Unit Table HC2.7 Air Conditioning Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Air Conditioning Usage Indicators Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings With-- Housing Units (millions) At Home Behavior Home Used for Business

259

Total....................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.6 5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 3.4 2.5 0.9 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 7.0 4.8 2.3 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 2.8 2.1 0.7 41 to 167 Hours......................................................... 6.3

260

Total...................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

15.2 15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing Unit.............................. 3.3 2.9 Q Q Q N For Two Housing Units............................. 1.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 N Central Warm-Air Furnace........................... 2.8 2.4 Q Q Q 0.2 Other Equipment......................................... 0.3 0.2 Q N Q N Wood..............................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a Week....................................... 4.1 1.1 0.7 0.4 No Hot Meals Cooked........................................... 0.9 Q Q N Conventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 25.3 17.6 7.7 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 1.3 0.8 0.5 Once a Day.......................................................

262

Total...............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 5.0 0.3 1.1 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 2.2 4.6 4.5 2.9 8.3 1.4 4.0 2.......................................................... 4.0 Q 0.4 0.6 0.4 2.4 Q 0.5 3 or More............................................. 0.7 Q Q Q Q 0.4 Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top

263

Total...............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

20.6 20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 4.7 4.6 7.7 5.4 2.......................................................... 4.0 0.6 0.9 1.5 1.1 3 or More............................................. 0.7 Q Q Q 0.3 Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)................... 45.0 7.9 11.4 15.4 10.2 Flat-panel LCD.................................

264

Total................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace........................ 44.7 7.5 10.8 9.3 5.6 11.4 4.6 12.0 For One Housing Unit........................... 42.9 6.9 10.3 9.1 5.4 11.3 4.1 11.0 For Two Housing Units......................... 1.8 0.6 0.6 Q Q Q 0.4 0.9 Steam or Hot Water System..................... 8.2 2.4 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 3.6 For One Housing Unit...........................

265

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Q Q Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Million U.S. Housing Units Owner- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Million U.S. Housing Units Owner- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions)

266

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 16.2 11.0 11.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 15.5 10.7 11.1 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.7 Q 0.3 Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 1.6 1.0 0.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 1.1 0.4

267

Total.......................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs 1.................................................................. 22.5 5.4 1.5 3.9 2.................................................................. 4.0 1.1 0.3 0.8 3 or More..................................................... 0.7 0.3 Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)...........................

268

Total....................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 5.7 1.8 2.9 3.2 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 11.9 5.1 6.5 5.7 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 5.5 2.5 3.3 2.2 41 to 167 Hours.........................................................

269

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 46.3 18.9 22.5 22.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 45.6 18.8 22.5 22.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.7 Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 27.0 11.9 14.9 4.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 19.8 8.6 12.8 3.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 18.8 8.3 12.3 3.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 1.0 0.3 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.4 2.1 1.4 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 2.1 1.6 1.0

270

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

15.1 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 15.1 5.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 15.1 5.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 9.1 2.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 5.3 0.8 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 4.9 0.7 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 3.6 1.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 2.2 1.0 For Two Housing Units.................................

271

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 2.8 0.7 0.5 0.2 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC12.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region,...

272

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 1.8 1.2 0.5 Table HC11.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Appliances...

273

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

... 2.8 1.1 0.7 Q 0.4 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC13.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by South Census Region,...

274

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 3.1 1.0 2.2 Table HC14.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Appliances...

275

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

States New York Florida Texas California Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC15.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated...

276

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 2.7 3.5 2.2 1.3 3.5 1.3 3.8 Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal...

277

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

... 13.2 3.4 2.0 1.4 Table HC12.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Appliances...

278

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Census Region Northeast Midwest South West Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC10.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005...

279

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC8.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by UrbanRural Location,...

280

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 4.4 2.5 3.0 3.4 Table HC8.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by UrbanRural Location, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units UrbanRural...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 2.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC14.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005...

282

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

... 13.2 4.9 2.3 1.1 1.5 Table HC13.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units South Census Region...

283

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 51.9 7.0 4.8 2.2 Not Asked (Mobile Homes or Apartment in Buildings with 5 or More Units)... 23.7...

284

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Housing Units Living Space Characteristics Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings With-- Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Detached...

285

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment... 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating...

286

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

287

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

288

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a Week....................................... 4.1 0.6 0.4 Q No Hot Meals Cooked........................................... 0.9 0.3 Q Q Conventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 20.3 14.9 5.4 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 1.4 1.2 0.3 Once a Day.......................................................

289

Total...............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

47.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 9.1 3.6 6.0 3.8 2.......................................................... 4.0 1.5 0.6 1.3 0.7 3 or More............................................. 0.7 0.3 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)................... 45.0 17.7 7.5 10.2 9.6 Flat-panel LCD.................................

290

Total........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Census Region and Division Northeast............................................. 20.6 6.7 1,247 1,032 Q 811 788 147 New England.................................... 5.5 1.9 1,365 1,127 Q 814 748 107 Middle Atlantic.................................. 15.1 4.8 1,182 978 Q 810 800 159 Midwest................................................ 25.6 4.6 1,349 1,133 506 895 810 346 East North Central............................ 17.7 3.2 1,483 1,239 560 968 842 351 West North Central........................... 7.9 1.4 913 789 329 751 745 337 South................................................... 40.7 7.8 881 752 572 942 873 797 South Atlantic................................... 21.7 4.9 875 707 522 1,035 934 926 East South Central........................... 6.9 0.7 Q Q Q 852 826 432 West South Central..........................

291

Total...............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 7.7 4.3 1.1 2.4 2.......................................................... 4.0 1.5 0.9 Q 0.4 3 or More............................................. 0.7 Q Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)................... 45.0 15.4 7.9 2.8 4.8 Flat-panel LCD.................................

292

Total.................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day.............................. 8.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 0.5 1.0 2.4 4.6 2 Times A Day........................................... 24.6 6.5 7.0 4.3 3.2 3.6 4.8 10.3 Once a Day................................................ 42.3 8.8 9.8 8.7 5.1 10.0 5.0 12.9 A Few Times Each Week........................... 27.2 5.6 7.2 4.7 3.3 6.3 3.2 7.5 About Once a Week................................... 3.9 1.1 1.1 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 1.4 Less Than Once a Week............................ 4.1 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.7 1.4 No Hot Meals Cooked................................ 0.9 0.5 Q Q Q Q 0.2 0.5 Conventional Oven Use an Oven.............................................. 109.6 26.1 28.5 20.2 12.9 21.8 16.3 37.8 More Than Once a Day..........................

293

Total..............................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970 1,310 1,941 1,475 821 1,059 944 554 Census Region and Division Northeast.................................... 20.6 13.9 3,224 2,173 836 2,219 1,619 583 903 830 Q New England.......................... 5.5 3.6 3,365 2,154 313 2,634 1,826 Q 951 940 Q Middle Atlantic........................ 15.1 10.3 3,167 2,181 1,049 2,188 1,603 582 Q Q Q Midwest...................................... 25.6 21.0 2,823 2,239 1,624 2,356 1,669 1,336 1,081 961 778 East North Central.................. 17.7 14.5 2,864 2,217 1,490 2,514 1,715 1,408 907 839 553 West North Central................. 7.9 6.4 2,729 2,289 1,924 1,806 1,510 1,085 1,299 1,113 1,059 South.......................................... 40.7 33.0 2,707 1,849 1,563 1,605 1,350 954 1,064 970 685 South Atlantic......................... 21.7 16.8 2,945 1,996 1,695 1,573 1,359 909 1,044 955

294

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 14.7 4.6 10.1 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.4 4.0 7.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 11.1 3.8 7.3 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.3 Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 0.6 0.3 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 For Two Housing Units.................................

