Sample records for total liquid fuels

  1. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShaleInput Product: TotalCountry:

  2. Liquid Fuels Market Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    fuels provisions of the CAAA90. Environmental costs associated with controlling pollution at refineries are implicitly assumed in the annual update of the refinery investment...

  3. Liquid Fuels Market Module

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLighting UsefulLiquefied

  4. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: An

  5. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social Impacts Panel on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels DOE LDV Workshop 7-26-10 Mike Ramage and Jim

  6. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2...

  7. National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy USA 2012 National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy USA 2012 Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Total Energy USA...

  8. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  9. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  10. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  11. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  12. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July

  13. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)JulyEnd Use:

  14. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr18,736 269,010 305,508 187,656

  15. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  16. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted (Thousand Barrels)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Total

  18. Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

  19. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  20. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they do?t compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  1. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  2. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

  3. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  4. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials) D 6751. Biofuels: Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass feedstocks, used primarily for transportation. Bitumen: A naturally occurring viscous...

  5. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit:1996..........RegionTotalPriceShare ofPlant Liquids,

  6. Liquid fuels for gas turbines and their effects on fuel system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, J.E.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas turbines are operated on a wide range of gaseous and liquid fuels. The liquid fuels range from very thin distillates to very thick residual oils, and can also include unrefined fuels, such as crude oils. Several of the components in the turbine's liquid fuel system depend on the fuel to lubricate moving parts, so the lubricating qualities of the fuel are a key consideration in assessing the reliability of the fuel system. The fuel may also corrode parts of the fuels system, also affecting its reliability. Increased fuel system reliability is possible through selecting components for the fuel system which are compatible with the characteristics of the fuel used. Lubrication can be improved by the use of fuel additives, special materials, and design of components for poorly lubricating fuels. Corrosion can be reduced by good materials selection and by the use of cathodic protection. All of these measures will reduce the number of fuel system failures.

  7. Turning methane into usable liquid fuel: Illinois Institute of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquid fuel: Illinois Institute of Technology and Argonne to receive 2M for hybrid fuel cells August 4, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Researchers from the US Department of Energy's...

  8. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

  9. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-Desert SouthwestofDepartmentCellulosic

  10. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production...

  11. Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galle-Bishop, John Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

  12. Liquid Fuels from Biomass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and Emissions EstimatesLindseyLiquefaction

  13. AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I'26,282.1chemical7Host and Presentor Contactsite. IfHome

  14. Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan Next MECS will be fieldedYear

  15. Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwikiAgouraAlbatech srlFinance

  16. ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS IN A LIQUID FUELED COMBUSTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS IN A LIQUID FUELED COMBUSTOR ADAM COKER YEDIDIA NEUMEIER-fueled combustor that were performed to improve understanding of the factors limiting control performance. A set varied. They show that the combustor's nominal dynamics (i.e., without Received 23 March 2005; accepted 7

  17. Liquid fuel microcombustor using microfabricated multiplexed electrospray sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Alessandro

    Engineering, Yale Center for Combustion Studies, New Haven, CT 06520, USA b Department of Electrical by microfabricating the fuel distributor in Si using deep reactive ion etching. Tests were performed using JP-8- ies, that is, of portable electricity generators operating on liquid fuels, may result in dramatic

  18. Circulation . Author manuscript Ultrafast and whole-body cooling with total liquid ventilation induces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ventilation induces favorable neurological and cardiac outcomes after cardiac arrest in rabbits Mourad decrease after resuscitation. Since total liquid ventilation (TLV) with temperature controlled ; physiology ; Liquid Ventilation ; Liver ; physiology ; Lung ; physiology ; Nervous System Physiological

  19. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  20. Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

  1. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    atomizer are investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) under non-reacting conditions. The droplet size and velocity distribution of biodiesels are compared to conventional fuels. For spray combustion investigations, a generic gas turbine...

  2. Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  3. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  4. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

    1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  5. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS LetterStateDepartment ofEqualityCellulosic Liquid

  6. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

  7. A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

  8. Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

  9. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Alberta, CA); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  10. An Update in the Development of Alternate Liquid Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, M. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the development of "Alternate Liquid Fuels" (ALF) in FY '77 approximately 16.6 million gallons of ALF have been produced, and consumed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Conservatively this represents an initial saving of over $1,253,000 thru...

  11. An Update in the Development of Alternate Liquid Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, M. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the development of "Alternate Liquid Fuels" (ALF) in FY '77 approximately 16.6 million gallons of ALF have been produced, and consumed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Conservatively this represents an initial saving of over $1,253,000 thru...

  12. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptemberProcessed in(Million Barrels) Crude

  13. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptemberProcessed in(Million Barrels)

  14. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptemberProcessed in(Million Barrels)Production

  15. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptemberProcessed in(Million

  16. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  17. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  18. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling...

  19. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U B u o f l dIncreases4 16

  20. U.S. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea: U.S. EastArea:Area: U.S.Area:

  1. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Total | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property is set byisProperty EditProperty

  2. Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  3. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for...

  4. Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing...

  5. Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  6. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  7. Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel Matthew Eisaman and their impact · Technology: Extracting CO2 from seawater · Application: Renewable liquid fuel #12;Outline: Renewable liquid fuel #12;The data on atmospheric CO2 2000 years ago http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2

  8. NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

  9. NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

  10. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  12. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Development of a Compact Liquid Fueled Pulsed Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    automotive ignition system. Pre-heated liquid fuel is sprayed into a current of pre-heated air and thoroughly Hz. The PDE set up is water cooled allowing long duration testing. Diagnostics are performed using it necessary to preheat the fuel and/or air and to use nozzles to finely atomize the fuel spray. Liquid fueled

  13. Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

  14. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell- Powered Material Handling Equipment Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NRELTP-5600-56408...

  15. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment,...

  16. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM...

  17. No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslukowski, R.E.

    1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a no loss fueling station for delivery of liquid natural gas (LNG) to a use device such as a motor vehicle. It comprises: a pressure building tank holding a quantity of LNG and gas head; means for delivering LNG to the pressure building tank; means for selectively building the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for selectively reducing the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for controlling the pressure building and pressure reducing means to maintain a desired pressure in the pressure building tank without venting natural gas to the atmosphere; and means for delivering the LNG from the pressure building tank to the use device.

  18. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  19. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  20. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total Consumption of

  1. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total6. Components.

  2. Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers by Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak Bachelor means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion State University) Abstract Liquid water management has a major impact on the performance and durability

  3. Rapid cooling of the heart with total liquid ventilation prevents transmural myocardial infarction following prolonged ischemia in rabbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Rapid cooling of the heart with total liquid ventilation prevents transmural myocardial.1016/j.resuscitation.2009.12.005 #12; 2 Abstract Study aim: Total liquid ventilation (TLV) with cooled ; Cooling ; Hypothermia ; Liquid ventilation ; Myocardial infarction; Ischemia. inserm-00472169,version1

  4. Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell C. Lim, C.Y. Wang for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were fabricated by using a novel method of modi®ed Na.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cells; Membrane-electrode assembly (MEA); Polymer

  5. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

  6. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  7. alternative liquid fuels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 3 The Effect of Using an Alternative Fuel...