295

Cool Farm Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Farm Tool Cool Farm Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Farm Tool Agency/Company /Organization: Unilever Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.unilever.com/aboutus/supplier/sustainablesourcing/tools/?WT.LHNAV= Cost: Free Language: English Cool Farm Tool Screenshot References: Cool Farm Tool [1] Overview "The Cool Farm Tool is a new greenhouse gas calculator for farming. It's easy to use and gives instant results that invite users to try out alternatives and ask 'what if' questions. The tool was commissioned by Unilever from the University of Aberdeen The tool is ideal for farmers, supply chain managers and companies interested in quantifying their

296

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

297

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs_090804  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for: for: Quarterly Facilities and Infrastructure Meeting Presented by: The Office of Engineering and Construction Management Content Excerpted From Presentation of: Bob Schmidt - NNSA Kansas City Plant Cool Roofs - An Overview August 4, 2009 2 *The terms "white roof" and "cool roof" are often mistakenly used interchangeably. A white roof is not necessarily a cool roof and a cool roof is not necessarily white. *"Cool Roofs" come in many style as defined by industry standard and can include: Metal Single ply Modified bitumen Acrylic coated White Roof vs. Cool Roof 3 Solar reflectance alone can significantly influence surface temperature, with the white stripe on the brick wall about 5 to 10° F (3-5° C) cooler than the surrounding, darker

298

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

299

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

300

Cooling and Clusters: When Is Heating Needed?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are (at least) two unsolved problems concerning the current state of the thermal gas in clusters of galaxies. The first is identifying the source of the heating which offsets cooling in the centers of clusters with short cooling times (the ``cooling flow'' problem). The second is understanding the mechanism which boosts the entropy in cluster and group gas. Since both of these problems involve an unknown source of heating it is tempting to identify them with the same process, particular since AGN heating is observed to be operating at some level in a sample of well-observed ``cooling flow'' clusters. Here we show, using numerical simulations of cluster formation, that much of the gas ending up in clusters cools at high redshift and so the heating is also needed at high-redshift, well before the cluster forms. This indicates that the same process operating to solve the cooling flow problem may not also resolve the cluster entropy problem.

Greg L. Bryan; G. Mark Voit

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Hot gas path component cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

302

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

303

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Roofs: An Introduction Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

304

Idle Operating Total Stream Day  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Idle Operating Total Stream Day Barrels per Idle Operating Total Calendar Day Barrels per Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Idle Operating Total Operable Refineries Number of State and PAD District a b b 11 10 1 1,293,200 1,265,200 28,000 1,361,700 1,329,700 32,000 ............................................................................................................................................... PAD District I 1 1 0 182,200 182,200 0 190,200 190,200 0 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Delaware......................................

305

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

Gottschalk, M.A.

1994-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

307

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

C. Y. Yoshikawa, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov, D.V. Neuffer, K. Yonehara

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

Neuffer, D.V.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Derbenev, Y.S.; Morozov, V.S.; /Jefferson Lab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Bee Cool Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Ferrisburg, Vermont Zip: Vt 05473 Sector: Solar Product: Producer of polysilicon solar panels and solar trackers, and solar battery chargers. References: Bee Cool Inc1...

310

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

311

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

312

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:Load Design Tool for Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. ”for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Depolarisation cooling of an atomic cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a cooling scheme based on depolarisation of a polarised cloud of trapped atoms. Similar to adiabatic demagnetisation, we suggest to use the coupling between the internal spin reservoir of the cloud and the external kinetic reservoir via dipolar relaxation to reduce the temperature of the cloud. By optical pumping one can cool the spin reservoir and force the cooling process. In case of a trapped gas of dipolar chromium atoms, we show that this cooling technique can be performed continuously and used to approach the critical phase space density for BEC

S. Hensler; A. Greiner; J. Stuhler; T. Pfau

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

314

Cavity cooling of an optically trapped nanoparticle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the cooling of a dielectric nanoscale particle trapped in an optical cavity. We derive the frictional force for motion in the cavity field and show that the cooling rate is proportional to the square of oscillation amplitude and frequency. Both the radial and axial components of the center-of-mass motion of the trapped particle, which are coupled by the cavity field, are cooled. This motion is analogous to two coupled but damped pendulums. Our simulations show that the nanosphere can be cooled to e-1 of its initial momentum over time scales of hundredths of milliseconds.

P. F. Barker and M. N. Shneider

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

315

Laser cooling by collisional redistribution of radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in aqueous solutions. Nature 406, 611–614 (2000) Adams, C. S. &Riis, E. Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. Prog. Quantum Electron. 21, ...

Ulrich Vogl; Martin Weitz

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

316

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

J. R. Peterson; A. C. Fabian

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

317

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

318

Cooled turbine vane with endcaps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine vane assembly which includes an outer endcap having a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough, an inner endcap having a plurality of passages and passage segments therethrough, and a vane assembly having an outer shroud, an airfoil body, and an inner shroud. The outer shroud, airfoil body and inner shroud each have a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough as well. The outer endcap is coupled to the outer shroud so that outer endcap passages and said outer shroud passages form a fluid circuit. The inner endcap is coupled to the inner shroud so that the inner end cap passages and the inner shroud passages from a fluid circuit. Passages in the vane casting are in fluid communication with both the outer shroud passages and the inner shroud passages. Passages in the outer endcap may be coupled to a cooling system that supplies a coolant and takes away the heated exhaust.

Cunha, Frank J. (Avon, CT); Schiavo, Jr., Anthony L. (Ovideo, FL); Nordlund, Raymond Scott (Orlando, FL); Malow, Thomas (Oviedo, FL); McKinley, Barry L. (Chuluota, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Integrating district cooling with cogeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

Spurr, M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Cool CAVEs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CAVEs CAVEs Cool CAVEs January 5, 2011 - 6:18pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? The Idaho National Laboratory's "CAVE" -- 3-D Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment -- allows scientists to literally walk into their data and look at it from multiple perspectives. Projectors, mounted behind the walls and on the ceiling, are manipulated by researchers using 3-D goggles and a handheld controller -- and allow them to study everything from terrain to applied nuclear research, to active sites of proteins. To escape the holiday chaos, many folks found refuge in caves - dark places with sticky floors, lumpy seating and Jeff Bridges playing scenes against a computer-enhanced younger version of himself . . . at least if

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCED COOLED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11-14, 1981 GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDim mumii P mm GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDD. Henning, "Cryogenic Electrical Leads," Proceedings of the

Smits, R.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

323

HEATING AND COOLING PROTOSTELLAR DISKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

Hirose, S. [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Turner, N. J., E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

324

Heat Transfer from Rotating Blade Platforms with and without Film Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transfer from Rotating Blade Transfer from Rotating Blade Platforms with and without Film Cooling J.C. Han and M.T. Schobeiri SCIES Project 03-01-SR113 DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Texas A&M University Tom J. George, Program Manager, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES Project Awarded 07/01/2003 (36 Month Duration) $461,024 Total Contract Value ($361,024 DOE) Turbine Heat Transfer Laboratory Texas A&M University SR 113 - 10-2005 - JCHan Gas Turbine Needs Need Detailed Heat Transfer Data on Rotating Blade Platforms Improve Current Rotor Blade Cooling Schemes Provide Options for New Rotor Blade Cooling Designs Need Accurate and Efficient CFD Codes to Improve Flow and Heat Transfer Predictions and Guide Rotor Blade Cooling Designs Improved Turbine Power Efficiency by Increasing Turbine

325

Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2003 Major Subject: Physics LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

326

total energy | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

total energy total energy Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 1, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses quadrillion BTUs, and quantifies the energy prices using U.S. dollars. The data is broken down into total production, imports, exports, consumption, and prices for energy types. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO consumption EIA export import production reference case total energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary - Reference Case (xls, 112.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed

327

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. research has traditionally been the study of the intrinsic prop erties of isolated atoms. In the early part

Johannesson, Henrik

329

Small LBE-Cooled Fast Reactor for Expanding Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A long-life safe simple small portable proliferation-resistant reactor is expected to solve many problems associating future energy and globally environmental problems. From discussions on mainly neutronics and safety points it has been shown that the heavy liquid metal cooled fast reactor is the best candidate to satisfy the above requirements. A lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactor LSPR (LBE-Cooled Long-Life Safe Simple Small Portable Proliferation-Resistant Reactor) has been designed and continues to be improved. In the present paper a recent version of LSPR is presented. The total power of the present design is 150 MWt (53 MWe). During whole reactor life of 12 years the excess reactivity required for burnup is very low, and negative coolant dilatation coefficient is confirmed. This characteristic together with some other characteristics makes unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident inherently safe. It can survive even simultaneous rod run-out transient over power (UTOP), ULOF and unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) accident without the help of an operator or active device. (authors)

Hiroshi Sekimoto [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shinichi Makino [Nissan Motor Company Ltd. (Japan); Kunihiko Nakamura; Yoshio Kamishima [Advanced Reactor Technology Company Ltd. (Japan); Takashi Kawakita [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol J. Brown C. F. H. Tipper The kinetics...products of the cool flame combustion of ethanol between about 280 and 330 C have been...much less for a 1 : 2 than for a 1 : 1 ethanol/oxygen mixture at constant T and varied...