  8. alternative liquid fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 3 The Effect of Using an Alternative Fuel...

  9. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin 2004deerabbott.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects...

  10. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL-6772E A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications Max Wei, Timothy Lipman 1 , Ahmad Mayyas 1 ,...

  11. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brehm, Jr., William F. (Richland, WA); Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  12. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  13. Meeting U.S. Liquid Transport Fuel Needs with a Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The two major energy challenges for the United States are replacing crude oil in our transportation system and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. A domestic-source greenhouse-gas-neutral nuclear hydrogen biomass system to replace oil in the transportation sector is described. Some parts of the transportation system can be electrified with electricity supplied by nuclear energy sources that do not emit significant quantities of greenhouse gases. Other components of the transportation system require liquid fuels. Biomass can be converted to greenhouse-gas-neutral liquid fuels; however, the conversion of biomass-to-liquid fuels is energy intensive. There is insufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid fuel demands and provide the energy required to process the biomass-to-liquid fuels. With the use of nuclear energy to provide heat, electricity, and hydrogen for the processing of biomass-to-liquid fuels, the liquid fuel production per unit of biomass is dramatically increased, and the available biomass could meet U.S. liquid fuel requirements.

  14. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  15. Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

  16. Total..............................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720

  17. Total................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  18. Total........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6

  20. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q Table

  1. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q TableQ

  2. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q

  3. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q26.7

  4. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  5. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  6. Total.............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8 20.6

  7. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8

  8. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8,171

  9. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7

  10. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7 21.7

  11. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7

  12. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1

  13. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  14. Total................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  15. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.

  16. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5

  17. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5

  18. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.578.1

  19. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4

  20. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1 14.7

  1. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1

  2. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.115.2

  3. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4.

  4. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7

  5. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,618

  6. Total....................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,61814.7

  7. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033

  8. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.7

  9. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.74.2

  10. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6

  11. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1 5.5

  12. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1

  13. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.10.7

  14. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:

  15. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have

  16. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have7.1

  17. Total.........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not

  18. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6 40.7

  19. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6

  20. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.65.6

  1. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6 16.6

  3. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6

  4. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.1

  5. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.10.6

  6. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2

  7. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2 7.6

  8. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2

  9. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2Cooking

  10. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1

  11. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not Have

  12. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDo

  13. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDoDo

  14. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not

  15. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  16. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  17. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not20.6

  18. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo

  19. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1 19.0

  20. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1

  1. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1...

  2. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do

  3. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking

  4. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.6

  5. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.65.6

  6. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0

  7. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  8. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  9. Total.........................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6

  10. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,

  11. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,Product:

  12. Total..............................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970

  13. Total................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  14. Total........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 111.1

  15. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  16. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q Table

  17. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q

  18. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q14.7

  19. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6

  20. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  1. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  2. Total.............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8 20.6

  3. Total..............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8 20.6,171

  4. Total..............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8

  5. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.6 25.6

  6. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.6

  7. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.820.626.7

  8. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7

  9. Total...............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0 22.7

  10. Total................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0 22.7

  11. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.0

  12. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1 19.014.7

  13. Total.................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.1

  14. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1 64.1

  15. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1

  16. Total..................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.747.178.1.

  17. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770

  18. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9

  19. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3

  20. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3Type

  1. Total...................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.2

  2. Total....................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.7 7.4

  3. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.7

  4. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0 1.214.75.6

  5. Total.......................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.0

  6. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.6 40.7

  7. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.6

  8. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.6 17.7

  9. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.6

  10. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8 1.025.65.64.2

  11. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.8

  12. Total........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.0 22.7

  13. Total.........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.0

  14. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6

  15. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6.

  16. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1 19.025.6.5.6

  17. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.1

  18. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.6 16.6

  19. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.6

  20. Total..........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.67.1

  1. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2 7.67.10.6

  2. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.2

  3. Total...........................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2 7.6

  4. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2 7.6Do

  5. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2

  6. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2 7.87.14.24.2Cooking

  7. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2

  8. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not Have Cooling

  9. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not Have

  10. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo Not

  11. Total.............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo NotDo

  12. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo

  13. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.7

  14. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.7

  15. Total..............................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not HaveDo0.77.1

  16. Total.................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not

  17. Total.................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.0 8.0

  18. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.0

  19. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1 7.05.6

  20. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1

  1. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1Personal

  2. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do Not7.1Personal4.2

  3. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do

  4. Total....................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do 111.1 47.1 19.0

  5. Total.........................................................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,77015.2Do 111.1 47.1

  6. Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

  7. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  8. Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment ofEnergy fuels

  9. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  10. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Andriulli, John B. (Kingston, TN); Strain, Paul D. (Eads, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  11. Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toseland, Bernard Allen (Coopersburg, PA); Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Puri, Pushpinder Singh (Emmaus, PA)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

  12. Liquid Fuels Taxes and Credits (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides a review of the treatment of federal fuels taxes and tax credits in Annual Energy Outlook 2010.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the

  14. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteria are genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuel—in this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLA’s electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  15. The design of a microfabricated air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre, Fritz, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, the microfabricated electrode (MFE) concept was applied to the design of an air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells. The catalyst layer of the electrode is envisioned to be fabricated by using ...

  16. Experimental investigation of onboard storage and refueling systems for liquid-hydrogen-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, W.F.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-1/2-year baseline experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive vehicle project was conducted to evaluate and document state-of-the-art capabilities in engine conversion for hydrogen operation, liquid-hydrogen onboard storage, and liquid-hydrogen refueling. The engine conversion, onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tank, and liquid-hydrogen refueling system used in the project represented readily available equipment or technology when the project began. The project information documented herein can serve as a basis of comparison with which to evaluate future vehicles that are powered by hydrogen or other alternative fuels, with different engines, and different fuel-storage methods. The results of the project indicate that liquid-hydrogen storage observed an operating vehicle and routine refueling of the vehicle can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulty. Two different liquid-hydrogen vehicle onboard storage tanks designed for vehicular applications were tested in actual road operation: the first was an aluminum dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 l; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper, vapor-cooled thermal-radiation shields, and a stainless-steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 l. The car was refueled with liquid hydrogen at least 65 times involving more than 8.1 kl of liquid hydrogen during the 17 months that the car was operated on liquid hydrogen. The vehicle, a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-l-displacement turbocharged V6 engine, was driven for 3633 km over the road on hydrogen. The vehicle had a range without refueling of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second tank. The vehicle achieved 2.4 km/l of liquid hydrogen which corresponds to 9.4 km/l gasoline on an equivalent energy basis.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  18. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register /of Energy 3 BTO PeerDepartment of Energy Enabling

  19. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment of

  20. Simulating Impacts of Disruptions to Liquid Fuels Infrastructure |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus GroupSherrell R. GreeneTianyueon DPF

  1. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard | Department ofEmily KnouseEnSysDepartment of

  2. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard | Department ofEmily KnouseEnSysDepartment ofDepartment of

  3. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof42.2 (AprilSevere drought in

  4. Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization was done over a two day period in June 2011, and confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  6. Second AEO2014 Liquids Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard ErrorsSeptember 24, 2014 MEMORANDUM

  7. First AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarkets EnergyConsumption5ValuesJune 2010

  8. Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14Biomass feedstocks and theYear

  9. AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group 2

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I'26,282.1chemical7Host and Presentor Contactsite. IfHome2

  10. AEO2014 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I'26,282.1chemical7Host and Presentor3 Oil and Gas SupplyJuly

  11. AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Presentation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I'26,282.1chemical7Host and Presentor3 Oil andForAssumptions

  12. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  13. Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.W.; Zackro, W.C.; Czajkowski, G. (Allied-Signal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA). Engineered Materials Research Center); Shah, P.P.; Kelly, A.P. (UOP, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Air Force is evaluating various feedstock sources of endothermic fuels. The technical feasibility of producing endothermic fuel from the naphtha by-product from Great Plains Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota was evaluated. The capital and operating costs of deriving the fuel from coal naphtha were also estimated. The coal naphtha from Great Plains was successfully processed to remove sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen contaminants (UOP HD Unibon{reg sign} Hydrotreating) and then to saturate aromatic molecules (UOP AH Unibon{reg sign}). The AH Unibon product was fractionated to yield endothermic fuel candidates with less than 5% aromatics. The major cycloparaffins in the AH Unibon product were cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The production of endothermic fuel from the naphtha by-product stream was estimated to be cost competitive with existing technology. 17 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  15. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  16. Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100­200 uC, where cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages

  17. Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  18. A liquid water management strategy for PEM fuel cell stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Nguyen, Trung; Knobbe, M. W.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a PEM fuel cell stack. Previous experimentation had found, and this experimentation confirms, that one very effective method of achieving proper gas and water management is the use...

  19. Development of a test facility for the experimental evaluation of liquid and gaseous automotive engine fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCanlies, John Michael

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for comparison of gaseous fuels. A 2. 3 liter, 4-cylinder engine was instrumented to obtain engine performance in terms of power output, efficiency, and exhaust emissions. Fuel supply systems were constructed to deliver and measure the f'lowrates of both... the liquid and gaseous fuels. Electrical signals proport onal to the ma?'or dependent and independent va, iables (except emissions) were input to a microcomputer based data acquisition system to provide con- tInuous display and recording. Stationary...

  20. Modeling CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers for effects of thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St-Aubin, E.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, stn. Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the DRAGON code to model the CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers and evaluate the effects of thorium-based fuels on their incremental cross sections and reactivity worth. We optimize both the numerical quadrature and spatial discretization for 2D cell models in order to provide accurate fuel properties for 3D liquid zone controller supercell models. We propose a low computer cost parameterized pseudo-exact 3D cluster geometries modeling approach that avoids tracking issues on small external surfaces. This methodology provides consistent incremental cross sections and reactivity worths when the thickness of the buffer region is reduced. When compared with an approximate annular geometry representation of the fuel and coolant region, we observe that the cluster description of fuel bundles in the supercell models does not increase considerably the precision of the results while increasing substantially the CPU time. In addition, this comparison shows that it is imperative to finely describe the liquid zone controller geometry since it has a strong impact of the incremental cross sections. This paper also shows that liquid zone controller reactivity worth is greatly decreased in presence of thorium-based fuels compared to the reference natural uranium fuel, since the fission and the fast to thermal scattering incremental cross sections are higher for the new fuels. (authors)

  1. No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, K.

    1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A no loss liquid natural gas (LNG) delivery system is described comprising: (a) means for storing LNG and natural gas at low pressure; (b) means for delivering LNG from the means for storing to a use device including means for sub-cooling the LNG; (c) means for pre-cooling the means for sub-cooling before the LNG is delivered to the use device to substantially reduce vaporization of the initial LNG delivered to the use device; and (d) means for delivering a selectable quantity of the natural gas in said storing means to said use device with the LNG.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Z. H. Wang* and C. Y. Wang*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Z. H. Wang* and C. Y. Wang for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells DMFC . In addition to the anode and cathode electrochemical electronically March 4, 2003. Fuel cells promise to replace the internal combustion engine in transportation due

  3. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit:1996..........RegionTotalPriceShare of

  4. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  5. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  6. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  7. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  8. Liquid Fuel From Microbial Communities: Electroalcoholgenesis: Bioelectrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Butanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: MUSC is developing an engineered system to create liquid fuels from communities of interdependent microorganisms. MUSC is first pumping carbon dioxide (CO2) and renewable sources of electricity into a battery-like cell. A community of microorganisms uses the electricity to convert the CO2 into hydrogen. That hydrogen is then consumed by another community of microorganisms living in the same system. These new microorganisms convert the hydrogen into acetate, which in turn feed yet another community of microorganisms. This last community of microorganisms uses the acetate to produce a liquid biofuel called butanol. Similar interdependent microbial communities can be found in some natural environments, but they’ve never been coupled together in an engineered cell to produce liquid fuels. MUSC is working to triple the amount of butanol that can be produced in its system and to reduce the overall cost of the process.

  9. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  10. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  11. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  12. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  13. Operating experience with a liquid-hydrogen fueled Buick and refueling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, W.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of liquid-hydrogen storage and refueling systems for vehicular applications was made in a recently completed project. The vehicle used in the project was a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-L displacement turbocharged V6 engine and an automatic transmission. The vehicle had a fuel economy for driving in the high altitude Los Alamos area that was equivalent to 2.4 km/L of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis. About 22% less energy was required using hydrogen rather than gasoline to go a given distance based on the Environmental Protection Agency estimate of 7.2 km/L of gasoline for this vehicle. At the end of the project the engine had been operated for 138 h and the car driven 3633 km during the 17 months that the vehicle was operated on hydrogen . Two types of onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tanks were tested in the vehicle: the first was an aluminum Dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 L; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper vapor-cooled thermal radiation shields, and a stainless steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 L. The Buick had an unrefueled range of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second. The Buick was fueled at least 65 times involving a minimum of 8.1 kL of liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and a semiautomatic refueling station. A refueling time of nine minutes was achieved, and liquid hydrogen losses during refueling were measured. The project has demonstrated that liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle, and its refueling, can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulties; nevertheless, appropriate testing is still needed to quantitatively address the question of safety for liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle.

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  15. Table 17. Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total wet natural gas proved reserves, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption,Estimated

  16. Table 17. Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total wet natural gas proved reserves, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total Delivered Residential Energy

  17. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference...

  18. MS ID#: CIRCULATIONAHA/2011/039388-Accepted version Ultra-fast and whole body cooling with total liquid ventilation induces favourable3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with total liquid ventilation induces favourable3 neurological and cardiac outcomes following cardiac arrest in rabbits4 5 Short title: Liquid ventilation, hypothermia and cardiac arrest6 7 Chenoune M1,2,3 , DVM, MSc liquid ventilation (TLV) with temperature controlled perfluorocarbons induces a very rapid35

  19. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong (Richland, WA), Liu; Wei (Richland, WA)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  20. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  1. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  2. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  3. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  4. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions.