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

PROJECT REPORT WESTERN COOLING CHALLENGE LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that reduce energy, water consumption and peak electricity demand associated with cooling in the Western-cool- er to reduce the refrigerant condensing temperature of a vapor compression system, then cycles Davis Energy Efficiency Center in 2007 through a grant from the California Clean Energy Fund

California at Davis, University of

332

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

333

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

2 2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14% 14% District Heat 10% 8% 8% District Chilled Water 4% 4% 4% Other 11% 6% 5% Swamp Coolers 4% 3% 2% Other 2% 2% 2% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Heating and cooling equipment percentages of floorspace total more than 100% since equipment shares floorspace. 2) Malls are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs.

334

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

335

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

336

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

337

One Cool Roof | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

One Cool Roof One Cool Roof One Cool Roof November 9, 2010 - 10:28am Addthis Deputy Director Salmon Deputy Director, Resource Management The Office of Science occupies many buildings around the country, but it owns only two of them. One of them is making some news. The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight. The previous roof was black, but worse, it was leaky and those leaks, controlled for years in some very innovative ways by the OSTI staff, were going to cause significant problems if not addressed. OSTI needed to invest

338

Solar space cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Jump to: navigation, search Solarcooling.jpg Contents 1 Introduction 2 Solar Absorption Technology 3 Solar Desiccant Technology 4 Passive Solar Cooling 5 References Introduction There are many benefits to Solar Cooling systems. For one the sun is a clean energy resource that we should be using more often. It also produces no emissions and is replenished naturally, it reduces greenhouse gases, it saves the release of 1.6 lbs. of carbon dioxide (CO2) for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) produced, it saves the use of one-half gallon of water for each kWh of solar energy produced, it saves the release of other emissions that result from the burning of fossil fuels such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide or mercury and it provides customers with options to reduce their electric bills. But up to this point Solar Cooling systems are

339

Sisyphus Cooling of Electrically Trapped Polyatomic Molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rich internal structure and long-range dipole-dipole interactions establish polar molecules as unique instruments for quantum-controlled applications and fundamental investigations. Their potential fully unfolds at ultracold temperatures, where a plethora of effects is predicted in many-body physics, quantum information science, ultracold chemistry, and physics beyond the standard model. These objectives have inspired the development of a wide range of methods to produce cold molecular ensembles. However, cooling polyatomic molecules to ultracold temperatures has until now seemed intractable. Here we report on the experimental realization of opto-electrical cooling, a paradigm-changing cooling and accumulation method for polar molecules. Its key attribute is the removal of a large fraction of a molecule's kinetic energy in each step of the cooling cycle via a Sisyphus effect, allowing cooling with only few dissipative decay processes. We demonstrate its potential by reducing the temperature of about 10^6 ...

Zeppenfeld, M; Glöckner, R; Prehn, A; Mielenz, M; Sommer, C; van Buuren, L D; Motsch, M; Rempe, G

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Total Sky Imager (TSI) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The total sky imager (TSI) provides time series of hemispheric sky images during daylight hours and retrievals of fractional sky cover for periods when the solar elevation is greater than 10 degrees.

Morris, VR

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Decay-phase Cooling and Inferred Heating of M- and X-class Solar Flares  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the cooling of 72 M- and X-class flares is examined using GOES/XRS and SDO/EVE. The observed cooling rates are quantified and the observed total cooling times are compared with the predictions of an analytical zero-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We find that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well-defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay-phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ~50% of the total thermally radiated energy, as calculated with GOES. This decay-phase heating is found to scale with the observed peak thermal energy. It is predicted that approximating the total thermal energy from the peak is minimally affected by the decay-phase heating in small flares. However, in the most energetic flares the decay-phase heating inferred from the model can be several times greater than the peak thermal energy.

Daniel F. Ryan; Phillip C. Chamberlin; Ryan O. Milligan; Peter T. Gallagher

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PGE. 2007. Pacific Gas & Electric cool-roof rebate program.at http://www.pge.com/res/rebates/cool_roof/ . ROH. 2001.California Edison cool-roof rebate program. Online at

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Application of Cooling Concepts to European Office Buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plant Model and Cooling Concepts.... Five different cooling concepts are applied in order to cool the office building (Fig. 7.3). All of them allow for free ventilation by opening windows. Four con...

Doreen E. Kalz; Jens Pfafferott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCMAG-SIO The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems With76SF0009S. The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems WithAbstract- The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical

Green, Michael A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

Baker, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D electrothermal model, the cooling power densities of themax , and increasing the cooling power densities 2–24 times.the advantages of high cooling power densities and is less

Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Hanford. 1997. “Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings ofJ. Hanford. 1997. "Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of1997) monitored peak-power and cooling-energy savings from

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9~K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise \\emph{CPT} test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

ALPHA Collaboration; G. B. Andresen; M. D. Ashkezari; M. Baquero-Ruiz; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; T. Friesen; M. C. Fujiwara; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; A. Humphries; R. Hydomako; S. Jonsell; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; S. Menary; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; D. M. Silveira; C. So; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; D. Wilding; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

351

Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

352

Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling Tower Management to someone by E-mail Cooling Tower Management to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance

353

Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

354

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

355

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Commercial Building Thermal Energy _Storage in ASEANGas Electric Company, "Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling,"LBL--25393 DE91 ,THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR COOLING OF

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance...

357

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the ice storage system, during direct cooling, thethe building cooling load. In dynamic systems, ice is formedcooling/demand-limited storage / electric load management / full storage / ice

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

359

Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2008 Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 More Documents & Publications...

360

Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and implement cool roof technologies. coolroofguide.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Roofs - Federal Technology Alert Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs090804 Accelerated...

362

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit...

363

MUCOOL: Ionization Cooling R&D  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory Laboratory MUCOOL Muon Ionization Cooling R&D Welcome to the muon ionization cooling experimental R&D page. The MuCool collaboration has been formed to pursue the development of a muon ionization cooling channel for a high luminosity muon collider. For more information please contact Alan Bross (Spokesperson: bross@fnal.gov), Rick Fernow (BNL Contact person: fernow1@bnl.gov), or Mike Zisman (LBNL Contact person: mszisman@lbl.gov). General MUCOOL Telephone Book MUCOOL Notes MUCOOL Collaborating Institutes and Interests Useful Links Link to IIT MUCOOL page Meetings Muon Collaboration Friday Meetings Fermilab Muon Group Monday Meetings MTA RF Workshop (August 22, 2007 - Fermilab) Low Emittance Muon Collider Workshop (February 12-16, 2007, Fermilab) Low Emittance Muon Collider Workshop (February 6-10, 2006, Fermilab)

364

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Hydraulic Cooling Tower Driver- The Innovation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the weaknesses of present day cooling tower drives are fan wrecks caused by shaft couplings breaking, gear box malfunctions due to inadequate lubrication, gear tooth wear, and inaccessibility for inspection and routine maintenance. The hydro...

Dickerson, J. A.

366

On thermal performance of seawater cooling towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seawater cooling towers have been used since the 1970s in power generation and other industries, so as to reduce the consumption of freshwater. The salts in seawater are known to create a number of operational problems, ...

Sharqawy, Mostafa H.

367

Alternate Cooling Methods for Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling in industrial facilities has traditionally been performed by mechanical vapor compression units. While it remains the standard, recent concerns with the rising cost of electricity and environmental legislation restricting or outlawing CFC...

Brown, M.; Moore, D.

368

An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Bhattacharyya, et al. 1995; Rowe 1995; Goodfellow 1994). First, the results for a positive J when heat is absorbed at the interface, i. e. , when the interface cools (initially), is reported. An examination of various product catalogs (for example, Melcor...

Honea, Mark Stephen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Advanced Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts...

Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Analysis of oscillating flow cooled SMA actuator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

literature, most of the cooling mechanisms involve unidirectional forced convection. This may not be the most effective method. Oscillating flow in a channel can sometimes enhance heat transfer over a unidirectional flow. One possible explanation...

Pachalla Seshadri, Rajagopal

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Polymer-based electrocaloric cooling devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cooling devices (i.e., refrigerators or heat pumps) based on polymers which exhibit a temperature change upon application or removal of an electrical field or voltage, (e.g., fluoropolymers or crosslinked fluoropolymers that exhibit electrocaloric effect).

Zhang, Qiming; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Li, Xinyu; Gorny, Lee; Cheng, Jiping; Neese, Bret P; Chu, Baojin

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Loving care is paid to the compressors, condensers, and computer programs of refrigeration systems. When problems arise, operator: run around in circles with expensive "fixes", but historically ignore the poor orphan, the cooling tower perched...

Burger, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

374

Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings and provide information about specific technology and implementation options.

375

Active Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Exemption  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Active solar heating and cooling systems may not be assessed at more than the value of a conventional system for property tax purposes. This law applies only to active solar systems and does not...

376

Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

McAllister, J.E. Jr.

1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

377

Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COOLING TOWERS, THE NEGLECTED ENERGY RESOURCE ROBERT BURGER President, Burger Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas (USA) Loving care is paid to the compress ors, condensers, and computer programs of refrigeration and air conditioning systems... is too hot, high temperature cut-outs occur and more energy must be provided to the motors to maintain the refrigeration cycle. COOLING TOWERS: 1) are just as important a link in the chain as the other equipment, 2) are an important source...

Burger, R.

378

Experimental Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithmic cooling (AC) is a method to purify quantum systems, such as ensembles of nuclear spins, or cold atoms in an optical lattice. When applied to spins, AC produces ensembles of highly polarized spins, which enhance the signal strength in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). According to this cooling approach, spin-half nuclei in a constant magnetic field are considered as bits, or more precisely, quantum bits, in a known probability distribution. Algorithmic steps on these bits are then translated into specially designed NMR pulse sequences using common NMR quantum computation tools. The $algorithmic$ cooling of spins is achieved by alternately combining reversible, entropy-preserving manipulations (borrowed from data compression algorithms) with $selective$ $reset$, the transfer of entropy from selected spins to the environment. In theory, applying algorithmic cooling to sufficiently large spin systems may produce polarizations far beyond the limits due to conservation of Shannon entropy. Here, only selective reset steps are performed, hence we prefer to call this process "heat-bath" cooling, rather than algorithmic cooling. We experimentally implement here two consecutive steps of selective reset that transfer entropy from two selected spins to the environment. We performed such cooling experiments with commercially-available labeled molecules, on standard liquid-state NMR spectrometers. Our experiments yielded polarizations that $bypass$ $Shannon's$ $entropy$-$conservation$ $bound$, so that the entire spin-system was cooled. This paper was initially submitted in 2005, first to Science and then to PNAS, and includes additional results from subsequent years (e.g. for resubmission in 2007). The Postscriptum includes more details.

Gilles Brassard; Yuval Elias; José M. Fernandez; Haggai Gilboa; Jonathan A. Jones; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein; Li Xiao

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

379

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

380

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Prospects and Limitations of Algorithmic Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat-bath algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins is a theoretically powerful effective cooling approach, that (ideally) cools spins with low polarization exponentially better than cooling by reversible entropy manipulations alone. Here, we investigate the limitations and prospects of AC. For non-ideal and semioptimal AC, we study the impact of finite relaxation times of reset and computation spins on the achievable effective cooling. We derive, via simulations, the attainable cooling levels for given ratios of relaxation times using two semioptimal practicable algorithms. We expect this analysis to be valuable for the planning of future experiments. For ideal and optimal AC, we make use of lower bounds on the number of required reset steps, based on entropy considerations, to present important consequences of using AC as a tool for improving signal-to-noise ratio in liquid-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We discuss the potential use of AC for noninvasive clinical diagnosis and drug monitoring, where it may have significantly lower specific absorption rate (SAR) with respect to currently used methods.

Gilles Brassard; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

382

Cool Roofs Are Ready to Save Energy, Cool Urban Heat Islands, and Help Slow Global Warming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

roofing is the fastest growing sector roofing is the fastest growing sector of the building industry, as building owners and facility managers realize the immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun. Studies exploring the energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of cool roofs show that in warm or hot climates, substituting a cool roof for a conventional roof can: * Reduce by up to 15% the annual air-

383

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model estimated the electrical energy required to generatethat estimated the electrical energy required to produceor not including the electrical energy required for cooling

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Performance Period Total Fee Paid  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Period Period Total Fee Paid 4/29/2012 - 9/30/2012 $418,348 10/1/2012 - 9/30/2013 $0 10/1/2013 - 9/30/2014 $0 10/1/2014 - 9/30/2015 $0 10/1/2015 - 9/30/2016 $0 Cumulative Fee Paid $418,348 Contract Type: Cost Plus Award Fee Contract Period: $116,769,139 November 2011 - September 2016 $475,395 $0 Fee Information Total Estimated Contract Cost $1,141,623 $1,140,948 $1,140,948 $5,039,862 $1,140,948 Maximum Fee $5,039,862 Minimum Fee Fee Available Portage, Inc. DE-DT0002936 EM Contractor Fee Site: MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings - MOAB, UT Contract Name: MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Contract September 2013 Contractor: Contract Number:

385

Buildings","Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

L1. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type for Non-Mall Buildings, 1995" L1. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type for Non-Mall Buildings, 1995" ,"Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"Total (Lit or Unlit) in All Buildings","Total (Lit or Unlit) in Buildings With Any Lighting","Lighted Area Only","Area Lit by Each Type of Light" ,,,,"Incan- descent","Standard Fluor-escent","Compact Fluor- escent","High Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings*",54068,51570,45773,6746,34910,1161,3725,779 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000",6272,5718,4824,986,3767,50,22,54 "5,001 to 10,000",7299,6667,5728,1240,4341,61,169,45 "10,001 to 25,000",10829,10350,8544,1495,6442,154,553,"Q"

386

ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cloud water cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments NCEPGFS : National Centers for Environment Prediction Global Forecast System Field Campaign Instruments CSI : Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer

387

Buildings","Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

L2. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Types (Non-Mall Buildings), 1999" L2. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Types (Non-Mall Buildings), 1999" ,"Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"Total (Lit or Unlit) in All Buildings","Total (Lit or Unlit) in Buildings With Any Lighting","Lighted Area Only","Area Lit by Each Type of Light" ,,,,"Incan- descent","Standard Fluor-escent","Compact Fluor- escent","High Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings* ...............",61707,58693,49779,6496,37150,3058,5343,1913 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6750,5836,4878,757,3838,231,109,162 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",7940,7166,5369,1044,4073,288,160,109 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",10534,9773,7783,1312,5712,358,633,232

388

Buildings","Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

L3. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type (Non-Mall Buildings), 2003" L3. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type (Non-Mall Buildings), 2003" ,"Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"Total (Lit or Unlit) in All Buildings","Total (Lit or Unlit) in Buildings With Any Lighting","Lighted Area Only","Area Lit by Each Type of Light" ,,,,"Incan- descent","Standard Fluor-escent","Compact Fluor- escent","High Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,62060,51342,5556,37918,4004,4950,2403 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,6038,4826,678,3932,206,76,124 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,6090,4974,739,3829,192,238,248 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,11229,8618,1197,6525,454,506,289

389

"Table HC1.4 Cooled Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Cooled Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" 4 Cooled Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Cooled Floorspace (square feet)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Fewer than 500","500 to 999","1,000 to 1,499","1,500 to 1,999","2,000 to 2,499","2,500 to 2,999","3,000 or More" "Usage Indicators" "Total",111.1,49.2,15.1,15.6,11.1,7,5.2,8 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,31.3,15.1,15.6,11.1,7,5.2,8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,30.4,14.6,15.4,11.1,6.9,5.2,7.9 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,1,0.5,"Q","Q","Q","Q","Q" "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,17.8,"N","N","N","N","N","N"

390

Convective Cooling and Passive Stack Improvements in Motors (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation discusses current research at NREL in convective cooling and passive stack improvements in motors.

Bennion, K.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

A Possible Hybrid Cooling Channel for a Neutrino Factory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

notably the question of hydrogen embrittlement of structuralare resistant to hydrogen embrittlement, but other cooling

Zisman, Michael S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger was configured to use higher temperature water produced by a cooling tower alone. The other coilLBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger-temperature cooling water, so that it can support many more hours of free cooling compared to traditional systems

393

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling, microrefrigerators, optoelectronics, superlattice,in high power, high-speed optoelectronics devices, and

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Aerothermal Effects of Interfacial Leakage and Film Cooling Schemes with Endwall and Leading Edge Contouring  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerothermal Effects of Interfacial Aerothermal Effects of Interfacial Leakage and Film Cooling Schemes with Endwall and Leading Edge Contouring T.W. Simon and R. J. Goldstein Principal Investigators SCIES Project U/02-01-SR096/DOE PR DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Tom J. George, Program Manger, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES Project Awarded (5/1/2002, 36 months) $459,007 Total Contract Value ($430,619 DOE) Gas Turbine Technology Needs and Project Objectives * Improved performance and reliability - More effective cooling of turbine first stage passage * Improve schemes for injection of endwall coolant * Realize cooling benefits of leakage flows * Understand effects of component misalignment - Reduced secondary flows * Improve with endwall axial contouring and airfoil/endwall fillets

395

Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

398

Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management October 8, 2013 - 9:39am Addthis Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower primarily through evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers consume significant amounts of water. Overview The thermal efficiency and longevity of the cooling tower and equipment used to cool depend on the proper management of water recirculated through the tower. Water leaves a cooling tower system in any one of four ways: Evaporation: This is the primary function of the tower and is the method that transfers heat from the cooling tower system to the

399

Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cooling system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cooling system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a head-side water jacket and a block-side water jacket made independent of each other; and a radiator and a cooling fan shared between the two water jackets. The improvement comprises: a first cooling water conduit for connecting the outlet of the head-side water jacket and the inlet of the radiator; a mixing valve having two water inlets and one water outlet; a second cooling water conduit for connecting one of the water inlets of the mixing valve and the outlet of the radiator; a third conduit for connecting the water outlet of the block-side water jacket and the remaining one of the water inlets of the mixing valve; a water pump, a fourth conduit branched midway from the second conduit and connected with the water inlet of the head-side water jacket; an auxiliary water pump; a fifth conduit branched midway from the third conduit and connected with the first conduit; one-way valve; and a control unit for controlling the mixing ratio of the mixing valve, the displacement of the auxiliary water pump and the operation of the cooling fan.