  5. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons, E-mail: baiker@chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Hönggerberg, HCI, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  6. Analysis of liquid natural gas as a truck fuel: a system dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Mason, T.L.; Mills, J.I.; Rice, R.E.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the potential for growth in use of liquid natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks. . A system dynamics model was constructed for the analysis and a variety of scenarios were investigated. The analysis considers the economics of LNG fuel in the context of the trucking industry to identify barriers to the increased use of LNG trucks and potential interventions or leverage points which may overcome these barriers. The study showed that today, LNG use in trucks is not yet economically viable. A large change in the savings from fuel cost or capital cost is needed for the technology to take off. Fleet owners have no way now to benefit from the environmental benefits of LNG fuel nor do they benefit from the clean burning nature of the fuel. Changes in the fuel cost differential between diesel and LNG are not a research issue. However, quantifying the improvements in reliability and wear from the use of clean fuel could support increased maintenance and warranty periods. Many people involved in the use of LNG for trucks believe that LNG has the potential to occupy a niche within the larger diesel truck business. But if LNG in trucks can become economic, the spread of fuel stations and technology improvements could lead to LNG trucks becoming the dominant technology. An assumption in our simulation work is that LNG trucks will be purchased when economically attractive. None of the simulation results show LNG becoming economic but then only to the level of a niche market.

  7. Enhanced catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  8. Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  9. Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion, and electrolyte flow rate on fuel cell performance to obtain a maximum power density of 191 mW/cm2. This flowing

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  11. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Friedel, G. (Internationale Atomreaktorbau GmbH (INTERATOM), Bergisch Gladbach (Germany, F.R.)); Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Moreau, J. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)); Perks, M. (UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment (UK)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NMPerformance | Department ofEnergyAn

  13. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic Framework for SMR DeploymentCommunities (Fact

  14. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy PetroleumEnergy Lube-oil PhosphorusImpacts of IPv6

  15. National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy USA 2012 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIRE BUILDS OFFNanolensDepartment of Energy and Hydrogen

  16. Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Van Nguyen, Trung

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper water management is vital to ensuring successful performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effectiveness of the direct liquid water injection scheme and the interdigitated flow field design towards providing adequate gas...

  17. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Lloyd A. [Leading Solutions, LLC.; Paresol, Bernard [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  18. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 10, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Levy, P.F.; Wise, D.L.; Nabor, M.R.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Hughes, C.A.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe Electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. Preliminary experiments have also been completed utilizing corn meal in which 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and carbon monoxide were both found to be effective methane suppressors. An analysis of the energy outputs and requirements for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from corn has been performed. As a means of expanding the number of potential substrates, pretreatment schemes are being investigated. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extractor system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. Although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process, the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential.

  19. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  20. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  1. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  3. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    applications in stationary fuel cell systems. The analysis considers low temperature proton exchange membrane systems for use in combined heat and power applications from 1 to...

  4. Table 4a. Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot,

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV493,552.13,846.302.8

  5. Table 4b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Fuel Oil Consumption per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet) DecadeV493,552.13,846.302.8Effective

  6. ,"U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant StocksPetroleum ProductSales

  7. MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - Householdshort version)6/09/2015Values shownLower

  8. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

  9. Liquid fuels from co-processing coal with bitumen or heavy oil: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Hepler, L.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal, bitumen and heavy oil (and various pitches, resids, etc.) are similar in that they require more substantial treatment than does conventional light oil to yield useful liquid fuels. The authors provide a brief and selective review of technologies for liquefying coal, followed by consideration of co-processing coal with bitumen/heavy oil. Such co-processing may be considered as use of bitumen/heavy oil as a solvent and/or hydrogen donor in liquefaction of coal, or as the use of coal to aid upgrading bitumen/heavy oil.

  10. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  11. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  12. Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189­195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell; Water transport; Mathematical modeling; Three

  13. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removal from dry fuel gas streams using an ionic liquid as a physical solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yannick J. Heintz; Laurent Sehabiague; Badie I. Morsi; Kenneth L. Jones; David R. Luebke; Henry W. Pennline [United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mole fraction solubilities (x{asterisk}) and volumetric liquid-side mass-transfer coefficients (kLa) for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in the ionic liquid, TEGO IL K5, (a quaternary ammonium polyether) were measured under different pressures (up to 30 bar) and temperatures (up to 500 K) in a 4 L ZipperClave agitated reactor. CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, as single gases, and a H{sub 2}S/N{sub 2} gaseous mixture were used in the experiments. The solubilities of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} were found to increase with pressure and decrease with temperature within the experimental conditions used. The H{sub 2}S solubilities in the ionic liquid (IL) were greater than those of CO{sub 2} within the temperature range investigated (300-500 K) up to a H{sub 2}S partial pressure of 2.33 bar. Hence, the IL can be effectively used to capture both H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} from dry fuel gas stream within the temperature range from 300 to 500 K under a total pressure up to 30 bar. The presence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}S/N{sub 2} mixture created mass-transfer resistance, which decreased k{sub L}{alpha} values for N{sub 2}. The k{sub L}{alpha} and x{asterisk} values of CO{sub 2} were found to be greater than those of N{sub 2} in the IL, which highlight the stronger selectivity of this physical solvent toward CO{sub 2} than toward N{sub 2}. In addition, within the temperature range from 300 to 500 K, the solubility and k{sub L}{alpha} of H{sub 2}S in the IL were greater than those of CO{sub 2}, suggesting that not only can H{sub 2}S be more easily captured from dry fuel gas streams but also a shorter absorber can be employed for H{sub 2}S capture than that for CO{sub 2}. 56 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  17. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  18. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  19. Injectable Spontaneous Generation of Tremendous Self-Fueled Liquid Metal Droplet Motors in a Moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, You-You; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro motors that could run in liquid environment is very important for a variety of practices such as serving as pipeline robot, soft machine, drug delivery, or microfluidics system etc. However, fabrication of such tiny motors is generally rather time and cost consumptive and has been a tough issue due to involve too many complicated procedures and tools. Here, we show a straightforward injectable way for spontaneously generating autonomously running soft motors in large quantity. A basic fabrication strategy thus enabled is established and illustrated. It was found that, injecting the GaIn alloy pre-fueled with aluminum into electrolyte would automatically split in seconds into tremendous droplet motors swiftly running here and there. The driving force originated from the galvanic cell reaction among alloy, aluminum and surrounding electrolyte which offers interior electricity and hydrogen gas as motion power. This finding opens the possibility to develop injectable tiny-robots, droplet machines or microfl...

  20. Safeguards and security concept for the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel cycle, SAF line technical support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaubert, V.J.; Remley, M.E.; Grantham, L.F.

    1986-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a safeguards and security concept system review for the secure automated fabrication (SAF) and national liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel programs.

  1. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  2. Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X-ray Microtomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , at shutdown, may freeze under subzero tem- peratures and makes cold start of a PEM fuel cell difficult conditions. MRI is used to visualize the transport of liquid water across a polymer electrolyte membrane opportunities for imaging pore-scale flow and multiphase transport in porous me- dia. In recent years, X

  3. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  4. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015GrossA FewA LIMITED LIABILITYA

  5. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through July 1999.

  6. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  7. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

  8. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

  9. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  10. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

  14. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  15. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

  16. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.; Matherne, J.L.; Kinkade, N.E.