Itakura, M.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

402

Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Magnets for Muon 6D Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), an innovative technique for six-dimensional (6D) cooling of muon beams using a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. The implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires high field superconducting magnets that provide superimposed solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole fields. Novel magnet design concepts are required to provide HCC magnet systems with the desired fields for 6D muon beam cooling. New designs feature simple coil configurations that produce these complex fields with the required characteristics, where new high field conductor materials are particularly advantageous. The object of the program was to develop designs and construction methods for HCC magnets and design a magnet system for a 6D muon beam cooling channel. If successful the program would develop the magnet technologies needed to create bright muon beams for many applications ranging from scientific accelerators and storage rings to beams to study material properties and new sources of energy. Examples of these applications include energy frontier muon colliders, Higgs and neutrino factories, stopping muon beams for studies of rare fundamental interactions and muon catalyzed fusion, and muon sources for cargo screening for homeland security.

Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc.; Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc.

2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 492,702 218,736 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 1984-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 353,765 159,323 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 1984-2012 New England (PADD 1A) 94,635 42,570 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 1984-2012 Connecticut 13,006 6,710 8,800 7,437 7,087 2,143 1984-2012 Maine 46,431 19,923 25,158 24,281 17,396 7,394 1984-2012 Massachusetts 7,913 3,510 5,332 6,300 2,866 1,291 1984-2012 New Hampshire 14,454 6,675 8,353 7,435 5,472 1,977 1984-2012

405

Grantee Total Number of Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Grantee Grantee Total Number of Homes Weatherized through November 2011 [Recovery Act] Total Number of Homes Weatherized through November 2011 (Calendar Year 2009 - November 2011) [Recovery Act + Annual Program Funding] Alabama 6,704 7,867 1 Alaska 443 2,363 American Samoa 304 410 Arizona 6,354 7,518 Arkansas 5,231 6,949 California 41,649 50,002 Colorado 12,782 19,210 Connecticut 8,940 10,009 2 Delaware** 54 54 District of Columbia 962 1,399 Florida 18,953 20,075 Georgia 13,449 14,739 Guam 574 589 Hawaii 604 1,083 Idaho** 4,470 6,614 Illinois 35,530 44,493 Indiana** 18,768 21,689 Iowa 8,794 10,202 Kansas 6,339 7,638 Kentucky 7,639 10,902 Louisiana 4,698 6,946 Maine 5,130 6,664 Maryland 8,108 9,015 Massachusetts 17,687 21,645 Michigan 29,293 37,137 Minnesota 18,224 22,711 Mississippi 5,937 6,888 Missouri 17,334 20,319 Montana 3,310 6,860 Navajo Nation

406

Cool Roofs | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Posted: July 18, 2012 - 1:59pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 1 | 2012 Hot, sunny days call for light-colored clothing to reflect the heat. As it turns out, the same principle works for roofs. Consider the results from a Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory study in Austin, Texas, which measured a dark roof to average a whopping 43 degrees hotter than a light roof. The hotter the roof, the hotter the building becomes, and the more air-conditioning is needed - 11 percent, in that particular study. That in turn puts more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Higher atmospheric temperatures also affect atmospheric chemistry, causing higher ozone levels and more smog. Turning down the heat can be both inexpensive and simple, however: replace

407

Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

408

Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Large Diameter Lasing Tube Cooling Arrangement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17,31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17,31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Arnold, Philip A.

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

410

Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Opto-Electrical Cooling of Polar Molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an opto-electrical cooling scheme for polar molecules based on a Sisyphus-type cooling cycle in suitably tailored electric trapping fields. Dissipation is provided by spontaneous vibrational decay in a closed level scheme found in symmetric-top rotors comprising six low-field-seeking rovibrational states. A generic trap design is presented. Suitable molecules are identified with vibrational decay rates on the order of 100Hz. A simulation of the cooling process shows that the molecular temperature can be reduced from 1K to 1mK in approximately 10s. The molecules remain electrically trapped during this time, indicating that the ultracold regime can be reached in an experimentally feasible scheme.

M. Zeppenfeld; M. Motsch; P. W. H. Pinkse; G. Rempe

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

412

Single Pass Electron Cooling Simulations for MEIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling of medium energy protons is critical for the proposed Jefferson Lab Medium Energy Ion Collider (MEIC). We present simulations of electron cooling of protons up to 60 GeV. In the beam frame in which the proton and electrons are co-propagating, their motion is non-relativistic. We use a binary collision model which treats the cooling process as the sum of a large number of two-body collisions which are calculated exactly. This model can treat even very close collisions between an electron and ion with high accuracy. We also calculate dynamical friction using a delta-f PIC model. The code VSim (formerly Vorpal) is used to perform the simulations. We compare the friction rates with that obtained by a 3D integral over electron velocities which is used by BETACOOL.

Bell, G. I. [Tech-X Corp.; Pogorelov, I. V. [Tech-X Corp.; Schwartz, B. T. [Tech-X Corp.; Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB; Zhang, He [JLAB

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate project is to reduce the size and weight of the heat sink for power electronics used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The concept proposed in this project was to develop an innovative power electronics mounting structure, model it, and perform both thermal and mechanical finite-element analysis (FEA). This concept involved integrating cooling channels within the direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate and strategically locating these channels underneath the power electronic devices. This arrangement would then be directly cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG), essentially eliminating the conventional heat sink and associated heat flow path. The concept was evaluated to determine its manufacturability, its compatibility with WEG, and the potential to reduce size and weight while directly cooling the DBC and associated electronics with a coolant temperature of 105 C. This concept does not provide direct cooling to the electronics, only direct cooling inside the DBC substrate itself. These designs will take into account issues such as containment of the fluid (separation from the electronics) and synergy with the whole power inverter design architecture. In FY 2008, mechanical modeling of substrate and inverter core designs as well as thermal and mechanical stress FEA modeling of the substrate designs was performed, along with research into manufacturing capabilities and methods that will support the substrate designs. In FY 2009, a preferred design(s) will be fabricated and laboratory validation testing will be completed. In FY 2010, based on the previous years laboratory testing, the mechanical design will be modified and the next generation will be built and tested in an operating inverter prototype.

Wiles, R.; Ayers, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

414

Cooling of hot electrons in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the cooling rate of hot carriers in amorphous silicon are made with a two-pump, one-probe technique. The experiment is simulated with a rate-equation model describing the energy transfer between a population of hot carriers and the lattice. An energy transfer rate proportional to the temperature difference is found to be consistent with the experimental data while an energy transfer independent of the temperature difference is not. This contrasts with the situation in crystalline silicon. The measured cooling rates are sufficient to explain the difficulty in observing avalanche effects in amorphous silicon.

Vanderhaghen, R.; Hulin, D.; Cuzeau, S.; White, J.O.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

Kenney, Walter J. (Clinton, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

Elpern, David G. (Los Angeles, CA); McCabe, Niall (Torrance, CA); Gee, Mark (South Pasadena, CA)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

417

Two-Beam Instability in Electron Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The drift motion of cooling electrons makes them able to respond to transverse perturbations of a cooled ion beam. This response may lead to dipole or quadrupole transverse instabilities at specific longitudinal wave numbers. While the dipole instabilities can be suppressed by a combination of the Landau damping, machine impedance, and the active damper, the quadrupole and higher order modes can lead to either emittance growth, or a lifetime degradation, or both. The growth rates of these instabilities are strongly determined by the machine x-y coupling. Thus, tuning out of the coupling resonance and/or reduction of the machine coupling can be an efficient remedy for these instabilities.