    1990-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. The behavior of alkaline earth/metal oxide/halide catalysts containing strontium was found to be different from the behavior of catalysts containing barium. Two approaches were pursued to avoid the heterogeneous/homogeneous mechanism in order to achieve higher C{sub 2} selectivity/methane conversion combinations. One approach was to eliminate or minimize the typical gas phase combustion chemistry and make more of the reaction occur on the surface of the catalyst by using silver. Another approach was to change the gas phase chemistry to depart from the typical combustion reaction network by using vapor-phase catalysts. The layered perovskite K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} was further studied. Modifications of process and catalyst variables for LaCaMnCoO{sub 6} catalysts resulted in catalysts with superior performance. Results obtained with a literature catalyst Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} were better than those obtained with NaCO{sub 3}/Pr-Ce oxide or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Ag-Pr-Ce oxide. 52 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Liquid Fuels via Uprading of Syngas Intermediates Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and Emissions

  19. Biogas to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inand Fuel Cells

  20. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, soFuelDepartmentPotawatomi

  1. EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply steam to the FRP mill, meeting the majority of the mill's steam demand and reducing or eliminating the need for the existing biomass/coal-fired boiler. The biorefinery would also include a steam turbine generator that will produce "green" electrical power for use by the biorefinery or for sale to the electric utility.

  2. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Ionic Liquids as Anti-Wear Additives for Next-Generation Low-Viscosity Fuel-Efficient Engine Lubricants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ionic liquids...

  4. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

  5. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  6. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised FindingDepartment ofStatement |Statement |of EnergyDepartment ofCounty,

  7. Liquid Fuels via Upgrading of Syngas Intermediates Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and Emissions EstimatesLindseyLiquefaction11.2.13

  8. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for|TitaniumDepartment of Energy

  9. Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus Group HSS/UnionGlossaryPartnershipsMarketing

  10. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment ofCumminsMaterialDepartment of

  11. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  12. Second AEO2-015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard ErrorsSeptember 24, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN

  13. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of theTechno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed

  14. Assumptions for Annual Energy Outlook 2014: Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy IDecade Year-0 Year-1Year Jan4: Oil and Gas Working Group5:

  15. Biomass and Coal into Liquid Fuel with CO2 Capture - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find MoreTechnical Report: Biomass

  16. "Characteristic(a)","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from0 DETAILED52.3

  17. Gas and liquid fuel system test facilities for research, development, and production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlich, L.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting the challenges associated with the support of both mature product lines and new high flow, high accuracy DLE (dry low emissions) control valves and systems has been complex. This paper deals with the design and capabilities of the gas and liquid test facility at the Woodward Governor Company Turbomachinery Controls in Loveland, Colorado.

  18. Near-field dispersal modeling for liquid fuel-air explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.R.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-field, explosive dispersal of a liquid into air has been explored using a combination of analytical and numerical models. The near-field flow regime is transient, existing only as long as the explosive forces produced by the detonation of the burster charge dominate or are approximately equal in magnitude to the aerodynamic drag forces on the liquid. The near-field model provides reasonable initial conditions for the far-field model, which is described in a separate report. The near-field model consists of the CTH hydrodynamics code and a film instability model. In particular, the CTH hydrodynamics code is used to provide initial temperature, pressure, and velocity fields, and bulk material distribution for the far-field model. The film instability model is a linear stability model for a radially expanding fluid film, and is used to provide a lower bound on the breakup time and an upper and lower bound on the initial average drop diameter for the liquid following breakup. Predictions of the liquid breakup time and the initial arithmetic average drop diameter from the model compare favorably with the sparse experimental data. 26 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Algae: The Source of Reliable, Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Brian Goodall (Sapphire Energy) spoke on Continental Airlines’ January 7th Biofuels Test. The flight was fueled, in part, by Sapphire’s algae-based jet fuel.

  20. Environmental and economic tradeoffs of feedstock usage for liquid fuels and power production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trivedi, Parthsarathi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis is divided into two parts - 1) assessing the energy return on investment for alternative jet fuels, and 2) quantifying the tradeoffs associated with the aviation and non-aviation use of agricultural residues. ...

  1. Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Hydrogen, Alternative fuels, Diesel, Fisher ­ Tropsch 1 Corresponding author of oil (vegetal, cooking oil or the one obtained from microalgae (Martín & Grossmann, 2012), glycerol, biodiesel production requires energy (Martín & Grossmann, 2012). Therefore, this is another incentive

  2. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  3. Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    such as methane. Selectivity refers to the ratio of highly useful hydrocarbons to the total product output and intermediates for the pro- duction of other petrochemicals. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is the main process

  4. Coliquefaction of coal and black liquor to environmentally acceptable liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Akash, B.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work in the laboratories has demonstrated that addition to lignin to coal during liquefaction significantly increases the depolymerization of coal and enhances the quality of the liquid products. It is believed that thermolysis of the lignin results in the formation of phenoxyl and other reactive radicals at temperatures too low for significant thermolysis of the coal matrix; such radicals are effective and active intermediates that depolymerize coal by cleaving methylene bridges. It has been reported that alkali is also effective for extraction of liquids from coal. The work presented here combines these two reactive agents by utilizing the black liquor waste stream from the Kraft pulping process for coal depolymerization. That waste stream contains large amounts of lignin and sodium hydroxide, as well as other components. To permit comparative evaluations of the extent of coal depolymerization by coprocessing coal and black liquor, reference runs were performed with tetralin alone, sodium hydroxide in tetralin, and lignin in tetralin. Results indicated that the sodium hydroxide-tetralin system resulted in almost 67% conversion at 375 C, 1 hour. The black liquor system exhibited a lower conversion of 60%, indicating some inhibition of the depolymerization reactions by components in the black liquor.

  5. Conversion of MixAlco Process Sludge to Liquid Transportation Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teiseh, Eliasu 1973-

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    =heating value of syngas (MJ/kg) BO=bio-oil Mf=mass of sludge pyrolyzed (kg) Ws=auger shafting work (J) P.dV=work done on system (J) Q=thermal energy supplied (J) ?Eg=total energy of syngas (J) Eb=energy of bio-oil (J) Ec=energy of char (J) ?Mg...=total energy of syngas (J) Mb=mass of bio-oil (kg) Mc=mass of char (kg) Vt=total volume of syngas (L) Cg=concentration of syngas (v %) P=P*=1 atm tbr=breakthrough time (minutes) ?=density of H2 at standard conditions (g/L) ?= mol fraction of H2 in feed...

  6. Method of removing Pu(IV) polymer from nuclear fuel reclaiming liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jimmy T. (Kingston, TN); Arwood, Phillip C. (Harriman, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Pu(IV) polymer not extractable from a nuclear fuel reclaiming solution by conventional processes is electrolytically converted to Pu.sup.3+ and PuO.sub.2.sup.2+ ions which are subsequently converted to Pu.sup.4+ ions extractable by the conventional processes.

  7. Failed fuel monitoring and surveillance techniques for liquid metal cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Mikaili, R.; Gross, K.C.; Strain, R.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Aoyama, T.; Ukai, S.; Nomura, S.; Nakae, N. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been used as a facility for irradiation of LMR fuels and components for thirty years. During this time many tests of experimental fuel were continued to cladding breach in order to study modes of element failure; the methods used to identify such failures are described in a parallel paper. This paper summarizes experience of monitoring the delayed-neutron (DN) and fission-gas (FG) release behavior of a smaller number of elements that continued operation in the run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) mode. The scope of RBCB testing, the methods developed to characterize failures on-line, and examples of DN/FG behavior are described.

  8. Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pastore, Andrea

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -up), but it will still show a significant efficiency advantage [2]. Eventually, when fuel cells and hydrogen demand will build up, a switch can be made to central hydrogen production, by using fossil sources with CO2 sequestration and finally by the use of low carbon... requirements: • Hydrogen production levels smaller than those in chemical plants; • Severe constraints on size and weight; • Ability to cycle through frequent start-ups and shutdowns; • Hydrogen production rate should be responsive to changes in demand...

  9. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  10. In Situ Grouting of Liquid Waste Disposal Trenches and Experimental Reactor Fuel Disposal Wells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Ch.; Cange, J.; Lambert, R. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trujillo, E. [BWXT Pantex, LLC, Amarillo, TX (United States); Julius, J. [U.S. DOE, Oak Ridge Operations Office, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early to mid-1960's, liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were disposed of in specially-constructed, gravel-filled trenches within the Melton Valley watershed at the lab. The initial selected remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 was in situ vitrification; however, an amendment to the record of decision changed the remedy to in situ grouting of the trenches. The work was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout. At the HRE fuel wells, a 1-m ring of soil surrounding the fuel wells was grouted with acrylamide. The results of the hydraulic conductivity tests ranged from 4.74 x 10{sup -6} to 3.60 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, values that were well below the 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec design criterion. In summary: The ISG Project was conducted to decrease hydraulic conductivity and thereby decrease water flow and contaminate migration from the area of the trenches. The initial remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 in the Melton Valley ROD was for in situ vitrification of the trench matrix. The remedy was changed to in situ grouting of the trenches and HRE fuel wells through an amendment to the ROD after moisture was found in the trenches. The grouting of the trenches was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout to further reduce water infiltration. Soil backfill above each of the seven HRE fuel wells was removed to a depth of approximately 1 m by augering, and the soils were replaced with a cement plug to prevent water infiltration from migrating down the original borehole. Soil surrounding the fuel wells was then grouted with acrylamide to ensure water infiltration through the HRE fuel wells is prevented. A summary of the quantities used is shown. After completion of grouting, in-situ hydraulic conductivities of the grouted materials were measured to verify attainment of the design objective. The areas were then covered with multi-layer caps as part of the MV hydrologic isolation project. (authors)

  11. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  12. Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

  13. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquefaction technologies. Liquid Fuels from Biomass Liquid fuels converted from biomass feedstocks are produced primarily through two processes: Gasification-heating biomass by...

  15. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.

  16. Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge, and (2) accumulation and transport of liquid water in the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) originally presented experimentally iden- tified parameter to match the rate of liquid water accumulation in the anode channel

  17. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  18. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  19. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Renewable Fuel Definitions Biodiesel is defined as a renewable, biodegradable, mono alkyl ester combustible liquid fuel that is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats and...

  1. Pulsed DD Neutron Generator Measurements for HEU Oxide Fuel Pins Using Liquid Scintillators with Pulse Shape Discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    measurements have been performed on high-enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium metal

  2. Mississippi Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet) PriceLiquids,35 922 858 868Total

  3. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearAdditionsLiquidsRepressuringDecadeTotal

  4. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report, May 10, 1994--December 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (i) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (ii) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. Since this work was for fundamental research in a number of related areas to the use of LNG as a transportation fuel for long haul trucking, many of those results have appeared in numerous refereed journal and conference papers, and significant graduate training experiences (including at least one M.S. thesis and one Ph.D. dissertation) in the first year of this project. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

  5. Rapid prediction of various physical properties for middle distillate fuel utilizing directly coupled liquid chromatography//sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caswell, K.A.; Glass, T.E.; Swann, M.; Dorn, H.C.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group property approach has been developed to predict 17 physical properties of middle distillate (e.g., jet and diesel) fuels from experimentally derived liquid chromatography//sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance (LC//sup 1/H NMR) data. In the LC//sup 1/H NMR technique, the fuel is separated according to chemical class and the average molecular structure for each chemical class is then calculated. These average molecular structures form a basis set to predict the physical properties of the fuel. The physical properties that can be obtained in this manner are cetane number, cetane index, density, specific gravity, pour point, flash point, viscosity, filterability, heat of combustion, cloud point, volume percent aromatics, residual carbon content, and the initial, 10%, 50%, 90%, and end boiling points. Fourteen of the correlation coefficients for the predictions are better than 0.90 with 11 of the predictions falling either within or approximately equal to the ASTM method reproducibility for the measurement of the fuel property. The present method also provides chemical insight concerning the influence of chemical structural changes on the physical properties of the fuel as well as requiring much less analysis time and sample volume than corresponding ASTM methods.

  6. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    of burner temperature and the aspects of implementing advanced modeling based control approaches using], auxiliary and uninterruptible power systems [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuelDesign and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air

  7. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano (Madison, WI); West, Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  8. Use of Ionic Liquids as Physical Solvents for Selective Capture of CO2 from Fuel Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heintz, Y.J.; Sehabiague, L.; Morsi, B.I.; Jones, K.L.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is to investigate the potential use of ionic liquids (ILs) as physical solvents for selective CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams at elevated pressures and temperatures. The equilibrium gas solubility (x*) and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa) for CO2 and H2 in two different ILs (TEGO IL K5 and TEGO IL P51P) were determined. The data were obtained in an agitated reactor, equipped with sight-windows, in wide ranges of pressures, temperatures, mixing speeds, and liquid heights. Under the operating conditions investigated, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs increased with pressure at constant temperature and decreased with temperature at constant pressure. Also, the volumetric liquid-side mass transfer coefficients of CO2 increased with mixing speed, pressure, and temperature and decreased with liquid height. The CO2 solubilities in the TEGO IL K5 were greater than those in the other two ILs at 500 K. Under similar operating conditions, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs were greater than those of H2, which reflects the selective nature of ILs for CO2 capture. In addition, the ILs appeared to have negligible vapor pressure up to 500 K, which presents an advantage over conventional physical solvents currently employed for CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams. This study demonstrated the thermal stability of the ILs and highlighted their ability to selectively capture CO2 at temperatures up to 500 K and pressures as high as 30 bars.