Burov, Alexey V.; /Fermilab

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Total Number of Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

419

Total quality management implementation guidelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Total Heart Transplant: A Modern Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

use of the total artificial heart. New England Journal ofJ. (1997). Artificial heart transplants. British medicala total artificial heart as a bridge to transplantation. New

Lingampalli, Nithya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Earth Solar Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cool Earth Solar Name Cool Earth Solar Address 4659 Las Positas Rd, Bldg C Place Livermore, California Zip 94551 Sector Solar Product Electricty from High Concentrating PV Year founded 2007 Number of employees 11-50 Phone number 925.454.8506 Website http://www.coolearthsolar.com/ Coordinates 37.6971629°, -121.7339673° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.6971629,"lon":-121.7339673,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

422

Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

423

Thermostatically controlled solar heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a solar heating and cooling system for simultaneously heating or cooling an ambient air system within a building, heating a hot water supply for domestic use within the building and heating or cooling a swimming pool adjacent the building comprising a building. This comprises a swimming pool as a primary water source, a solar connector connected to the swimming pool, a heat pump for controlling ambient air temperature within the building, an energy conservation unit connected to the heat pump and to the hot water supply for utilizing hot gases from the heat pump to heat water in the hot water supply and an air heat exchanger connected to the air system and to the heat pump for selectively heating or cooling air in the building. Also a water heat exchanger is connected to a water source for selectively transferring heat between the heat pump and the water source, a well as a secondary water source connected to the water heat exchanger.

Yovanofski, T.

1986-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

424

Leafy Green Preparation and Cooling Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leafy Green Preparation and Cooling Study Dominique N. Bibbins #12;Background : Leafy Greens z In the past, leafy greens have been the source of food borne-illnesses and outbreaks. z It is important Lasting knowledge of survey practices, procedures, and protocol. #12;Acknowledgements z Laura Green, Ph

425

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy Piles in Cooling Dominated Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this be true in hot, cooling dominated climates? To achieve the ultimate goal and answer the above question, this study considered the different elements of a full SGES, namely: soil, climate, energy pile, and ground source heat pump. First, The need for a new...

Akrouch, Ghassan

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

427

District Cooling Using Central Tower Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During the operation of solar power towers there are occasions, commonly in the summer season, where some of the heliostats have to stop focusing at the central receiver, located at the top of the tower, because the maximum temperature that the receiver can withstand has been reached. The highest demands of cooling for air conditioning take place at these same occasions. In the present paper, we have analyzed the possibility of focusing the exceeding heliostats to the receiver increasing the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid over the nominal value and using the extra heat as a source of an absorption chiller. The chilled water would be used to cool buildings and offices, using a district cooling network. Using the extra heat of the solar power tower plant would greatly reduce the electricity usage. In this work we have analyzed the case of a circular field of heliostats focusing at a circular receiver, such as the case of Gemasolar plant. We have quantified the thermal power that can be obtained from the unused heliostats, the cooling capacity of the absorption system as well as the heat losses through the insulated pipes that distribute the chilled water to the buildings of the network.

C. Marugán-Cruz; S. Sánchez-Delgado; M.R. Rodríguez-Sánchez; M. Venegas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

Le, Khiet (Mission Viejo, CA); Ward, Terence G. (Redondo Beach, CA); Mann, Brooks S. (Redondo Beach, CA); Yankoski, Edward P. (Corona, CA); Smith, Gregory S. (Woodland Hills, CA)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Cool Roof Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roof Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/facts/CoolCalcEnergy.htm Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

430

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California, Center for Ocean Health, Long Marine Lab GREGOR CAILLIET, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories DAVID MAYER be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like

431

Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

432

Turbine component cooling channel mesh with intersection chambers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mesh (35) of cooling channels (35A, 35B) with an array of cooling channel intersections (42) in a wall (21, 22) of a turbine component. A mixing chamber (42A-C) at each intersection is wider (W1, W2)) than a width (W) of each of the cooling channels connected to the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber promotes swirl, and slows the coolant for more efficient and uniform cooling. A series of cooling meshes (M1, M2) may be separated by mixing manifolds (44), which may have film cooling holes (46) and/or coolant refresher holes (48).

Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

433

Total Imports of Residual Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. Total 5,752 5,180 7,707 9,056 6,880 6,008 1936-2013 PAD District 1 1,677 1,689 2,008 3,074 2,135 2,814 1981-2013 Connecticut 1995-2009 Delaware 1995-2012 Florida 359 410 439 392 704 824 1995-2013 Georgia 324 354 434 364 298 391 1995-2013 Maine 65 1995-2013 Maryland 1995-2013 Massachusetts 1995-2012 New Hampshire 1995-2010 New Jersey 903 756 948 1,148 1,008 1,206 1995-2013 New York 21 15 14 771 8 180 1995-2013 North Carolina 1995-2011 Pennsylvania 1995-2013 Rhode Island 1995-2013 South Carolina 150 137 194 209 1995-2013 Vermont 5 4 4 5 4 4 1995-2013 Virginia 32 200 113 1995-2013 PAD District 2 217 183 235 207 247 179 1981-2013 Illinois 1995-2013

434

U.S. Total Exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Galvan Ranch, TX LNG Imports from Algeria LNG Imports from Australia LNG Imports from Brunei LNG Imports from Canada Highgate Springs, VT LNG Imports from Egypt Cameron, LA Elba Island, GA Freeport, TX Gulf LNG, MS LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea LNG Imports from Indonesia LNG Imports from Malaysia LNG Imports from Nigeria Cove Point, MD LNG Imports from Norway Cove Point, MD Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Oman LNG Imports from Peru Cameron, LA Freeport, TX LNG Imports from Qatar Elba Island, GA Golden Pass, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Trinidad/Tobago Cameron, LA Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Everett, MA Freeport, TX Gulf LNG, MS Lake Charles, LA Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from United Arab Emirates LNG Imports from Yemen Everett, MA Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Other Countries Period: Monthly Annual

435

Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thousand Barrels) Thousand Barrels) Data Series: Natural Gas Processed Total Liquids Extracted NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 658,291 673,677 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 1983-2012 Alabama 13,381 11,753 11,667 13,065 1983-2010 Alaska 22,419 20,779 19,542 17,798 18,314 18,339 1983-2012 Arkansas 126 103 125 160 212 336 1983-2012 California 11,388 11,179 11,042 10,400 9,831 9,923 1983-2012 Colorado 27,447 37,804 47,705 57,924 1983-2010 Florida 103 16 1983-2008 Illinois 38 33 24 231 705 0 1983-2012

436

Surface cooling of scramjet engine inlets using heat pipe, transpiration, and film cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports the results of applying a finite-difference-based computational technique to the problem of predicting the transient thermal behavior of a scramjet engine inlet exposed to a typical hypersonic flight aerodynamic surface heating environment, including type IV shock interference heating. The leading-edge cooling model utilized incorporates liquid metal heat pipe cooling with surface transpiration and film cooling. Results include transient structural temperature distributions, aerodynamic heat inputs, and surface coolant distributions. It seems that these cooling techniques may be used to hold maximum skin temperatures to near acceptable values during the severe aerodynamic and type IV shock interference heating effects expected on the leading edge of a hypersonic aerospace vehicle scramjet engine. 15 refs.

Modlin, J.M.; Colwell, G.T. (U.S. Army, Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL (United States) Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies Preservative Spray Treatment Maintains Cooling Tower  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several problems common to most industrial wood framed cooling towers can be easily controlled with annual preservative spray treatment applications to the plenum area framework and drift eliminators. It eliminates the expensive periodic repairs due...

Reidenback, R.

438

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-XXXXX Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water;included a water- side economizer. This model estimated theand without a water-side economizer and including or not

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Impact of Water Use Fees on Dispatching and Water Requirements for Water-Cooled Power Plants in Texas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Impact of Water Use Fees on Dispatching and Water Requirements for Water-Cooled Power Plants in Texas ... Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. ... Water consumption for thermoelectricity in Texas in 2010 totaled ?0.43 million acre feet (maf; 0.53 km3), accounting for ?4% of total state water consumption. ...

Kelly T. Sanders; Michael F. Blackhurst; Carey W. King; Michael E. Webber

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Total Petroleum Systems and Assessment Units (AU)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Surface water Groundwater X X X X X X X X AU 00000003 Oil/ Gas X X X X X X X X Total X X X X X X X Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Total undiscovered petroleum (MMBO or BCFG) Water per oil

Torgersen, Christian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Locating and total dominating sets in trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A set S of vertices in a graph G = ( V , E ) is a total dominating set of G if every vertex of V is adjacent to a vertex in S. We consider total dominating sets of minimum cardinality which have the additional property that distinct vertices of V are totally dominated by distinct subsets of the total dominating set.

Teresa W. Haynes; Michael A. Henning; Jamie Howard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Locating-total domination in graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we continue the study of locating-total domination in graphs. A set S of vertices in a graph G is a total dominating set in G if every vertex of G is adjacent to a vertex in S . We consider total dominating sets S which have the additional property that distinct vertices in V ( G ) ? S are totally dominated by distinct subsets of the total dominating set. Such a set S is called a locating-total dominating set in G , and the locating-total domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a locating-total dominating set in G . We obtain new lower and upper bounds on the locating-total domination number of a graph. Interpolation results are established, and the locating-total domination number in special families of graphs, including cubic graphs and grid graphs, is investigated.

Michael A. Henning; Nader Jafari Rad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air-Cooled Electric Chillers to someone by E-mail Air-Cooled Electric Chillers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements

444

NREL: Advanced Power Electronics - Modeling of Cooling Technologies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modeling of Cooling Technologies Improves Performance Modeling of Cooling Technologies Improves Performance Thermal modeling image of spray cooling of inverter chip surface shows the liquid breaking up into fine droplets that impinge on the liquid wall, which enhances the spacial uniformity of heat removal. Modeling Cooling Technologies-Spray Cooling The NREL advanced power electronics team is modeling cooling technologies that would enhance performance of the inverters and motors in hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles. The team is modeling two-phase spray cooling, jet impingement, and mini- and micro-channel cooling, and has successfully used Fluent software to show a good comparison between numerical models and published experimental data. Currently, the team is conducting modeling to simulate real life conditions such as those that

445

Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding the cool roof as part of the roof replacement project and it will save taxpayers $2,000 every year in building energy costs. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency, reduce cooling costs and offset carbon emissions. The cool roof and increased insulation at the facility were

446

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roofs Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Resource assessment Website: eetd.lbl.gov/r-bldgsee-crhi.html References: [1] Logo: Cool Roofs "On warm summer days, a city can be 6 to 8°F warmer than its surrounding areas. This effect is called the urban heat island. Cool roof materials, pavements, and vegetation can reduce the heat island effect, save energy and reduce smog formation. The goal of this research is to develop cool materials to save energy and money." [1] The Cool Roof Calculator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a useful tool for exploring the benefits of cool materials.

447

Demonstration of Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-6659E Demonstration of Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment Cooling Solutions H. C. Coles-Off energy efficiency evaluation metric. #12;iii ABSTRACT Eleven cooling systems for rack mounted computer

448

Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

Oka, Yoshiaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7-Chome, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Coolerado 5 Ton RTU Performance: Western Cooling Challenge Results (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC) developed a set of criteria for test conditions, minimum energy, and water use performance for prototype cooling equipment and identified these conditions as indicative of western state climates.

Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking...

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

- 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain...

454

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy use characteristics of evaporative cooling towers are of interest because, although such towers are widely used in industry, they do require a substantial amount of energy. Evaporative cooling towers are basically large heat exchangers...

Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Sandia National Laboratories: Cool Earth Solar and Sandia Team...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyRenewable EnergySolarConcentrating Solar PowerCool Earth Solar and Sandia Team Up in First-Ever Public-Private Partnership on Livermore Valley Open Campus Cool Earth...

457

Rapid Cooling Using Ice Slurries for Industrial and Medical Applicatio...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to replace chilled-water cooling systems in building complexes. Because of the high energy content of ice slurry, its cooling capacity is many times greater than that of...

458

Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spray cooling has proven to be efficient in managing thermal load in high power applications. Reliability of electronic products relies on the thermal management and understanding of heat transfer mechanisms including those related to spray cooling...

Lin, Yen-Po

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 The...

460

Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Principles of Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:04pm Addthis To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kryzanek. Understanding how heat is transferred from the outdoors into your home and from your home to your body is important for understanding the challenge of keeping your house cool. Understanding the processes that help keep your body cool is important in understanding cooling strategies for your home. Principles of Heat Transfer Heat is transferred to and from objects -- such as you and your home -- via

462

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Case study details Marshall Space Flight Center's innovative technologies to improve water efficiency and cooling performance for one of its problematic cooling systems. The program saved the facility more than 800,000 gallons of water in eight months.

463

U.S. Total Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

International Falls, MN Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT North Troy, VT LNG Imports into Cameron, LA LNG Imports into Cove Point, MD LNG Imports into Elba Island, GA LNG Imports into Everett, MA LNG Imports into Freeport, TX LNG Imports into Golden Pass, TX LNG Imports into Gulf Gateway, LA LNG Imports into Gulf LNG, MS LNG Imports into Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports into Neptune Deepwater Port LNG Imports into Northeast Gateway LNG Imports into Sabine Pass, LA U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Australia Everett, MA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Brunei Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Canada Highgate Springs, VT LNG Imports from Egypt Cameron, LA Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Everett, MA Freeport, TX Gulf LNG, MS Lake Charles, LA Northeast Gateway Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea Elba Island, GA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Indonesia Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Malaysia Gulf Gateway, LA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Nigeria Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Freeport, TX Gulf Gateway, LA Lake Charles, LA Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Norway Cove Point, MD Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Oman Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Peru Cameron, LA Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Qatar Cameron, LA Elba Island, GA Golden Pass, TX Gulf Gateway, LA Lake Charles, LA Northeast Gateway Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Trinidad/Tobago Cameron, LA Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Everett, MA Freeport, TX Gulf Gateway, LA Gulf LNG, MS Lake Charles, LA Neptune Deepwater Port Northeast Gateway Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from United Arab Emirates Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Yemen Everett, MA Freeport, TX Neptune Deepwater Port Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Other Countries Lake Charles, LA Period: Monthly Annual

464

Dredged-material disposal and total suspended matter offshore from Galveston, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies in such a program focus on water quality in general and the determination of heavy metals and dissolved oxygen in particular. The interdependence of these three types of study is illustrated by the chemist's use of suspended solids...DREDGED-MATERIAL DISPOSAL AND TOTAL SUSPENDED MATTER OFFSHORE FROM GALVESTON, TEXAS A Thesis by Thomas Edward Cool Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

Cool, Thomas Edward

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System assigns one rating point for the use of a cool roof in its Sustainable

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Nanofluid Development for Engine Cooling | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Nanofluid Development for Engine Cooling Systems Nanofluids for Thermal Control Applications Erosion of Radiator Materials by...

467

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the discharge of thermal energy storage without releasingto low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

469

Cooling, Heating, and Power for Industry: A Market Assessment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

sector. chpindustrymarketassessment0803.pdf More Documents & Publications Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment, September 2002 Cooling, Heating,...

470

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in DataFOR A MODULAR, SCALABLE LIQUID-RACK COOLING SYSTEM IN DATA3 M ODULAR LIQUID - RACK COOLING

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

On stochastic cooling of bunched beams from fluctuation and kinetic theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimenta on Stochastic Cooling in ICE, Nucl. Sci. , NS-F. (1980), Initial Cooling Experiments (ICE) at CERN, Proc.experiments on the ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment), a

Chattopadhyay, Swapan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute whole-body cooling Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effective than cooling... , whole-body cooling induction will miss the 3-h therapeu- tic window in the majority of stroke patients... . Selective brain cooling (SBC) may be...

473

RHIC Superconducting Accelerator and Electron Cooling Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Organization Chart (PDF) Organization Chart (PDF) Accelerator R&D Division eRHIC R&D Energy Recovery Linac Photocathode R&D Superconducting RF Electron Cooling LARP Center for Accelerator Science and Education C-AD Accelerator R&D Division Superconducting RF Group Group Headed By: Sergey Belomestnykh This web site presents information on the Superconducting Accelerator and RHIC Electron Cooling Group, which is in the Accelerator R&D Division of the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Work is supported mainly by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the US Department of Energy. Upcoming Events: TBD Most recent events: 56 MHz 2nd External Review, March 8-9, 2011 External Review of the Energy Recovery Linac, February 17-18, 2010. Report of the Review Committee

474

Cool, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool, Texas: Energy Resources Cool, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.8001288°, -98.001153° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.8001288,"lon":-98.001153,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

475

Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Side Stream Filtration Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By Pacific Northwest National Laboratory X. Duan, J.L. Williamson, K.L McMordie Stoughton and B.K. Boyd October 2012 FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM i Contact Will Lintner, PE Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave. SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 Phone: (202) 586-3120 E-mail: william.lintner@ee.doe.gov Cover photo: Cooling Towers. Photo from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ii Acknowledgements The authors of the report would like to thank the following individuals that provided support to

476

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic $?$ systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device optically coupled to an ultracold quantum gas. We show that the dispersive properties of the ultracold gas can be used to dramatically modify the optomechanical response of the mechanical resonator. We examine hybrid schemes wherein the mechanical resonator is coupled either to the motional or the spin degrees of freedom of the ultracold gas. In either case, we find an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude in optomechanical cooling due to this hybrid interaction. Significantly, based on demonstrated parameters for the cavity optomechanical device, we identify regimes that enable the ground state cooling of the resonator from room temperature. In addition, the hybrid system considered here represents a powerful interface for the use of an ultracold quantum gas for state preparation, sensing and quantum manipulation of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator.