  9. Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

  10. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. ,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"forUsers, TotalLiquids

  12. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  13. IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS FOR USE IN POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS: EFFECT OF ELECTRON-WITHDRAWING AND ELECTRON-DONATING SUBSTITUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E.; Fu, Y.; Kerr, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require humidifi cation for acceptable proton conductivity. Development of a novel polymer that is conductive without a water-based proton carrier is desirable for use in automobiles. Imidazole (Im) is a possible replacement for water as a proton solvent; Im can be tethered to the polymer structure by means of covalent bonds, thereby providing a solid state proton conducting membrane where the solvating groups do not leach out of the fuel cell. These covalent bonds can alter the electron availability of the Im molecule. This study investigates the effects of electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the conductivity of Im complexed with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in the form of ionic liquids. Due to the changes in the electronegativity of nitrogen, it is expected that 2-phenylimidazole (2-PhIm, electron-withdrawing) will exhibit increased conductivity compared to Im, while 2-methylimidazole (2-MeIm, electron-donating) will exhibit decreased conductivity. Three sets of ionic liquids were prepared at defi ned molar ratios: Im-MSA, 2-PhIm-MSA, and 2-MeIm- MSA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and 1H-NMR were used to characterize each complex. Impedance analysis was used to determine the conductivity of each complex. Both the 2-PhIm-MSA and 2-MeIm-MSA ionic liquids were found to be less conductive than the Im-MSA complex at base-rich compositions, but more conductive at acid-rich compositions. 1H-NMR data shows a downfi eld shift of the proton on nitrogen in 2-PhIm compared to Im, suggesting that other factors may diminish the electronic effects of the electron withdrawing group at base-rich compositions. Further studies examining these effects may well result in increased conductivity for Im-based complexes. Understanding the conductive properties of Im-derivatives due to electronic effects will help facilitate the development of a new electrolyte appropriate for automotive fuel cell use.

  14. "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","Breeze","Other(f)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from0 DETAILED5

  15. "Characteristic(a)","Total(b)","Electricity(c)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(d)","Natural Gas(e)","NGL(f)","Coal","Breeze","Other(g)","Produced Onsite(h)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from0 DETAILED52.31.3

  16. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from0 DETAILED52.31.332

  17. "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4 Relative2.49

  18. "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4 Relative2.494226

  19. Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cosgrove, Daniel (Director, Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation) [Director, Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation; CLSF Staff

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car' was submitted by the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CLSF is directed by Daniel Cosgrove at Pennsylvania State University and is a partnership of scientists from three institutions: Penn State (lead), North Caroline State University, and Virginia Tech University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation is 'to dramatically increase our fundamental knowledge of the formation and physical interactions of bio-polymer networks in plant cell walls to provide a basis for improved methods for converting biomass into fuels.' Research topics are: biofuels (biomass), membrane, interfacial characterization, matter by design, and self-assembly.

  20. Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cosgrove, Daniel (Director, Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation); CLSF Staff

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    'Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car' was submitted by the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CLSF is directed by Daniel Cosgrove at Pennsylvania State University and is a partnership of scientists from three institutions: Penn State (lead), North Caroline State University, and Virginia Tech University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation is 'to dramatically increase our fundamental knowledge of the formation and physical interactions of bio-polymer networks in plant cell walls to provide a basis for improved methods for converting biomass into fuels.' Research topics are: biofuels (biomass), membrane, interfacial characterization, matter by design, and self-assembly.

  1. Influence of wettability on liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza Chraibi; L. Ceballos; M. Prat; Michel Quintard; Alexandre Vabre

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water management is a key factor that limits PEFC's performance. We show how insights into this problem can be gained from pore-scale simulations of water invasion in a model fibrous medium. We explore the influence of contact angle on the water invasion pattern and water saturation at breakthrough and show that a dramatic change in the invasion pattern, from fractal to compact, occurs as the system changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Then, we explore the case of a system of mixed wettability, i.e. containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores. The saturation at breakthrough is studied as a function of the fraction of hydrophilic pores. The results are discussed in relation with the water management problem, the optimal design of a GDL and the fuel cell performance degradation mechanisms. We outline how the study could be extended to 3D systems, notably from binarised images of GDLs obtained by X ray microtomography.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    station. Alternative fuels are defined as combustible liquids derived from grain starch, oil seed, animal fat, or other biomass, or produced from a biogas source. Excess credits...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel is defined as a renewable, biodegradable, mono alkyl ester combustible liquid fuel that is derived from agricultural plant oils or animal fats and...

  4. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    subdivisions for the production of alternative fuels are prohibited by law, with exceptions for certain coal-based liquid fuels. (Reference West Virginia Code 8-27A-3 and 11-13D-3D...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must contain at...

  8. Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangu, Satya Aravind

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    and design new ionic liquids for task specific needs. Solvent selection for in situ fermentation is depended on high solute partitioning and their biocompatibility with the microorganisms. Such information for these new set of solvents, ionic liquids...

  9. TotalView Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances » Top InnovativeTopoisomeraseTotalView

  10. Total Imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: An EnzymeToroidalExports

  11. Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197 14,197 14,1978.Barrels) Liquids,

  12. Micro fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zook, L.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hockaday, R. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient temperature, liquid feed, direct methanol fuel cell device is under development. A metal barrier layer was used to block methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode side while still allowing for the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode. A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical engine that converts chemical energy into clean electrical power by the direct oxidation of methanol at the fuel cell anode. This direct use of a liquid fuel eliminates the need for a reformer to convert the fuel to hydrogen before it is fed into the fuel cell.

  13. Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

  14. POWER-GEN '91 conference papers: Volume 7 (Non-utility power generation) and Volume 8 (New power plants - Gas and liquid fuels/combustion turbines). [Independent Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is book 4 of papers presented at the Fourth International Power Generation Exhibition and Conference on December 4-6, 1991. The book contains Volume 7, Non-Utility Power Generation and Volume 8, New Power Plants - Gas and Liquid Fuels/Combustion Turbines. The topics of the papers include PUHCA changes and transmission access, financing and economics of independent power projects, case histories, combustion turbine based technologies, coal gasification, and combined cycle.

  15. EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOE’s proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

  16. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  17. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  18. Report: Efficiency, Alternative Fuels to Impact Market Through...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel efficiency improvements and increased use of alternative fuels will shrink gasoline's share of the liquid fuel market share by 14% through 2040, according to a new report...

  19. Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"Year JanExpected(Million Barrels) Liquids Lease

  20. Texas--RRC District 1 Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"Year JanExpected(Million Barrels) Liquids

  1. Texas--RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProduction (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids,

  2. Texas--RRC District 6 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProduction (Million(Million Barrels) Liquids

  3. Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:in the U.S. by6 (AprilProduction and

  4. Alternate Fuels: Is Your Waste Stream a Fuel Source? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coerper, P.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before the year 2000, more than one quarter of U.S. businesses will be firing Alternate Fuels in their boiler systems. And, the trend toward using Process Gases, Flammable Liquids, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's), to supplement fossil fuels...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    gas produced from biomass, where biomass is defined as any organic material other than oil, natural gas, and coal; liquid, gaseous or solid synthetic fuels produced from coal; or...