F. Bariani; S. Singh; L. F. Buchmann; M. Vengalattore; P. Meystre

2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

478

Cooling and squeezing via quadratic optomechanical coupling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the physics of optomechanical systems in which an optical cavity mode is coupled parametrically to the square of the position of a mechanical oscillator. We derive an effective master equation describing two-phonon cooling of the mechanical oscillator. We show that for high temperatures and weak coupling, the steady-state phonon number distribution is non-thermal (Gaussian) and that even for strong cooling the mean phonon number remains finite. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve mechanical squeezing by driving the cavity with two beams. Finally, we calculate the optical output and squeezing spectra. Implications for optomechanics experiments with the membrane-in-the-middle geometry or ultracold atoms in optical resonators are discussed.

A. Nunnenkamp; K. Borkje; J. G. E. Harris; S. M. Girvin

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

479

Conservation laws and laser cooling of atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The straightforward application of energy and linear momentum conservation to the absorption/emission of photons by atoms--first outlined by Schr\\"odinger in 1922--allows to establish the essential features of laser cooling of two levels atoms at low laser intensities. The minimum attainable average kinetic energy of the atoms depends on the ratio $\\Gamma/E_R$ between the natural linewidth and the recoil energy and tends to $E_R$ as $\\Gamma/E_R$ tends to zero. This treatment is valid for any value of the ratio $\\Gamma/E_R$ and contains the semiclassical theory of laser cooling as the limiting case in which $E_R\\ll \\Gamma$.

Giuliani, Giuseppe

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Cooling system for three hook ring segment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total population-weighted cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

482

Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence of a small deviation in the value of the amplified signal on the temperature of the fiber with the fixed distribution of the Tm3+ions in the fiber cladding is investigated.

Nemova, Galina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condensation in winter, reduced life and reliability of ventilation equipment, and high repair bills cooling and heating systems. VENTILATION SYSTEMS The operating efficiency of a ventilation fan can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling from evaporative cooling pads, high heating expenses, heavy

Watson, Craig A.

484

Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, followed by a coastal sea surface temperature cooling of 2.5 °C, a stepwise expansion of sea ice as a 4 °C cooling in deep ocean temperature (3) with 80 m of sea level equivalent ice volumeAntarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling Robert McKaya,1 , Tim

485

THERMOFLUID OPTIMIZATION OF A HEATED HELICOPTER ENGINE COOLING BAY SURFACE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effectiveness of an aircraft de-icing strategy by re-designing the cooling bay surface shape. The design of a helicopter cooling bay can be ice prone under certain atmospheric conditions. Its effective shape design1 THERMOFLUID OPTIMIZATION OF A HEATED HELICOPTER ENGINE COOLING BAY SURFACE D. Wang 1 , G. F

Wang, Gaofeng Gary

486

Dennis, Eberhart, Dulikravich & Radons FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The simulations performed in this study consider ice packs applied to head and neck as well as using a head-cooling1 Dennis, Eberhart, Dulikravich & Radons FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF COOLING OF REALISTIC 3-D Rapid cooling of the brain in the first minutes following the onset of cerebral ischemia

Dennis, Brian

487

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths Reaches essentially the same temperature as dry ice/acetone (-77°C vs. -78°C), but the lower volatility of isopropanol minimizes vapor a closed-loop cooling system for condensers Closed-loop cooling systems eliminate wastewater and accidental

Chan, Hue Sun

488

Stresses generated in cooling viscoelastic ice shells: Application to Europa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stresses generated in cooling viscoelastic ice shells: Application to Europa F. Nimmo Department to cooling and the expansion of the shell due to the ice-water volume change. The former effect generates Citation: Nimmo, F. (2004), Stresses generated in cooling viscoelastic ice shells: Application to Europa, J

Nimmo, Francis

489

Enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity using feedback and a time-dependent pump source. The two approaches operate on the same principle by increasing the modulation of the optical potential induced by atomic motion in the cavity. We show that cooling time can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude over conventional cavity cooling.

Lu, W.; Barker, P.F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

490

Chapter 7 - Test Cell Cooling Water and Exhaust Gas Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Part 1 considers the thermodynamics of water cooling systems, water quality, typical cooling water circuits, and engine coolant control units. Also covered are the commissioning cooling circuits, thermal shock, and chilled water systems. Part 2 covers the design of test cell exhaust systems, exhaust silencers, exhaust gas volume flow, exhaust silencers, and exhaust cowls. Part 3 briefly covers the testing of turbochargers.

A.J. Martyr; M.A. Plint

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

focus on reducing this effects. Only very recently, active cooling strategies have been developed alsoNumerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques Wolfgang Dahmen Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen Abstract The interaction of a jet of cooling gas

492

MODELING THE MUON COOLING CHANNEL USING MOMENTS B. A. Shadwick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reach the luminosity goals demanded by high- energy physics applications [3]. Furthermore, this cooling Using a moment formalism [1, 2] we model beam trans- port in the muon collider cooling channel. This model con- tains much of the physics we believe to be relevant to muon cooling such as ionization energy

Wurtele, Jonathan

493

Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions with resonant laser radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a novel model to describe dynamic properties of ions that are cooled by collisions with other laser-cooled ions in a quadrupole rf trap. The limit temperature of the sympathetic Cooling is estimated as functions of the trap and laser parameters, and the mass of the ions.

Shimizu, T.; Oshima, Y.; Moriwaki, Y.; Tachikawa, M. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

Method for cooling nanostructures to microkelvin temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a new scheme aimed at cooling nanostructures to microkelvin temperature based on the well established technique of adiabatic nuclear demagnetization: we attach each device measurement lead to an individual nuclear refrigerator, allowing efficient thermal contact to a microkelvin bath. On a prototype consisting of a parallel network of nuclear refrigerators, temperatures of {approx}1 mK simultaneously on ten measurement leads have been reached upon demagnetization, thus completing the first steps toward ultracold nanostructures.

Clark, A. C.; Schwarzwaelder, K. K.; Bandi, T.; Maradan, D.; Zumbuehl, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel CH-4056 (Switzerland)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

Cooling of the Wairakei Reservoir During Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After nearly 30 years of power generation, parts of the present production area at Wairakei are near the end of their economic life due to local cooling. To the west of the present production area there remains a large volume of high temperature resource whose deep liquid temperatures have not changed from those measured during the 1960's. Power generation can be maintained for many more years by producing from this high temperature resource.

Bixley, Paul F.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

496

Cooling and transport of equine semen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF AGRICULTURE August 1991 Animal Science Equine Reproduction COOLING AND TRANSPORT OF EQUINE SEMEN A Professional Paper by KAREN LYN VIEIRA Approved as to style and content by: Chair, Advisory Committee Committee Member Committee Member August 1991... dry skim milk with glucose extenders available commercially. The differences in these commercial extenders is the antibiotic added. "Kenney" is available as a powder that is added to sterile water and contains no antibiotics. E-Z Mixin is the same...

Vieira, Karen Lyn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

497

Solar absorption cooling in South China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a major energy research project carried out in China and Hong Kong over the last ten years. It covers medium temperature solar collectors, cooling and hot water supply systems and describes the design and manufacture of a novel two-stage absorption Li-Br chiller. One of the primary objectives of this project was to encourage technology transfer to China of the manufacturing processes relating to medium temperature solar collectors.

Ward, H.S.; Chu, C.Y. [Lingnan College/Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang, Z.C.; Xia, W. [Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion (China)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

Costin, Daniel P. (Chelsea, VT)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

499

Water cooling of HVDC thyristor valves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is generally accepted that water is a very effective medium to remove heat losses from any type of equipment. When used for HVDC thyristor valves, the fundamentals of electrolyte conduction and water chemistry need to be considered in the design of the cooling circuit. The characteristics of the materials used, in conjunction with high voltage stresses and circuit configuration, play an important role to assure longevity and corrosion-free performance.

Lips, H.P. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z