  6. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion

  7. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814 136,932

  8. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814

  9. U.S. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010(Billion120,814Pipeline

  10. U.S. Total Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009Feet)

  11. TOTAL M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Jane E.

    202 51 *total new freshmen 684: 636 Lexington campus, 48 Paducah campus MS Total 216 12 5 17 2 0 2 40 248 247 648 45 210 14 *total new freshmen 647: 595 Lexington campus, 52 Paducah campus MS Total 192 14

  12. Plant variability and bio-fuel properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Besler-Guran, S.; Wiselogel, A.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermochemically converting biomass feedstocks to fuels is one of the major thrusts of renewable energy research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Among several thermochemical routes is the fast pyrolysis process which produces liquid fuels from woody and herbaceous biomass feedstocks. Because of the large variability in the composition of biomass feedstocks due to plant variety and environmental factors, it is important to assess how these variabilities affect the properties of thermochemical liquid fuels (bio-oils) produced from these resources. Similar varieties of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) that were grown at three different locations and three hybrid poplar clones that were grown at one location were used in these studies. The feedstocks were pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor at 500{degrees}C. The gas products were analyzed on-line and the liquid products were analyzed for elemental composition and higher heating values. Apart from small difference in the yield of char/ash, the yields of pyrolysis oils and gases were similar for switchgrass feedstocks grown at all three locations. The char/ash yields ranged from 21.1 to 22.9%; total liquids (organic liquids + water) yields ranged from 59%-60.5%; and the gas yields ranged from 11%-12% (wt). The higher heating values (HHVs) of the oils were similar (24.3-24.6 MJ/kg). For the hybrid poplar feedstocks, total liquids (65%-69%), char/ash (10%-11%), and gas yields (15.6%-17%) were similar for all three poplar clones; however, the elemental composition and the HHVs of the pyrolysis oils had statistically significant differences. The NC5260 pyrolysis oils had lower HHV (22.0{+-}0.5 MG/kg) compared to the DN clones (23.2{+-}0.3 MJ/kg). The yields of total liquids and organics for the three clones were higher than those for the switchgrass feedstocks. The gas yields for the hybrid poplar clones were higher than for the switchgrass, but had compositions similar to those of the switchgrass feedstocks.

  13. Prediction of middle-distillate fuel properties using liquid chromatography-proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. Final report, 1987-1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swann, M.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was initiated to support the Army's capability to identify the components of fuels that contribute to low-temperature performance of fuels. It was discovered that various physical properties of middle-distillate fuels can be predicted. The LC-{sup 1}HNMR technique was developed to predict physical properties based on chemical structures present in the fuels. The prediction of properties is approached from a 'group property' point of view. In the group property approach, the structure of the molecule is examined for structural features that dictate the physical properties of the compounds. In other words, the physical properties of a molecule or compound are determined by the number of types of chemical groups, i.e., methyl, methylene, methine, etc., present. These LC-{sup 1}H NMR predicted property measurements were compared to measurements obtained by the ASTM fuel tests. Most measurements were found to be within experimental error. The research has demonstrated that the LC-{sup 1}H NMR approach for measuring various middle-distillate fuel properties can be used as an alternative to the ASTM methods of fuel property measurement.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    as long as the retailer sells a certain percentage of renewable fuels (ethanol and biodiesel) as part of their total motor fuel sales on a company-wide or a site-by-site basis....

  15. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Fourth quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues that may be categorized as direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

  16. AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E.

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

  17. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)JulyEnd Use: Total

  18. Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

  19. Hydrogen Operated Internal Combustion Engines – A New Generation Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Rajendra Prasath; E. Leelakrishnan; N. Lokesh; H. Suriyan; E. Guru Prakash; K. Omur; Mustaq Ahmed

    Abstract- The present scenario of the automotive and agricultural sectors is fairly scared with the depletion of fossil fuel. The researchers are working towards to find out the best replacement for the fossil fuel; if not at least to offset the total fuel demand. In regards to emission, the fuel in the form of gaseous state is much than liquid fuel. By considering the various aspects of fuel, hydrogen is expected as a best option when consider as a gaseous state fuel. It is identified as a best alternate fuel for internal combustion engines as well as power generation application, which can be produced easily by means of various processes. The hydrogen in the form of gas can be used in the both spark ignition and compression ignition engines for propelling the vehicles. The selected fuel is much cleaner and fuel efficient than conventional fuel. The present study focusing the various aspects and usage of hydrogen fuel in S.I engine and C.I engine. Keywords- Hydrogen, Spark ignition engine, compression ignition engine, performance, Emission I.

  20. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

  1. Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hope, M.W. [Waste Recovery, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

  2. Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Research on Fuels & Lubricants Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication...

  3. ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ClearFuels-Rentech pilot-scale biorefinery will use Fisher-Tropsch gas-to-liquids technology to create diesel and jet fuel.

  4. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  5. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adam R. 2008. “Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

  6. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  7. Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShaleInput Product: Total Input Natural

  8. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  9. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  10. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  11. Million U.S. Housing Units Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1 33.078.1

  12. Million U.S. Housing Units Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1

  13. Million U.S. Housing Units Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1 111.1 14.7

  14. Million U.S. Housing Units Total.....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1 111.1 14.7

  15. Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1 111.1

  16. Million U.S. Housing Units Total.........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1 111.178.1

  17. Million U.S. Housing Units Total.........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1

  18. Million U.S. Housing Units Total.........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1.... 111.1

  19. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1....

  20. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079, 111.1....Cooking

  1. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079,

  2. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079,8.1 64.1 4.2 1.8

  3. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079,8.1 64.1 4.2

  4. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079,8.1 64.1

  5. Million U.S. Housing Units Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079,8.1 64.1. 111.1

  6. Million U.S. Housing Units Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079,8.1 64.1.

  7. Million U.S. Housing Units Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20 40 60 8079,8.1 64.1.33.0 8.0

  8. Investigate... Future Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Gas Tank? What Does It Take? 9:30 am Using GIS to Map the Wood Supply 11:00 am Forest Management Forest to Processing Plant 2:00 pm Ethanol Production in Lab: Cellulosic Biomass to Liquid Fuel 2:50 pm of Mechanical Engineering · Tim Jenkins, Ph.D. Candidate ­ tree biomass from forest to processing facility

  9. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and probably for some time to come. The model for liquid transfer to a 120-liter vehicle tank shows that transfer times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The model for compressed gas transfer shows that underfilling of nearly 30% can occur during rapid filling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates underfilling.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Infrastructure Program provides financial assistance to qualified E85 and biodiesel retailers. Cost-share grants are available for up to 70% of the total cost of the...

  11. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well...

  12. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  13. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relates domestic crude oil consumption q c to the marginalDomestic ROW Total Crude oil consumption (mbpd) Domestic ROWcrude oil fuels while achieving a total level of biofuel consumption.

  14. Fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of /sup 235/U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors.

  15. Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Annual Energy Review 2003, DOEEIA-0384 8U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2005 with Projections to 2025, DOEEIA-0383...

  16. HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cellulosic plant residue (bagasse) is used to generate thea considerab-le quantity of bagasse ·is left over after80 TONS Sugars Steam from Bagasse 468 tons BAGASSE LEFT TO

  17. LMFBR fuel assembly design for HCDA fuel dispersal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacko, Robert E. (North Huntingdon, PA); Tilbrook, Roger W. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel assembly for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor having an upper axial blanket region disposed in a plurality of zones within the fuel assembly. The characterization of a zone is dependent on the height of the axial blanket region with respect to the active fuel region. The net effect of having a plurality of zones is to establish a dispersal flow path for the molten materials resulting during a core meltdown accident. Upward flowing molten material can escape from the core region and/or fuel assembly without solidifying on the surface of fuel rods due to the heat sink represented by blanket region pellets.

  18. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  19. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  20. fuels | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., December 8,JohnResolving7 A StudyLiquid Fuels